Articles | Volume 6, issue 12
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3393–3406, 2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 09 Dec 2013
Research article | 09 Dec 2013
Trajectory matching of ozonesondes and MOZAIC measurements in the UTLS – Part 1: Method description and application at Payerne, Switzerland
J. Staufer et al.
Johannes Staufer, Grégoire Broquet, François-Marie Bréon, Vincent Puygrenier, Frédéric Chevallier, Irène Xueref-Rémy, Elsa Dieudonné, Morgan Lopez, Martina Schmidt, Michel Ramonet, Olivier Perrussel, Christine Lac, Lin Wu, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14703–14726,
J. Staufer, J. Staehelin, R. Stübi, T. Peter, F. Tummon, and V. Thouret
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 241–266,
Kristian Klumpp, Claudia Marcolli, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Surface interactions with solutes can significantly alter the ice nucleation activity of mineral dusts. Past studies revealed the sensitivity of microcline, one of the most ice active dusts in the atmosphere, towards inorganic solutes. This study focuses on the interaction of microcline with bio-organic substances and the resulting effects on its ice nucleation activity. We observe strongly hampered ice nucleation activity due to the presence of carboxylic and amino acids but not for polyols.
Timofei Sukhodolov, Tatiana Egorova, Andrea Stenke, William T. Ball, Christina Brodowsky, Gabriel Chiodo, Aryeh Feinberg, Marina Friedel, Arseniy Karagodin-Doyennel, Thomas Peter, Jan Sedlacek, Sandro Vattioni, and Eugene Rozanov
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5525–5560,Short summary
This paper features the new atmosphere–ocean–aerosol–chemistry–climate model SOCOLv4.0 and its validation. The model performance is evaluated against reanalysis products and observations of atmospheric circulation and trace gas distribution, with a focus on stratospheric processes. Although we identified some problems to be addressed in further model upgrades, we demonstrated that SOCOLv4.0 is already well suited for studies related to chemistry–climate–aerosol interactions.
Debra K. Weisenstein, Daniele Visioni, Henning Franke, Ulrike Niemeier, Sandro Vattioni, Gabriel Chiodo, Thomas Peter, and David W. Keith
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This paper explores a potential method of solar radiation management that could be used to slow the rate of change of climate over decades to a century. We use three climate models to compare injections of accumulation-mode sulfuric acid aerosol particulate with injections of SO2 gas and, find that injection of accumulation-mode aerosol particles produces a greater change in radiative forcing per unit sulfur injected than an equivalent injection of gas phase SO2.
David D. Parrish, Richard G. Derwent, Steven T. Turnock, Fiona M. O'Connor, Johannes Staehelin, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Naga Oshima, Kostas Tsigaridis, Tongwen Wu, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9669–9679,Short summary
The few ozone measurements made before the 1980s indicate that industrial development increased ozone concentrations by a factor of ~ 2 at northern midlatitudes, which are now larger than at southern midlatitudes. This difference was much smaller, and likely reversed, in the pre-industrial atmosphere. Earth system models find similar increases, but not higher pre-industrial ozone in the south. This disagreement may indicate that modeled natural ozone sources and/or deposition loss are inadequate.
Arseniy Karagodin-Doyennel, Eugene Rozanov, Timofei Sukhodolov, Tatiana Egorova, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Tomás Sherwen, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore K. Koenig, Tanguy Giroud, and Thomas Peter
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Here, we present the iodine chemistry module in the SOCOL-AERv2 model. The obtained iodine distribution showed a good agreement when validated against other simulations and available observations. We also estimated the contribution of iodine to ozone loss in the case of present-day iodine emissions, the sensitivity of ozone to doubled iodine emissions, and when considering only organic or inorganic iodine sources. The new model can be used as a tool to further studies of iodine effect on ozone.
Manuel Graf, Philipp Scheidegger, André Kupferschmid, Herbert Looser, Thomas Peter, Ruud Dirksen, Lukas Emmenegger, and Béla Tuzson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1365–1378,Short summary
Water vapor is the most important natural greenhouse gas. The accurate and frequent measurement of its abundance, especially in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), is technically challenging. We developed and characterized a mid-IR absorption spectrometer for highly accurate water vapor measurements in the UTLS. The instrument is sufficiently small and lightweight (3.9 kg) to be carried by meteorological balloons, which enables frequent and cost-effective soundings.
Michael Steiner, Beiping Luo, Thomas Peter, Michael C. Pitts, and Andrea Stenke
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 935–959,Short summary
We evaluate polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) as simulated by the chemistry–climate model (CCM) SOCOLv3.1 in comparison with measurements by the CALIPSO satellite. A cold bias results in an overestimated PSC area and mountain-wave ice is underestimated, but we find overall good temporal and spatial agreement of PSC occurrence and composition. This work confirms previous studies indicating that simplified PSC schemes may also achieve good approximations of the fundamental properties of PSCs.
Teresa Jorge, Simone Brunamonti, Yann Poltera, Frank G. Wienhold, Bei P. Luo, Peter Oelsner, Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Bhupendra B. Singh, Susanne Körner, Ruud Dirksen, Manish Naja, Suvarna Fadnavis, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 239–268,Short summary
Balloon-borne frost point hygrometers are crucial for the monitoring of water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. We found that when traversing a mixed-phase cloud with big supercooled droplets, the intake tube of the instrument collects on its inner surface a high percentage of these droplets. The newly formed ice layer will sublimate at higher levels and contaminate the measurement. The balloon is also a source of contamination, but only at higher levels during the ascent.
Jing Dou, Peter A. Alpert, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Beiping Luo, Frederic Schneider, Jacinta Xto, Thomas Huthwelker, Camelia N. Borca, Katja D. Henzler, Jörg Raabe, Benjamin Watts, Hartmut Herrmann, Thomas Peter, Markus Ammann, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 315–338,Short summary
Photochemistry of iron(III) complexes plays an important role in aerosol aging, especially in the lower troposphere. Ensuing radical chemistry leads to decarboxylation, and the production of peroxides, and oxygenated volatile compounds, resulting in particle mass loss due to release of the volatile products to the gas phase. We investigated kinetic transport limitations due to high particle viscosity under low relative humidity conditions. For quantification a numerical model was developed.
Arseniy Karagodin-Doyennel, Eugene Rozanov, Ales Kuchar, William Ball, Pavle Arsenovic, Ellis Remsberg, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kunze, David A. Plummer, Andrea Stenke, Daniel Marsh, Doug Kinnison, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 201–216,Short summary
The solar signal in the mesospheric H2O and CO was extracted from the CCMI-1 model simulations and satellite observations using multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. MLR analysis shows a pronounced and statistically robust solar signal in both H2O and CO. The model results show a general agreement with observations reproducing a negative/positive solar signal in H2O/CO. The pattern of the solar signal varies among the considered models, reflecting some differences in the model setup.
Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Simone Brunamonti, Suvarna Fadnavis, Dan Li, Peter Ölsner, Manish Naja, Bhupendra Bahadur Singh, Kunchala Ravi Kumar, Sunil Sonbawne, Hannu Jauhiainen, Holger Vömel, Beiping Luo, Teresa Jorge, Frank G. Wienhold, Ruud Dirkson, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14273–14302,Short summary
During boreal summer, anthropogenic sources yield the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL), found in Asia between about 13 and 18 km altitude. Balloon-borne measurements of the ATAL conducted in northern India in 2016 show the strong variability of the ATAL. To explain its observed variability, model simulations are performed to deduce the origin of air masses on the Earth's surface, which is important to develop recommendations for regulations of anthropogenic surface emissions of the ATAL.
Nir Bluvshtein, Ulrich K. Krieger, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3191–3203,Short summary
Light-absorbing organic particles undergo transformations during their exposure in the atmosphere. The role these particles play in the global radiative balance is uncertain. This study describes high-sensitivity and high-precision measurements of light absorption by a single particle levitated in an electrodynamic balance. This high level of sensitivity enables future studies to explore the major processes responsible for changes to the particle's light absorptivity.
Aryeh Feinberg, Moustapha Maliki, Andrea Stenke, Bruno Sudret, Thomas Peter, and Lenny H. E. Winkel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1363–1390,Short summary
The amount of the micronutrient selenium in food largely depends on the amount and form of selenium in soil. The atmosphere acts as a source of selenium to soils through deposition, yet little information is available about atmospheric selenium cycling. Therefore, we built the first global atmospheric selenium model. Through sensitivity and uncertainty analysis we determine that selenium can be transported thousands of kilometers and that measurements of selenium emissions should be prioritized.
William T. Ball, Justin Alsing, Johannes Staehelin, Sean M. Davis, Lucien Froidevaux, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12731–12748,Short summary
We analyse long-term stratospheric ozone (60° S–60° N) trends over the 1985–2018 period. Previous work has suggested that lower stratosphere ozone declined over 1998–2016. We demonstrate that a large ozone upsurge in 2017 is likely related to QBO variability, but that lower stratospheric ozone trends likely remain lower in 2018 than in 1998. Tropical stratospheric ozone (30° S–30° N) shows highly probable decreases in both the lower stratosphere and in the integrated stratospheric ozone layer.
Aryeh Feinberg, Timofei Sukhodolov, Bei-Ping Luo, Eugene Rozanov, Lenny H. E. Winkel, Thomas Peter, and Andrea Stenke
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3863–3887,Short summary
We have improved several aspects of atmospheric sulfur cycling in SOCOL-AER, an aerosol–chemistry–climate model. The newly implemented features in SOCOL-AERv2 include interactive deposition schemes, improved sulfur mass conservation, and expanded tropospheric chemistry. SOCOL-AERv2 shows better agreement with stratospheric aerosol observations and sulfur deposition networks compared to SOCOL-AERv1. SOCOL-AERv2 can be used to study impacts of sulfate aerosol on climate, chemistry, and ecosystems.
Pavle Arsenovic, Alessandro Damiani, Eugene Rozanov, Bernd Funke, Andrea Stenke, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9485–9494,Short summary
Low-energy electrons (LEE) are the dominant source of odd nitrogen, which destroys ozone, in the mesosphere and stratosphere in polar winter in the geomagnetically active periods. However, the observed stratospheric ozone anomalies can be reproduced only when accounting for both low- and middle-range energy electrons (MEE) in the chemistry-climate model. Ozone changes may induce further dynamical and thermal changes in the atmosphere. We recommend including both LEE and MEE in climate models.
Anand Kumar, Claudia Marcolli, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6035–6058,Short summary
This paper not only interests the atmospheric science community but has a potential to cater to a broader audience. We discuss both long- and short-term effects of various
atmospherically relevantchemical species on a fairly abundant mineral surface
Quartz. We of course discuss these chemical interactions from the perspective of fate of airborne mineral dust but the same interactions could be interesting for studies on minerals at the ground level.
Anand Kumar, Claudia Marcolli, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6059–6084,Short summary
This paper not only interests the Atmospheric Science community but has a potential to cater to a broader audience. We discuss both long- and short-term effects of various
atmospherically relevantchemical species on fairly abundant mineral surfaces like feldspars and clays. We of course discuss these chemical interactions from the perspective of fate of airborne mineral dust but the same interactions could be interesting for studies on minerals at the ground level.
Sandro Vattioni, Debra Weisenstein, David Keith, Aryeh Feinberg, Thomas Peter, and Andrea Stenke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4877–4897,Short summary
This study is among the first modeling studies on stratospheric sulfate geoengineering that interactively couple a size-resolved sectional aerosol module to well-described stratospheric chemistry and radiation schemes in a global 3-D chemistry–climate model. We found that compared with SO2 injection, the direct emission of aerosols results in more effective radiative forcing and that sensitivities to different injection strategies vary for different forms of injected sulfur.
Laura E. Revell, Andrea Stenke, Fiona Tummon, Aryeh Feinberg, Eugene Rozanov, Thomas Peter, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Neal Butchart, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Robyn Schofield, Kane Stone, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16155–16172,Short summary
Global models such as those participating in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) consistently simulate biases in tropospheric ozone compared with observations. We performed an advanced statistical analysis with one of the CCMI models to understand the cause of the bias. We found that emissions of ozone precursor gases are the dominant driver of the bias, implying either that the emissions are too large, or that the way in which the model handles emissions needs to be improved.
Simone Brunamonti, Teresa Jorge, Peter Oelsner, Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Bhupendra B. Singh, K. Ravi Kumar, Sunil Sonbawne, Susanne Meier, Deepak Singh, Frank G. Wienhold, Bei Ping Luo, Maxi Boettcher, Yann Poltera, Hannu Jauhiainen, Rijan Kayastha, Jagadishwor Karmacharya, Ruud Dirksen, Manish Naja, Markus Rex, Suvarna Fadnavis, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15937–15957,Short summary
Based on balloon-borne measurements performed in India and Nepal in 2016–2017, we infer the vertical distributions of water vapor, ozone and aerosols in the atmosphere, from the surface to 30 km altitude. Our measurements show that the atmospheric dynamics of the Asian summer monsoon system over the polluted Indian subcontinent lead to increased concentrations of water vapor and aerosols in the high atmosphere (approximately 14–20 km altitude), which can have an important effect on climate.
Arlene M. Fiore, Emily V. Fischer, George P. Milly, Shubha Pandey Deolal, Oliver Wild, Daniel A. Jaffe, Johannes Staehelin, Olivia E. Clifton, Dan Bergmann, William Collins, Frank Dentener, Ruth M. Doherty, Bryan N. Duncan, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Peter G. Hess, Larry W. Horowitz, Alexandru Lupu, Ian A. MacKenzie, Rokjin Park, Ludwig Ries, Michael G. Sanderson, Martin G. Schultz, Drew T. Shindell, Martin Steinbacher, David S. Stevenson, Sophie Szopa, Christoph Zellweger, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15345–15361,Short summary
We demonstrate a proof-of-concept approach for applying northern midlatitude mountaintop peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) measurements and a multi-model ensemble during April to constrain the influence of continental-scale anthropogenic precursor emissions on PAN. Our findings imply a role for carefully coordinated multi-model ensembles in helping identify observations for discriminating among widely varying (and poorly constrained) model responses of atmospheric constituents to changes in emissions.
Mehrnoush M. Fard, Ulrich K. Krieger, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13511–13530,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol particles may undergo liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) when exposed to varying relative humidity, with an aqueous organic phase enclosing an aqueous inorganic phase below a threshold of relative humidity. Brown carbon (BrC) compounds will redistribute to the organic phase upon LLPS. We use numerical modeling to study the shortwave radiative impact of LLPS containing BrC and conclude that it is not significant for atmospheric aerosol.
Timofei Sukhodolov, Jian-Xiong Sheng, Aryeh Feinberg, Bei-Ping Luo, Thomas Peter, Laura Revell, Andrea Stenke, Debra K. Weisenstein, and Eugene Rozanov
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2633–2647,Short summary
The Pinatubo eruption in 1991 is the strongest directly observed volcanic event. In a series of experiments, we simulate its influence on the stratospheric aerosol layer using a state-of-the-art aerosol–chemistry–climate model, SOCOL-AERv1.0, and compare our results to observations. We show that SOCOL-AER reproduces the most important atmospheric effects and can therefore be used to study the climate effects of future volcanic eruptions and geoengineering by artificial sulfate aerosol.
Anand Kumar, Claudia Marcolli, Beiping Luo, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7057–7079,Short summary
We have performed immersion freezing experiments with microcline (most active ice nucleation, IN, K-feldspar polymorph) and investigated the effect of ammonium and non-ammonium solutes on its IN efficiency. We report increased IN efficiency of microcline in dilute ammonia- or ammonium-containing solutions, which opens up a pathway for condensation freezing occurring at a warmer temperature than immersion freezing.
Johannes Staehelin, Pierre Viatte, Rene Stübi, Fiona Tummon, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6567–6584,Short summary
In 1926, total ozone series started in Arosa (Switzerland). Since the mid-1970s ozone is measured to document the effects of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). ODSs peaked around the mid-1990s, resulting from the Montreal Protocol (1987) and its enforcement. Chemical ozone depletion stopped worsening around the mid-1990s but the large variability complicates demonstrations of the success of the protocol and the effect of ongoing climate change still requires continuous measurement.
Fabian Schoenenberger, Stephan Henne, Matthias Hill, Martin K. Vollmer, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Simon O'Doherty, Michela Maione, Lukas Emmenegger, Thomas Peter, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4069–4092,Short summary
Anthropogenic halocarbon emissions contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. We measured atmospheric halocarbons for 6 months on Crete to extend the coverage of the existing observation network to the Eastern Mediterranean. The derived emission estimates showed a contribution of 16.8 % (13.6–23.3 %) and 53.2 % (38.1–84.2 %) of this region to the total HFC and HCFC emissions of the analyzed European domain and a reduction of the underlying uncertainties by 40–80 %.
Larry W. Thomason, Nicholas Ernest, Luis Millán, Landon Rieger, Adam Bourassa, Jean-Paul Vernier, Gloria Manney, Beiping Luo, Florian Arfeuille, and Thomas Peter
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 469–492,Short summary
We describe the construction of a continuous 38-year record of stratospheric aerosol optical properties. The Global Space-based Stratospheric Aerosol Climatology, or GloSSAC, provided the input data to the construction of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project stratospheric aerosol forcing data set (1979 to 2014) and is now extended through 2016. GloSSAC focuses on the the SAGE series of instruments through mid-2005 and on OSIRIS and CALIPSO after that time.
Pavle Arsenovic, Eugene Rozanov, Julien Anet, Andrea Stenke, Werner Schmutz, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3469–3483,Short summary
Global warming will persist in the 21st century, even if the solar activity undergoes an unusually strong and long decline. Decreased ozone production caused by reduction of solar activity and change of atmospheric dynamics due to the global warming might result in further thinning of the tropical ozone layer. Globally, total ozone would not recover to the pre-ozone hole values as long as the decline of solar activity lasts. This may let more ultra-violet radiation reach the Earth's surface.
Lauren Marshall, Anja Schmidt, Matthew Toohey, Ken S. Carslaw, Graham W. Mann, Michael Sigl, Myriam Khodri, Claudia Timmreck, Davide Zanchettin, William T. Ball, Slimane Bekki, James S. A. Brooke, Sandip Dhomse, Colin Johnson, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Allegra N. LeGrande, Michael J. Mills, Ulrike Niemeier, James O. Pope, Virginie Poulain, Alan Robock, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Timofei Sukhodolov, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Fiona Tummon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2307–2328,Short summary
We use four global aerosol models to compare the simulated sulfate deposition from the 1815 Mt. Tambora eruption to ice core records. Inter-model volcanic sulfate deposition differs considerably. Volcanic sulfate deposited on polar ice sheets is used to estimate the atmospheric sulfate burden and subsequently radiative forcing of historic eruptions. Our results suggest that deriving such relationships from model simulations may be associated with greater uncertainties than previously thought.
William T. Ball, Justin Alsing, Daniel J. Mortlock, Johannes Staehelin, Joanna D. Haigh, Thomas Peter, Fiona Tummon, Rene Stübi, Andrea Stenke, John Anderson, Adam Bourassa, Sean M. Davis, Doug Degenstein, Stacey Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, Chris Roth, Viktoria Sofieva, Ray Wang, Jeannette Wild, Pengfei Yu, Jerald R. Ziemke, and Eugene V. Rozanov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1379–1394,Short summary
Using a robust analysis, with artefact-corrected ozone data, we confirm upper stratospheric ozone is recovering following the Montreal Protocol, but that lower stratospheric ozone (50° S–50° N) has continued to decrease since 1998, and the ozone layer as a whole (60° S–60° N) may be lower today than in 1998. No change in total column ozone may be due to increasing tropospheric ozone. State-of-the-art models do not reproduce lower stratospheric ozone decreases.
Laura E. Revell, Andrea Stenke, Beiping Luo, Stefanie Kremser, Eugene Rozanov, Timofei Sukhodolov, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13139–13150,Short summary
Compiling stratospheric aerosol data sets after a major volcanic eruption is difficult as the stratosphere becomes too optically opaque for satellite instruments to measure accurately. We performed ensemble chemistry–climate model simulations with two stratospheric aerosol data sets compiled for two international modelling activities and compared the simulated volcanic aerosol-induced effects from the 1991 Mt Pinatubo eruption on tropical stratospheric temperature and ozone with observations.
William T. Ball, Justin Alsing, Daniel J. Mortlock, Eugene V. Rozanov, Fiona Tummon, and Joanna D. Haigh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12269–12302,Short summary
Several ozone composites show different decadal trends, even in composites built with the same data. We remove artefacts affecting trend analysis with a new method (BASIC) and construct an ozone composite, with uncertainties. We find a significant ozone recovery since 1998 in the midlatitude upper stratosphere, with no hemispheric difference. We recommend using a similar approach to construct a composite based on the original instrument data to improve stratospheric ozone trend estimates.
Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Lucien Froidevaux, Ryan Fuller, Ray Wang, John Anderson, Chris Roth, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Robert Damadeo, Joe Zawodny, Stacey Frith, Richard McPeters, Pawan Bhartia, Jeannette Wild, Craig Long, Sean Davis, Karen Rosenlof, Viktoria Sofieva, Kaley Walker, Nabiz Rahpoe, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele Stiller, Natalya Kramarova, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Thierry Leblanc, Richard Querel, Daan Swart, Ian Boyd, Klemens Hocke, Niklaus Kämpfer, Eliane Maillard Barras, Lorena Moreira, Gerald Nedoluha, Corinne Vigouroux, Thomas Blumenstock, Matthias Schneider, Omaira García, Nicholas Jones, Emmanuel Mahieu, Dan Smale, Michael Kotkamp, John Robinson, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Neil Harris, Birgit Hassler, Daan Hubert, and Fiona Tummon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10675–10690,Short summary
Thanks to the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments, ozone-depleting chlorine (and bromine) in the stratosphere has declined slowly since the late 1990s. Improved and extended long-term ozone profile observations from satellites and ground-based stations confirm that ozone is responding as expected and has increased by about 2 % per decade since 2000 in the upper stratosphere, around 40 km altitude. At lower altitudes, however, ozone has not changed significantly since 2000.
Sandra Bastelberger, Ulrich K. Krieger, Beiping Luo, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8453–8471,Short summary
We present quantitative condensed-phase diffusivity measurements of a volatile organic (tetraethylene glycol) in highly viscous single aerosol particles (aqueous sucrose). The condensed-phase diffusivity exhibits a strong temperature and humidity dependence. Our results suggest that diffusion limitations of volatile organics in highly viscous organic aerosol may severely impact gas–particle partitioning under cold and dry conditions.
Thomas Berkemeier, Markus Ammann, Ulrich K. Krieger, Thomas Peter, Peter Spichtinger, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Andrew J. Huisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8021–8029,Short summary
Kinetic process models are efficient tools used to unravel the mechanisms governing chemical and physical transformation in multiphase atmospheric chemistry. However, determination of kinetic parameters such as reaction rate or diffusion coefficients from multiple data sets is often difficult or ambiguous. This study presents a novel optimization algorithm and framework to determine these parameters in an automated fashion and to gain information about parameter uncertainty and uniqueness.
Lukas Kaufmann, Claudia Marcolli, Beiping Luo, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3525–3552,Short summary
To improve the understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation, we have subjected different ice nuclei to repeated freezing cycles and evaluated the freezing temperatures with different parameterizations of classical nucleation theory. It was found that two fit parameters were necessary to describe the temperature dependence of the nucleation rate.
Christos S. Zerefos, Kostas Eleftheratos, John Kapsomenakis, Stavros Solomos, Antje Inness, Dimitris Balis, Alberto Redondas, Henk Eskes, Marc Allaart, Vassilis Amiridis, Arne Dahlback, Veerle De Bock, Henri Diémoz, Ronny Engelmann, Paul Eriksen, Vitali Fioletov, Julian Gröbner, Anu Heikkilä, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Janusz Jarosławski, Weine Josefsson, Tomi Karppinen, Ulf Köhler, Charoula Meleti, Christos Repapis, John Rimmer, Vladimir Savinykh, Vadim Shirotov, Anna Maria Siani, Andrew R. D. Smedley, Martin Stanek, and René Stübi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 551–574,Short summary
The paper makes a convincing case that the Brewer network is capable of detecting enhanced SO2 columns, as observed, e.g., after volcanic eruptions. For this reason, large volcanic eruptions of the past decade have been used to detect and forecast SO2 plumes of volcanic origin using the Brewer and other ground-based networks, aided by satellite, trajectory analysis calculations and modelling.
William T. Ball, Aleš Kuchař, Eugene V. Rozanov, Johannes Staehelin, Fiona Tummon, Anne K. Smith, Timofei Sukhodolov, Andrea Stenke, Laura Revell, Ancelin Coulon, Werner Schmutz, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15485–15500,Short summary
We find monthly, mid-latitude temperature changes above 40 km are related to ozone and temperature variations throughout the middle atmosphere. We develop an index to represent this atmospheric variability. In statistical analysis, the index can account for up to 60 % of variability in tropical temperature and ozone above 27 km. The uncertainties can be reduced by up to 35 % and 20 % in temperature and ozone, respectively. This index is an important tool to quantify current and future ozone recovery.
Johannes Staufer, Grégoire Broquet, François-Marie Bréon, Vincent Puygrenier, Frédéric Chevallier, Irène Xueref-Rémy, Elsa Dieudonné, Morgan Lopez, Martina Schmidt, Michel Ramonet, Olivier Perrussel, Christine Lac, Lin Wu, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14703–14726,
Laura E. Revell, Andrea Stenke, Eugene Rozanov, William Ball, Stefan Lossow, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13067–13080,Short summary
Water vapour in the stratosphere plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and the Earth's radiative balance. We have analysed trends in stratospheric water vapour through the 21st century as simulated by a coupled chemistry–climate model following a range of greenhouse gas emission scenarios. We have also quantified the contribution that methane oxidation in the stratosphere makes to projected water vapour trends.
Lukas Kaufmann, Claudia Marcolli, Julian Hofer, Valeria Pinti, Christopher R. Hoyle, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11177–11206,Short summary
We investigated dust samples from dust source regions all over the globe with respect to their ice nucleation activity and their mineralogical composition. Stones of reference minerals were milled and investigated the same way as the natural dust samples. We found that the mineralogical composition is a major determinant of ice nucleation ability. Natural samples consist of mixtures of minerals with remarkably similar ice nucleation ability.
Davide Zanchettin, Myriam Khodri, Claudia Timmreck, Matthew Toohey, Anja Schmidt, Edwin P. Gerber, Gabriele Hegerl, Alan Robock, Francesco S. R. Pausata, William T. Ball, Susanne E. Bauer, Slimane Bekki, Sandip S. Dhomse, Allegra N. LeGrande, Graham W. Mann, Lauren Marshall, Michael Mills, Marion Marchand, Ulrike Niemeier, Virginie Poulain, Eugene Rozanov, Angelo Rubino, Andrea Stenke, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Fiona Tummon
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2701–2719,Short summary
Simulating volcanically-forced climate variability is a challenging task for climate models. The Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to volcanic forcing (VolMIP) – an endorsed contribution to CMIP6 – defines a protocol for idealized volcanic-perturbation experiments to improve comparability of results across different climate models. This paper illustrates the design of VolMIP's experiments and describes the aerosol forcing input datasets to be used.
Erika Kienast-Sjögren, Christian Rolf, Patric Seifert, Ulrich K. Krieger, Bei P. Luo, Martina Krämer, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7605–7621,Short summary
We present a climatology of mid-latitude cirrus cloud properties based on 13 000 hours of automatically analyzed lidar measurements at three different sites. Jungfraujoch, situated at 3580 m a.s.l., is found to be ideal to measure high and optically thin cirrus. We use our retrieved optical properties together with a radiation model and estimate the radiative forcing by mid-latitude cirrus. All cirrus clouds detected here have a positive net radiative effect.
Daan Hubert, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Tijl Verhoelst, José Granville, Arno Keppens, Jean-Luc Baray, Adam E. Bourassa, Ugo Cortesi, Doug A. Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Karl W. Hoppel, Bryan J. Johnson, Erkki Kyrölä, Thierry Leblanc, Günter Lichtenberg, Marion Marchand, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, Hideaki Nakane, Thierry Portafaix, Richard Querel, James M. Russell III, Jacobo Salvador, Herman G. J. Smit, Kerstin Stebel, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Kevin B. Strawbridge, René Stübi, Daan P. J. Swart, Ghassan Taha, David W. Tarasick, Anne M. Thompson, Joachim Urban, Joanna A. E. van Gijsel, Roeland Van Malderen, Peter von der Gathen, Kaley A. Walker, Elian Wolfram, and Joseph M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2497–2534,Short summary
A more detailed understanding of satellite O3 profile data records is vital for further progress in O3 research. To this end, we made a comprehensive assessment of 14 limb/occultation profilers using ground-based reference data. The mutual consistency of satellite O3 in terms of bias, short-term variability and decadal stability is generally good over most of the stratosphere. However, we identified some exceptions that impact the quality of recently merged data sets and ozone trend assessments.
D. M. Lienhard, A. J. Huisman, U. K. Krieger, Y. Rudich, C. Marcolli, B. P. Luo, D. L. Bones, J. P. Reid, A. T. Lambe, M. R. Canagaratna, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, D. R. Worsnop, S. S. Steimer, T. Koop, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13599–13613,Short summary
New data of water diffusivity in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material and organic/inorganic model mixtures is presented over an extensive temperature range. Our data suggest that water diffusion in SOA is sufficiently fast so that it is unlikely to have significant consequences on the direct climatic effect under tropospheric conditions. Glass formation in SOA is unlikely to restrict homogeneous ice nucleation.
J.-X. Sheng, D. K. Weisenstein, B.-P. Luo, E. Rozanov, F. Arfeuille, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11501–11512,Short summary
We have conducted a perturbed parameter model ensemble to investigate Mt. Pinatubo's 1991 initial sulfur mass emission. Our results suggest that (a) the initial mass loading of the Pinatubo eruption is ~14 Mt of SO2; (b) the injection vertical distribution is strongly skewed towards the lower stratosphere, leading to a peak mass sulfur injection at 18-21 km; (c) the injection magnitude and height affect early southward transport of the volcanic cloud observed by SAGE II.
N. R. P. Harris, B. Hassler, F. Tummon, G. E. Bodeker, D. Hubert, I. Petropavlovskikh, W. Steinbrecht, J. Anderson, P. K. Bhartia, C. D. Boone, A. Bourassa, S. M. Davis, D. Degenstein, A. Delcloo, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, N. Jones, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, M. Laine, S. T. Leblanc, J.-C. Lambert, B. Liley, E. Mahieu, A. Maycock, M. de Mazière, A. Parrish, R. Querel, K. H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, C. Sioris, J. Staehelin, R. S. Stolarski, R. Stübi, J. Tamminen, C. Vigouroux, K. A. Walker, H. J. Wang, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9965–9982,Short summary
Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported for new and recently revised data sets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere peaked in the second half of the 1990s. We examine the trends before and after that peak to see if any change in trend is discernible. The previously reported decreases are confirmed. Furthermore, the downward trend in upper stratospheric ozone has not continued. The possible significance of any increase is discussed in detail.
E. Kienast-Sjögren, A. K. Miltenberger, B. P. Luo, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7429–7447,Short summary
Sensitivities of Lagrangian cirrus modelling on input data uncertainties have been examined. We found a strong dependence on the temporal resolution of the trajectories and underlying numerical weather prediction (NWP) data as well as on the specific moisture content. Furthermore, we found a large day-to-day variability in the vertical wind spectrum, demonstrating the necessity to apply NWP models with high spatial and temporal resolution for Lagrangian cirrus modelling.
S. S. Steimer, U. K. Krieger, Y.-F. Te, D. M. Lienhard, A. J. Huisman, B. P. Luo, M. Ammann, and T. Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2397–2408,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol is often subject to supersaturated or supercooled conditions where bulk measurements are not possible. Here we demonstrate how measurements using single particle electrodynamic levitation combined with light scattering spectroscopy allow the retrieval of thermodynamic data, optical properties and water diffusivity of such metastable particles even when auxiliary bulk data are not available due to lack of sufficient amounts of sample.
L. E. Revell, F. Tummon, A. Stenke, T. Sukhodolov, A. Coulon, E. Rozanov, H. Garny, V. Grewe, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5887–5902,Short summary
We have examined the effects of ozone precursor emissions and climate change on the tropospheric ozone budget. Under RCP 6.0, ozone in the future is governed primarily by changes in nitrogen oxides (NOx). Methane is also important, and induces an increase in tropospheric ozone that is approximately one-third of that caused by NOx. This study highlights the critical role that emission policies globally have to play in determining tropospheric ozone evolution through the 21st century.
A. Keppens, J.-C. Lambert, J. Granville, G. Miles, R. Siddans, J. C. A. van Peet, R. J. van der A, D. Hubert, T. Verhoelst, A. Delcloo, S. Godin-Beekmann, R. Kivi, R. Stübi, and C. Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2093–2120,Short summary
This work thoroughly discusses a methodology, as summarized in a flowchart, for the round-robin evaluation and geophysical validation of nadir ozone profile retrievals and applies the proposed best practice to a pair of optimal-estimation algorithms run on exactly the same level-1 radiance measurements. The quality assessment combines data set content studies, information content studies, and comparisons with ground-based reference measurements.
E. Maillard Barras, A. Haefele, R. Stübi, and D. Ruffieux
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We report on a method to combine simultaneous radiosonde and microwave radiometer measurements in order to obtain the SASBE of the vertical ozone distribution above Payerne, Switzerland. The two measurements are combined by using the radiosonde ozone profile as a priori information in the optimal estimation retrieval of the microwave radiometer. A comparison of the SASBE ozone profiles with AURA/MLS ozone profiles is presented.
F. Tummon, B. Hassler, N. R. P. Harris, J. Staehelin, W. Steinbrecht, J. Anderson, G. E. Bodeker, A. Bourassa, S. M. Davis, D. Degenstein, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, E. Kyrölä, M. Laine, C. Long, A. A. Penckwitt, C. E. Sioris, K. H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, H.-J. Wang, and J. Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3021–3043,Short summary
Understanding ozone trends in the vertical is vital in terms of assessing the success of the Montreal Protocol. This paper compares and analyses the long-term trends in stratospheric ozone from seven new merged satellite data sets. The data sets largely agree well with each other, particularly for the negative trends seen in the early period 1984-1997. For the 1998-2011 period there is less agreement, but a clear shift from negative to mostly positive trends.
G. Ganbavale, A. Zuend, C. Marcolli, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 447–493,Short summary
This study presents a new, improved parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity coefficients implemented in the AIOMFAC group-contribution model. The AIOMFAC model with the improved parameterisation is applicable for a large variety of aqueous organic as well as water-free organic solutions of relevance for atmospheric aerosols. The new model parameters were determined based on published and new thermodynamic equilibrium data covering a temperature range from ~190 to 440 K.
T. Sukhodolov, E. Rozanov, A. I. Shapiro, J. Anet, C. Cagnazzo, T. Peter, and W. Schmutz
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2859–2866,Short summary
The performance of the main generations of the ECHAM shortwave radiation schemes is analysed in terms of the representation of the solar signal in the heating rates. The way to correct missing or underrepresented spectral intervals in the solar signal in the heating rates is suggested using the example of ECHAM6 and six-band ECHAM5 schemes. The suggested method is computationally fast and suitable for any other radiation scheme.
S. Pandey Deolal, S. Henne, L. Ries, S. Gilge, U. Weers, M. Steinbacher, J. Staehelin, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12553–12571,Short summary
Mixing ratios of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) at Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) and Zugspitze (Germany) show a seasonal variation with maxima in spring, typical for remote sites in the lower atmosphere in northern mid-latitudes. The detailed analysis of PAN measurements of May 2008 indicates that PAN at these high mountain sites is dominated by photochemical formation in the relatively cold polluted European planetary boundary layer rather than formation in the free troposphere.
D. W. Fahey, R.-S. Gao, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, C. Schiller, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, T. Peter, N. Amarouche, L. M. Avallone, R. Bauer, Z. Bozóki, L. E. Christensen, S. M. Davis, G. Durry, C. Dyroff, R. L. Herman, S. Hunsmann, S. M. Khaykin, P. Mackrodt, J. Meyer, J. B. Smith, N. Spelten, R. F. Troy, H. Vömel, S. Wagner, and F. G. Wienhold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3177–3213,
S. Muthers, J. G. Anet, A. Stenke, C. C. Raible, E. Rozanov, S. Brönnimann, T. Peter, F. X. Arfeuille, A. I. Shapiro, J. Beer, F. Steinhilber, Y. Brugnara, and W. Schmutz
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2157–2179,
G. Ganbavale, C. Marcolli, U. K. Krieger, A. Zuend, G. Stratmann, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9993–10012,
A. M. Thompson, N. V. Balashov, J. C. Witte, J. G. R. Coetzee, V. Thouret, and F. Posny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9855–9869,
A. Cirisan, B. P. Luo, I. Engel, F. G. Wienhold, M. Sprenger, U. K. Krieger, U. Weers, G. Romanens, G. Levrat, P. Jeannet, D. Ruffieux, R. Philipona, B. Calpini, P. Spichtinger, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7341–7365,
I. Suter, R. Zech, J. G. Anet, and T. Peter
Clim. Past, 10, 1183–1194,
B. Hassler, I. Petropavlovskikh, J. Staehelin, T. August, P. K. Bhartia, C. Clerbaux, D. Degenstein, M. De Mazière, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Dufour, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Granville, N. R. P. Harris, K. Hoppel, D. Hubert, Y. Kasai, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, J.-C. Lambert, P. F. Levelt, C. T. McElroy, R. D. McPeters, R. Munro, H. Nakajima, A. Parrish, P. Raspollini, E. E. Remsberg, K. H. Rosenlof, A. Rozanov, T. Sano, Y. Sasano, M. Shiotani, H. G. J. Smit, G. Stiller, J. Tamminen, D. W. Tarasick, J. Urban, R. J. van der A, J. P. Veefkind, C. Vigouroux, T. von Clarmann, C. von Savigny, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1395–1427,
J. G. Anet, S. Muthers, E. V. Rozanov, C. C. Raible, A. Stenke, A. I. Shapiro, S. Brönnimann, F. Arfeuille, Y. Brugnara, J. Beer, F. Steinhilber, W. Schmutz, and T. Peter
Clim. Past, 10, 921–938,
I. Engel, B. P. Luo, S. M. Khaykin, F. G. Wienhold, H. Vömel, R. Kivi, C. R. Hoyle, J.-U. Grooß, M. C. Pitts, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3231–3246,
F. Arfeuille, D. Weisenstein, H. Mack, E. Rozanov, T. Peter, and S. Brönnimann
Clim. Past, 10, 359–375,
A. Redondas, R. Evans, R. Stuebi, U. Köhler, and M. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1635–1648,
J.-U. Grooß, I. Engel, S. Borrmann, W. Frey, G. Günther, C. R. Hoyle, R. Kivi, B. P. Luo, S. Molleker, T. Peter, M. C. Pitts, H. Schlager, G. Stiller, H. Vömel, K. A. Walker, and R. Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1055–1073,
J. Staufer, J. Staehelin, R. Stübi, T. Peter, F. Tummon, and V. Thouret
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 241–266,
R. M. Zbinden, V. Thouret, P. Ricaud, F. Carminati, J.-P. Cammas, and P. Nédélec
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12363–12388,
S. M. Khaykin, I. Engel, H. Vömel, I. M. Formanyuk, R. Kivi, L. I. Korshunov, M. Krämer, A. D. Lykov, S. Meier, T. Naebert, M. C. Pitts, M. L. Santee, N. Spelten, F. G. Wienhold, V. A. Yushkov, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11503–11517,
F. Arfeuille, B. P. Luo, P. Heckendorn, D. Weisenstein, J. X. Sheng, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, S. Brönnimann, L. W. Thomason, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11221–11234,
J. G. Anet, S. Muthers, E. Rozanov, C. C. Raible, T. Peter, A. Stenke, A. I. Shapiro, J. Beer, F. Steinhilber, S. Brönnimann, F. Arfeuille, Y. Brugnara, and W. Schmutz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10951–10967,
I. Engel, B. P. Luo, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, C. R. Hoyle, J.-U. Grooß, A. Dörnbrack, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10769–10785,
P. D. Kalabokas, J.-P. Cammas, V. Thouret, A. Volz-Thomas, D. Boulanger, and C. C. Repapis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10339–10352,
A. Stenke, C. R. Hoyle, B. Luo, E. Rozanov, J. Gröbner, L. Maag, S. Brönnimann, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9713–9729,
C. R. Hoyle, I. Engel, B. P. Luo, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, J.-U. Grooß, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9577–9595,
M. von Hobe, S. Bekki, S. Borrmann, F. Cairo, F. D'Amato, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ebersoldt, M. Ebert, C. Emde, I. Engel, M. Ern, W. Frey, S. Genco, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, G. Günther, E. Hösen, L. Hoffmann, V. Homonnai, C. R. Hoyle, I. S. A. Isaksen, D. R. Jackson, I. M. Jánosi, R. L. Jones, K. Kandler, C. Kalicinsky, A. Keil, S. M. Khaykin, F. Khosrawi, R. Kivi, J. Kuttippurath, J. C. Laube, F. Lefèvre, R. Lehmann, S. Ludmann, B. P. Luo, M. Marchand, J. Meyer, V. Mitev, S. Molleker, R. Müller, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, Y. Orsolini, T. Peter, K. Pfeilsticker, C. Piesch, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, F. D. Pope, F. Ravegnani, M. Rex, M. Riese, T. Röckmann, B. Rognerud, A. Roiger, C. Rolf, M. L. Santee, M. Scheibe, C. Schiller, H. Schlager, M. Siciliani de Cumis, N. Sitnikov, O. A. Søvde, R. Spang, N. Spelten, F. Stordal, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, A. Ulanovski, J. Ungermann, S. Viciani, C. M. Volk, M. vom Scheidt, P. von der Gathen, K. Walker, T. Wegner, R. Weigel, S. Weinbruch, G. Wetzel, F. G. Wienhold, I. Wohltmann, W. Woiwode, I. A. K. Young, V. Yushkov, B. Zobrist, and F. Stroh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9233–9268,
A. Stenke, M. Schraner, E. Rozanov, T. Egorova, B. Luo, and T. Peter
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1407–1427,
A. J. Huisman, U. K. Krieger, A. Zuend, C. Marcolli, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6647–6662,
F. Hasebe, Y. Inai, M. Shiotani, M. Fujiwara, H. Vömel, N. Nishi, S.-Y. Ogino, T. Shibata, S. Iwasaki, N. Komala, T. Peter, and S. J. Oltmans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4393–4411,
A. Inness, F. Baier, A. Benedetti, I. Bouarar, S. Chabrillat, H. Clark, C. Clerbaux, P. Coheur, R. J. Engelen, Q. Errera, J. Flemming, M. George, C. Granier, J. Hadji-Lazaro, V. Huijnen, D. Hurtmans, L. Jones, J. W. Kaiser, J. Kapsomenakis, K. Lefever, J. Leitão, M. Razinger, A. Richter, M. G. Schultz, A. J. Simmons, M. Suttie, O. Stein, J.-N. Thépaut, V. Thouret, M. Vrekoussis, C. Zerefos, and the MACC team
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4073–4109,
Related subject area
Subject: Others (Wind, Precipitation, Temperature, etc.) | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Validation and IntercomparisonsSomething fishy going on? Evaluating the Poisson hypothesis for rainfall estimation using intervalometers: results from an experiment in TanzaniaSuitability of fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing for revealing mixing processes and higher-order moments at the forest–air interfaceCharacterizing and correcting the warm bias observed in AMDAR temperature observationsValidation of Aeolus winds using radiosonde observations and numerical weather prediction model equivalentsSmartphone pressure data: quality control and impact on atmospheric analysisAutomated precipitation monitoring with the Thies disdrometer: biases and ways for improvementMore science with less: evaluation of a 3D-printed weather stationCharacteristics and performance of wind profiles as observed by the radar wind profiler network of ChinaConfronting the boundary layer data gap: evaluating new and existing methodologies of probing the lower atmosphereOn the estimation of vertical air velocity and detection of atmospheric turbulence from the ascent rate of balloon soundingsComparison of turbulence measurements by a CSAT3B sonic anemometer and a high-resolution bistatic Doppler lidarUsing computational fluid dynamics and field experiments to improve vehicle-based wind measurements for environmental monitoringComparison of the GRUAN data products for Meisei RS-11G and Vaisala RS92-SGP radiosondes at Tateno (36.06° N, 140.13° E), JapanA method to assess the accuracy of sonic anemometer measurementsUsing reference radiosondes to characterise NWP model uncertainty for improved satellite calibration and validationEvaluation of OAFlux datasets based on in situ air–sea flux tower observations over Yongxing Island in 2016Characteristics of vertical velocities estimated from drop size and fall velocity spectra of a Parsivel disdrometerEffects of temporal averaging on short-term irradiance variability under mixed sky conditionsComparison of Lyman-alpha and LI-COR infrared hygrometers for airborne measurement of turbulent fluctuations of water vapourHotplate precipitation gauge calibrations and field measurementsField intercomparison of prevailing sonic anemometersA new method for estimating UV fluxes at ground level in cloud-free conditionsPrecipitable water characteristics during the 2013 Colorado flood using ground-based GPS measurementsComparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 launched over the oceans from the Arctic to the tropicsComparison of hourly surface downwelling solar radiation estimated from MSG–SEVIRI and forecast by the RAMS model with pyranometers over ItalyQuantitative analysis of the radiation error for aerial coiled-fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing deployments using reinforcing fabric as support structureAn automated method for the evaluation of the pointing accuracy of Sun-tracking devicesAssessment of snowfall accumulation underestimation by tipping bucket gauges in the Spanish operational networkCompatibility of different measurement techniques of global solar radiation and application for long-term observations at Izaña ObservatoryUncertainties of ground-based microwave radiometer retrievals in zenith and off-zenith observations under snow conditionsPerformance of post-processing algorithms for rainfall intensity using measurements from tipping-bucket rain gaugesComparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains siteHOAPS and ERA-Interim precipitation over the sea: validation against shipboard in situ measurementsQuality assessment of solar UV irradiance measured with array spectroradiometersSpatial mapping of ground-based observations of total ozonePerformance of WVSS-II hygrometers on the FAAM research aircraftSolar irradiances measured using SPN1 radiometers: uncertainties and clues for developmentStatistical modelling of collocation uncertainty in atmospheric thermodynamic profilesEstimation of atmospheric mixing layer height from radiosonde dataAssessment of GPS radiosonde descent dataA comparison of rainfall measurements from multiple instrumentsEddy-covariance flux measurements with a weight-shift microlight aircraftComparisons of temperature, pressure and humidity measurements by balloon-borne radiosondes and frost point hygrometers during MOHAVE-2009First national intercomparison of solar ultraviolet radiometers in Italy
Didier de Villiers, Marc Schleiss, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, Rolf Hut, and Nick van de Giesen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5607–5623,Short summary
Ground-based rainfall observations across the African continent are sparse. We present a new and inexpensive rainfall measuring instrument (the intervalometer) and use it to derive reasonably accurate rainfall rates. These are dependent on a fundamental assumption that is widely used in parameterisations of the rain drop size distribution. This assumption is tested and found to not apply for most raindrops but is still useful in deriving rainfall rates. The intervalometer shows good potential.
Olli Peltola, Karl Lapo, Ilkka Martinkauppi, Ewan O'Connor, Christoph K. Thomas, and Timo Vesala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2409–2427,Short summary
We evaluated the suitability of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) for observing spatial (>25 cm) and temporal (>1 s) details of airflow within and above forests. The DTS measurements could discern up to third-order moments of the flow and observe spatial details of coherent flow motions. Similar measurements are not possible with more conventional measurement techniques. Hence, the DTS measurements will provide key insights into flows close to roughness elements, e.g. trees.
Siebren de Haan, Paul M. A. de Jong, and Jitze van der Meulen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
AMDAR temperatures suffer from a bias which can be related to difference of timing of height and measurement, and to internal corrections applied to pressure altitude. Based on NWP model temperature data combined with Mach number and true airspeed, we were able to estimate corrections Comparing corrected temperatures with (independent) radiosonde observations demonstrates a reduction of the bias from 0.5 K to around zero and of standard deviation of almost 10 %.
Anne Martin, Martin Weissmann, Oliver Reitebuch, Michael Rennie, Alexander Geiß, and Alexander Cress
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2167–2183,Short summary
This study provides an overview of validation activities to determine the Aeolus HLOS wind errors and to understand the biases by investigating possible dependencies and testing bias correction approaches. To ensure meaningful validation statistics, collocated radiosondes and two different global NWP models, the ECMWF IFS and the ICON model (DWD), are used as reference data. To achieve an estimate for the Aeolus instrumental error the representativeness errors for the comparisons are evaluated.
Rumeng Li, Qinghong Zhang, Juanzhen Sun, Yun Chen, Lili Ding, and Tian Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 785–801,Short summary
In this paper, we describe a bias-correction method based on machine learning without the need to obtain users' personal information and demonstrate that the method can effectively reduce the bias in smartphone pressure observations. The characteristics of this dataset are discussed, and the potential application of the bias-corrected data is illustrated by the fine-scale analysis of a hailstorm that occurred on 10 June 2016 in Beijing, China.
Michael Fehlmann, Mario Rohrer, Annakaisa von Lerber, and Markus Stoffel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4683–4698,Short summary
The Thies disdrometer is used to monitor precipitation intensity and its phase and thus may provide valuable information for the management of meteorological and hydrological risks. In this study, we characterize biases of this instrument using common reference instruments at a pre-alpine study site in Switzerland. We find a systematic underestimation of liquid precipitation amounts and suggest possible reasons for and corrections to this bias and relate these findings to other study sites.
Adam Theisen, Max Ungar, Bryan Sheridan, and Bradley G. Illston
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4699–4713,Short summary
A low-cost weather station with 3D-printed components was built, based on the UCAR 3D-PAWS project, and deployed alongside an Oklahoma Mesonet station for an 8-month study to determine the longevity of these sensors and their performance compared with standard commercial sensors. Results show that the low-cost sensors can perform as well as the more expensive commercial ones for short-term deployments with the possibility for long-term deployments with proper maintenance and replacement.
Boming Liu, Jianping Guo, Wei Gong, Lijuan Shi, Yong Zhang, and Yingying Ma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4589–4600,Short summary
Vertical wind profiles are crucial to a wide range of atmospheric disciplines. However, the wind profile across China remains poorly understood. Here we reveal the salient features of winds from the radar wind profile of China, including the main instruments, spatial coverage and sampling frequency. This work is expected to allow the public and scientific community to be more familiar with the nationwide network and encourage the use of these valuable data in future research and applications.
Tyler M. Bell, Brian R. Greene, Petra M. Klein, Matthew Carney, and Phillip B. Chilson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3855–3872,Short summary
It is well known that the atmospheric boundary layer is under-sampled in the vertical dimension. Recently, weather-sensing uncrewed aerial systems (WxUAS) have created new opportunities to sample this region of the atmosphere. This study compares a WxUAS developed at the University of Oklahoma to ground-based remote sensing and radiosondes. We find that overall the systems generally agreed well both thermodynamically and kinematically. However, there is still room to improve each system.
Hubert Luce and Hiroyuki Hashiguchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1989–1999,Short summary
Vertical ascent rate Vb of meteorological balloons is sometimes used for retrieving vertical air velocity, an important parameter for meteorological applications. Comparisons with concurrent radar and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) measurements of atmospheric turbulence showed that Vb can be increased in turbulent layers due to the probable decrease in the drag coefficient of the balloon. We conclude that Vb can also potentially be used for the detection of atmospheric turbulence.
Matthias Mauder, Michael Eggert, Christian Gutsmuths, Stefan Oertel, Paul Wilhelm, Ingo Voelksch, Luise Wanner, Jens Tambke, and Ivan Bogoev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 969–983,Short summary
Sonic anemometers are prone to probe-induced flow distortion effects. Here, we present the results of an intercomparison experiment between a CSAT3B sonic anemometer and a high-resolution bistatic Doppler lidar, which is inherently free of flow distortion. Our results show an agreement of the mean wind velocity measurements and the standard deviations of the vertical wind speed with comparabilities of 0.082 and 0.020 m s−1, respectively. Friction velocity is underestimated by the CSAT3B by 3 %.
Tara Hanlon and David Risk
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 191–203,Short summary
In this study, we aimed to improve accuracy of wind speed and direction measurements from an anemometer mounted atop a research vehicle. Controlled field tests and computer simulations showed that the vehicle shape biases airflow above the vehicle. The results indicate that placing an anemometer at a significant height (> 1 m) above the vehicle, and calibrating anemometer measurements for vehicle shape and wind angle, can be effective in reducing bias in measurements of wind speed and direction.
Eriko Kobayashi, Shunsuke Hoshino, Masami Iwabuchi, Takuji Sugidachi, Kensaku Shimizu, and Masatomo Fujiwara
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3039–3065,Short summary
The authors carried out dual flights of RS-11G and RS92-SGP radiosondes and investigated the differences in the performance of the radiosondes to help characterize GRUAN data products. A novel aspect of GRUAN data products is that vertically resolved uncertainty estimates and metadata are provided for each sounding and comparison of GRUAN data products is important in securing the temporal homogeneity of climate data records.
Alfredo Peña, Ebba Dellwik, and Jakob Mann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 237–252,Short summary
We propose a method to assess the accuracy of turbulence measurements by sonic anemometers. The idea is to compute the ratio of the vertical to along-wind velocity spectrum within the inertial subrange. We found that the Metek USA-1 and the Campbell CSAT3 sonic anemometers do not show the expected theoretical ratio. A wind-tunnel-based correction recovers the expected ratio for the USA-1. A correction for the CSAT3 does not, illustrating that this sonic anemometer suffers from flow distortion.
Fabien Carminati, Stefano Migliorini, Bruce Ingleby, William Bell, Heather Lawrence, Stuart Newman, James Hocking, and Andrew Smith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 83–106,Short summary
The GRUAN processor is a software developed to collocate radiosonde profiles and numerical weather prediction model fields, simulate top-of-atmosphere brightness temperature at frequencies used by space-borne instruments, and propagate the radiosonde uncertainties in that simulation. This work responds to an identified lack of metrologically traceable characterisation of uncertainties in model fields that are increasingly used for the validation and calibration of space-borne instruments.
Fenghua Zhou, Rongwang Zhang, Rui Shi, Ju Chen, Yunkai He, Dongxiao Wang, and Qiang Xie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6091–6106,Short summary
In this work, successive air–sea heat flux-related data were acquired over the course of a year (01/02/2016–31/01/2017) at the YXASFT on Yongxing Island. Then, seasonal comparisons were conducted for the daily mean surface bulk variables and heat fluxes between the WHOI OAFlux products and YXASFT observations. The conclusions in this paper will provide useful reference for researchers on how to select the appropriate OAFlux datasets in different seasons over the South China Sea.
Dong-Kyun Kim and Chang-Keun Song
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3851–3860,Short summary
A new technique to estimate vertical velocities from Parsivel-measured drop and velocity spectra is developed. The estimated vertical velocities (w) were compared with w components of winds measured from the anemometer at the same site. They showed good agreement with each other, suggesting that this technique is reliable and applicable to rainfall studies. With these w values, rainfall characteristics related to up-/downdraft were investigated on the windward and leeward sides of a mountain.
Gerald M. Lohmann and Adam H. Monahan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3131–3144,Short summary
Using high-resolution surface irradiance data with original temporal resolutions between 0.01 s and 1 s from six different locations in the Northern Hemisphere, we characterize the changes in representation of temporal variability resulting from time averaging. Our results indicate that a temporal averaging time scale of around 1 s marks a transition in representing single-point irradiance variability, such that longer averages result in substantial underestimates of variability.
Astrid Lampert, Jörg Hartmann, Falk Pätzold, Lennart Lobitz, Peter Hecker, Katrin Kohnert, Eric Larmanou, Andrei Serafimovich, and Torsten Sachs
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2523–2536,Short summary
We compared two different fast-response humidity sensors simultaneously on different airborne platforms. One is a particular, well-establed Lyman-alpha hygrometer that has been used for decades as the standard for fast airborne humidity measurements. However, it is not available any more. The other one is a hygrometer based on the absorption of infrared radiation, from LI-COR. For an environment of low vibrations, the LI-COR sensor is suitable for fast airborne water vapour measurements.
Nicholas Zelasko, Adam Wettlaufer, Bujidmaa Borkhuu, Matthew Burkhart, Leah S. Campbell, W. James Steenburgh, and Jefferson R. Snider
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 441–458,Short summary
The hotplate precipitation gauge has the potential to solve some problems with conventional precipitation gauge measurements, especially for snowfall. This paper extends the seminal published work, Rasmussen et al. (2011). We assert that the precipitation rate algorithm we have developed for the hotplate is an improvement on that which was previously published.
Matthias Mauder and Matthias J. Zeeman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 249–263,
William Wandji Nyamsi, Mikko R. A. Pitkänen, Youva Aoun, Philippe Blanc, Anu Heikkilä, Kaisa Lakkala, Germar Bernhard, Tapani Koskela, Anders V. Lindfors, Antti Arola, and Lucien Wald
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4965–4978,Short summary
This paper proposes a new, fast and accurate method for estimating UV fluxes at ground level in cloud-free conditions at any place and time. The method performs very well with the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service products as inputs describing the state of the atmosphere. An accuracy that is close to the uncertainty of the measurements themselves is reached. We believe that our research will be widely used in the near future.
Hannah K. Huelsing, Junhong Wang, Carl Mears, and John J. Braun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4055–4066,Short summary
The precipitable water (PW) was examined for the 2013 Colorado flood to determine how climatologically abnormal this event was. The seasonal PW maximum extended into early September and the September monthly mean PW exceeded the 99th percentile of climatology with a value 25% higher than the 40-year climatology. The above-normal, near-saturation PW values during the flood were the result of large-scale moisture transport into Colorado from the eastern tropical Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico.
Yoshimi Kawai, Masaki Katsumata, Kazuhiro Oshima, Masatake E. Hori, and Jun Inoue
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2485–2498,Short summary
The model RS92 radiosonde manufactured by Vaisala Ltd. is now being replaced with a successor model, the RS41, and we need to clarify accuracy differences between them for a variety of research. For this purpose, 36 twin-radiosonde flights were performed over the oceans from the Arctic to the tropics. Basically the differences between the RS41 and RS92 were smaller than the nominal combined uncertainties of the RS41; however, we found non-negligible biases in relative humidity and pressure.
Stefano Federico, Rosa Claudia Torcasio, Paolo Sanò, Daniele Casella, Monica Campanelli, Jan Fokke Meirink, Ping Wang, Stefania Vergari, Henri Diémoz, and Stefano Dietrich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2337–2352,Short summary
In this paper we evaluate the performance of two estimates of the global horizontal irradiance (GHI), one derived from the Meteosat Second Generation and one from a meteorological model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) forecast. The focus area is Italy, and the performance is evaluated for 12 pyranometers spanning a range of climate conditions, from Mediterranean maritime to Alpine.
Armin Sigmund, Lena Pfister, Chadi Sayde, and Christoph K. Thomas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2149–2162,
Dietmar J. Baumgartner, Werner Pötzi, Heinrich Freislich, Heinz Strutzmann, Astrid M. Veronig, and Harald E. Rieder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1181–1190,Short summary
In this work we present KSO-STREAMS (KSO-SunTRackEr Accuracy Monitoring System), a platform-independent, fully automated, and cost-effective system to evaluate the pointing accuracy of Sun-tracking devices as well as its application at the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO) Austrian radiation monitoring network (ARAD) site and to the results from a 15-week evaluating period.
Samuel T. Buisán, Michael E. Earle, José Luís Collado, John Kochendorfer, Javier Alastrué, Mareile Wolff, Craig D. Smith, and Juan I. López-Moreno
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1079–1091,Short summary
Within the framework of the WMO-SPICE (Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment) the Thies tipping bucket precipitation gauge, widely used at AEMET, was assessed against the SPICE reference. Most countries use tipping buckets and for this reason the underestimation of snowfall precipitation is a large-scale problem. The methodology presented here can be used by other national weather services to test precipitation bias corrections and to identify regions where errors are higher.
Rosa Delia García, Emilio Cuevas, Omaira Elena García, Ramón Ramos, Pedro Miguel Romero-Campos, Fernado de Ory, Victoria Eugenia Cachorro, and Angel de Frutos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 731–743,Short summary
A 1-year intercomparison of classical and modern radiation and sunshine duration instruments has been performed at Izaña Atmospheric Observatory. We compare global solar radiation (GSR) records measured with a Kipp & Zonen CM-21 pyranometer, taken in the framework of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network, with those measured with a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer and a bimetallic pyranometer, and with GSR estimated from sunshine duration performed with a CS sunshine recorder.
Wengang Zhang, Guirong Xu, Yuanyuan Liu, Guopao Yan, Dejun Li, and Shengbo Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 155–165,Short summary
A comparison between a microwave radiometer and radiosonde is carried out, and performances of zenith and off-zenith observations during snowfall are shown. In off-zenith observations, the effect of snow is obviously mitigated, and the deviation between microwave radiometer and radiosonde is small. With the aid of off-zenith observation, reliable thermodynamic atmospheric profiles can be collected, and those will be useful for the analysis and forecasting of severe convective weather.
Mattia Stagnaro, Matteo Colli, Luca Giovanni Lanza, and Pak Wai Chan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5699–5706,Short summary
The research presented in this work involves field data analysis, numerical modelling techniques and approaches to a long-standing problem of liquid precipitation measurements: the sampling and the interpretation of the tipping-bucket sensor signal. The present study shows relevant implications of the adopted data processing methods for the accuracy of the rainfall intensity measurements provided by traditional tipping-bucket gauges.
Michael P. Jensen, Donna J. Holdridge, Petteri Survo, Raisa Lehtinen, Shannon Baxter, Tami Toto, and Karen L. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3115–3129,Short summary
An intercomparison of Vaisala's latest-generation radiosonde RS41 and the widely used RS92 was performed in north-central Oklahoma, USA, during June 2014. The results indicate that for the conditions observed during the intercomparison the measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds agree to within the manufacturer-specified combined uncertainties. Some important exceptions were noted when exiting liquid cloud layers where evaporative cooling has less impact for RS41 measurements.
Karl Bumke, Gert König-Langlo, Julian Kinzel, and Marc Schröder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2409–2423,Short summary
Satellite-derived HOAPS and ERA-Interim reanalysis data were validated against shipboard precipitation measurements. Results show that HOAPS detects the frequency of precipitation well, while ERA-Interim strongly overestimates it, especially at low latitudes. However, HOAPS underestimates precipitation rates, while ERA-Interim's Atlantic-wide precipitation rate is close to measurements. ERA-Interim strongly overestimates it in the intertropical convergence zone and southern subtropics.
Luca Egli, Julian Gröbner, Gregor Hülsen, Luciano Bachmann, Mario Blumthaler, Jimmy Dubard, Marina Khazova, Richard Kift, Kees Hoogendijk, Antonio Serrano, Andrew Smedley, and José-Manuel Vilaplana
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1553–1567,Short summary
Array spectroradiometers are small, light, robust and cost-effective instruments, and are increasingly used for atmospheric measurements. The quality of array spectroradiometers is assessed for the reliable quantification of ultraviolet radiation (UV) in order to monitor the exposure of UV radiation to human health. The study shows that reliable UV measurements with these instruments are limited for observations around noon and show large biases in the morning and evening.
K.-L. Chang, S. Guillas, and V. E. Fioletov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4487–4505,Short summary
The aim of this article is to analyze the total column ozone data from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC) that consists of around 150 stations irregularly spaced over the globe. Our use of a new statistical spatial technique over the globe can greatly outperform the currently used spatial approximation of the total column ozone in terms of approximation. We feel that this technique could benefit the ozone science community.
A. K. Vance, S. J. Abel, R. J. Cotton, and A. M. Woolley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1617–1625,Short summary
Comparisons on the FAAM BAe 146-301 aircraft show good agreement between chilled mirror hygrometers and a WVSS-II fed from a modified Rosemount inlet (wvssR) in coud-free conditions, but a WVSS-II fed from the standard flush inlet (wvssF) over-reads, except at higher humidities. Case studies in cloudy conditions show that wvssF is immune to liquid water and ice, whilst wvssR is susceptible to both. Both WVSS-II inlets respond much more rapidly than the chilled mirror devices, especially wvssF.
J. Badosa, J. Wood, P. Blanc, C. N. Long, L. Vuilleumier, D. Demengel, and M. Haeffelin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4267–4283,
A. Fassò, R. Ignaccolo, F. Madonna, B. B. Demoz, and M. Franco-Villoria
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1803–1816,
X. Y. Wang and K. C. Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1701–1709,
M. Venkat Ratnam, N. Pravallika, S. Ravindra Babu, G. Basha, M. Pramitha, and B. V. Krishna Murthy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1011–1025,
X. C. Liu, T. C. Gao, and L. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1585–1595,
S. Metzger, W. Junkermann, M. Mauder, F. Beyrich, K. Butterbach-Bahl, H. P. Schmid, and T. Foken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1699–1717,
D. F. Hurst, E. G. Hall, A. F. Jordan, L. M. Miloshevich, D. N. Whiteman, T. Leblanc, D. Walsh, H. Vömel, and S. J. Oltmans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2777–2793,
H. Diémoz, A. M. Siani, G. R. Casale, A. di Sarra, B. Serpillo, B. Petkov, S. Scaglione, A. Bonino, S. Facta, F. Fedele, D. Grifoni, L. Verdi, and G. Zipoli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 1689–1703,
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