Articles | Volume 14, issue 12
17 Dec 2021
Research article | 17 Dec 2021
PARAFOG v2.0: a near-real-time decision tool to support nowcasting fog formation events at local scales
Jean-François Ribaud et al.
No articles found.
Mathew Lipson, Sue Grimmond, Martin Best, Winston Chow, Andreas Christen, Nektarios Chrysoulakis, Andrew Coutts, Ben Crawford, Stevan Earl, Jonathan Evans, Krzysztof Fortuniak, Bert G. Heusinkveld, Je-Woo Hong, Jinkyu Hong, Leena Järvi, Sungsoo Jo, Yeon-Hee Kim, Simone Kotthaus, Keunmin Lee, Valéry Masson, Joseph P. McFadden, Oliver Michels, Wlodzimierz Pawlak, Matthias Roth, Hirofumi Sugawara, Nigel Tapper, Erik Velasco, and Helen Claire Ward
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
A collection of weather observations from twenty urban locations around the world. The observations are valuable as they capture not only typical measurements (temperature, humidity, wind etc.) but also how energy is exchanged between the land and the atmosphere through radiation and turbulent heat fluxes. These can be used to improve our understanding of weather processes over cities, and to evaluate urban environmental models. Together the collection captures 50 years of observations.
Simone Kotthaus, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Martine Collaud Coen, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Maria João Costa, Domenico Cimini, Ewan J. O’Connor, Maxime Hervo, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, María Jiménez-Portaz, Lucia Mona, Dominique Ruffieux, Anthony Illingworth, and Martial Haeffelin
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
This review summarises capabilities and limitations of the methods available to monitor atmospheric boundary layer heights and characteristics. It is highlighted how atmospheric profile observations can best be exploited to inform measurement network design, algorithm implementation, and sound data interpretation. An overview of long-term observational studies demonstrates the value of such observations for advancing our understanding of ABL variability.
Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean-Charles Dupont, Olivier Favez, Valérie Gros, Yunjiang Zhang, Jean Sciare, Leila Simon, François Truong, Nicolas Bonnaire, Tanguy Amodeo, Robert Vautard, and Martial Haeffelin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17167–17183,Short summary
The COVID-19 outbreak led to lockdowns at national scales in spring 2020. Large cuts in emissions occurred, but the quantitative assessment of their role from observations is hindered by weather and interannual variability. That is why we developed an innovative methodology in order to best characterize the impact of lockdown on atmospheric chemistry. We find that a local decrease in traffic-related pollutants triggered a decrease of secondary aerosols and an increase in ozone.
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, David Carruthers, Sue Grimmond, Yiqun Han, Pingqing Fu, and Simone Kotthaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13687–13711,Short summary
Heat-related illnesses are of increasing concern in China given its rapid urbanisation and our ever-warming climate. We examine the relative impacts that land surface properties and anthropogenic heat have on the urban heat island (UHI) in Beijing using ADMS-Urban. Air temperature measurements and satellite-derived land surface temperatures provide valuable means of evaluating modelled spatiotemporal variations. This work provides critical information for urban planners and UHI mitigation.
Felipe Toledo, Martial Haeffelin, Eivind Wærsted, and Jean-Charles Dupont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13099–13117,Short summary
The article presents a new conceptual model to describe the temporal evolution of continental fog layers, developed based on 7 years of fog measurements performed at the SIRTA observatory, France. This new paradigm relates the visibility reduction caused by fog to its vertical thickness and liquid water path and provides diagnostic variables that could substantially improve the reliability of fog dissipation nowcasting at a local scale, based on real-time profiling observation.
Jinghui Lian, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, Thomas Lauvaux, Bo Zheng, Michel Ramonet, Irène Xueref-Remy, Simone Kotthaus, Martial Haeffelin, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10707–10726,Short summary
Currently there is growing interest in monitoring city-scale CO2 emissions based on atmospheric CO2 measurements, atmospheric transport modeling, and inversion technique. We analyze the various sources of uncertainty that impact the atmospheric CO2 modeling and that may compromise the potential of this method for the monitoring of CO2 emission over Paris. Results suggest selection criteria for the assimilation of CO2 measurements into the inversion system that aims at retrieving city emissions.
Claire E. Reeves, Graham P. Mills, Lisa K. Whalley, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, Sue Grimmond, Dwayne E. Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James R. Hopkins, Simone Kotthaus, Louisa J. Kramer, Roderic L. Jones, James D. Lee, Yanhui Liu, Bin Ouyang, Eloise Slater, Freya Squires, Xinming Wang, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6315–6330,Short summary
The impact of isoprene on atmospheric chemistry is dependent on how its oxidation products interact with other pollutants, specifically nitrogen oxides. Such interactions can lead to isoprene nitrates. We made measurements of the concentrations of individual isoprene nitrate isomers in Beijing and used a model to test current understanding of their chemistry. We highlight areas of uncertainty in understanding, in particular the chemistry following oxidation of isoprene by the nitrate radical.
Wenhua Wang, Longyi Shao, Claudio Mazzoleni, Yaowei Li, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Janarjan Bhandari, Jiaoping Xing, Xiaolei Feng, Mengyuan Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5301–5314,Short summary
We compared the characteristics of individual particles at ground level and above the mixed-layer height. We found that the particles above the mixed-layer height during haze periods are more aged compared to ground level. More coal-combustion-related primary organic particles were found above the mixed-layer height. We suggest that the particles above the mixed-layer height are affected by the surrounding areas, and once mixed down to the ground, they might contribute to ground air pollution.
Roland Stirnberg, Jan Cermak, Simone Kotthaus, Martial Haeffelin, Hendrik Andersen, Julia Fuchs, Miae Kim, Jean-Eudes Petit, and Olivier Favez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3919–3948,Short summary
Air pollution endangers human health and poses a problem particularly in densely populated areas. Here, an explainable machine learning approach is used to analyse periods of high particle concentrations for a suburban site southwest of Paris to better understand its atmospheric drivers. Air pollution is particularly excaberated by low temperatures and low mixed layer heights, but processes vary substantially between and within seasons.
Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2125–2147,Short summary
To understand how emission controls will impact ozone, an understanding of the sources and sinks of OH and the chemical cycling between peroxy radicals is needed. This paper presents measurements of OH, HO2 and total RO2 taken in central Beijing. The radical observations are compared to a detailed chemistry model, which shows that under low NO conditions, there is a missing OH source. Under high NOx conditions, the model under-predicts RO2 and impacts our ability to model ozone.
Rutambhara Joshi, Dantong Liu, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Neil Mullinger, Freya Squires, James Lee, Yunfei Wu, Xiaole Pan, Pingqing Fu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Qiang Zhang, Ruili Wu, Oliver Wild, Michael Flynn, Hugh Coe, and James Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 147–162,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is a component of particulate matter which has significant effects on climate and human health. Sources of BC include biomass burning, transport, industry and domestic cooking and heating. In this study, we measured BC emissions in Beijing, finding a dominance of traffic emissions over all other sources. The quantitative method presented here has benefits for revising widely used emissions inventories and for understanding BC sources with impacts on air quality and climate.
Felipe Toledo, Julien Delanoë, Martial Haeffelin, Jean-Charles Dupont, Susana Jorquera, and Christophe Le Gac
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6853–6875,Short summary
Cloud observations are essential to rainfall, fog and climate change forecasts. One key instrument for these observations is cloud radar. Yet, discrepancies are found when comparing radars from different ground stations or satellites. Our work presents a calibration methodology for cloud radars based on reference targets, including an analysis of the uncertainty sources. The method enables the calibration of reference instruments to improve the quality and value of the cloud radar network data.
Freya A. Squires, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Oliver Wild, Will S. Drysdale, W. Joe F. Acton, Pingqing Fu, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Simone Kotthaus, James Lee, Stefan Metzger, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Marvin Shaw, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Ruili Wu, Qiang Zhang, and Yanli Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8737–8761,Short summary
Significant air quality problems exist in megacities like Beijing, China. To manage air pollution, legislators need a clear understanding of pollutant emissions. However, emissions inventories have large uncertainties, and reliable field measurements of pollutant emissions are required to constrain them. This work presents the first measurements of traffic-dominated emissions in Beijing which suggest that inventories overestimate these emissions in the region during both winter and summer.
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, David Carruthers, Jie Li, Qiang Zhang, Ruili Wu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Freya A. Squires, James Lee, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2755–2780,Short summary
Ambient air pollution is a major cause of premature death in China. We examine the street-scale variation of pollutant levels in Beijing using air pollution dispersion and chemistry model ADMS-Urban. Campaign measurements are compared with simulated pollutant levels, providing a valuable means of evaluating the impact of key processes on urban air quality. Air quality modelling at such fine scales is essential for human exposure studies and for informing choices on future emission controls.
Holger Baars, Albert Ansmann, Kevin Ohneiser, Moritz Haarig, Ronny Engelmann, Dietrich Althausen, Ingrid Hanssen, Michael Gausa, Aleksander Pietruczuk, Artur Szkop, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Dongxiang Wang, Jens Reichardt, Annett Skupin, Ina Mattis, Thomas Trickl, Hannes Vogelmann, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Alexander Haefele, Karen Acheson, Albert A. Ruth, Boyan Tatarov, Detlef Müller, Qiaoyun Hu, Thierry Podvin, Philippe Goloub, Igor Veselovskii, Christophe Pietras, Martial Haeffelin, Patrick Fréville, Michaël Sicard, Adolfo Comerón, Alfonso Javier Fernández García, Francisco Molero Menéndez, Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Daniele Bortoli, Maria João Costa, Davide Dionisi, Gian Luigi Liberti, Xuan Wang, Alessia Sannino, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Antonella Boselli, Lucia Mona, Giuseppe D'Amico, Salvatore Romano, Maria Rita Perrone, Livio Belegante, Doina Nicolae, Ivan Grigorov, Anna Gialitaki, Vassilis Amiridis, Ourania Soupiona, Alexandros Papayannis, Rodanthi-Elisaveth Mamouri, Argyro Nisantzi, Birgit Heese, Julian Hofer, Yoav Y. Schechner, Ulla Wandinger, and Gelsomina Pappalardo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15183–15198,
Marie Lothon, Paul Barnéoud, Omar Gabella, Fabienne Lohou, Solène Derrien, Sylvain Rondi, Marjolaine Chiriaco, Sophie Bastin, Jean-Charles Dupont, Martial Haeffelin, Jordi Badosa, Nicolas Pascal, and Nadège Montoux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5519–5534,Short summary
In the context of an atmospheric network of instrumented sites equipped with sky cameras for cloud monitoring, we present an algorithm named ELIFAN, which aims to estimate the cloud cover amount from full-sky visible daytime images. ELIFAN is based on red-to-blue ratio thresholding applied on the image pixels and on the use of a blue-sky library. We present its principle and its performance and highlight the interest of combining several complementary instruments.
Andrés Esteban Bedoya-Velásquez, Gloria Titos, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Martial Haeffelin, Olivier Favez, Jean-Eudes Petit, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Francisco José Olmo-Reyes, Elena Montilla-Rosero, Carlos D. Hoyos, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, and Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7883–7896,Short summary
This study is related to the first time hygroscopic enhancement factors retrieved directly for ambient aerosols using remote sensing techniques are combined with online chemical composition in situ measurements to evaluate the role of the different aerosol species in aerosol hygroscopicity at ACTRIS SIRTA observatory. The results showed 8 cases that fulfilled strict criteria over 107 cases identified in this study.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Dantong Liu, Rutambhara Joshi, Junfeng Wang, Chenjie Yu, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Michael J. Flynn, Conghui Xie, James Lee, Freya Squires, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Xinlei Ge, Yele Sun, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6749–6769,Short summary
This study provides source attribution and characterization of BC in the Beijing urban environment in both winter and summer. For the first time, the physically and chemically based source apportionments are compared to evaluate the primary source contribution and secondary processing of BC-containing particles. A method is proposed to isolate the BC from the transportation sector and coal combustion sources.
Marie Mazoyer, Frédéric Burnet, Cyrielle Denjean, Gregory C. Roberts, Martial Haeffelin, Jean-Charles Dupont, and Thierry Elias
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4323–4344,Short summary
In situ microphysical measurements collected during 23 fog events at SIRTA (south of Paris) are examined here. An original iterative method based on the κ-Köhler theory has been used to compute statistics of their activation properties. Useful information is provided to constrain and validate numerical simulations. The paper demonstrates that supersaturation encountered in these fogs is too low to observe a correlation between concentrations of aerosols > 200 nm and droplet concentrations.
Qiaoyun Hu, Philippe Goloub, Igor Veselovskii, Juan-Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Ioana Elisabeta Popovici, Thierry Podvin, Martial Haeffelin, Anton Lopatin, Oleg Dubovik, Christophe Pietras, Xin Huang, Benjamin Torres, and Cheng Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1173–1193,Short summary
Smoke plumes generated in Canadian fire activities were elevated to the lower stratosphere and transported from North America to Europe. The smoke plumes were observed by three lidar systems in northern France. This study provides a comprehensive characterization for aged smoke aerosols at high altitude using lidar observations. It presents that fire activities on the Earth's surface can be an important contributor of stratospheric aerosols and impact the Earth's radiation budget.
Matthias Wiegner, Ina Mattis, Margit Pattantyús-Ábrahám, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Yann Poltera, Alexander Haefele, Maxime Hervo, Ulrich Görsdorf, Ronny Leinweber, Josef Gasteiger, Martial Haeffelin, Frank Wagner, Jan Cermak, Katerina Komínková, Mike Brettle, Christoph Münkel, and Kornelia Pönitz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 471–490,Short summary
Many ceilometers are influenced by water vapor absorption in the spectral range around 910 nm. Thus, a correction is required to retrieve aerosol optical properties. Validation of this correction scheme was performed in the framework of CeiLinEx2015 for several ceilometers with good agreement for Vaisala's CL51 ceilometer. For future applications we recommend monitoring the emitted wavelength and providing
darkmeasurements on a regular basis to be able to correct for signal artifacts.
Roy M. Harrison, David C. S. Beddows, Mohammed S. Alam, Ajit Singh, James Brean, Ruixin Xu, Simone Kotthaus, and Sue Grimmond
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 39–55,Short summary
Particle number size distributions were measured simultaneously at five sites in London during a campaign. Observations are interpreted in terms of both evaporative shrinkage of traffic-generated particles and condensational growth, probably of traffic-generated particles under cool nocturnal conditions, as well as the influence of particles emitted from Heathrow Airport at a distance of about 22 km. The work highlights the highly dynamic behaviour of nanoparticles within the urban atmosphere.
Amelie Driemel, John Augustine, Klaus Behrens, Sergio Colle, Christopher Cox, Emilio Cuevas-Agulló, Fred M. Denn, Thierry Duprat, Masato Fukuda, Hannes Grobe, Martial Haeffelin, Gary Hodges, Nicole Hyett, Osamu Ijima, Ain Kallis, Wouter Knap, Vasilii Kustov, Charles N. Long, David Longenecker, Angelo Lupi, Marion Maturilli, Mohamed Mimouni, Lucky Ntsangwane, Hiroyuki Ogihara, Xabier Olano, Marc Olefs, Masao Omori, Lance Passamani, Enio Bueno Pereira, Holger Schmithüsen, Stefanie Schumacher, Rainer Sieger, Jonathan Tamlyn, Roland Vogt, Laurent Vuilleumier, Xiangao Xia, Atsumu Ohmura, and Gert König-Langlo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1491–1501,Short summary
The Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) collects and centrally archives high-quality ground-based radiation measurements in 1 min resolution. More than 10 300 months, i.e., > 850 years, of high-radiation data in 1 min resolution from the years 1992 to 2017 are available. The network currently comprises 59 stations collectively representing all seven continents as well as island-based stations in the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Arctic oceans.
Marjolaine Chiriaco, Jean-Charles Dupont, Sophie Bastin, Jordi Badosa, Julio Lopez, Martial Haeffelin, Helene Chepfer, and Rodrigo Guzman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 919–940,Short summary
A scientific approach is presented to aggregate and harmonize a set of 60 geophysical variables at hourly scale over a decade, and to allow multiannual and multi-variable studies combining atmospheric dynamics and thermodynamics, radiation, clouds and aerosols from ground-based observations.
Marcelo de Paula Corrêa, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Fabrina Bolzan Martins, Kátia Mendes, Martial Haeffelin, Miguel Rivas, and Elisa Rojas
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
This paper provides a very simple method for UV index estimation from PAR measurements. These latter are generally performed by cheaper instruments and commonly found in any ordinary meteorological station. A large dataset collected in South America and Europe was used to test this method and thes results are comparable to the instrumental errors. For this reason, the method is a useful tool for UV index evaluations in regions lacking adequate instrumentation.
Eivind G. Wærsted, Martial Haeffelin, Jean-Charles Dupont, Julien Delanoë, and Philippe Dubuisson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10811–10835,Short summary
Heating and cooling of fog layers by solar and terrestrial radiation influence the fog life cycle. We quantify these radiative impacts on fog liquid water using detailed cloud radar observations of seven fog events as well as sensitivity studies. We find that the impact of radiation is affected mainly by fog optical thickness, atmospheric humidity and the presence of clouds above the fog. Observing these quantities in real time can therefore be useful for forecasting fog dissipation.
Martial Haeffelin, Quentin Laffineur, Juan-Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Marc-Antoine Drouin, Juan-Andrés Casquero-Vera, Jean-Charles Dupont, and Hugo De Backer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5347–5365,Short summary
Air traffic at busy airports can be significantly disrupted because low visibility due to fog makes it unsafe to take off, land and taxi on the ground. In this paper we show how automatic profiling lidar ceilometer measurements, available at most airports, can be used to provide pre-fog alert information, and hence help airport weather forecasters to better predict these low visibility conditions. This research was carried out in the context of a field campaign at Paris CDG airport (France).
Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Livio Belegante, Volker Freudenthaler, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Doina Nicolae, María José Granados-Muñoz, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Aldo Amodeo, Giusseppe D'Amico, Ronny Engelmann, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Panos Kokkalis, Rodanthy Mamouri, Alex Papayannis, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Francisco José Olmo, Ulla Wandinger, Francesco Amato, and Martial Haeffelin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4935–4953,Short summary
This work analyses the lidar polarizing sensitivity by means of the Stokes–Müller formalism and provides a new tool to quantify the systematic error of the volume linear depolarization ration (δ) using the Monte Carlo technique. Results evidence the importance of the lidar polarizing effects which can lead to systematic errors larger than 100 %. Additionally, we demonstrate that a proper lidar characterization helps to reduce the uncertainty.
Carole Helfter, Anja H. Tremper, Christoforos H. Halios, Simone Kotthaus, Alex Bjorkegren, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Janet F. Barlow, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10543–10557,Short summary
There are relatively few long-term, direct measurements of pollutant emissions in urban settings. We present over 3 years of measurements of fluxes of CO, CO2 and CH4, study their respective temporal and spatial dynamics and offer an independent verification of the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory. CO and CO2 were strongly controlled by traffic and well characterised by the inventory whilst measured CH4 was two-fold larger and linked to natural gas usage and perhaps biogenic sources.
Simone Kotthaus, Ewan O'Connor, Christoph Münkel, Cristina Charlton-Perez, Martial Haeffelin, Andrew M. Gabey, and C. Sue B. Grimmond
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3769–3791,Short summary
Ceilometers lidars are useful to study clouds, aerosol layers and atmospheric boundary layer structures. As sensor optics and acquisition algorithms can strongly influence the observations, sensor specifics need to be incorporated into the physical interpretation. Here, recommendations are made for the operation and processing of profile observations from the widely deployed Vaisala CL31 ceilometer. Proposed corrections are shown to increase data quality and even data availability at times.
M. Mazoyer, F. Burnet, G. C. Roberts, M. Haeffelin, J.-C Dupont, and T. Elias
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Comprehensive field campaigns dedicated to fog life cycle observation were conducted during the winters of 2010–2013 at the SIRTA observatory in the suburb of Paris. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of aerosol particles on the fog microphysics through an original method. We conclude that the actual supersaturations reached during these fog episodes are too low and no simultaneous increase of aerosols (D > 200 nm) and droplet concentrations can be observed.
T. Elias, J.-C. Dupont, E. Hammer, C. R. Hoyle, M. Haeffelin, F. Burnet, and D. Jolivet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6605–6623,
J.-E. Petit, O. Favez, J. Sciare, V. Crenn, R. Sarda-Estève, N. Bonnaire, G. Močnik, J.-C. Dupont, M. Haeffelin, and E. Leoz-Garziandia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2985–3005,
J. Badosa, J. Wood, P. Blanc, C. N. Long, L. Vuilleumier, D. Demengel, and M. Haeffelin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4267–4283,
V. Michoud, A. Colomb, A. Borbon, K. Miet, M. Beekmann, M. Camredon, B. Aumont, S. Perrier, P. Zapf, G. Siour, W. Ait-Helal, C. Afif, A. Kukui, M. Furger, J. C. Dupont, M. Haeffelin, and J. F. Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2805–2822,
D. Cimini, F. De Angelis, J.-C. Dupont, S. Pal, and M. Haeffelin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2941–2951,
Q. J. Zhang, M. Beekmann, F. Drewnick, F. Freutel, J. Schneider, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prevot, U. Baltensperger, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, J. Sciare, V. Gros, A. Borbon, A. Colomb, V. Michoud, J.-F. Doussin, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Haeffelin, J.-C. Dupont, G. Siour, H. Petetin, B. Bessagnet, S. N. Pandis, A. Hodzic, O. Sanchez, C. Honoré, and O. Perrussel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5767–5790,
G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, G. D'Amico, U. Wandinger, M. Adam, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Boselli, J. A. Bravo-Aranda, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, J. Cuesta, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, M. Gausa, E. Giannakaki, H. Giehl, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, S. Groß, M. Haeffelin, A. Hiebsch, M. Iarlori, D. Lange, H. Linné, F. Madonna, I. Mattis, R.-E. Mamouri, M. A. P. McAuliffe, V. Mitev, F. Molero, F. Navas-Guzman, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, C. Pietras, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, J. Preißler, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, A. A. Ruth, J. Schmidt, F. Schnell, P. Seifert, I. Serikov, M. Sicard, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, M. Tesche, T. Trickl, X. Wang, F. Wagner, M. Wiegner, and K. M. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4429–4450,
F. Freutel, J. Schneider, F. Drewnick, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, J. Sciare, R. Sarda-Estève, J. F. Burkhart, S. Eckhardt, A. Stohl, V. Gros, A. Colomb, V. Michoud, J. F. Doussin, A. Borbon, M. Haeffelin, Y. Morille, M. Beekmann, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 933–959,
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Subject: Clouds | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalHigh-resolution satellite-based cloud detection for the analysis of land surface effects on boundary layer cloudsRetrievals of ice microphysical properties using dual-wavelength polarimetric radar observations during stratiform precipitation eventsThe surface longwave cloud radiative effect derived from space lidar observationsCloud phase and macrophysical properties over the Southern Ocean during the MARCUS field campaignDetection of supercooled liquid water containing clouds with ceilometers: development and evaluation of deterministic and data-driven retrievalsAn all-sky camera image classification method using cloud cover featuresDetermination of atmospheric column condensate using active and passive remote sensing technologyImproving discrimination between clouds and optically thick aerosol plumes in geostationary satellite dataTowards the use of conservative thermodynamic variables in data assimilation: a case study using ground-based microwave radiometer measurementsEmpirical model of multiple-scattering effect on single-wavelength lidar data of aerosols and cloudsAnalytic characterization of random errors in spectral dual-polarized cloud radar observationsAssessing synergistic radar and radiometer capability in retrieving ice cloud microphysics based on hybrid Bayesian algorithmsApplying self-supervised learning for semantic cloud segmentation of all-sky imagesCoincident in situ and triple-frequency radar airborne observations in the ArcticAnalysis of improvements in MOPITT observational coverage over CanadaUsing artificial neural networks to predict riming from Doppler cloud radar observationsEvaluating cloud liquid detection against Cloudnet using cloud radar Doppler spectra in a pre-trained artificial neural networkInpainting radar missing data regions with deep learningImproved cloud detection for the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS): training an artificial neural network on colocated MLS and Aqua MODIS dataA kriging-based analysis of cloud Liquid Water Content using CloudSat dataTriple-frequency radar retrieval of microphysical properties of snowRetrieving microphysical properties of concurrent pristine ice and snow using polarimetric radar observationsComparison of mid-latitude single- and mixed-phase cloud optical depth from co-located infrared spectrometer and backscatter lidar measurementsTop of the Atmosphere Reflected Shortwave Radiative Fluxes from GOES-RPhysical characteristics of frozen hydrometeors inferred with parameter estimationCloud height measurement by a network of all-sky imagersIncreasing the spatial resolution of cloud property retrievals from Meteosat SEVIRI by use of its high-resolution visible channel: implementation and examplesWhy we need radar, lidar, and solar radiance observations to constrain ice cloud microphysicsEstimating the optical extinction of liquid water clouds in the cloud base regionW-band radar observations for fog forecast improvement: an analysis of model and forward operator errorsIdentification of snowfall microphysical processes from Eulerian vertical gradients of polarimetric radar variablesIdentifying insects, clouds, and precipitation using vertically pointing polarimetric radar Doppler velocity spectraMICRU: an effective cloud fraction algorithm designed for UV–vis satellite instruments with large viewing anglesA simplified method for the detection of convection using high-resolution imagery from GOES-16Introducing hydrometeor orientation into all-sky microwave and submillimeter assimilationVersion 4 CALIPSO Imaging Infrared Radiometer ice and liquid water cloud microphysical properties – Part II: Results over oceansVersion 4 CALIPSO Imaging Infrared Radiometer ice and liquid water cloud microphysical properties – Part I: The retrieval algorithmsObservation of cirrus clouds with GLORIA during the WISE campaign: detection methods and cirrus characterizationApplying machine learning methods to detect convection using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-16 (GOES-16) advanced baseline imager (ABI) dataA new method to detect and classify polar stratospheric nitric acid trihydrate clouds derived from radiative transfer simulations and its first application to airborne infrared limb emission observationsA study of polarimetric error induced by satellite motion: application to the 3MI and similar sensorsA robust low-level cloud and clutter discrimination method for ground-based millimeter-wavelength cloud radarTwo-dimensional and multi-channel feature detection algorithm for the CALIPSO lidar measurementsAnalysis of 3D cloud effects in OCO-2 XCO2 retrievalsImproving cloud type classification of ground-based images using region covariance descriptorsGlobal cloud property models for real-time triage on board visible–shortwave infrared spectrometersApplying deep learning to NASA MODIS data to create a community record of marine low-cloud mesoscale morphologyMicrowave single-scattering properties of non-spheroidal raindropsDetermining cloud thermodynamic phase from the polarized Micro Pulse LidarImproved cloud detection over sea ice and snow during Arctic summer using MERIS data
Julia Fuchs, Hendrik Andersen, Jan Cermak, Eva Pauli, and Rob Roebeling
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4257–4270,Short summary
Two cloud-masking approaches, a local and a regional approach, using high-resolution satellite data are developed and validated for the region of Paris to improve applicability for analyses of urban effects on low clouds. We found that cloud masks obtained from the regional approach are more appropriate for the high-resolution analysis of locally induced cloud processes. Its applicability is tested for the analysis of typical fog conditions over different surface types.
Eleni Tetoni, Florian Ewald, Martin Hagen, Gregor Köcher, Tobias Zinner, and Silke Groß
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3969–3999,Short summary
We use the C-band POLDIRAD and the Ka-band MIRA-35 to perform snowfall dual-wavelength polarimetric radar measurements. We develop an ice microphysics retrieval for mass, apparent shape, and median size of the particle size distribution by comparing observations to T-matrix ice spheroid simulations while varying the mass–size relationship. We furthermore show how the polarimetric measurements from POLDIRAD help to narrow down ambiguities between ice particle shape and size.
Assia Arouf, Hélène Chepfer, Thibault Vaillant de Guélis, Marjolaine Chiriaco, Matthew D. Shupe, Rodrigo Guzman, Artem Feofilov, Patrick Raberanto, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Seiji Kato, and Michael R. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3893–3923,Short summary
We proposed new estimates of the surface longwave (LW) cloud radiative effect (CRE) derived from observations collected by a space-based lidar on board the CALIPSO satellite and radiative transfer computations. Our estimate appropriately captures the surface LW CRE annual variability over bright polar surfaces, and it provides a dataset more than 13 years long.
Baike Xi, Xiquan Dong, Xiaojian Zheng, and Peng Wu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3761–3777,Short summary
This study develops an innovative method to determine the cloud phases over the Southern Ocean (SO) using the combination of radar and lidar measurements during the ship-based field campaign of MARCUS. Results from our study show that the low-level, deep, and shallow cumuli are dominant, and the mixed-phase clouds occur more than single phases over the SO. The mixed-phase cloud properties are similar to liquid-phase (ice-phase) clouds in the midlatitudes (polar) region of the SO.
Adrien Guyot, Alain Protat, Simon P. Alexander, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Peter Kuma, and Adrian McDonald
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3663–3681,Short summary
Ceilometers are instruments that are widely deployed as part of operational networks. They are usually not able to detect cloud phase. Here, we propose an evaluation of various methods to detect supercooled liquid water with ceilometer observations, using an extensive dataset from Davis, Antarctica. Our results highlight the possibility for ceilometers to detect supercooled liquid water in clouds.
Xiaotong Li, Baozhu Wang, Bo Qiu, and Chao Wu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3629–3639,Short summary
The all-sky camera images can reflect the local cloud cover, which is considerable for astronomical observatory site selection. Therefore, the realization of automatic classification of the images is very important. In this paper, three cloud cover features are proposed to classify the images. The proposed method is evaluated on a large dataset, and the method achieves an accuracy of 96.58 % and F1_score of 96.24 %, which greatly improves the efficiency of automatic processing of the images.
Huige Di, Yun Yuan, Qing Yan, Wenhui Xin, Shichun Li, Jun Wang, Yufeng Wang, Lei Zhang, and Dengxin Hua
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3555–3567,Short summary
It is necessary to correctly evaluate the amount of cloud water resources in an area. Currently, there is a lack of effective observation methods for atmospheric column condensate evaluation. We propose a method for atmospheric column condensate by combining millimetre cloud radar, lidar and microwave radiometers. The method can realise determination of atmospheric column condensate. The variation of cloud before precipitation is considered, and the atmospheric column is deduced and obtained.
Daniel Robbins, Caroline Poulsen, Steven Siems, and Simon Proud
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3031–3051,Short summary
A neural network (NN)-based cloud mask for a geostationary satellite instrument, AHI, is developed using collocated data and is better at not classifying thick aerosols as clouds versus the Japanese Meteorological Association and the Bureau of Meteorology masks, identifying 1.13 and 1.29 times as many non-cloud pixels than each mask, respectively. The improvement during the day likely comes from including the shortest wavelength bands from AHI in the NN mask, which the other masks do not use.
Pascal Marquet, Pauline Martinet, Jean-François Mahfouf, Alina Lavinia Barbu, and Benjamin Ménétrier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2021–2035,Short summary
Two conservative thermodynamic variables (moist-air entropy potential temperature and total water content) are introduced into a one-dimensional EnVar data assimilation system to demonstrate their benefit for future operational assimilation schemes, with the use of microwave brightness temperatures from a ground-based radiometer installed during the field campaign SOFGO3D. Results show that the brightness temperatures analysed with the new variables are improved, including the liquid water.
Valery Shcherbakov, Frédéric Szczap, Alaa Alkasem, Guillaume Mioche, and Céline Cornet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1729–1754,Short summary
We performed extensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of lidar signals and developed an empirical model to account for the multiple scattering in the lidar signals. The simulations have taken into consideration four types of lidar configurations (the ground based, the airborne, the CALIOP, and the ATLID) and four types of particles (coarse aerosol, water cloud, jet-stream cirrus, and cirrus). The empirical model has very good quality of MC data fitting for all considered cases.
Alexander Myagkov and Davide Ori
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1333–1354,Short summary
This study provides equations to characterize random errors of spectral polarimetric observations from cloud radars. The results can be used for a broad spectrum of applications. For instance, accurate error characterization is essential for advanced retrievals of microphysical properties of clouds and precipitation. Moreover, error characterization allows for the use of measurements from polarimetric cloud radars to potentially improve weather forecasts.
Yuli Liu and Gerald G. Mace
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 927–944,Short summary
We propose a suite of Bayesian algorithms for synergistic radar and radiometer retrievals to evaluate the next-generation NASA Cloud, Convection and Precipitation (CCP) observing system. The algorithms address pixel-level retrievals using active-only, passive-only, and synergistic active–passive observations. Novel techniques in developing synergistic algorithms are presented. Quantitative assessments of the CCP observing system's capability in retrieving ice cloud microphysics are provided.
Yann Fabel, Bijan Nouri, Stefan Wilbert, Niklas Blum, Rudolph Triebel, Marcel Hasenbalg, Pascal Kuhn, Luis F. Zarzalejo, and Robert Pitz-Paal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 797–809,Short summary
This work presents a new approach to exploit unlabeled image data from ground-based sky observations to train neural networks. We show that our model can detect cloud classes within images more accurately than models trained with conventional methods using small, labeled datasets only. Novel machine learning techniques as applied in this work enable training with much larger datasets, leading to improved accuracy in cloud detection and less need for manual image labeling.
Cuong M. Nguyen, Mengistu Wolde, Alessandro Battaglia, Leonid Nichman, Natalia Bliankinshtein, Samuel Haimov, Kenny Bala, and Dirk Schuettemeyer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 775–795,Short summary
An analysis of airborne triple-frequency radar and almost perfectly co-located coincident in situ data from an Arctic storm confirms the main findings of modeling work with radar dual-frequency ratios (DFRs) at different zones of the DFR plane associated with different ice habits. High-resolution CPI images provide accurate identification of rimed particles within the DFR plane. The relationships between the triple-frequency signals and cloud microphysical properties are also presented.
Heba S. Marey, James R. Drummond, Dylan B. A. Jones, Helen Worden, Merritt N. Deeter, John Gille, and Debbie Mao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 701–719,Short summary
In this study, an analysis has been performed to understand the improvements in observational coverage over Canada in the new MOPITT V9 product. Temporal and spatial analysis of V9 indicates a general coverage gain of 15–20 % relative to V8, which varies regionally and seasonally; e.g., the number of successful MOPITT retrievals in V9 was doubled over Canada in winter. Also, comparison with the corresponding IASI instrument indicated generally good agreement, with about a 5–10 % positive bias.
Teresa Vogl, Maximilian Maahn, Stefan Kneifel, Willi Schimmel, Dmitri Moisseev, and Heike Kalesse-Los
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 365–381,Short summary
We are using machine learning techniques, a type of artificial intelligence, to detect graupel formation in clouds. The measurements used as input to the machine learning framework were performed by cloud radars. Cloud radars are instruments located at the ground, emitting radiation with wavelenghts of a few millimeters vertically into the cloud and measuring the back-scattered signal. Our novel technique can be applied to different radar systems and different weather conditions.
Heike Kalesse-Los, Willi Schimmel, Edward Luke, and Patric Seifert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 279–295,Short summary
It is important to detect the vertical distribution of cloud droplets and ice in mixed-phase clouds. Here, an artificial neural network (ANN) previously developed for Arctic clouds is applied to a mid-latitudinal cloud radar data set. The performance of this technique is contrasted to the Cloudnet target classification. For thick/multi-layer clouds, the machine learning technique is better at detecting liquid than Cloudnet, but if lidar data are available Cloudnet is at least as good as the ANN.
Andrew Geiss and Joseph C. Hardin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7729–7747,Short summary
Radars can suffer from missing or poor-quality data regions for several reasons: beam blockage, instrument failure, and near-ground blind zones, etc. Here, we demonstrate how deep convolutional neural networks can be used for filling in radar-missing data regions and that they can significantly outperform conventional approaches in terms of realism and accuracy.
Frank Werner, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Michael J. Schwartz, William G. Read, Michelle L. Santee, and Galina Wind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7749–7773,Short summary
In this study we present an improved cloud detection scheme for the Microwave Limb Sounder, which is based on a feedforward artificial neural network. This new algorithm is shown not only to reliably detect high and mid-level convection containing even small amounts of cloud water but also to distinguish between high-reaching and mid-level to low convection.
Jean-Marie Lalande, Guillaume Bourmaud, Pierre Minvielle, and Jean-François Giovannelli
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
In this paper, we describe the implementation of an interpolation/prediction estimator applied to cloud properties derived from CloudSat observations. The objective is also to estimate the uncertainty associated with the estimated quantity. The model developed in this study can be valuable for satellite applications (GPS, telecommunication) as well as for cloud product comparison. We believe this paper is written in a didactic way so as to be profitable to anyone interested by kriging estimator.
Kamil Mroz, Alessandro Battaglia, Cuong Nguyen, Andrew Heymsfield, Alain Protat, and Mengistu Wolde
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7243–7254,Short summary
A method for estimating microphysical properties of ice clouds based on radar measurements is presented. The algorithm exploits the information provided by differences in the radar response at different frequency bands in relation to changes in the snow morphology. The inversion scheme is based on a statistical relation between the radar simulations and the properties of snow calculated from in-cloud sampling.
Nicholas J. Kedzuf, J. Christine Chiu, V. Chandrasekar, Sounak Biswas, Shashank S. Joshil, Yinghui Lu, Peter Jan van Leeuwen, Christopher Westbrook, Yann Blanchard, and Sebastian O'Shea
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6885–6904,Short summary
Ice clouds play a key role in our climate system due to their strong controls on precipitation and the radiation budget. However, it is difficult to characterize co-existing ice species using radar observations. We present a new method that separates the radar signals of pristine ice embedded in snow aggregates and retrieves their respective abundances and sizes for the first time. The ability to provide their quantitative microphysical properties will open up many research opportunities.
Gianluca Di Natale, Marco Barucci, Claudio Belotti, Giovanni Bianchini, Francesco D'Amato, Samuele Del Bianco, Marco Gai, Alessio Montori, Ralf Sussmann, Silvia Viciani, Hannes Vogelmann, and Luca Palchetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6749–6758,Short summary
The importance of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds in the Earth radiation budget has been proven by many studies. In this paper the properties that characterize these clouds are retrieved from lidar and far-infrared spectral measurements performed in winter 2018/19 on the Zugspitze (Germany). The synergy of lidar and spectrometer measurements allowed us to assess the exponent k of the power-law relationship between the backscattering and the extinction coefficients.
Rachel T. Pinker, Yingtao Ma, Wen Chen, Istvan Laszlo, Hongqing Liu, Hye-Yun Kim, and Jaime Daniels
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Under the GOES-R activity, new algorithms are developed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) to derive surface and Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes from the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). We describe an effort to support the derivation of such fluxes. Surface SW fluxes are the driving force of the climate system and the new product provides them at unprecedented spatial and temporal scales.
Alan J. Geer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5369–5395,Short summary
Satellite observations sensitive to cloud and precipitation help improve the quality of weather forecasts. However, they are sensitive to things that models do not forecast, such as the shapes and sizes of snow and ice particles. These details can be estimated from the observations themselves and then incorporated in the satellite simulators used in weather forecasting. This approach, known as parameter estimation, will be increasingly useful to build models of poorly known physical processes.
Niklas Benedikt Blum, Bijan Nouri, Stefan Wilbert, Thomas Schmidt, Ontje Lünsdorf, Jonas Stührenberg, Detlev Heinemann, Andreas Kazantzidis, and Robert Pitz-Paal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5199–5224,Short summary
Cloud base height (CBH) is important, e.g., to forecast solar irradiance and, with it, photovoltaic production. All-sky imagers (ASIs), cameras monitoring the sky above their point of installation, can provide such forecasts and also measure CBH. We present a network of ASIs to measure CBH. The network provides numerous readings of CBH simultaneously. We combine these with a statistical procedure. Validation attests to significantly higher accuracy of the combination compared to two ASIs alone.
Hartwig Deneke, Carola Barrientos-Velasco, Sebastian Bley, Anja Hünerbein, Stephan Lenk, Andreas Macke, Jan Fokke Meirink, Marion Schroedter-Homscheidt, Fabian Senf, Ping Wang, Frank Werner, and Jonas Witthuhn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5107–5126,Short summary
The SEVIRI instrument flown on the European geostationary Meteosat satellites acquires multi-spectral images at a relatively coarse pixel resolution of 3 × 3 km2, but it also has a broadband high-resolution visible channel with 1 × 1 km2 spatial resolution. In this study, the modification of an existing cloud property and solar irradiance retrieval to use this channel to improve the spatial resolution of its output products as well as the resulting benefits for applications are described.
Florian Ewald, Silke Groß, Martin Wirth, Julien Delanoë, Stuart Fox, and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5029–5047,Short summary
In this study, we show how solar radiance observations can be used to validate and further constrain ice cloud microphysics retrieved from the synergy of radar–lidar measurements. Since most radar–lidar retrievals rely on a global assumption about the ice particle shape, ice water content and particle size biases are to be expected in individual cloud regimes. In this work, we identify and correct these biases by reconciling simulated and measured solar radiation reflected from these clouds.
Karolina Sarna, David P. Donovan, and Herman W. J. Russchenberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4959–4970,Short summary
We show a method for obtaining cloud optical extinction with a lidar system. We use a scheme in which a lidar signal is inverted based on the estimated value of cloud extinction at the far end of the cloud and apply a correction for multiple scattering within the cloud and a range resolution correction. By applying our technique, we show that it is possible to obtain the cloud optical extinction with an error better than 5 % up to 90 m within the cloud.
Alistair Bell, Pauline Martinet, Olivier Caumont, Benoît Vié, Julien Delanoë, Jean-Charles Dupont, and Mary Borderies
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4929–4946,Short summary
This paper presents work towards making retrievals on the liquid water content in fog and low clouds. Future retrievals will rely on a radar simulator and high-resolution forecast. In this work, real observations are used to assess the errors associated with the simulator and forecast. A selection method to reduce errors associated with the forecast is proposed. It is concluded that the distribution of errors matches the requirements for future retrievals.
Noémie Planat, Josué Gehring, Étienne Vignon, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4543–4564,Short summary
We implement a new method to identify microphysical processes during cold precipitation events based on the sign of the vertical gradient of polarimetric radar variables. We analytically asses the meteorological conditions for this vertical analysis to hold, apply it on two study cases and successfully compare it with other methods informing about the microphysics. Finally, we are able to obtain the main vertical structure and characteristics of the different processes during these study cases.
Christopher R. Williams, Karen L. Johnson, Scott E. Giangrande, Joseph C. Hardin, Ruşen Öktem, and David M. Romps
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4425–4444,Short summary
In addition to detecting clouds, vertically pointing cloud radars detect individual insects passing over head. If these insects are not identified and removed from raw observations, then radar-derived cloud properties will be contaminated. This work identifies clouds in radar observations due to their continuous and smooth structure in time, height, and velocity. Cloud masks are produced that identify cloud vertical structure that are free of insect contamination.
Holger Sihler, Steffen Beirle, Steffen Dörner, Marloes Gutenstein-Penning de Vries, Christoph Hörmann, Christian Borger, Simon Warnach, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3989–4031,Short summary
MICRU is an algorithm for the retrieval of effective cloud fractions (CFs) from satellite measurements. CFs describe the amount of clouds, which have a significant impact on the vertical sensitivity profile of trace gases like NO2 and HCHO. MICRU retrieves small CFs with an accuracy of 0.04 over the entire satellite swath. It features an empirical surface reflectivity model accounting for physical anisotropy (BRDF, sun glitter) and instrumental effects. MICRU is also applicable to imager data.
Yoonjin Lee, Christian D. Kummerow, and Milija Zupanski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3755–3771,Short summary
This study suggests two methods to detect convection using 1 min data from GOES-16: one method detects early convective clouds using their vertical growth rate and the other method detects mature convective clouds using their lumpy cloud top surfaces. Applying the two methods to 1-month data showed that the accuracy of the combined methods was 85.8 % and showed their potential to be used in regions where radar data are not available.
Vasileios Barlakas, Alan J. Geer, and Patrick Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3427–3447,Short summary
Oriented nonspherical ice particles induce polarization that is ignored when cloud-sensitive satellite observations are used in numerical weather prediction systems. We present a simple approach for approximating particle orientation, requiring minor adaption of software and no additional calculation burden. With this approach, the system realistically simulates the observed polarization patterns, increasing the physical consistency between instruments with different polarizations.
Anne Garnier, Jacques Pelon, Nicolas Pascal, Mark A. Vaughan, Philippe Dubuisson, Ping Yang, and David L. Mitchell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3277–3299,Short summary
The IIR Level 2 data products include cloud effective emissivities and cloud microphysical properties such as effective diameter (De) and ice or liquid water path estimates. This paper (Part II) shows retrievals over ocean and describes the improvements made with respect to version 3 as a result of the significant changes implemented in the version 4 algorithms, which are presented in a companion paper (Part I).
Anne Garnier, Jacques Pelon, Nicolas Pascal, Mark A. Vaughan, Philippe Dubuisson, Ping Yang, and David L. Mitchell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3253–3276,Short summary
The IIR Level 2 data products include cloud effective emissivities and cloud microphysical properties such as effective diameter (De) and ice or liquid water path estimates. This paper (Part I) describes the improvements in the V4 algorithms compared to those used in the version 3 (V3) release, while results are presented in a companion paper (Part II).
Irene Bartolome Garcia, Reinhold Spang, Jörn Ungermann, Sabine Griessbach, Martina Krämer, Michael Höpfner, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3153–3168,Short summary
Cirrus clouds contribute to the general radiation budget of the Earth. Measuring optically thin clouds is challenging but the IR limb sounder GLORIA possesses the necessary technical characteristics to make it possible. This study analyses data from the WISE campaign obtained with GLORIA. We developed a cloud detection method and derived characteristics of the observed cirrus-like cloud top, cloud bottom or position with respect to the tropopause.
Yoonjin Lee, Christian D. Kummerow, and Imme Ebert-Uphoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2699–2716,Short summary
Convective clouds are usually associated with intense rain that can cause severe damage, and thus it is important to accurately detect convective clouds. This study develops a machine learning model that can identify convective clouds from five temporal visible and infrared images as humans can point at convective regions by finding bright and bubbling areas. The results look promising when compared to radar-derived products, which are commonly used for detecting convection.
Christoph Kalicinsky, Sabine Griessbach, and Reinhold Spang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1893–1915,Short summary
For an airborne viewing geometry, radiative transfer simulations of infrared limb emission spectra in the presence of polar stratospheric clouds – nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), supercooled ternary solution, ice, and mixtures – were used to develop a size-sensitive NAT detection algorithm. Characteristic size-dependent spectral features in the 810–820 cm−1 region were exploited to subgroup the NAT into three size regimes: small NAT (≤ 1.0 μm), medium NAT (1.5–4.0 μm), and large NAT (≥ 3.5 μm).
Souichiro Hioki, Jérôme Riedi, and Mohamed S. Djellali
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1801–1816,Short summary
This research estimates the magnitude of a motion-induced error in the measurement of polarimetric state of light by a planned instrument on a future satellite. We discovered that the motion-induced error can not be cancelled out by spatiotemporal averaging, but it can be predicted from the along-track change of the intensity of light. With the estimated statistics and the simulation model, this research paves a way to provide pixel-level quality information in the future satellite products.
Xiaoyu Hu, Jinming Ge, Jiajing Du, Qinghao Li, Jianping Huang, and Qiang Fu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1743–1759,Short summary
Cloud radars are powerful instruments that can probe detailed cloud structures. However, radar echoes in the lower atmosphere are always contaminated by clutter. We proposed a multi-dimensional probability distribution function that can effectively discriminate low-level clouds from clutter by considering their different features in several variables. We applied this method to the radar observations at the SACOL site and found the results have good agreement with lidar detection.
Thibault Vaillant de Guélis, Mark A. Vaughan, David M. Winker, and Zhaoyan Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1593–1613,Short summary
We introduce a new lidar feature detection algorithm that dramatically improves the fine details of layers identified in the CALIOP data. By applying our two-dimensional scanning technique to the measurements in all three channels, we minimize false positives while accurately identifying previously undetected features such as subvisible cirrus and the full vertical extent of dense smoke plumes. Multiple comparisons to version 4.2 CALIOP retrievals illustrate the scope of the improvements made.
Steven T. Massie, Heather Cronk, Aronne Merrelli, Christopher O'Dell, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Hong Chen, and David Baker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1475–1499,Short summary
The OCO-2 science team is working to retrieve CO2 measurements that can be used by the carbon cycle community to calculate regional sources and sinks of CO2. The retrieved data, however, are in need of improvements in accuracy. This paper discusses several ways in which 3D cloud metrics (such as the distance of a measurement to the nearest cloud) can be used to account for cloud effects in the OCO-2 CO2 data files.
Yuzhu Tang, Pinglv Yang, Zeming Zhou, Delu Pan, Jianyu Chen, and Xiaofeng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 737–747,Short summary
An automatic cloud classification method on whole-sky images is presented. We first extract multiple pixel-level features to form region covariance descriptors (RCovDs) and then encode RCovDs by the Riemannian bag-of-feature (BoF) method to output the histogram representation. Reults show that a very high prediction accuracy can be obtained with a small number of training samples, which validate the proposed method and exhibit the competitive performance against state-of-the-art methods.
Macey W. Sandford, David R. Thompson, Robert O. Green, Brian H. Kahn, Raffaele Vitulli, Steve Chien, Amruta Yelamanchili, and Winston Olson-Duvall
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 7047–7057,Short summary
We demonstrate an onboard cloud-screening approach to significantly reduce the amount of cloud-contaminated data transmitted from orbit. We have produced location-specific models that improve performance by taking into account the unique cloud statistics in different latitudes. We have shown that screening clouds based on their location or surface type will improve the ability for a cloud-screening tool to improve the volume of usable science data.
Tianle Yuan, Hua Song, Robert Wood, Johannes Mohrmann, Kerry Meyer, Lazaros Oreopoulos, and Steven Platnick
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6989–6997,Short summary
We use deep transfer learning techniques to classify satellite cloud images into different morphology types. It achieves the state-of-the-art results and can automatically process a large amount of satellite data. The algorithm will help low-cloud researchers to better understand their mesoscale organizations.
Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, and Michael Kahnert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6933–6944,Short summary
Raindrops become flattened due to aerodynamic drag as they increase in mass and fall speed. This study calculated the electromagnetic interaction between microwave radiation and non-spheroidal raindrops. The calculations are made publicly available to the scientific community, in order to promote accurate representations of raindrops in measurements. Tests show that the drop shape can have a noticeable effect on microwave observations of heavy rainfall.
Jasper R. Lewis, James R. Campbell, Sebastian A. Stewart, Ivy Tan, Ellsworth J. Welton, and Simone Lolli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6901–6913,Short summary
In this work, the authors describe a process to determine the thermodynamic cloud phase using the Micro Pulse Lidar Network volume depolarization ratio measurements and temperature profiles from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office GEOS-5 model. A multi-year analysis and comparisons to supercooled liquid water fractions derived from CALIPSO satellite measurements are used to demonstrate the efficacy of the method.
Larysa Istomina, Henrik Marks, Marcus Huntemann, Georg Heygster, and Gunnar Spreen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6459–6472,
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PARAFOG is a near-real-time decision tool that aims to retrieve pre-fog alert levels minutes to hours prior to fog onset. The second version of PARAFOG allows us to discriminate between radiation and stratus lowering fog situations. It is based upon the combination of visibility observations and automatic lidar and ceilometer measurements. The overall performance of the second version of PARAFOG over more than 300 fog cases at five different locations presents a good perfomance.
PARAFOG is a near-real-time decision tool that aims to retrieve pre-fog alert levels minutes to...