Articles | Volume 11, issue 11
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
The impact of MISR-derived injection height initialization on wildfire and volcanic plume dispersion in the HYSPLIT model
Charles J. Vernon
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Ralph A. Kahn
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
No articles found.
Robert R. Nelson, Marcin L. Witek, Michael J. Garay, Michael A. Bull, James A. Limbacher, Ralph A. Kahn, and David J. Diner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4947–4960,Short summary
Shallow and coastal waters are nutrient-rich and turbid due to runoff. They are also located in areas where the atmosphere has more aerosols than open-ocean waters. NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) has been monitoring aerosols for over 23 years but does not report results over shallow waters. We developed a new algorithm that uses all four of MISR’s bands and considers light leaving water surfaces. This algorithm performs well and increases over-water measurements by over 7 %.
James A. Limbacher, Ralph A. Kahn, Mariel D. Friberg, Jaehwa Lee, Tyler Summers, and Hai Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We present a new Multi-Angle Geostationary Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (MAGARA) that fuses observations from GOES-16 and GOES-17 in order to retrieve information about aerosol loading (at 10-15 minute cadence) and aerosol particle properties (daily), all at pixel-level resolution. We present MAGARA results for 3 case studies: the 2018 California Camp Fire, the 2019 Williams Flats Fire, and the 2019 Kincade Fire. We also compare MAGARA aerosol loading and particle properties with AERONET.
Michail Mytilinaios, Sara Basart, Sergio Ciamprone, Juan Cuesta, Claudio Dema, Enza Di Tomaso, Paola Formenti, Antonis Gkikas, Oriol Jorba, Ralph Kahn, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Serena Trippetta, and Lucia Mona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5487–5516,Short summary
Multiscale Online Non-hydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry model (MONARCH) dust reanalysis provides a high-resolution 3D reconstruction of past dust conditions, allowing better quantification of climate and socioeconomic dust impacts. We assess the performance of the reanalysis needed to reproduce dust optical depth using dust-related products retrieved from satellite and ground-based observations and show that it reproduces the spatial distribution and seasonal variability of atmospheric dust well.
Yunyao Li, Daniel Tong, Siqi Ma, Saulo R. Freitas, Ravan Ahmadov, Mikhail Sofiev, Xiaoyang Zhang, Shobha Kondragunta, Ralph Kahn, Youhua Tang, Barry Baker, Patrick Campbell, Rick Saylor, Georg Grell, and Fangjun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3083–3101,Short summary
Plume height is important in wildfire smoke dispersion and affects air quality and human health. We assess the impact of plume height on wildfire smoke dispersion and the exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. A higher plume height predicts lower pollution near the source region, but higher pollution in downwind regions, due to the faster spread of the smoke once ejected, affects pollution exceedance forecasts and the early warning of extreme air pollution events.
James A. Limbacher, Ralph A. Kahn, and Jaehwa Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6865–6887,Short summary
Launched in December 1999, NASA’s Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) has given researchers qualitative constraints on aerosol particle properties for the past 22 years. Here, we present a new MISR research aerosol retrieval algorithm (RA) that utilizes over-land surface reflectance data from the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) to address limitations of the MISR operational aerosol retrieval algorithm and improve retrievals of aerosol particle properties.
Priyanka deSouza, Ralph Kahn, Tehya Stockman, William Obermann, Ben Crawford, An Wang, James Crooks, Jing Li, and Patrick Kinney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6309–6328,Short summary
How sensitive are the spatial and temporal trends of PM2.5 derived from a network of low-cost sensors to the calibration adjustment used? How transferable are calibration equations developed at a few co-location sites to an entire network of low-cost sensors? This paper attempts to answer this question and offers a series of suggestions on how to develop the most robust calibration function for different end uses. It uses measurements from the Love My Air network in Denver as a test case.
Lauren M. Zamora, Ralph A. Kahn, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, and Klaus B. Huebert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12269–12285,Short summary
Arctic dust, smoke, and pollution particles can affect clouds and Arctic warming. The distributions of these particles were estimated in three different satellite, reanalysis, and model products. These products showed good agreement overall but indicate that it is important to include local dust in models. We hypothesize that mineral dust effects on ice processes in the Arctic atmosphere might be highest over Siberia, where it is cold, moist, and subject to relatively high dust levels.
Katherine T. Junghenn Noyes, Ralph A. Kahn, James A. Limbacher, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10267–10290,Short summary
We compare retrievals of wildfire smoke particle size, shape, and light absorption from the MISR satellite instrument to modeling and other satellite data on land cover type, drought conditions, meteorology, and estimates of fire intensity (fire radiative power – FRP). We find statistically significant differences in the particle properties based on burning conditions and land cover type, and we interpret how changes in these properties point to specific aerosol aging mechanisms.
Matthew W. Christensen, Andrew Gettelman, Jan Cermak, Guy Dagan, Michael Diamond, Alyson Douglas, Graham Feingold, Franziska Glassmeier, Tom Goren, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Edward Gryspeerdt, Ralph Kahn, Zhanqing Li, Po-Lun Ma, Florent Malavelle, Isabel L. McCoy, Daniel T. McCoy, Greg McFarquhar, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Sandip Pal, Anna Possner, Adam Povey, Johannes Quaas, Daniel Rosenfeld, Anja Schmidt, Roland Schrödner, Armin Sorooshian, Philip Stier, Velle Toll, Duncan Watson-Parris, Robert Wood, Mingxi Yang, and Tianle Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 641–674,Short summary
Trace gases and aerosols (tiny airborne particles) are released from a variety of point sources around the globe. Examples include volcanoes, industrial chimneys, forest fires, and ship stacks. These sources provide opportunistic experiments with which to quantify the role of aerosols in modifying cloud properties. We review the current state of understanding on the influence of aerosol on climate built from the wide range of natural and anthropogenic laboratories investigated in recent decades.
Laura A. McBride, Austin P. Hope, Timothy P. Canty, Brian F. Bennett, Walter R. Tribett, and Ross J. Salawitch
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 545–579,Short summary
We use a reduced-complexity climate model trained by observations to show that at the current rate of human release of CO2, total cumulative emissions will pass the 66 % likelihood of limiting warming to 1.5° or 2°C in about 10 and 35 years, respectively. We also show that complex climate models often used to guide policy tend to warm faster than observed over the past few decades. To achieve the Paris Climate Agreement, CO2 and CH4 emissions must be severely curtailed in the next decade.
Tianmeng Chen, Zhanqing Li, Ralph A. Kahn, Chuanfeng Zhao, Daniel Rosenfeld, Jianping Guo, Wenchao Han, and Dandan Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6199–6220,Short summary
A convective cloud identification process is developed using geostationary satellite data from Himawari-8. Convective cloud fraction is generally larger before noon and smaller in the afternoon under polluted conditions, but megacities and complex topography can influence the pattern. A robust relationship between convective cloud and aerosol loading is found. This pattern varies with terrain height and is modulated by varying thermodynamic, dynamical, and humidity conditions during the day.
Priyanka deSouza, Ralph A. Kahn, James A. Limbacher, Eloise A. Marais, Fábio Duarte, and Carlo Ratti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5319–5334,Short summary
This paper presents a novel method to constrain the size distribution derived from low-cost optical particle counters (OPCs) using satellite data to develop higher-quality particulate matter (PM) estimates. Such estimates can enable cities that do not have access to expensive reference air quality monitors, especially those in the global south, to develop effective air quality management plans.
Larisa Sogacheva, Thomas Popp, Andrew M. Sayer, Oleg Dubovik, Michael J. Garay, Andreas Heckel, N. Christina Hsu, Hiren Jethva, Ralph A. Kahn, Pekka Kolmonen, Miriam Kosmale, Gerrit de Leeuw, Robert C. Levy, Pavel Litvinov, Alexei Lyapustin, Peter North, Omar Torres, and Antti Arola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2031–2056,Short summary
The typical lifetime of a single satellite platform is on the order of 5–15 years; thus, for climate studies the usage of multiple satellite sensors should be considered. Here we introduce and evaluate a monthly AOD merged product and AOD global and regional time series for the period 1995–2017 created from 12 individual satellite AOD products, which provide a long-term perspective on AOD changes over different regions of the globe.
Michael J. Garay, Marcin L. Witek, Ralph A. Kahn, Felix C. Seidel, James A. Limbacher, Michael A. Bull, David J. Diner, Earl G. Hansen, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Huikyo Lee, Abigail M. Nastan, and Yan Yu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 593–628,Short summary
The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument has been operational since early 2000, creating an extensive data set of global Earth observations. Here we introduce the latest version (V23) of the MISR aerosol products, which is reported on a 4.4 km spatial grid and contains retrieved aerosol optical depth and aerosol particle property information derived over both land and water. The changes implemented in V23 have significant impacts on the data product and its interpretation.
Hao He, Xinrong Ren, Sarah E. Benish, Zhanqing Li, Fei Wang, Yuying Wang, Timothy P. Canty, Xiaobo Dong, Feng Lv, Yongtao Hu, Tong Zhu, and Russell R. Dickerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We conducted aircraft measurements of air pollution in the North China Plain. Concentrations of air pollutants higher than the air quality standards were observed. Our modeling study indicates that the rate of ozone (one major air pollutant) production is determined by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is confirmed by satellite observations. Currently, VOCs are not well regulated in China, so this study suggests the future direction of control measures to improve air quality in China.
Laura Gonzalez-Alonso, Maria Val Martin, and Ralph A. Kahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1685–1702,Short summary
The vertical distribution of fire smoke and factors that control its rise had not yet been quantified across the Amazon. We developed a satellite-based long record of smoke plume heights. We find that smoke heights are driven by many factors: vegetation, seasonality, time of day, fire intensity, and atmospheric and drought conditions. Also, drought increases fire pollution, with implications for air quality. Policies to control fires may be crucial in the future as more droughts are projected.
James A. Limbacher and Ralph A. Kahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 675–689,Short summary
Coastal waters serve as transport pathways to the ocean for all runoff from terrestrial sources; they are also some of the most biologically productive waters on the planet. Here, we retrieve atmospheric aerosol loading (and properties) from the space-based instrument MISR over all types of water (dark, coastal, etc). Results from the MISR research aerosol retrieval algorithm agree well with validation, indicating that MISR may add value to commonly used ocean color imagers such as MODIS.
Tianning Su, Zhanqing Li, and Ralph Kahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15921–15935,Short summary
Surface particulate concentration has often been estimated from column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD). Their relationship is affected by various factors, such as the planetary layer height, meteorology (atmospheric stability, wind, relative humidity, etc.), and topography, which are investigated thoroughly using a combination of ~1500 surface station datasets, two ground-based lidars, and CALIPSO space-based lidar measurements made across China. Improved estimation of PM2.5 is achieved.
Lauren M. Zamora, Ralph A. Kahn, Klaus B. Huebert, Andreas Stohl, and Sabine Eckhardt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14949–14964,Short summary
We use satellite data and model output to estimate how airborne particles (aerosols) affect cloud ice particles and droplets over the Arctic Ocean. Aerosols from sources like smoke and pollution can change cloud cover, precipitation frequency, and the portion of liquid- vs. ice-containing clouds, which in turn can impact the surface energy budget. By improving our understanding these aerosol–cloud interactions, this work can help climate predictions for the rapidly changing Arctic.
Liye Zhu, Maria Val Martin, Luciana V. Gatti, Ralph Kahn, Arsineh Hecobian, and Emily V. Fischer
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4103–4116,Short summary
The evolution of smoke depends acutely on where the smoke is injected into the atmosphere. This paper presents the development and implementation of a new global biomass burning emissions injection scheme for GEOS-Chem. The new scheme is based on monthly gridded Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) global plume-height stereoscopic observations in 2008.
Mariel D. Friberg, Ralph A. Kahn, James A. Limbacher, K. Wyat Appel, and James A. Mulholland
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12891–12913,Short summary
Advances in satellite retrieval of aerosol type can improve ambient air quality concentration estimates by providing regional context where surface monitors are scarce or absent. This work focuses on the degree to which regional-scale satellite and model data can be combined to improve surface estimates of fine particles and their major speciated components. The physically based method applies satellite-derived column observations directly to total and speciated surface particle concentrations.
Verity J. B. Flower and Ralph A. Kahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3903–3918,Short summary
Karymsky volcano was used as a test case for identifying the underlying geology of a volcano, solely from satellite-based observations. Fifteen volcanic plumes were observed, ranging in length from 30 to 220 km and primarily dispersing at an altitude of 2–4 km. This technique distinguishes plume components and particle evolution using MISR and combines these with lava flow details from MODIS. The results have relevance in global volcanic assessment, particularly in remote regions.
Rachel M. Hoesly, Steven J. Smith, Leyang Feng, Zbigniew Klimont, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Tyler Pitkanen, Jonathan J. Seibert, Linh Vu, Robert J. Andres, Ryan M. Bolt, Tami C. Bond, Laura Dawidowski, Nazar Kholod, June-ichi Kurokawa, Meng Li, Liang Liu, Zifeng Lu, Maria Cecilia P. Moura, Patrick R. O'Rourke, and Qiang Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 369–408,Short summary
Historical emission trends are key inputs to Earth systems and atmospheric chemistry models. We present a new data set of historical (1750–2014) anthropogenic gases (CO, CH4, NH3, NOx, SO2, NMVOCs, BC, OC, and CO2) developed with the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS). This improves on existing inventories as it uses consistent methods and data across emissions species, has annual resolution for a longer and more recent time series, and is designed to be transparent and reproducible.
Lauren M. Zamora, Ralph A. Kahn, Sabine Eckhardt, Allison McComiskey, Patricia Sawamura, Richard Moore, and Andreas Stohl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7311–7332,Short summary
Clouds have a major but uncertain effect on Arctic surface temperatures. Here, we used remote sensing observations to better understand aerosol effects on one type of Arctic cloud. By modifying a variety of cloud properties, aerosols in this type of cloud indirectly reduced the net warming effect of these clouds on the surface by ~ 10 % of the clean-background cloud effect, not including changes in cloud fraction. This work will improve our ability to predict future Arctic surface temperatures.
James A. Limbacher and Ralph A. Kahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1539–1555,Short summary
Aerosol amount and type affect the “atmospheric correction” needed to derive ocean surface chlorophyll a concentration (Chl) from satellite remote sensing and, conversely, the ocean surface representation affects aerosol retrieval products. We introduce a coupled atmosphere-surface retrieval for Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observations over dark water aimed at improving both aerosol and Chl results. We also refine the MISR calibration, critical to achieving high-quality retrievals.
Graydon Snider, Crystal L. Weagle, Kalaivani K. Murdymootoo, Amanda Ring, Yvonne Ritchie, Emily Stone, Ainsley Walsh, Clement Akoshile, Nguyen Xuan Anh, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian, Jeff Brook, Fatimah D. Qonitan, Jinlu Dong, Derek Griffith, Kebin He, Brent N. Holben, Ralph Kahn, Nofel Lagrosas, Puji Lestari, Zongwei Ma, Amit Misra, Leslie K. Norford, Eduardo J. Quel, Abdus Salam, Bret Schichtel, Lior Segev, Sachchida Tripathi, Chien Wang, Chao Yu, Qiang Zhang, Yuxuan Zhang, Michael Brauer, Aaron Cohen, Mark D. Gibson, Yang Liu, J. Vanderlei Martins, Yinon Rudich, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9629–9653,Short summary
We examine the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected on filters at traditionally undersampled, globally dispersed urban locations. Several PM2.5 chemical components (e.g. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and black carbon) vary by more than an order of magnitude between sites while aerosol hygroscopicity varies by a factor of 2. Enhanced anthropogenic dust fractions in large urban areas are apparent from high Zn : Al ratios.
Huikyo Lee, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Kentaroh Suzuki, Amy Braverman, Michael J. Garay, and Ralph A. Kahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6627–6640,Short summary
The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on NASA's TERRA satellite has provided a global distribution of aerosol amount and type information for each month over 16+ years since March 2000. This study analyzes, for the first time, characteristics of observed and simulated distributions of aerosols for three broad classes of aerosols: spherical nonabsorbing, spherical absorbing, and nonspherical – near or downwind of their major source regions.
L. M. Zamora, R. A. Kahn, M. J. Cubison, G. S. Diskin, J. L. Jimenez, Y. Kondo, G. M. McFarquhar, A. Nenes, K. L. Thornhill, A. Wisthaler, A. Zelenyuk, and L. D. Ziemba
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 715–738,Short summary
Based on extensive aircraft campaigns, we quantify how biomass burning smoke affects subarctic and Arctic liquid cloud microphysical properties. Enhanced cloud albedo may decrease short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 Wm2 or more in some subarctic conditions. Smoke halved average cloud droplet diameter. In one case study, it also appeared to limit droplet formation. Numerous Arctic background Aitken particles can also interact with combustion particles, perhaps affecting their properties.
J. A. Limbacher and R. A. Kahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2927–2943,Short summary
We address mirroring, blurring, and background radiometric anomalies in the MISR standard Level 1 product empirically by comparing nadir-view near-infrared MISR with simultaneous MODIS images in high-contrast scenes. These anomalies affect aerosol optical depth and aerosol type results, especially over dark ocean scenes with broken cloud. We validate the corrections in all MISR channels by comparing multi-angle research retrievals with 1100 simultaneous surface sun photometer observations.
S. Li, R. Kahn, M. Chin, M. J. Garay, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1157–1171,Short summary
We demonstrate a post-processing technique to improve MISR-retrieved aerosol optical properties when information content is low. By filtering the list of aerosol mixtures that pass the MISR retrieval acceptance criteria using pre-defined discrepancy thresholds between MISR and GOCART model simulations, the adjusted MISR Angstrom exponent (ANG) and absorbing AOD (AAOD) agree significantly better with sun-photometer validation data, especially when AOD<0.2 for ANG and AOD<0.5 for AAOD.
G. Snider, C. L. Weagle, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, K. Conrad, D. Cunningham, C. Gordon, M. Zwicker, C. Akoshile, P. Artaxo, N. X. Anh, J. Brook, J. Dong, R. M. Garland, R. Greenwald, D. Griffith, K. He, B. N. Holben, R. Kahn, I. Koren, N. Lagrosas, P. Lestari, Z. Ma, J. Vanderlei Martins, E. J. Quel, Y. Rudich, A. Salam, S. N. Tripathi, C. Yu, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Brauer, A. Cohen, M. D. Gibson, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 505–521,Short summary
We have initiated a global network of ground-level monitoring stations to measure concentrations of fine aerosols in urban environments. Our findings include major ions species, total mass, and total scatter at three wavelengths. Results will be used to further evaluate and enhance satellite remote sensing estimates.
J. A. Limbacher and R. A. Kahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3989–4007,Short summary
We systematically explore the cumulative effect of MISR research aerosol retrieval algorithm assumptions, quantifying and correcting the main sources of uncertainty over ocean. High median spectral aerosol optical depth biases of ~0.024 at low AOD are reduced to ~0.01 with an improved, physically based ocean surface model, particle properties and mixtures, adaptive reflectance uncertainty estimates and pixel selection, minor radiometric calibration adjustments and more stringent cloud screening.
P. R. Colarco, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, and R. C. Levy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2313–2335,
M. Chin, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, J. M. Prospero, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, H. Yu, A. M. Sayer, H. Bian, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. N. Holben, S. G. Howell, B. J. Huebert, N. C. Hsu, D. Kim, T. L. Kucsera, R. C. Levy, M. I. Mishchenko, X. Pan, P. K. Quinn, G. L. Schuster, D. G. Streets, S. A. Strode, O. Torres, and X.-P. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3657–3690,
F. Patadia, R. A. Kahn, J. A. Limbacher, S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, and J. W. Hair
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9525–9541,
M. Mallet, O. Dubovik, P. Nabat, F. Dulac, R. Kahn, J. Sciare, D. Paronis, and J. F. Léon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9195–9210,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsMulti-star calibration in starphotometryMultiwavelength fluorescence lidar observations of smoke plumesUse of lidar aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients to estimate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations in the southeast AtlanticContinuous observations from horizontally pointing lidar, weather parameters, and PM2.5: a pre-deployment assessment for monitoring radioactive dust in Fukushima, JapanEarth observations from the Moon's surface: dependence on lunar librationRelationship between the sub-micron fraction (SMF) and fine-mode fraction (FMF) in the context of AERONET retrievalsSystematic analysis of virga and its impact on surface particulate matter observationsSpectrometric fluorescence and Raman lidar: absolute calibration of aerosol fluorescence spectra and fluorescence correction of humidity measurementsThe polarimetric characteristics of dust with irregular shapes: evaluation of 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Liviu Ivănescu and Norman T. O'Neill
The starphotometers complex infrastructure prohibits calibration campaigns. On-site calibration procedures appear as the only practical solution. A multi-star approach overcomes site-specific sky stability problems. Star selection strategies were proposed for mitigating some sources of errors. Data processing strategies and instrument design improvements appear necessary.
Igor Veselovskii, Nikita Kasianik, Mikhail Korenskii, Qiaoyun Hu, Philippe Goloub, Thierry Podvin, and Dong Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2055–2065,Short summary
A five-channel fluorescence lidar was developed for the study of atmospheric aerosol. The fluorescence spectrum induced by 355 nm laser emission is analyzed in five spectral intervals, namely 438 and 29, 472 and 32, 513 and 29, 560 and 40, and 614 and 54 nm. This lidar system was operated during strong forest fires. Our results demonstrate that, for urban aerosol, the maximal fluorescence backscattering is observed at 472 nm, while for smoke, the spectrum is shifted toward longer wavelengths.
Emily D. Lenhardt, Lan Gao, Jens Redemann, Feng Xu, Sharon P. Burton, Brian Cairns, Ian Chang, Richard A. Ferrare, Chris A. Hostetler, Pablo E. Saide, Calvin Howes, Yohei Shinozuka, Snorre Stamnes, Mary Kacarab, Amie Dobracki, Jenny Wong, Steffen Freitag, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2037–2054,Short summary
Small atmospheric particles, such as smoke from wildfires or pollutants from human activities, impact cloud properties, and clouds have a strong influence on climate. To better understand the distributions of these particles, we develop relationships to derive their concentrations from remote sensing measurements from an instrument called a lidar. Our method is reliable for smoke particles, and similar steps can be taken to develop relationships for other particle types.
Nofel Lagrosas, Kosuke Okubo, Hitoshi Irie, Yutaka Matsumi, Tomoki Nakayama, Yutaka Sugita, Takashi Okada, and Tatsuo Shiina
This work examines the near-ground aerosol-weather relationship from seven-month continuous lidar and weather observations in Chiba, Japan. The optical parameters from lidar data are compared with weather parameters to understand and quantify aerosol-weather relationship and how these optical parameters are affected by weather and season. The results provide insights into analyzing optical properties of radioactive aerosols when the lidar system is continuously operated in a radioactive area.
Nick Gorkavyi, Nickolay Krotkov, and Alexander Marshak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1527–1537,Short summary
The article discusses topical issues of the visible (libration) motion of the Earth in the sky of the Moon in a rectangle measuring 13.4° × 15.8°. On the one hand, the librations of the Moon make these observations difficult. On the other hand, they can be used as a natural scanning mechanism for cameras and spectroscopes mounted on a fixed platform on the surface of the Moon.
Norman T. O'Neill, Keyvan Ranjbar, Liviu Ivănescu, Thomas F. Eck, Jeffrey S. Reid, David M. Giles, Daniel Pérez-Ramírez, and Jai Prakash Chaubey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1103–1120,Short summary
Aerosols are atmospheric particles that vary in size (radius) from a fraction of a micrometer (µm) to around 20 µm. They tend to be either smaller than 1 µm (like smoke or pollution) or larger than 1 µm (like dust or sea salt). Their optical effect (scattering and absorbing sunlight) can be divided into FM (fine-mode) and CM (coarse-mode) parts using a cutoff radius around 1 µm or a spectral (color) technique. We present and validate a theoretical link between the types of FM and CM divisions.
Nakul N. Karle, Ricardo K. Sakai, Rosa M. Fitzgerald, Charles Ichoku, Fernando Mercado, and William R. Stockwell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1073–1085,Short summary
Extensive virga research is uncommon, even though it is a common phenomenon. A systematic method was developed to characterize virga using available datasets. In total, 50 virga events were observed, appearing only during a specific time of the year, revealing a seasonal pattern. These virga events were identified and classified, and their impact on surface PM measurements was investigated. A more detailed examination of the selected events reveals that virga impacts regional air quality.
Jens Reichardt, Oliver Behrendt, and Felix Lauermann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1–13,Short summary
The UVA spectrometer is the latest instrumental addition to the spectrometric fluorescence and Raman lidar RAMSES. The redesigned receiver and the data analysis of the fluorescence measurement are described. Furthermore, the effect of aerosol fluorescence on humidity measurements is studied. It turns out that Raman lidars equipped with a spectrometer show superior performance over those with one discrete fluorescence detection channel only. The cause is variability in the fluorescence spectrum.
Jie Luo, Zhengqiang Li, Cheng Fan, Hua Xu, Ying Zhang, Weizhen Hou, Lili Qie, Haoran Gu, Mengyao Zhu, Yinna Li, and Kaitao Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2767–2789,Short summary
A single model is difficult to represent various shapes of dust. We proposed a tunable model to represent dust with various shapes. Two tunable parameters were used to represent the effects of the erosion degree and binding forces from the mass center. Thus, the model can represent various dust shapes by adjusting the tunable parameters. Besides, the applicability of the spheroid model in calculating the optical properties and polarimetric characteristics is evaluated.
Peristera Paschou, Nikolaos Siomos, Alexandra Tsekeri, Alexandros Louridas, George Georgoussis, Volker Freudenthaler, Ioannis Binietoglou, George Tsaknakis, Alexandros Tavernarakis, Christos Evangelatos, Jonas von Bismarck, Thomas Kanitz, Charikleia Meleti, Eleni Marinou, and Vassilis Amiridis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2299–2323,Short summary
The eVe lidar delivers quality-assured aerosol and cloud optical properties according to the standards of ACTRIS. It is a mobile reference system for the validation of the ESA's Aeolus satellite mission (L2 aerosol and cloud products). eVe provides linear and circular polarisation measurements with Raman capabilities. Here, we describe the system design, the polarisation calibration techniques, and the software for the retrieval of the optical products.
Yu Zheng, Huizheng Che, Yupeng Wang, Xiangao Xia, Xiuqing Hu, Xiaochun Zhang, Jun Zhu, Jibiao Zhu, Hujia Zhao, Lei Li, Ke Gui, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2139–2158,Short summary
Ground-based observations of aerosols and aerosol data verification is important for satellite and climate model modification. Here we present an evaluation of aerosol microphysical, optical and radiative properties measured using a multiwavelength photometer with a highly integrated design and smart control performance. The validation of this product is discussed in detail using AERONET as a reference. This work contributes to reducing AOD uncertainties in China and combating climate change.
Alexandra Tsekeri, Vassilis Amiridis, Alexandros Louridas, George Georgoussis, Volker Freudenthaler, Spiros Metallinos, George Doxastakis, Josef Gasteiger, Nikolaos Siomos, Peristera Paschou, Thanasis Georgiou, George Tsaknakis, Christos Evangelatos, and Ioannis Binietoglou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7453–7474,Short summary
Dust orientation in the Earth's atmosphere has been an ongoing investigation in recent years, and its potential proof will be a paradigm shift for dust remote sensing. We have designed and developed a polarization lidar that provides direct measurements of dust orientation, as well as more detailed information of the particle microphysics. We provide a description of its design as well as its first measurements.
Liviu Ivănescu, Konstantin Baibakov, Norman T. O'Neill, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, and Karl-Heinz Schulz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6561–6599,Short summary
Starphotometry seeks to provide accurate measures of nocturnal optical depth (OD). It is driven by a need to characterize aerosols and their radiative forcing effects during a very data-sparse period. A sub-0.01 OD error is required to adequately characterize key aerosol parameters. We found approaches for sufficiently mitigating errors to achieve the 0.01 standard. This renders starphotometry the equal of daytime techniques and opens the door to exploiting its distinct star-pointing advantages.
Antti Arola, William Wandji Nyamsi, Antti Lipponen, Stelios Kazadzis, Nickolay A. Krotkov, and Johanna Tamminen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4947–4957,Short summary
Methods to estimate surface UV radiation from satellite measurements offer the only means to obtain global coverage, and the development of satellite-based UV algorithms has been ongoing since the early 1990s. One of the main challenges in this development has been how to account for the overall effect of absorption by atmospheric aerosols. One such method was suggested roughly a decade ago, and in this study we propose further improvements for this kind of approach.
Igor Veselovskii, Qiaoyun Hu, Philippe Goloub, Thierry Podvin, Marie Choël, Nicolas Visez, and Mikhail Korenskiy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4773–4786,Short summary
The multiwavelength Mie–Raman–fluorescence lidar of the University of Lille was used to characterize aerosols during the pollen season in the north of France for the period March–June 2020. The results of observations demonstrate that the presence of pollen grains in aerosol mixtures leads to an increase in the depolarization ratio and to the enhancement of the fluorescence backscattering.
Lewis Grasso, Daniel Bikos, Jorel Torres, John F. Dostalek, Ting-Chi Wu, John Forsythe, Heather Q. Cronk, Curtis J. Seaman, Steven D. Miller, Emily Berndt, Harry G. Weinman, and Kennard B. Kasper
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1615–1634,Short summary
This study uses geostationary imagery to detect dust. This research was done to demonstrate the ability of dust detection over ocean surfaces in a dry atmosphere.
Igor Veselovskii, Qiaoyun Hu, Philippe Goloub, Thierry Podvin, Mikhail Korenskiy, Olivier Pujol, Oleg Dubovik, and Anton Lopatin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6691–6701,Short summary
To study the feasibility of a fluorescence lidar for aerosol characterization, the fluorescence channel is added to the multiwavelength Mie-Raman lidar of Lille University. A part of the fluorescence spectrum is selected by the interference filter of 44 nm bandwidth centered at 466 nm. Such an approach has demonstrated high sensitivity, allowing fluorescence signals from weak aerosol layers to be detected. The technique can also be used for monitoring the aerosol inside the cloud layers.
Katta Vijayakumar, Panuganti C. S. Devara, Sunil M. Sonbawne, David M. Giles, Brent N. Holben, Sarangam Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, and Chalicheemalapalli K. Jayasankar
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5569–5593,Short summary
The direct-Sun and inversion products of urban atmospheric aerosols, obtained from a Cimel Sun–sky radiometer in Pune, India, under the AERONET program since October 2004, have been reported in this paper. The mean seasonal variations in AOD from cloud-free days indicated greater values during the monsoon season, revealing dominance of hygroscopic aerosols over the station. Such results are sparse in India and are important for estimating aerosol radiative forcing and validating climate models.
Teruyuki Nakajima, Monica Campanelli, Huizheng Che, Victor Estellés, Hitoshi Irie, Sang-Woo Kim, Jhoon Kim, Dong Liu, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Govindan Pandithurai, Vijay Kumar Soni, Boossarasiri Thana, Nas-Urt Tugjsurn, Kazuma Aoki, Sujung Go, Makiko Hashimoto, Akiko Higurashi, Stelios Kazadzis, Pradeep Khatri, Natalia Kouremeti, Rei Kudo, Franco Marenco, Masahiro Momoi, Shantikumar S. Ningombam, Claire L. Ryder, Akihiro Uchiyama, and Akihiro Yamazaki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4195–4218,Short summary
This paper overviews the progress in sky radiometer technology and the development of the network called SKYNET. It is found that the technology has produced useful on-site calibration methods, retrieval algorithms, and data analyses from sky radiometer observations of aerosol, cloud, water vapor, and ozone. The paper also discusses current issues of SKYNET to provide better information for the community.
Grigorii P. Kokhanenko, Yurii S. Balin, Marina G. Klemasheva, Sergei V. Nasonov, Mikhail M. Novoselov, Iogannes E. Penner, and Svetlana V. Samoilova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1113–1127,Short summary
Cirrus clouds consist of crystals (plates, needles) that can orient themselves in space as a result of free fall. This leads to the appearance of various types of optical halo and to specular reflection of solar radiation. The presence of such particles significantly affects the passage of thermal radiation through the mid- and high-level ice clouds. Using the properties of polarization, a scanning lidar makes it possible to identify cloud areas with oriented crystals.
Hans Grob, Claudia Emde, Matthias Wiegner, Meinhard Seefeldner, Linda Forster, and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 239–258,Short summary
Polarimetry has been established as an enhancement to classical photometry in aerosol remote sensing over the past years. We propose a fast and exact radiometric and polarimetric calibration method for polarized photometers. Additionally, a technique for correcting an alt-azimuthal mount is introduced. These methods are applied to measurements obtained with our SSARA instrument during the A-LIFE field campaign. For 2 d, the data are subjected to an inversion of aerosol optical properties.
Akihiro Uchiyama, Masataka Shiobara, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Akihiro Yamazaki, Kazunori Inei, Kazuhiro Kawai, and Yoshiaki Watanabe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6465–6488,Short summary
The majority of aerosol data are obtained from daytime measurements using the Sun as a light source, and there are few datasets available for studying nighttime aerosol characteristics. To estimate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) during the nighttime using the moon as a light source, a radiometer for the daytime was modified, and a new calibration method was developed. As a result, the estimations of the nighttime AOD were made with the same degree of precision and accuracy during the daytime.
Chong Wang, Mingjiao Jia, Haiyun Xia, Yunbin Wu, Tianwen Wei, Xiang Shang, Chengyun Yang, Xianghui Xue, and Xiankang Dou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3303–3315,Short summary
To investigate the relationship between BLH and air pollution under different conditions, a compact micro-pulse lidar integrating both direct-detection lidar and coherent Doppler wind lidar is built. Evolution of atmospheric boundary layer height (BLH), aerosol layer and fine structure in cloud base are well retrieved. Negative correlation exists between BLH and PM2.5. Different trends show that the relationship between PM2.5 and BLH should be considered in different boundary layer categories.
Maxence Descheemaecker, Matthieu Plu, Virginie Marécal, Marine Claeyman, Francis Olivier, Youva Aoun, Philippe Blanc, Lucien Wald, Jonathan Guth, Bojan Sič, Jérôme Vidot, Andrea Piacentini, and Béatrice Josse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1251–1275,Short summary
The future Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) on board MeteoSat Third Generation is expected to improve the detection and the quantification of aerosols. The study assesses the potential of FCI/VIS04 channel for monitoring air pollution in Europe. An observing system simulation experiment in MOCAGE is developed, and they show a large positive impact of the assimilation over a 4-month period and particularly during a severe pollution episode. The added value of geostationary data is also assessed.
Akihiro Uchiyama, Tsuneo Matsunaga, and Akihiro Yamazaki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5363–5388,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols are an important constituent of the atmosphere. Measurement networks using radiometers such as SKYNET have been developed. There are two constants that we must determine to make accurate measurements. One of them is the calibration constant. The accuracy of the current method to determine this was investigated and the new method for water vapor and near-infrared channels was developed. Utilizing the results of this paper, SKYNET measurement data will become more reliable.
Akihiro Uchiyama, Tsuneo Matsunaga, and Akihiro Yamazaki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5389–5402,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols are an important constituent of the atmosphere. Measurement networks using radiometers such as SKYNET have been developed. There are two constants that we must determine. One of them is the solid view angle (SVA) of the radiometer. The problems related to SVA were investigated. It was shown that the conventional method can cause a systematic underestimation, and an improved method was proposed. Utilizing the results of this paper, SKYNET data will become more reliable.
Ioana Elisabeta Popovici, Philippe Goloub, Thierry Podvin, Luc Blarel, Rodrigue Loisil, Florin Unga, Augustin Mortier, Christine Deroo, Stéphane Victori, Fabrice Ducos, Benjamin Torres, Cyril Delegove, Marie Choël, Nathalie Pujol-Söhne, and Christophe Pietras
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4671–4691,Short summary
This paper aims to show the potential of an instrumented mobile platform, performing on-road remote sensing and in situ measurements, to derive aerosol properties. It is distinguished from other transportable platforms through its ability to perform measurements during movement. Its reduced size, versatility and great flexibility makes it suitable for following sudden aerosol events and for validating satellite measurements and model simulations.
Kirk Knobelspiesse and Sreeja Nag
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3935–3954,Short summary
We test if small satellites flying in formation can be used for multi-angle aerosol remote sensing. So far, this has only been done with multiple views on one satellite. Single-view angle satellites flying in formation are a technically feasible alternative, although with different geometries. Using Bayesian information content analysis, we find such satellites equally capable. For aerosol remote sensing, the number of viewing angles is the most important.
Landon A. Rieger, Elizaveta P. Malinina, Alexei V. Rozanov, John P. Burrows, Adam E. Bourassa, and Doug A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3433–3445,Short summary
This paper compares aerosol extinction records from two limb scattering instruments, OSIRIS and SCIAMACHY, to that from the occultation instrument SAGE II. Differences are investigated through modelling and retrieval studies and important sources of systematic errors are quantified. It is found that the largest biases come from uncertainties in the aerosol size distribution and the aerosol particle concentration at altitudes above 30 km.
Evgenia Galytska, Vassyl Danylevsky, René Hommel, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2101–2118,Short summary
This research assesses the influence of biomass burning during forest fires throughout summer 2010 on aerosol load over Ukraine, the European territory of Russia (ETR) and Eastern Europe. We apply and compare ground-based and satellite measurements to determine aerosol content, dynamics, and properties. With the application of modeling techniques (HYSPLIT), we show that the maximum AOD in August 2010 over Ukraine was caused by particle transport from the forest fires in the ETR.
Livio Belegante, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Volker Freudenthaler, Doina Nicolae, Anca Nemuc, Dragos Ene, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Aldo Amodeo, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Giuseppe D'Amico, Francesco Amato, Ronny Engelmann, Holger Baars, Ulla Wandinger, Alexandros Papayannis, Panos Kokkalis, and Sérgio N. Pereira
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1119–1141,Short summary
This paper presents different depolarization calibration procedures used to improve the quality of the depolarization data. The results illustrate a significant improvement of the depolarization lidar products for all the selected EARLINET lidar instruments. The calibrated volume and particle depolarization profiles at 532 nm show values that fall within a range that is accepted in the literature. The depolarization accuracy estimate at 532 nm is better than ±0.03 for all cases.
Igor V. Geogdzhayev and Alexander Marshak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 359–368,Short summary
The unique Earth view of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) orbiting at the point of equal attraction from the Earth and the Sun can significantly augment the low-orbit remote sensing of aerosols, clouds and gases. We derive the relationship between the digital counts and the reflected sunlight intensity for some EPIC channels using collocated Earth views from EPIC and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and EPIC moon views.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3103–3115,Short summary
The mathematical formulation for the optical setup of a typical EARLINET lidar system is given here. The equations describing a lidar system from the emitted laser beam to the projection of the telescope aperture on the final receiving unit (i.e., photomultiplier or photodiode) are presented, based on paraxial approximation and a geometric optics approach. The evaluation of the formulation is performed with ray-tracing simulations on a real system.
Andrew M. Sayer, N. Christina Hsu, Corey Bettenhausen, Robert E. Holz, Jaehwa Lee, Greg Quinn, and Paolo Veglio
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1425–1444,Short summary
The satellite instrument VIIRS is being used to carry on observations of the Earth made by older satellites like MODIS. Data sets created from these satellite observations depend on the quality of the satellite instruments' calibration. This paper describes a comparison between the calibration of these two sensors. MODIS is believed to be more reliable and so VIIRS is corrected to bring it in line with MODIS. These corrections are shown to improve the quality of VIIRS aerosol data.
Thomas Carlund, Natalia Kouremeti, Stelios Kazadzis, and Julian Gröbner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 905–923,Short summary
Aerosols play an important role in atmospheric processes. Aerosol optical depth is the most common measure of columnar aerosol load. We present a sunphotometer called UVPFR that is able to measure aerosol optical depth in the ultraviolet range, including the calibration, characterization and validation of the instrument/measurements. The instrument will serve as a reference on the intercalibration of Brewer spectrophotometers that are also able to measure aerosol optical depth in the UV region.
A. Fernando Almansa, Emilio Cuevas, Benjamín Torres, África Barreto, Rosa D. García, Victoria E. Cachorro, Ángel M. de Frutos, César López, and Ramón Ramos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 565–579,Short summary
This study presents a new zenith-looking narrow-band radiometer-based system (ZEN), conceived for dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) monitoring. The ZEN system comprises a robust and automated radiometer (ZEN-R41), and a lookup table methodology for AOD retrieval (ZEN-LUT). Our results suggest that ZEN is a suitable system to fill the current observational gaps and to complement observations performed by sun-photometer networks in order to improve mineral dust monitoring in remote locations.
Stelios Kazadzis, Panagiotis Raptis, Natalia Kouremeti, Vassilis Amiridis, Antti Arola, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, and Gregory L. Schuster
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5997–6011,Short summary
Aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate. One of the main aerosol properties is the single scattering albedo which is a measure of the aerosol absorption. In this work we have presented a method to retrieve this aerosol property in the ultraviolet and we presented the results for measurements at the urban environment of Athens, Greece. We show that the spectral dependence of the aerosol absorption in the VIS–IR and the UV range depends on the aerosol composition and type.
Moritz Haarig, Ronny Engelmann, Albert Ansmann, Igor Veselovskii, David N. Whiteman, and Dietrich Althausen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4269–4278,
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4181–4255,
Simone Kotthaus, Ewan O'Connor, Christoph Münkel, Cristina Charlton-Perez, Martial Haeffelin, Andrew M. Gabey, and C. Sue B. Grimmond
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3769–3791,Short summary
Ceilometers lidars are useful to study clouds, aerosol layers and atmospheric boundary layer structures. As sensor optics and acquisition algorithms can strongly influence the observations, sensor specifics need to be incorporated into the physical interpretation. Here, recommendations are made for the operation and processing of profile observations from the widely deployed Vaisala CL31 ceilometer. Proposed corrections are shown to increase data quality and even data availability at times.
Maxime Hervo, Yann Poltera, and Alexander Haefele
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2947–2959,Short summary
Imperfections in a lidar's overlap function lead to artefacts in the lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) signals. These artefacts can erroneously be interpreted as an aerosol gradient or, in extreme cases, as a cloud base leading to false cloud detection. In this study an algorithm is presented to correct such artefacts. The algorithm is completely automatic and does not require any intervention on site. It is therefore suited for use in large automatic lidar networks.
Aaron R. Naeger, Pawan Gupta, Bradley T. Zavodsky, and Kevin M. McGrath
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2463–2482,Short summary
In this study, we merge aerosol information from multiple satellite sensors on board low-earth orbiting (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) platforms in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial distribution of aerosols compared to when only using single sensors as is commonly done. Our results show that merging aerosol information from LEO and GEO platforms can be very useful, which paves the way for applications to the more advanced next-generation of satellites.
Ronny Engelmann, Thomas Kanitz, Holger Baars, Birgit Heese, Dietrich Althausen, Annett Skupin, Ulla Wandinger, Mika Komppula, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Ina Mattis, Holger Linné, and Albert Ansmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1767–1784,Short summary
The atmospheric science community demands for autonomous and quality-assured vertically resolved measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. For this purpose, a portable lidar called Polly was developed at TROPOS in 2003. This lidar type was continuously improved with gained experience from EARLINET, worldwide field campaigns, and institute collaborations within the last 10 years. We present recent changes to the setup of our portable multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar PollyXT.
Zongming Tao, Zhenzhu Wang, Shijun Yang, Huihui Shan, Xiaomin Ma, Hui Zhang, Sugui Zhao, Dong Liu, Chenbo Xie, and Yingjian Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1369–1376,Short summary
A new measurement technology of PM2.5 mass concentration profile near ground is addressed using a CCD side-scatter lidar and a PM2.5 detector. The PM2.5 mass concentration profile can be built upon the vertical distribution of the extinction coefficient for aerosol. The PM2.5 is always loading in the planet boundary layer with a complex muti-layer structure. The new method for PM2.5 mass concentration profile is useful for improving our understanding of air quality and atmospheric environment.
B. J. Elash, A. E. Bourassa, P. R. Loewen, N. D. Lloyd, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1261–1277,
Joel McCorkel, Brian Cairns, and Andrzej Wasilewski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 955–962,Short summary
The transfer and maintenance of international radiometric standards to satellite remote-sensing instruments is a labor-intensive and costly one. The goal is to provide specific examples for calibration implementation for a potential instrument mission and, with this, advance debate on the roles that the various satellite calibration techniques play in providing the best radiometric standards for Earth-observing sensors.
África Barreto, Emilio Cuevas, María-José Granados-Muñoz, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Pedro M. Romero, Julian Gröbner, Natalia Kouremeti, Antonio F. Almansa, Tom Stone, Carlos Toledano, Roberto Román, Mikhail Sorokin, Brent Holben, Marius Canini, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 631–654,Short summary
This paper presents the new photometer CE318-T, able to perform daytime and night-time photometric measurements using the sun and the moon as light sources. This new device permits a complete cycle of diurnal aerosol and water vapour measurements to be extracted, valuable to enhance atmospheric monitoring. We have also highlighted the ability of this new device to capture short-term atmospheric variations, critical for climate studies.
R. C. Levy, L. A. Munchak, S. Mattoo, F. Patadia, L. A. Remer, and R. E. Holz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4083–4110,Short summary
Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is an essential climate variable, so we seek to create a long-term AOD record. From MODIS, we have 15+ years, which we want to continue with VIIRS. Accounting for instrumental difference, we have developed a MODIS-like algorithm for VIIRS, and applied it to overlapping 2-year time period. In general, the two data sets are similar, except for VIIRS being high-biased over ocean. We discuss the impacts of calibration, resolution, and sampling on the results.
I. Veselovskii, D. N. Whiteman, M. Korenskiy, A. Suvorina, and D. Pérez-Ramírez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4111–4122,Short summary
We describe a practical implementation of rotational Raman (RR) measurements in an existing Mie-Raman lidar to obtain aerosol extinction and backscattering at 532nm. A 2.3nm width interference filter was used to select a spectral range characterized by low temperature sensitivity within the anti-Stokes branch of the RR spectrum. Simulations demonstrate that the temperature dependence of the scattering cross section does not exceed 1.5% in the 230-300K range.
K. Baibakov, N. T. O'Neill, L. Ivanescu, T. J. Duck, C. Perro, A. Herber, K.-H. Schulz, and O. Schrems
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3789–3809,
Colarco, P. R., Schoeberl, M. R., Doddridge, B. G., Marufu, L. T., Torres, O., and Welton, E. J.: Transport of smoke from Canadian forest fires to the surface near Washington, D.C.: Injection height, entrainment, and optical properties, J. Geophys. Res., 109, 2156–2202, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD004248, 2004.
Crawford, A. M., Stunder, B. J. B., Ngan, F., and Pavolonis, M. J.: Initializing HYSPLIT with satellite observations of volcanic ash: A case study of the 2008 Kasatochi eruption, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121, 10786–10803, 2016.
Diner, D. J., Beckert, J. C., Reilly, T. H., Bruegge, C. J., Conel, J. E., Kahn, R. A., Martonchik, J. V., Ackerman, T. P., Davies, R., Gerstl, S. A. W., Gordon, H. R., Muller, J. P., Myneni, R. B., Sellers, P. J., Pinty, B., and Verstraete, M. M.: Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 36, 1072–1087, https://doi.org/10.1109/36.700992, 1998.
Flower, V. and Kahn, R.A.: Assessing the altitude and dispersion of volcanic plumes using MISR multi-angle imaging: Sixteen years of volcanic activity in the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 337, 1–15, 2017.
Forouzanfar, M. H. et al.: Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013, Lancet, 386, 2287–232387, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00128-2, 2015.
Kahn, R., Li, W., Moroney, C., Diner, D., Martonchik, J., and Fishbean, E.: Aerosol source plume physical characteristics from space-based multiangle imaging, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D11205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007647, 2007.
Kahn, R. A. and Limbacher, J.: Eyjafjallajökull volcano plume particle-type characterization from space-based multi-angle imaging, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9459–9477, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-9459-2012, 2012.
Kahn, R. A., Banerjee, P., and McDonald, D.: The Sensitivity of Multiangle Imaging to Natural Mixtures of Aerosols Over Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 18219–18238, 2001.
Kahn, R. A., Chen, Y., Nelson, D., Leung, F., Li, Q., Diner, D., and Logan, J.: Wild Smoke Injection Heights: Two Perspectives From Space, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L04809, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032165, 2008.
Kahn, R. A., Berkoff, T., Brock, C., Chen, G., Ferrare, R., Ghan, S., Hansico, T., Hegg, D., Martins, J. V., McNaughton, C. S., Murphy, D. M., Ogren, J. A., Penner, J. E., Pilewskie, P., Seinfeld, J., and Worsnop, D.: SAM-CAAM: A Concept for Acquiring Systematic Aircraft Measurements to Characterize Aerosol Air Masses, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 98, 2215–2228, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0003.1, 2017.
Leadbetter, S. J. and Hort, M. C.: Volcanic ash hazard climatology for an eruption of Hekla Volcano, Iceland, J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 199, 230–241, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.11.016, 2011.
Limbacher, J. A. and Kahn, R. A.: MISR research-aerosol-algorithm refinements for dark water retrievals, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3989–4007, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-7-3989-2014, 2014.
Mastin, L. G., Guffanti, M., Servranckx, R., Webley, P., Barsotti, S., Dean, K., Durant, A., Ewert, J. W., Neri, A., Rose, W. I., Schneider, D., Siebert, L., Stunder, B., Swanson, G., Tupper, A., Volentik, A., and Waythomas, C. F.: A multidisciplinary effort to assign realistic source parameters to models of volcanic ash-cloud transport and dispersion during eruptions, J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 186, 10–21, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.01.008, 2009.
McClure, C. D. and Jaffe, D. A.: US particulate matter air quality improves except in wildfire-prone areas, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 115, 7901–7906, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1804353115, 2018.
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The height that aerosols are injected into the atmosphere can significantly impact the dispersion of aerosol plumes. We use direct observations from the MISR instrument to determine aerosol injection height and constrain the HYSPLIT Dispersion model with these data. We have shown that the nominal plume-rise calculation within HYSPLIT tends to underestimate injection heights of wildfires and that simulations constrained with MISR injection height can show better agreement with MODIS observations.
The height that aerosols are injected into the atmosphere can significantly impact the...