Articles | Volume 11, issue 4
Research article
26 Apr 2018
Research article |  | 26 Apr 2018

Analysis of ionospheric structure influences on residual ionospheric errors in GNSS radio occultation bending angles based on ray tracing simulations

Congliang Liu, Gottfried Kirchengast, Yueqiang Sun, Kefei Zhang, Robert Norman, Marc Schwaerz, Weihua Bai, Qifei Du, and Ying Li

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Revised manuscript not accepted
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Cited articles

Angerer, B., Ladstädter, F., Scherllin-Pirscher, B., Schwärz, M., Steiner, A. K., Foelsche, U., and Kirchengast, G.: Quality aspects of the Wegener Center multi-satellite GPS radio occultation record OPSv5.6, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4845–4863,, 2017. 
Angling, M. J., Elvidge, S., and Healy, S. B.: Improved model for correcting the ionospheric impact on bending angle in radio occultation measurements, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2213–2224,, 2018. 
Anthes, R. A.: Exploring Earth's atmosphere with radio occultation: contributions to weather, climate and space weather, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 1077–1103,, 2011. 
Bassiri, S. and Hajj, G. A.: Higher-order ionospheric effects on the GPS observables and means of modeling them, Manuscr. Geodaet., 18, 280–289, 1993. 
Budden, K. G.: The propagation of radio waves: the theory of radio waves of low power in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985. 
Short summary
In this study, we focused on investigating the causes of the higher-order residual ionospheric error (RIE) in the GNSS RO events, by employing detailed along-ray-path analyses of atmospheric and ionospheric refractivities, impact parameter changes, and bending angles and RIEs under asymmetric and symmetric ionospheric structures. We found that the main causes of the high RIEs are a combination of physics-based effects, where asymmetric ionospheric conditions play the primary role.