Articles | Volume 11, issue 11
Research article 09 Nov 2018
Research article | 09 Nov 2018
Testing and evaluation of a new airborne system for continuous N2O, CO2, CO, and H2O measurements: the Frequent Calibration High-performance Airborne Observation System (FCHAOS)
Alexander Gvakharia et al.
No articles found.
Dien Wu, John C. Lin, Henrique F. Duarte, Vineet Yadav, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Tomohiro Oda, and Eric A. Kort
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3633–3661,Short summary
A model (SMUrF) is presented that estimates biogenic CO2 fluxes over cities around the globe to separate out biogenic fluxes from anthropogenic emissions. The model leverages satellite-based solar-induced fluorescence data and a machine-learning technique. We evaluate the biogenic fluxes against flux observations and show contrasts between biogenic and anthropogenic fluxes over cities, revealing urban–rural flux gradients, diurnal cycles, and the resulting imprints on atmospheric-column CO2.
David R. Lyon, Benjamin Hmiel, Ritesh Gautam, Mark Omara, Katherine A. Roberts, Zachary R. Barkley, Kenneth J. Davis, Natasha L. Miles, Vanessa C. Monteiro, Scott J. Richardson, Stephen Conley, Mackenzie L. Smith, Daniel J. Jacob, Lu Shen, Daniel J. Varon, Aijun Deng, Xander Rudelis, Nikhil Sharma, Kyle T. Story, Adam R. Brandt, Mary Kang, Eric A. Kort, Anthony J. Marchese, and Steven P. Hamburg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6605–6626,Short summary
The Permian Basin (USA) is the world’s largest oil field. We use tower- and aircraft-based approaches to measure how methane emissions in the Permian Basin changed throughout 2020. In early 2020, 3.3 % of the region’s gas was emitted; then in spring 2020, the loss rate temporarily dropped to 1.9 % as oil price crashed. We find this short-term reduction to be a result of reduced well development, less gas flaring, and fewer abnormal events despite minimal reductions in oil and gas production.
Xueying Yu, Dylan B. Millet, Kelley C. Wells, Daven K. Henze, Hansen Cao, Timothy J. Griffis, Eric A. Kort, Genevieve Plant, Malte J. Deventer, Randall K. Kolka, D. Tyler Roman, Kenneth J. Davis, Ankur R. Desai, Bianca C. Baier, Kathryn McKain, Alan C. Czarnetzki, and A. Anthony Bloom
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 951–971,Short summary
Methane concentrations have doubled since 1750. The US Upper Midwest is a key region contributing to such trends, but sources are poorly understood. We collected and analyzed aircraft data to resolve spatial and timing biases in wetland and livestock emission estimates and uncover errors in inventory treatment of manure management. We highlight the importance of intensive agriculture for the regional and US methane budgets and the potential for methane mitigation through improved management.
Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, Dale F. Hurst, Geoff S. Dutton, Bradley D. Hall, J. David Nance, Ben R. Miller, Stephen A. Montzka, Laura P. Wolton, Audra McClure-Begley, James W. Elkins, Emrys G. Hall, Allen F. Jordan, Andrew W. Rollins, Troy D. Thornberry, Laurel A. Watts, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Thomas B. Ryerson, Bruce C. Daube, Jasna V. Pittman, Steven C. Wofsy, Eric Kort, Glenn S. Diskin, and T. Paul Bui
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We built UCATS to study atmospheric chemistry and transport. It has measured chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen with gas chromatography, as well as ozone and water vapor. UCATS has been part of missions to study the tropical tropopause, transport of air into the stratosphere, greenhouse gases, transport, and chemistry in the troposphere, and ozone chemistry. Its design, capabilities, and some results are shown and described here.
Li Zhang, Meiyun Lin, Andrew O. Langford, Larry W. Horowitz, Christoph J. Senff, Elizabeth Klovenski, Yuxuan Wang, Raul J. Alvarez II, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Patrick Cullis, Chance W. Sterling, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Steven S. Brown, Zachary C. J. Decker, Guillaume Kirgis, and Stephen Conley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10379–10400,Short summary
Measuring and quantifying the sources of elevated springtime ozone in the southwestern US is challenging but relevant to the implications for control policy. Here we use intensive field measurements and two global models to study ozone sources in the region. We find that ozone from the stratosphere, wildfires, and Asia is an important source of high-ozone events in the region. Our analysis also helps understand the uncertainties in ozone simulations with individual models.
Elizabeth Asher, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Britton B. Stephens, Doug Kinnison, Eric J. Morgan, Ralph F. Keeling, Elliot L. Atlas, Sue M. Schauffler, Simone Tilmes, Eric A. Kort, Martin S. Hoecker-Martínez, Matt C. Long, Jean-François Lamarque, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Alan J. Hills, and Eric C. Apel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14071–14090,Short summary
Halogenated organic trace gases, which are a source of reactive halogens to the atmosphere, exert a disproportionately large influence on atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reports novel aircraft observations of halogenated compounds over the Southern Ocean in summer and evaluates hypothesized regional sources and emissions of these trace gases through their relationships to additional aircraft observations.
Justin F. Trousdell, Dani Caputi, Jeanelle Smoot, Stephen A. Conley, and Ian C. Faloona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10697–10716,Short summary
We flew a small single-engine instrumented aircraft in a large valley of California to study the factors that determine air pollutant levels in a region of the US that faces serious air quality challenges. After carefully accounting for atmospheric mixing, we found that agriculture is likely a significant and currently underestimated source of nitrogen oxide, a precursor to both ozone and particulate matter pollution and methane, a potent greenhouse gas.
Dani J. Caputi, Ian Faloona, Justin Trousdell, Jeanelle Smoot, Nicholas Falk, and Stephen Conley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4721–4740,Short summary
This paper covers the importance of understanding ozone pollution in California’s southern San Joaquin Valley from the perspective of meteorological conditions that occur overnight. Our main finding is that stronger winds aloft allow ozone to be depleted overnight, leading to less ozone the following day. This finding has the potential to greatly improve ozone forecasts in the San Joaquin Valley. This study is primarily conducted with aircraft observations.
Conner Daube, Stephen Conley, Ian C. Faloona, Claudia Arndt, Tara I. Yacovitch, Joseph R. Roscioli, and Scott C. Herndon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2085–2095,Short summary
This study describes aircraft measurements of methane from dairy farms in central California. A small deliberate release of a tracer gas is done on the ground and measured from the air and the ratio of methane to tracer used to quantify emissions. Farm-scale methane emissions are determined as well as the fraction of those emissions coming from animal activity versus liquid manure management. These findings were within the uncertainty of two established methods.
Andrew O. Langford, Raul J. Alvarez II, Guillaume Kirgis, Christoph J. Senff, Dani Caputi, Stephen A. Conley, Ian C. Faloona, Laura T. Iraci, Josette E. Marrero, Mimi E. McNamara, Ju-Mee Ryoo, and Emma L. Yates
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1889–1904,Short summary
Lidar, aircraft, and surface measurements of ozone made during the 2016 California Baseline Ozone Transport Study (CABOTS) are compared to assess their validity and verify their suitability for investigations into the contributions of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport, Asian pollution, and wildfires to summertime surface ozone concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Our analysis shows that the lidar and aircraft measurements agree, on average, to within ±5 ppbv.
Benjamin Gaubert, Britton B. Stephens, Sourish Basu, Frédéric Chevallier, Feng Deng, Eric A. Kort, Prabir K. Patra, Wouter Peters, Christian Rödenbeck, Tazu Saeki, David Schimel, Ingrid Van der Laan-Luijkx, Steven Wofsy, and Yi Yin
Biogeosciences, 16, 117–134,Short summary
We have compared global carbon budgets calculated from numerical inverse models and CO2 observations, and evaluated how these systems reproduce vertical gradients in atmospheric CO2 from aircraft measurements. We found that available models have converged on near-neutral tropical total fluxes for several decades, implying consistent sinks in intact tropical forests, and that assumed fossil fuel emissions and predicted atmospheric growth rates are now the dominant axes of disagreement.
Dien Wu, John C. Lin, Benjamin Fasoli, Tomohiro Oda, Xinxin Ye, Thomas Lauvaux, Emily G. Yang, and Eric A. Kort
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4843–4871,Short summary
Urban CO2 enhancement signals can be derived using satellite column CO2 concentrations and atmospheric transport models. However, uncertainties due to model configurations, atmospheric transport, and defined background values can potentially impact the derived urban signals. In this paper, we present a modified Lagrangian model framework that extracts urban CO2 signals from satellite observations and determines potential error impacts.
Xinxin Ye, Thomas Lauvaux, Eric A. Kort, Tomohiro Oda, Sha Feng, John C. Lin, Emily Yang, and Dien Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Rapid global urbanization and significant fossil fuel consumption by cities emphasize the necessity of achieving independent and accurate quantification of the carbon emissions from urban areas. In this paper, we assess the potential of using total column CO2 concentration observed from satellite to quantify fossil-fuel carbon emissions from cities. This study could give insights into the capability of satellite observations on monitoring of the emissions on local scale.
Zachary R. Barkley, Thomas Lauvaux, Kenneth J. Davis, Aijun Deng, Natasha L. Miles, Scott J. Richardson, Yanni Cao, Colm Sweeney, Anna Karion, MacKenzie Smith, Eric A. Kort, Stefan Schwietzke, Thomas Murphy, Guido Cervone, Douglas Martins, and Joannes D. Maasakkers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13941–13966,Short summary
This study quantifies methane emissions from natural gas production in north-eastern Pennsylvania. Methane observations from 10 flights in spring 2015 are compared to model-projected values, and methane emissions from natural gas are adjusted within the model to create the best match between the two data sets. This study find methane emissions from natural gas production to be low and may be indicative of characteristics of the basin that make sources from north-eastern Pennsylvania unique.
Andrew K. Thorpe, Christian Frankenberg, David R. Thompson, Riley M. Duren, Andrew D. Aubrey, Brian D. Bue, Robert O. Green, Konstantin Gerilowski, Thomas Krings, Jakob Borchardt, Eric A. Kort, Colm Sweeney, Stephen Conley, Dar A. Roberts, and Philip E. Dennison
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3833–3850,Short summary
At local scales emissions of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are highly uncertain. The AVIRIS-NG imaging spectrometer maps large regions and generates high-spatial-resolution CH4 and CO2 concentration maps from anthropogenic and natural sources. Examples include CH4 from a processing plant, tank, pipeline leak, seep, mine vent shafts, and CO2 from power plants. This demonstrates a greenhouse gas monitoring capability that targets the two dominant anthropogenic climate-forcing agents.
Stephen Conley, Ian Faloona, Shobhit Mehrotra, Maxime Suard, Donald H. Lenschow, Colm Sweeney, Scott Herndon, Stefan Schwietzke, Gabrielle Pétron, Justin Pifer, Eric A. Kort, and Russell Schnell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3345–3358,Short summary
This paper describes a new method of quantifying surface trace gas emissions (e.g. methane) from small aircraft (e.g. Mooney, Cessna) in about 30 min. This technique greatly enhances our ability to rapidly respond in the event of catastrophic failures such as Aliso Canyon and Deep Water Horizon.
Makoto Inoue, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Takahiro Nakatsuru, Yukio Yoshida, Tatsuya Yokota, Debra Wunch, Paul O. Wennberg, Coleen M. Roehl, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Thorsten Warneke, Justus Notholt, John Robinson, Vanessa Sherlock, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Markus Rettinger, Ralf Sussmann, Esko Kyrö, Rigel Kivi, Kei Shiomi, Shuji Kawakami, Martine De Mazière, Sabrina G. Arnold, Dietrich G. Feist, Erica A. Barrow, James Barney, Manvendra Dubey, Matthias Schneider, Laura T. Iraci, James R. Podolske, Patrick W. Hillyard, Toshinobu Machida, Yousuke Sawa, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Hidekazu Matsueda, Colm Sweeney, Pieter P. Tans, Arlyn E. Andrews, Sebastien C. Biraud, Yukio Fukuyama, Jasna V. Pittman, Eric A. Kort, and Tomoaki Tanaka
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3491–3512,Short summary
In this study, we correct the biases of GOSAT XCO2 and XCH4 using TCCON data. To evaluate the effectiveness of our correction method, uncorrected/corrected GOSAT data are compared to independent XCO2 and XCH4 data derived from aircraft measurements. Consequently, we suggest that this method is effective for reducing the biases of the GOSAT data. We consider that our work provides GOSAT data users with valuable information and contributes to the further development of studies on greenhouse gases.
Christian Frankenberg, Susan S. Kulawik, Steven C. Wofsy, Frédéric Chevallier, Bruce Daube, Eric A. Kort, Christopher O'Dell, Edward T. Olsen, and Gregory Osterman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7867–7878,Short summary
We use observations from the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) flights from January 2009 through September 2011 to validate CO2 measurements from satellites (GOSAT, TES, AIRS) and atmospheric inversion models (CarbonTracker CT2013B, MACC v13r1).
F. Deng, D. B. A. Jones, T. W. Walker, M. Keller, K. W. Bowman, D. K. Henze, R. Nassar, E. A. Kort, S. C. Wofsy, K. A. Walker, A. E. Bourassa, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11773–11788,Short summary
The upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is characterized by strong gradients in the distribution of long-lived tracers, which are sensitive to discrepancies in transport in models. We found that our model overestimates CO2 in the polar UTLS through comparison of modeled CO2 with aircraft observations. We then corrected the modeled CO2 and quantified the impact of the correction on the flux estimates using an atmospheric model together with atmospheric CO2 measured from a satellite.
K. C. Wells, D. B. Millet, N. Bousserez, D. K. Henze, S. Chaliyakunnel, T. J. Griffis, Y. Luan, E. J. Dlugokencky, R. G. Prinn, S. O'Doherty, R. F. Weiss, G. S. Dutton, J. W. Elkins, P. B. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, E. A. Kort, S. C. Wofsy, and T. Umezawa
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3179–3198,Short summary
This paper introduces a new inversion framework for N2O using GEOS-Chem and its adjoint, which we employed in a series of observing system simulation experiments to evaluate the source and sink constraints provided by surface and aircraft-based N2O measurements. We also applied a new approach for estimating a posteriori uncertainty for high-dimensional inversions, and used it to quantify the spatial and temporal resolution of N2O emission constraints achieved with the current observing network.
K. W. Wong, D. Fu, T. J. Pongetti, S. Newman, E. A. Kort, R. Duren, Y.-K. Hsu, C. E. Miller, Y. L. Yung, and S. P. Sander
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 241–252,
M. Inoue, I. Morino, O. Uchino, Y. Miyamoto, T. Saeki, Y. Yoshida, T. Yokota, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, S. C. Biraud, T. Machida, J. V. Pittman, E. A. Kort, T. Tanaka, S. Kawakami, Y. Sawa, K. Tsuboi, and H. Matsueda
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2987–3005,
J. Worden, K. Wecht, C. Frankenberg, M. Alvarado, K. Bowman, E. Kort, S. Kulawik, M. Lee, V. Payne, and H. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3679–3692,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsThermal dissociation cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for measuring NO2, RO2NO2, and RONO2 in the atmosphereInternal consistency of the IAGOS ozone and carbon monoxide measurements for the last 25 yearsTesting the altitude attribution and vertical resolution of AirCore measurements with a new spiking methodIn situ observations of stratospheric HCl using three-mirror integrated cavity output spectroscopyLong-term NOx measurements in the remote marine tropical troposphereStudy on the measurement of isoprene by differential optical absorption spectroscopyAirborne measurements of oxygen concentration from the surface to the lower stratosphere and pole to poleImprovements to a laser-induced fluorescence instrument for measuring SO2 – impact on accuracy and precisionThe improved comparative reactivity method (ICRM): measurements of OH reactivity under high-NOx conditions in ambient airIodide-CIMS and m/z 62: The detection of HNO3 as NO3− in the presence of PAN, peracetic acid and O3Real-world measurement and mechanical-analysis-based verification of NOx and CO2 emissions from an in-use heavy-duty vehicleAn improved method for atmospheric 14CO measurementsCharacterization of a chemical modulation reactor (CMR) for the measurement of atmospheric concentrations of hydroxyl radicals with a laser-induced fluorescence instrumentComparison of ozone measurement methods in biomass burning smoke: an evaluation under field and laboratory conditionsIn situ observations of greenhouse gases over Europe during the CoMet 1.0 campaign aboard the HALO aircraftCompact and lightweight mid-infrared laser spectrometer for balloon-borne water vapor measurements in the UTLSIntroducing the extended volatility range proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (EVR PTR-MS)Airborne Mid-Infrared Cavity enhanced Absorption spectrometer (AMICA)Use of an unmanned aircraft system to quantify NOx emissions from a natural gas boilerStationary and portable multipollutant monitors for high-spatiotemporal-resolution air quality studies including online calibrationOn-line SPME derivatization for the sensitive determination of multi-oxygenated volatile compounds in airUnderstanding balloon-borne frost point hygrometer measurements after contamination by mixed-phase cloudsDevelopment of a small unmanned aircraft system to derive CO2 emissions of anthropogenic point sourcesAn in situ gas chromatograph with automatic detector switching between PTR- and EI-TOF-MS: isomer-resolved measurements of indoor airFacility level measurement of offshore oil and gas installations from a medium-sized airborne platform: method development for quantification and source identification of methane emissionsEvaluation and optimization of ICOS atmosphere station data as part of the labeling processOzone deposition to a coastal sea: comparison of eddy covariance observations with reactive air–sea exchange modelsA cavity-enhanced ultraviolet absorption instrument for high-precision, fast-time-response ozone measurementsMass spectrometric multiple soil-gas flux measurement system with a portable high-resolution mass spectrometer (MULTUM) coupled to an automatic chamber for continuous field observationsSimultaneous detection of atmospheric HONO and NO2 utilising an IBBCEAS system based on an iterative algorithmAutonomous airborne mid-infrared spectrometer for high-precision measurements of ethane during the NASA ACT-America studiesA novel injection technique: using a field-based quantum cascade laser for the analysis of gas samples derived from static chambersMeasurement of NOx and NOy with a thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer (TD-CRDS): instrument characterisation and first deploymentEthane measurement by Picarro CRDS G2201-i in laboratory and field conditions: potential and limitationsA compact QCL spectrometer for mobile, high-precision methane sensing aboard dronesA compact 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ChinaLong-term reliability of the Figaro TGS 2600 solid-state methane sensor under low-Arctic conditions at Toolik Lake, AlaskaAirborne measurement of peroxy radicals using chemical amplification coupled with cavity ring-down spectroscopy: the PeRCEAS instrumentA low-activity ion source for measurement of atmospheric gases by chemical ionization mass spectrometrySingle-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide at sub-parts-per-trillion mixing ratiosEddy covariance flux measurements of gaseous elemental mercury over a grasslandStudying boundary layer methane isotopy and vertical mixing processes at a rewetted peatland site using an unmanned aircraft systemSimultaneous detection of ozone and nitrogen dioxide by oxygen anion chemical ionization mass spectrometry: a fast-time-response sensor suitable for eddy covariance measurementsTesting the near-field Gaussian plume inversion flux quantification technique using unmanned aerial vehicle sampling
Chunmeng Li, Haichao Wang, Xiaorui Chen, Tianyu Zhai, Shiyi Chen, Xin Li, Limin Zeng, and Keding Lu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4033–4051,Short summary
We present a feasible instrument for the measurement of NO2, total peroxy nitrates (PNs, RO2NO2), and total alkyl nitrates (ANs, RONO2) in the atmosphere. The instrument samples sequentially from three channels at different temperature settings and then measures spectra using one cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer. The concentrations are determined by spectral fitting and corrected using the lookup table method conveniently. The instrument will promote the study of PNs and ANs.
Romain Blot, Philippe Nedelec, Damien Boulanger, Pawel Wolff, Bastien Sauvage, Jean-Marc Cousin, Gilles Athier, Andreas Zahn, Florian Obersteiner, Dieter Scharffe, Hervé Petetin, Yasmine Bennouna, Hannah Clark, and Valérie Thouret
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3935–3951,Short summary
A lack of information about temporal changes in measurement uncertainties is an area of concern for long-term trend studies of the key compounds which have a direct or indirect impact on climate change. The IAGOS program has measured O3 and CO within the troposphere and lower stratosphere for more than 25 years. In this study, we demonstrated that the IAGOS database can be treated as one continuous program and is therefore appropriate for studies of long-term trends.
Thomas Wagenhäuser, Andreas Engel, and Robert Sitals
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3923–3934,Short summary
AirCore samplers are increasingly deployed to weather balloons to collect continuous atmospheric samples. We introduce a technique that can be used in situ to evaluate different data processing methods that are required to derive vertical trace gas profiles from AirCore measurements after sample recovery. Results from two test flights with a specific AirCore configuration provide evidence for systematic deviations in altitude attribution for the upper levels, which can be empirically corrected.
Jordan Wilkerson, David S. Sayres, Jessica B. Smith, Norton Allen, Marco Rivero, Mike Greenberg, Terry Martin, and James G. Anderson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3597–3613,Short summary
The ozone layer in the stratosphere protects life from harmful UV light, but chlorine-based pollution threatens to damage it. We developed an instrument that couples a laser with highly reflective mirrors and advanced electronics to measure an important residue of this pollution: hydrogen chloride. Our instrument has an improved, more modern layout that we successfully tested in flight. This paves the way for future, advanced techniques that seek to evaluate the health of Earth’s ozone layer.
Simone T. Andersen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Beth S. Nelson, Luis Neves, Katie A. Read, Chris Reed, Martyn Ward, Matthew J. Rowlinson, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3071–3085,Short summary
NOx has been measured in remote marine air via chemiluminescence detection using two different methods for NO2 to NO photolytic conversion: (a) internal diodes and a reaction chamber made of Teflon-like barium-doped material, which causes a NO2 artefact, and (b) external diodes and a quartz photolysis cell. Once corrections are made for the artefact of (a), the two converters are shown to give comparable NO2 mixing ratios, giving confidence in the quantitative measurement of NOx at low levels.
Song Gao, Shanshan Wang, Chuanqi Gu, Jian Zhu, Ruifeng Zhang, Yanlin Guo, Yuhao Yan, and Bin Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2649–2657,
Britton B. Stephens, Eric J. Morgan, Jonathan D. Bent, Ralph F. Keeling, Andrew S. Watt, Stephen R. Shertz, and Bruce C. Daube
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2543–2574,Short summary
We describe methods used to make high-precision global-scale airborne measurements of atmospheric oxygen concentrations over a period of 20 years in order to study the global carbon cycle. Our techniques include an in situ vacuum ultraviolet absorption instrument and a pressure- and flow-controlled, cryogenically dried, glass flask sampler. We have deployed these instruments in 15 airborne research campaigns spanning from the Earth’s surface to the lower stratosphere and from pole to pole.
Pamela S. Rickly, Lu Xu, John D. Crounse, Paul O. Wennberg, and Andrew W. Rollins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2429–2439,Short summary
Key improvements have been made to an in situ laser-induced fluorescence instrument for measuring SO2 in polluted and pristine environments. Laser linewidth is reduced, rapid laser tuning is implemented, and fluorescence bandpass filters are optimized. These improvements have led to a 50 % reduction in instrument detection limit. The influence of aromatic compounds was also investigated and determined to not bias SO2 measurements.
Wenjie Wang, Jipeng Qi, Jun Zhou, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Sihang Wang, Suxia Yang, Jonathan Williams, Vinayak Sinha, and Min Shao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2285–2298,Short summary
We designed a new reactor for measurements of OH reactivity (i.e., OH radical loss frequency) based on the comparative reactivity method under high-NOx conditions, such as in cities. We performed a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the new reactor. The new reactor was used in the field and performed well in measuring OH reactivity in air influenced by upwind cities.
Raphael Dörich, Philipp Eger, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,Short summary
We demonstrate in laboratory experiments that the formation of IOx anions (formed in reactons of I− with O3) or acetate anions (formed e.g. by the reaction of I− with peracetic acid) results in unexpected sensitivity of an iodide chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (I-CIMS) to HNO3 at a mass-to-chanrge ratio of 62. This helps explain observations of apparent high daytime levels of N2O5. Airborne measurements using I-CIMS confirm these conclusions.
Hiroo Hata, Kazuo Kokuryo, Takehiko Ogata, Masahiko Kugata, Koichi Yanai, Megumi Okada, Chikage Funakubo, Minoru Yamazaki, and Junya Hoshi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2115–2126,Short summary
The authors conducted the measurement of real-world CO2 and NOx emissions from one heavy-duty vehicle. The results showed that NOx emissions increased in colder seasons because of the deactivation of after-treatment tools. We proposed an estimation model of vehicle emissions based on the classical mechanic theory. The model explained the emission behavior of CO2 and NOx well, and thus, we concluded that the proposed model will be applied to the evaluation of vehicular emission inventories.
Vasilii V. Petrenko, Andrew M. Smith, Edward M. Crosier, Roxana Kazemi, Philip Place, Aidan Colton, Bin Yang, Quan Hua, and Lee T. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2055–2063,Short summary
This paper presents an improved methodology for measurements of atmospheric concentration of carbon-14-containing carbon monoxide (14CO), as well as a 1-year dataset that demonstrates the methodology. Atmospheric 14CO concentration measurements are useful for improving the understanding of spatial and temporal variability of hydroxyl radical concentrations. Key improvements over prior methods include a greatly reduced air sample size and accurate procedural blank characterization.
Changmin Cho, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Hendrik Fuchs, Hans-Peter Dorn, Marvin Glowania, Frank Holland, Franz Rohrer, Vaishali Vardhan, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Anna Novelli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1851–1877,Short summary
This study describes the implementation and characterization of the chemical modulation reactor (CMR) used in the laser-induced fluorescence instrument of the Forschungszentrum Jülich. The CMR allows for interference-free OH radical measurement in ambient air. During a field campaign in a rural environment, the observed interference was mostly below the detection limit of the instrument and fully explained by the known ozone interference.
Russell W. Long, Andrew Whitehill, Andrew Habel, Shawn Urbanski, Hannah Halliday, Maribel Colón, Surender Kaushik, and Matthew S. Landis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1783–1800,Short summary
This manuscript details field and laboratory-based evaluations of ozone monitoring methods in smoke. UV photometry, the most widely used measurement method for ozone in ambient air, was shown to suffer from a severe positive interference when operated in the presence of smoke, while chemiluminescence-based methods were shown to be free of interferences. The results detailed in this paper will provide monitoring agencies with the tools needed to address smoke-related ozone measurement challenges.
Michał Gałkowski, Armin Jordan, Michael Rothe, Julia Marshall, Frank-Thomas Koch, Jinxuan Chen, Anna Agusti-Panareda, Andreas Fix, and Christoph Gerbig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1525–1544,Short summary
We present results of atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gases, performed over Europe in 2018 aboard German research aircraft HALO as part of the CoMet 1.0 (Carbon Dioxide and Methane Mission). In our analysis, we describe data quality, discuss observed mixing ratios and show an example of describing a regional methane source using stable isotopic composition based on the collected air samples. We also quantitatively compare our results to selected global atmospheric modelling systems.
Manuel Graf, Philipp Scheidegger, André Kupferschmid, Herbert Looser, Thomas Peter, Ruud Dirksen, Lukas Emmenegger, and Béla Tuzson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1365–1378,Short summary
Water vapor is the most important natural greenhouse gas. The accurate and frequent measurement of its abundance, especially in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), is technically challenging. We developed and characterized a mid-IR absorption spectrometer for highly accurate water vapor measurements in the UTLS. The instrument is sufficiently small and lightweight (3.9 kg) to be carried by meteorological balloons, which enables frequent and cost-effective soundings.
Felix Piel, Markus Müller, Klaus Winkler, Jenny Skytte af Sätra, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1355–1363,Short summary
Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) instruments are widely used in the atmospheric community for measuring organic trace substances in the Earth's atmosphere. Some of these substances
stickonto and slowly come off surfaces in the PTR-MS analyzer, which makes it impossible to measure rapid changes in the atmosphere. Herein, we present a new type of PTR-MS instrument with a specially treated surface that mitigates this problem.
Corinna Kloss, Vicheith Tan, J. Brian Leen, Garrett L. Madsen, Aaron Gardner, Xu Du, Thomas Kulessa, Johannes Schillings, Herbert Schneider, Stefanie Schrade, Chenxi Qiu, and Marc von Hobe
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We describe the innovative analyzer
AMICAfor airborne trace gas measurements by infrared spectroscopy. Its design makes it robust and allows for sensitive measurements. AMICA has been used on two different aircraft for measuring gases including carbonyl sulfide, carbon monoxide and ozone. With fairly simple adaptions, AMICA can measure many stable trace gases that absorb light in the infrared.
Brian Gullett, Johanna Aurell, William Mitchell, and Jennifer Richardson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 975–981,Short summary
Aerial emission sampling of four natural gas boiler stack plumes was conducted using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) equipped with a lightweight sensor–sampling system for nitrogen oxide pollutant measurements. The results were compared to simultaneous measurements from the stacks using conventional gas extraction methods. The emission values between the two methods varied by less than 6 %, demonstrating the accuracy of UAS-based pollutant measurements against a known source concentration.
Colby Buehler, Fulizi Xiong, Misti Levy Zamora, Kate M. Skog, Joseph Kohrman-Glaser, Stefan Colton, Michael McNamara, Kevin Ryan, Carrie Redlich, Matthew Bartos, Brandon Wong, Branko Kerkez, Kirsten Koehler, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 995–1013,Short summary
In this paper we develop a stationary and portable low-cost multipollutant monitor capable of measuring a variety of human-health- and climate-related pollutants. While traditional reference instrumentation is sparsely spaced, these monitors can be deployed as a network to gain insight into the spatial and temporal variability within an urban setting, or in other targeted studies. We also implement an online calibration system to address long-term drift of sensors and adjust calibrations.
Esther Borrás, Luis A. Tortajada-Genaro, Milagros Ródenas, Teresa Vera, Thomas Speak, Paul Seakins, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, and Amalia Muñoz
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
This work presents promising results in the characterization of specific atmospheric pollutants (oxygenated VOCs) present at very low concentrations but highly relevant. We carried out this research at EUPHORE facilities within the framework of the EUROCHAMP project, where we wanted to obtain a method with high robustness and precision, also being clean in the use of solvents, low-cost and easily adaptable for use in mobile laboratories for air quality monitoring.
Teresa Jorge, Simone Brunamonti, Yann Poltera, Frank G. Wienhold, Bei P. Luo, Peter Oelsner, Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Bhupendra B. Singh, Susanne Körner, Ruud Dirksen, Manish Naja, Suvarna Fadnavis, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 239–268,Short summary
Balloon-borne frost point hygrometers are crucial for the monitoring of water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. We found that when traversing a mixed-phase cloud with big supercooled droplets, the intake tube of the instrument collects on its inner surface a high percentage of these droplets. The newly formed ice layer will sublimate at higher levels and contaminate the measurement. The balloon is also a source of contamination, but only at higher levels during the ascent.
Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Sven Krautwurst, Konstantin Gerilowski, Matthias Lindauer, Dagmar Kubistin, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 153–172,Short summary
CO2 measurements from a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) can provide a cost-effective way to complement and validate satellite-based measurements of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We introduce an sUAS which is capable of determining atmospheric CO2 mass fluxes from its own sensor data. We show results of validation flights at the ICOS atmospheric station in Steinkimmen and from demonstration flights downwind a CO2-emitting natural gas processing facility.
Megan S. Claflin, Demetrios Pagonis, Zachary Finewax, Anne V. Handschy, Douglas A. Day, Wyatt L. Brown, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jose L. Jimenez, Paul J. Ziemann, Joost de Gouw, and Brian M. Lerner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 133–152,Short summary
We have developed a field-deployable gas chromatograph with thermal desorption preconcentration and detector switching between two high-resolution mass spectrometers for in situ measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This system combines chromatography with both proton transfer and electron ionization to offer fast time response and continuous molecular speciation. This technique was applied during the 2018 ATHLETIC campaign to characterize VOC emissions in an indoor environment.
James L. France, Prudence Bateson, Pamela Dominutti, Grant Allen, Stephen Andrews, Stephane Bauguitte, Max Coleman, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Rebecca E. Fisher, Langwen Huang, Anna E. Jones, James Lee, David Lowry, Joseph Pitt, Ruth Purvis, John Pyle, Jacob Shaw, Nicola Warwick, Alexandra Weiss, Shona Wilde, Jonathan Witherstone, and Stuart Young
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 71–88,Short summary
Measuring emission rates of methane from installations is tricky, and it is even more so when those installations are located offshore. Here, we show the aircraft set-up and demonstrate an effective methodology for surveying emissions from UK and Dutch offshore oil and gas installations. We present example data collected from two campaigns to demonstrate the challenges and solutions encountered during these surveys.
Camille Yver-Kwok, Carole Philippon, Peter Bergamaschi, Tobias Biermann, Francescopiero Calzolari, Huilin Chen, Sebastien Conil, Paolo Cristofanelli, Marc Delmotte, Juha Hatakka, Michal Heliasz, Ove Hermansen, Kateřina Komínková, Dagmar Kubistin, Nicolas Kumps, Olivier Laurent, Tuomas Laurila, Irene Lehner, Janne Levula, Matthias Lindauer, Morgan Lopez, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, Per Marklund, Jean-Marc Metzger, Meelis Mölder, Stephen M. Platt, Michel Ramonet, Leonard Rivier, Bert Scheeren, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Paul Smith, Martin Steinbacher, Gabriela Vítková, and Simon Wyss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 89–116,Short summary
The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a pan-European research infrastructure which provides harmonized and high-precision scientific data on the carbon cycle and the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. All stations have to undergo a rigorous assessment before being labeled, i.e., receiving approval to join the network. In this paper, we present the labeling process for the ICOS atmospheric network through the 23 stations that were labeled between November 2017 and November 2019.
David C. Loades, Mingxi Yang, Thomas G. Bell, Adam R. Vaughan, Ryan J. Pound, Stefan Metzger, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6915–6931,Short summary
The loss of ozone to the sea surface was measured from the south coast of the UK and was found to be more rapid than previous observations over the open ocean. This is likely a consequence of different chemistry and biology in coastal environments. Strong winds appeared to speed up the loss of ozone. A better understanding of what influences ozone loss over the sea will lead to better model estimates of total ozone in the troposphere.
Reem A. Hannun, Andrew K. Swanson, Steven A. Bailey, Thomas F. Hanisco, T. Paul Bui, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6877–6887,Short summary
We have developed a cavity-enhanced absorption instrument to measure ozone in the atmosphere. The detection technique enables highly sensitive measurements in fast averaging times. The compact, robust instrument is suitable for operation in varied field environments, including aboard research aircraft. We have successfully flown the instrument and demonstrated its performance capabilities with measurements of ozone deposition rates over the coastal Pacific Ocean.
Noriko Nakayama, Yo Toma, Yusuke Iwai, Hiroshi Furutani, Toshinobu Hondo, Ryusuke Hatano, and Michisato Toyoda
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6657–6673,Short summary
We developed a field-deployable multiple soil-gas flux measurement system using a portable high-resolution mass spectrometer (MULTUM) combined with an automated flux chamber. The current system is capable of simultaneous quantification of O2, N2O, CH4, and CO2 concentrations every 2.5 min within a single sample, yielding hourly flux data. We applied the system to 5 d continuous soil–atmosphere field flux observations and interesting responses in N2O and CO2 upon rainfall events were observed.
Ke Tang, Min Qin, Wu Fang, Jun Duan, Fanhao Meng, Kaidi Ye, Helu Zhang, Pinhua Xie, Yabai He, Wenbin Xu, Jianguo Liu, and Wenqing Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6487–6499,Short summary
We present an improved instrument for the simultaneous detection of atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The robustness of the system is verified by simulating the influence of the relative change in light intensity on the measurement results. The instrument's capability to make fast high-sensitivity measurements of HONO and NO2 is of great significance for understanding the source of HONO and studying its role in atmospheric chemistry.
Petter Weibring, Dirk Richter, James G. Walega, Alan Fried, Joshua DiGangi, Hannah Halliday, Yonghoon Choi, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, Ben Miller, Kenneth J. Davis, Zachary Barkley, and Michael D. Obland
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6095–6112,Short summary
The present study describes an autonomously operated instrument for high-precision (20–40 parts per trillion in 1 s) measurements of ethane during actual airborne operations on a small aircraft platform (NASA's King Air B200). This paper discusses the dynamic nature of airborne performance due to various aircraft-induced perturbations, methods devised to identify such events, and solutions we have enacted to circumvent these perturbations.
Anne R. Wecking, Vanessa M. Cave, Lìyĭn L. Liáng, Aaron M. Wall, Jiafa Luo, David I. Campbell, and Louis A. Schipper
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5763–5777,Short summary
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a relevant greenhouse gas emitted from soils to the atmosphere. Human activities, e.g. intensive farming, have contributed to the increase in atmospheric N2O concentrations with time. Therefore, measurements of N2O are crucial to understanding climate change. Our study developed a new technique that enables N2O measurement at small (point) and large (paddock) scales by using a single analyser. Using this new method will accelerate and advance N2O measurements in future.
Nils Friedrich, Ivan Tadic, Jan Schuladen, James Brooks, Eoghan Darbyshire, Frank Drewnick, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5739–5761,Short summary
We present a new instrument for the measurement of NOx and NOy based on a combination of the thermal dissociation of NOy to NOx and cavity ring-down spectroscopic detection of NO2. It features a denuder to separate the contributions of gas-phase and particulate nitrates to NOy. We provide a detailed characterization of the instrument and briefly outline results from first deployments.
Sara M. Defratyka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Camille Yver-Kwok, Daniel Loeb, James France, Jon Helmore, Nigel Yarrow, Valérie Gros, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We consider the possibility of using the CRDS Picarro G2201-i instrument, dedicated to isotopic CH4 and CO2, for measurements of ethane:methane ratio in near-source conditions. Work divided into steps: laboratory tests, controlled release experiment, mobile measurements. Study shows the potential to determine the ethane:methane ratio with 50 ppb ethane uncertainty. The instrument can correctly estimate this ratio in CH4 enhancements of 1 ppm or more, as can be found on strongly emitting sites.
Béla Tuzson, Manuel Graf, Jonas Ravelid, Philipp Scheidegger, André Kupferschmid, Herbert Looser, Randulph Paulo Morales, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4715–4726,Short summary
We describe a lightweight (2 kg) mid-IR laser spectrometer for airborne, in situ atmospheric methane (CH4) measurements. The instrument, based on an open-path circular multipass cell, provides fast response (1 Hz) and sub-parts-per-billion precision. It can easily be mounted on a drone, giving access to highly resolved 4D (spatial and temporal) data. The performance was assessed during field deployments involving artificial CH4 releases and vertical concentration gradients in the PBL.
Albane Barbero, Camille Blouzon, Joël Savarino, Nicolas Caillon, Aurélien Dommergue, and Roberto Grilli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4317–4331,Short summary
In this paper, we present a compact, affordable and robust instrument for in situ measurements of different trace gases: NOx, IO, CHOCHO and O3 with very low detection limits. The device weighs 15 kg and has a total electrical power consumption of < 300 W. Its very low detection limits and its design make it suitable for field applications to address different questions such as how to better constrain the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and study the chemistry of highly reactive species.
Nicholas J. Gingerysty and Hans D. Osthoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4159–4167,Short summary
The generation of clean calibration gases is critical for accurate ambient air measurements. Here, we describe a source of HONO vapour dynamically generated from reaction of HCl and NaNO2. The output was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermal-dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS) and was stable, tuneable, and > 95 % pure. We show how generation of unwanted side products (NO, NO2, and ClNO) can be avoided.
Mj Riches, Daniel Lee, and Delphine K. Farmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4123–4139,Short summary
This paper presents a thorough characterization of a leaf emission sampling technique coupling a portable photosynthesis system with different trace gas analyzers. We provide several case studies using both online and offline gas analyzers to measure different types of leaf emissions. We further highlight both the capabilities and pitfalls of this method.
Nathaniel C. Lawrence and Steven J. Hall
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4065–4078,Short summary
Soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, are highly variable over space and time. Existing approaches for automated N2O emission measurements are costly and often incompatible with flooded soils. We describe and validate a robust and low-cost apparatus for replicated measurement of soil N2O emissions at subdaily resolution over large spatial gradients (> 100 m). High-frequency measurements are critical for constraining and mitigating the soil N2O source.
Dipayan Paul, Hubertus A. Scheeren, Henk G. Jansen, Bert A. M. Kers, John B. Miller, Andrew M. Crotwell, Sylvia E. Michel, Luciana V. Gatti, Lucas G. Domingues, Caio S. C. Correia, Raiane A. L. Neves, Harro A. J. Meijer, and Wouter Peters
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4051–4064,Short summary
For reliable measurements of CO2 mole fractions and its stable isotope composition in air samples, one needs to carefully dry them during collection. Here we describe evaluation of a portable, consumable-free and power-free Nafion-based drying system that is currently being used for sample collection over the Amazon. Laboratory tests indicate that this Nafion-based system does not influence the mole fraction measurements of CH4, CO, N2O, SF6, and CO2 and the stable isotope composition of CO2.
Yi Ji, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Young Ro Lee, Patrick R. Veres, J. Andrew Neuman, Yuhang Wang, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3683–3696,Short summary
A common way of measuring trace gases in the atmosphere is chemical ionization mass spectrometry. One large drawback of these instruments is that they require radioactive ion sources. In this work we demonstrate a simple ion source that uses a small krypton lamp that can be used to replace a radioactive source.
Robert Woodward-Massey, Eloise J. Slater, Jake Alen, Trevor Ingham, Danny R. Cryer, Leanne M. Stimpson, Chunxiang Ye, Paul W. Seakins, Lisa K. Whalley, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3119–3146,Short summary
The OH radical is known as nature’s detergent, removing most trace gases from the atmosphere. Hence, an accurate measurement of its concentration is very important. We present measurements of OH in several field locations using a laser-based fluorescence method equipped with an OH scavenger. By determining the background signal in two different ways, we show that the instrument does not suffer any significant interferences that could result in an overestimation of OH concentrations.
Werner Eugster, James Laundre, Jon Eugster, and George W. Kling
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2681–2695,Short summary
Measuring ambient methane concentrations requires expensive optical sensors. The first electrochemical analyzer that shows a response to ambient levels of methane is now available. We present the first long-term deployment of such sensors in an arctic environment (temperatures from −41 to 27 °C). We present a method based on these measurements to convert the signal to methane concentrations (corrected for the effects of air temperature and relative humidity) and ensure long-term stability.
Midhun George, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Yangzhuoran Liu, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2577–2600,Short summary
The accurate measurement of peroxy radicals is essential for understanding the chemistry of air masses probed in the free troposphere. The PeRCEAS instrument has been designed, developed and thoroughly characterised for the measurement of the total sum of peroxy radicals (RO2*) aboard airborne platforms. Parameters expected to affect the precision and accuracy of the measurement have been investigated in detail.
Young Ro Lee, Yi Ji, David J. Tanner, and L. Gregory Huey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2473–2480,Short summary
In this work we show how to construct a radioactive ion source for a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) from commercially available components. The source is low activity and can be shipped with a minimum of complications. This facilitates the deployment of CIMS to measure atmospheric pollutants at remote ground sites.
Andrew W. Rollins, Pamela S. Rickly, Ru-Shan Gao, Thomas B. Ryerson, Steven S. Brown, Jeff Peischl, and Ilann Bourgeois
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2425–2439,Short summary
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key atmospheric constituent controlling atmospheric oxidation chemistry and tropospheric ozone formation. Existing instrumentation capable of quantifying NO at very low mixing ratios is uncommon and typically relies on chemiluminescence. We describe and demonstrate a new laser-based technique (LIF) with significant practical and technical advantages to CL. This technique is expected to allow for advances in understanding of atmospheric radical chemistry.
Stefan Osterwalder, Werner Eugster, Iris Feigenwinter, and Martin Jiskra
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2057–2074,Short summary
Direct mercury (Hg) flux studies are crucial to improve our understanding of terrestrial Hg cycling and human Hg exposure. We tested a new system to measure Hg fluxes using the eddy covariance technique. Our Eddy Mercury system revealed a net Hg re-emission flux from a grassland. We concluded that the prevailing dry conditions resulted in low uptake of CO2 and Hg. Eddy Mercury has the potential to address some of the largest uncertainties in global Hg cycling through long-term flux measurements.
Astrid Lampert, Falk Pätzold, Magnus O. Asmussen, Lennart Lobitz, Thomas Krüger, Thomas Rausch, Torsten Sachs, Christian Wille, Denis Sotomayor Zakharov, Dominik Gaus, Stephan Bansmer, and Ellen Damm
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1937–1952,Short summary
Methane has high climate warming potential. Sources of methane can be distinguished by the isotopic composition. To investigate the origin of methane, an airborne sampling system has been developed that can take air samples worldwide and at various altitudes. The article shows the performance of the overall system, from taking samples to laboratory analyses. As known methane source, a rewetted peatland site, was studied, and the vertical distribution of the isotopic composition is investigated.
Gordon A. Novak, Michael P. Vermeuel, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1887–1907,Short summary
We present the development and successful field deployment of a new chemical ionization mass spectrometry method capable of fast and high-sensitivity measurements of ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere. The sensitivity, precision, and time resolution of the instrument were demonstrated to be sufficient for making deposition flux measurements of ozone from a coastal ocean field site. We propose this instrument will also be well suited for sampling from mobile platforms.
Adil Shah, Joseph R. Pitt, Hugo Ricketts, J. Brian Leen, Paul I. Williams, Khristopher Kabbabe, Martin W. Gallagher, and Grant Allen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1467–1484,Short summary
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, with large flux uncertainties from facility-scale sources, such as natural gas extraction infrastructure. A recently developed flux quantification method was successfully tested by flying an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) downwind of 22 controlled atmospheric methane releases. The UAVs were used to derive high-precision atmospheric methane measurements. The UAV methodology was successful in both detecting the release and providing a rough flux estimate.
Brown, L., Armstrong Brown, S., Jarvis, S. C., Syed, B., Goulding, K. W. T., Phillips, V. R., Sneath, R. W., and Pain, B. F.: An inventory of nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture in the UK using the IPCC methodology: emission estimate, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, Atmos. Environ., 35, 1439–1449, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00361-7, 2001. a
Chadwick, D. R., Cardenas, L., Misselbrook, T. H., Smith, K. A., Rees, R. M., Watson, C. J., McGeough, K. L., Williams, J. R., Cloy, J. M., Thorman, R. E., and Dhanoa, M. S.: Optimizing chamber methods for measuring nitrous oxide emissions from plot-based agricultural experiments, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 65, 295–307, 2014. a
Chen, H., Winderlich, J., Gerbig, C., Hoefer, A., Rella, C. W., Crosson, E. R., Van Pelt, A. D., Steinbach, J., Kolle, O., Beck, V., Daube, B. C., Gottlieb, E. W., Chow, V. Y., Santoni, G. W., and Wofsy, S. C.: High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 375–386, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-3-375-2010, 2010. a, b, c
Chen, H., Karion, A., Rella, C. W., Winderlich, J., Gerbig, C., Filges, A., Newberger, T., Sweeney, C., and Tans, P. P.: Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide in humid air using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1031–1040, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-6-1031-2013, 2013. a
Chen, Z., Griffis, T. J., Millet, D. B., Wood, J. D., Lee, X., Baker, J. M., Xiao, K., Turner, P. A., Chen, M., Zobitz, J., and Wells, K. C.: Partitioning N2O emissions within the U.S. Corn Belt using an inverse modeling approach, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 30, 1192–1205, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GB005313, 2016. a
Ciais, P., Chris, S., Govindasamy, B., Bopp, L., Brovkin, V., Canadell, J., Chhabra, A., Defries, R., Galloway, J., and Heimann, M.: Carbon and other biogeochemical cycles, 465–570, Cambridge University Press, 2013. a
Conley, S., Faloona, I., Mehrotra, S., Suard, M., Lenschow, D. H., Sweeney, C., Herndon, S., Schwietzke, S., Pétron, G., Pifer, J., Kort, E. A., and Schnell, R.: Application of Gauss's theorem to quantify localized surface emissions from airborne measurements of wind and trace gases, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3345–3358, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-3345-2017, 2017. a, b, c
Del Grosso, S. J., Parton, W. J., Mosier, A. R., Walsh, M. K., Ojima, D. S., and Thornton, P. E.: DAYCENT National-Scale Simulations of Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Cropped Soils in the United States, J. Environ. Qual., 35, 1451–1460, 2006. a
Denmead, O.: Approaches to measuring fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide between landscapes and the atmosphere, Plant Soil, 309, 1–2, 5, 2008. a
Dlugokencky, E. J., Myers, R. C., Lang, P. M., Masarie, K. A., Crotwell, A. M., Thoning, K. W., Hall, B. D., Elkins, J. W., and Steele, L. P.: Conversion of NOAA atmospheric dry air CH4 mole fractions to a gravimetrically prepared standard scale, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 110, D18306, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006035, 2005. a
Flechard, C., Ambus, P., Skiba, U., Rees, R., Hensen, A., van Amstel, A., van den Pol-van Dasselaar, A., Soussana, J.-F., Jones, M., Clifton-Brown, J., Raschi, A., Horvath, L., Neftel, A., Jocher, M., Ammann, C., Leifeld, J., Fuhrer, J., Calanca, P., Thalman, E., Pilegaard, K., Marco, C. D., Campbell, C., Nemitz, E., Hargreaves, K., Levy, P., Ball, B., Jones, S., van de Bulk, W., Groot, T., Blom, M., Domingues, R., Kasper, G., Allard, V., Ceschia, E., Cellier, P., Laville, P., Henault, C., Bizouard, F., Abdalla, M., Williams, M., Baronti, S., Berretti, F., and Grosz, B.: Effects of climate and management intensity on nitrous oxide emissions in grassland systems across Europe, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 121, 135–152, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2006.12.024, the Greenhouse Gas Balance of Grasslands in Europe, 2007. a
Frankenberg, C., Kulawik, S. S., Wofsy, S. C., Chevallier, F., Daube, B., Kort, E. A., O'Dell, C., Olsen, E. T., and Osterman, G.: Using airborne HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) to evaluate model and remote sensing estimates of atmospheric carbon dioxide, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7867–7878, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-7867-2016, 2016. a
Inoue, M., Morino, I., Uchino, O., Nakatsuru, T., Yoshida, Y., Yokota, T., Wunch, D., Wennberg, P. O., Roehl, C. M., Griffith, D. W. T., Velazco, V. A., Deutscher, N. M., Warneke, T., Notholt, J., Robinson, J., Sherlock, V., Hase, F., Blumenstock, T., Rettinger, M., Sussmann, R., Kyrö, E., Kivi, R., Shiomi, K., Kawakami, S., De Mazière, M., Arnold, S. G., Feist, D. G., Barrow, E. A., Barney, J., Dubey, M., Schneider, M., Iraci, L. T., Podolske, J. R., Hillyard, P. W., Machida, T., Sawa, Y., Tsuboi, K., Matsueda, H., Sweeney, C., Tans, P. P., Andrews, A. E., Biraud, S. C., Fukuyama, Y., Pittman, J. V., Kort, E. A., and Tanaka, T.: Bias corrections of GOSAT SWIR XCO2 and XCH4 with TCCON data and their evaluation using aircraft measurement data, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3491–3512, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-3491-2016, 2016. a
Karion, A., Sweeney, C., Kort, E. A., Shepson, P. B., Brewer, A., Cambaliza, M., Conley, S. A., Davis, K., Deng, A., Hardesty, M., Herndon, S. C., Lauvaux, T., Lavoie, T., Lyon, D., Newberger, T., Pétron, G., Rella, C., Smith, M., Wolter, S., Yacovitch, T. I., and Tans, P.: Aircraft-Based Estimate of Total Methane Emissions from the Barnett Shale Region, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 8124–8131, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b00217, 2015. a, b
Kort, E. A., Eluszkiewicz, J., Stephens, B. B., Miller, J. B., Gerbig, C., Nehrkorn, T., Daube, B. C., Kaplan, J. O., Houweling, S., and Wofsy, S. C.: Emissions of CH4 and N2O over the United States and Canada based on a receptor-oriented modeling framework and COBRA-NA atmospheric observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L18808, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034031, 2008. a
Kort, E. A., Patra, P. K., Ishijima, K., Daube, B. C., Jiménez, R., Elkin, J., Hurst, D., Moore, F. L., Sweeney, C., and Wofsy, S. C.: Tropospheric distribution and variability of N2O: Evidence for strong tropical emissions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L15806, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047612, 2011. a, b
Kort, E. A., Smith, M. L., Murray, L. T., Gvakharia, A., Brandt, A. R., Peischl, J., Ryerson, T. B., Sweeney, C., and Travis, K.: Fugitive emissions from the Bakken shale illustrate role of shale production in global ethane shift, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 4617–4623, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL068703, 2016. a, b, c
Kort, E. A., Gvakharia, A., Smith, M. L., and Conley, S.: Airborne Data from the Fertilizer Emissions Airborne Study (FEAST). Nitrous Oxide, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Methane, Ozone, Water Vapor, and meteorological variables over the Mississippi River Valley [Data set], University of Michigan Deep Blue Data Repository, https://doi.org/10.7302/Z2XK8CRG, 2018. a
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We present a new flight system to measure the atmospheric trace gases N2O, CO2, CO, and H2O. We use a novel calibration technique to correct altitude-dependent artifacts that have hindered similar instruments. In-flight null-tests and comparison with other flight-proven instruments provide validation. This high-precision, high-accuracy system provides opportunities for airborne studies to improve our understanding of N2O emission processes.
We present a new flight system to measure the atmospheric trace gases N2O, CO2, CO, and H2O. We...