Articles | Volume 13, issue 5
Research article 29 May 2020
Research article | 29 May 2020
Development of a new correction algorithm applicable to any filter-based absorption photometer
Hanyang Li et al.
No articles found.
Trevor S. Krasowsky, Gavin R. McMeeking, Constantinos Sioutas, and George Ban-Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11991–12010,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) particles can have deleterious health consequences and impact regional and global climate. We aim to observe how processing near highways and longer timescale aging in an urban plume affect BC physical properties including coatings. Measurements in distinct regions of the Los Angeles Basin indicate that health-relevant physical properties can change within 100 m of the freeway. Climate-relevant properties downwind of Los Angeles depend on day of week and overall meteorology.
Qijing Bian, Shantanu H. Jathar, John K. Kodros, Kelley C. Barsanti, Lindsay E. Hatch, Andrew A. May, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5459–5475,Short summary
In this paper, we perform simulations of the evolution of biomass-burning organic aerosol in laboratory smog-chamber experiments and ambient plumes. We find that in smog-chamber experiments, vapor wall losses lead to a large reduction in the apparent secondary organic aerosol formation. In ambient plumes, fire size and meteorology regulate the plume dilution rate, primary organic aerosol evaporation rate, and secondary organic aerosol formation rate.
Cynthia H. Twohy, Gavin R. McMeeking, Paul J. DeMott, Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Susannah M. Burrows, Gourihar R. Kulkarni, Meryem Tanarhte, Durga N. Kafle, and Darin W. Toohey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8205–8225,Short summary
Fluorescent biological aerosol particles were measured in autumn over the continental United States at a variety of altitudes and temperatures, spanning the atmospheric boundary layer to the upper troposphere. Number concentrations of these particles generally decreased with height but were most variable at middle altitudes, above the boundary layer. This corresponds to the temperature range where biological particles may be more important than mineral dust at nucleating ice in clouds.
Q. Bian, A. A. May, S. M. Kreidenweis, and J. R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11027–11045,Short summary
Losses of semi-volatile vapors to Teflon walls may contribute to significant primary particle evaporation during wood-smoke aerosol experiments. These vapor losses may also affect secondary organic aerosol formation during these experiments.
A. Retama, D. Baumgardner, G. B. Raga, G. R. McMeeking, and J. W. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9693–9709,Short summary
Extended measurements of equivalent black carbon (eBC) derived from light absorption measurements have been made with a PAX over a 13 month period. The daily trends in eBC and other co-pollutants are evaluated with respect to season. The primary factors that led to large changes between the wet and dry seasons are the accelerated vertical mixing of boundary layer and free tropospheric air, by the formation of clouds and decreased actinic flux that reduces the production of ozone.
A. A. May, T. Lee, G. R. McMeeking, S. Akagi, A. P. Sullivan, S. Urbanski, R. J. Yokelson, and S. M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6323–6335,Short summary
Smoke plumes from some prescribed fires in the southeastern United States were sampled via aircraft to observe changes in organic aerosol (OA) with atmospheric transport. These plumes underwent rapid mixing, and, hence, substantial dilution with background air occurred. Dilution-driven evaporation appears to be the primary driver of OA transformations within the sampled plumes rather than photochemistry.
P. J. DeMott, A. J. Prenni, G. R. McMeeking, R. C. Sullivan, M. D. Petters, Y. Tobo, M. Niemand, O. Möhler, J. R. Snider, Z. Wang, and S. M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 393–409,Short summary
Laboratory and field data are used together to develop an empirical relation between the concentrations of mineral dust particles at sizes above 0.5 microns, approximated as a single compositional type, and ice nucleating particle concentrations measured versus temperature. This should be useful in global modeling of ice cloud formation. The utility of laboratory data for parameterization development is reinforced, and the need for careful interpretation of ice nucleation data is emphasized.
A. P. Sullivan, A. A. May, T. Lee, G. R. McMeeking, S. M. Kreidenweis, S. K. Akagi, R. J. Yokelson, S. P. Urbanski, and J. L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10535–10545,
T. D. Gordon, A. A. Presto, A. A. May, N. T. Nguyen, E. M. Lipsky, N. M. Donahue, A. Gutierrez, M. Zhang, C. Maddox, P. Rieger, S. Chattopadhyay, H. Maldonado, M. M. Maricq, and A. L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4661–4678,
R. Saleh, C. J. Hennigan, G. R. McMeeking, W. K. Chuang, E. S. Robinson, H. Coe, N. M. Donahue, and A. L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7683–7693,
T. Hamburger, G. McMeeking, A. Minikin, A. Petzold, H. Coe, and R. Krejci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11533–11554,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Technique: Laboratory Measurement | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalAssessing the accuracy of low-cost optical particle sensors using a physics-based approachHigh-resolution optical constants of crystalline ammonium nitrate for infrared remote sensing of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol LayerComparison of dimension reduction techniques in the analysis of mass spectrometry dataChemical discrimination of the particulate and gas phases of miniCAST exhausts using a two-filter collection methodExternal and internal cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) mixtures: controlled laboratory studies of varying mixing statesClassification of iron oxide aerosols by a single particle soot photometer using supervised machine learningMethod to measure the size-resolved real part of aerosol refractive index using differential mobility analyzer in tandem with single-particle soot photometerQuantitative capabilities of STXM to measure spatially resolved organic volume fractions of mixed organic ∕ inorganic particlesRevisiting the differential freezing nucleus spectra derived from drop-freezing experiments: methods of calculation, applications, and confidence limitsParticle wall-loss correction methods in smog chamber experimentsImproved real-time bio-aerosol classification using artificial neural networksMachine learning for improved data analysis of biological aerosol using the WIBSA machine learning approach to aerosol classification for single-particle mass spectrometryEvaluation of a hierarchical agglomerative clustering method applied to WIBS laboratory data for improved discrimination of biological particles by comparing data preparation techniquesUsing depolarization to quantify ice nucleating particle concentrations: a new methodReal-time analysis of insoluble particles in glacial ice using single-particle mass spectrometryEvaluation of machine learning algorithms for classification of primary biological aerosol using a new UV-LIF spectrometerSize distribution of particle-associated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their implications for healthPredicting ambient aerosol thermal–optical reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: extending the predictions to different years and different sitesElectrodynamic balance measurements of thermodynamic, kinetic, and optical aerosol properties inaccessible to bulk methodsMass-specific optical absorption coefficients and imaginary part of the complex refractive indices of mineral dust components measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometerAn experiment to measure raindrop collection efficiencies: influence of rear captureQuantitative single-particle analysis with the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer: development of a new classification algorithm and its application to field dataA modeling approach to evaluate the uncertainty in estimating the evaporation behaviour and volatility of organic aerosolsA model of aerosol evaporation kinetics in a thermodenuder
David H. Hagan and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6343–6355,Short summary
Assessing the error of low-cost particulate matter (PM) sensors has been difficult as each empirical study presents unique limitations. Here, we present a new, open-sourced, physics-based model (opcsim) and use it to understand how the properties of different particle sensors alter their accuracy. We offer a summary of likely sources of error for different sensor types, environmental conditions, and particle classes and offer recommendations for the choice of optimal calibrant.
Robert Wagner, Baptiste Testa, Michael Höpfner, Alexei Kiselev, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Jörn Ungermann, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
During the Asian summer monsoon period, air pollutants are transported from layers near the ground to high altitudes of 13 to 18 km in the atmosphere. Infrared measurements have shown that particles composed of solid ammonium nitrate are a major part of these pollutants. To enable the quantitative analysis of the infrared spectra, we have determined for the first time accurate optical constants of ammonium nitrate for the low temperature conditions of the upper atmosphere.
Sini Isokääntä, Eetu Kari, Angela Buchholz, Liqing Hao, Siegfried Schobesberger, Annele Virtanen, and Santtu Mikkonen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2995–3022,Short summary
Online mass spectrometry produces large amounts of data. These data can be interpreted with statistical methods, enabling scientists to more easily understand the underlying processes. We compared these techniques on car exhaust measurements. We show differences and similarities between the methods and give recommendations on applicability of the methods on certain types of data. We show that applying multiple methods leads to more robust results, thus increasing reliability of the findings.
Linh Dan Ngo, Dumitru Duca, Yvain Carpentier, Jennifer A. Noble, Raouf Ikhenazene, Marin Vojkovic, Cornelia Irimiea, Ismael K. Ortega, Guillaume Lefevre, Jérôme Yon, Alessandro Faccinetto, Eric Therssen, Michael Ziskind, Bertrand Chazallon, Claire Pirim, and Cristian Focsa
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 951–967,Short summary
The partitioning of noxious chemical compounds between the particulate and gas phases in combustion emissions is key to delineate their exact impacts on atmospheric chemistry and human health. We developed a two-filter sampling system, a multi-technique analytical approach, and advanced statistical methods to fully characterize the composition of both phases in combustion emissions. We could successfully discriminate samples from a standard soot generator by their volatile–non-volatile species.
Diep Vu, Shaokai Gao, Tyler Berte, Mary Kacarab, Qi Yao, Kambiz Vafai, and Akua Asa-Awuku
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4277–4289,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions contribute the greatest uncertainty to cloud formation. Aerosol composition is complex and can change quickly in the atmosphere. In this work, we recreate a transition in aerosol mixing state in the laboratory, which (to date) has only been observed in the ambient state. We then report the subsequent changes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation.
Kara D. Lamb
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3885–3906,Short summary
Recent atmospheric observations have indicated emissions of iron-oxide-containing aerosols from anthropogenic sources could be 8x higher than previous estimates, leading models to underestimate their climate impact. Previous studies have shown the single particle soot photometer (SP2) can quantify the atmospheric abundance of these aerosols. Here, I explore a machine learning approach to improve SP2 detection, significantly reducing misclassifications of other aerosols as iron oxide aerosols.
Gang Zhao, Weilun Zhao, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3541–3550,Short summary
A new method is proposed to retrieve the size-resolved real part of the refractive index (RRI). The main principle of deriving the RRI is measuring the scattering intensity by a single-particle soot photometer of a size-selected aerosol. This method is validated by a series of calibration experiments using the components of the known RI. The retrieved size-resolved RRI covers a wide range, from 200 nm to 450 nm, with uncertainty of less than 0.02.
Matthew Fraund, Tim Park, Lin Yao, Daniel Bonanno, Don Q. Pham, and Ryan C. Moffet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1619–1633,Short summary
Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) is a powerful tool which is able to determine the elemental and functional composition of aerosols on a subparticle level. The current work validates the use of STXM for quantitatively calculating the organic volume fraction of individual aerosols by applying the calculation to lab-prepared samples. The caveats and limitations for this calculation are shown as well.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1219–1231,Short summary
The abundance of freezing nuclei in water samples is routinely determined by experiments involving the cooling of sample drops and observing the temperatures at which the drops freeze. This is used for characterizing the nucleating abilities of materials in laboratory preparations or to determine the numbers of nucleating particles in rain, snow, river water or other natural waters. The evaluation of drop-freezing experiments in terms of differential nucleus spectra is advocated in the paper.
Ningxin Wang, Spiro D. Jorga, Jeffery R. Pierce, Neil M. Donahue, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6577–6588,Short summary
The interaction of particles with the chamber walls has been a significant source of uncertainty when analyzing results of secondary organic aerosol formation experiments performed in Teflon chambers. We evaluated the performance of several particle wall-loss correction methods for aging experiments of α-pinene ozonolysis products. Experimental procedures are proposed for the characterization of particle losses during different stages of these experiments.
Maciej Leśkiewicz, Miron Kaliszewski, Maksymilian Włodarski, Jarosław Młyńczak, Zygmunt Mierczyk, and Krzysztof Kopczyński
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6259–6270,Short summary
In this study we demonstrate the application of artificial neural networks to the real-time analysis of single-particle fluorescence fingerprints acquired using BARDet (a BioAeRosol Detector). 48 different aerosols including pollens, bacteria, fungi, spores and nonbiological substances were characterized. An entirely new approach to data analysis using a decision tree comprising 22 independent neural networks was discussed. A very high accuracy of aerosol classification in real time resulted.
Simon Ruske, David O. Topping, Virginia E. Foot, Andrew P. Morse, and Martin W. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6203–6230,Short summary
Pollen, bacteria and fungal spores are common in the environment, can have very important implications for public health and may influence the weather. Biological sensors potentially could be used to monitor quantities of these types of particles. However, it is important to transform the measurements from these instruments into counts of these biological particles. The paper tests a variety of approaches for achieving this aim on data collected in a laboratory.
Costa D. Christopoulos, Sarvesh Garimella, Maria A. Zawadowicz, Ottmar Möhler, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5687–5699,Short summary
Compositional analysis of atmospheric and laboratory aerosols is often conducted with mass spectrometry. In this study, machine learning is used to automatically differentiate particles on the basis of chemistry and size. The ability of the machine learning algorithm was then tested on a data set for which the particles were not initially known to judge its ability.
Nicole J. Savage and J. Alex Huffman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4929–4942,Short summary
We show the systematic application of hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC) to comprehensive bioaerosol and non-bioaerosol laboratory data collected with the wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS-4A). This study investigated various input conditions and used individual matchups and computational mixtures of particles; it will help improve clustering results applied to data from the ultraviolet laser and light-induced fluorescence instruments commonly used for bioaerosol research.
Jake Zenker, Kristen N. Collier, Guanglang Xu, Ping Yang, Ezra J. T. Levin, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Paul J. DeMott, and Sarah D. Brooks
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4639–4657,Short summary
We have developed a new method which employs single particle depolarization to determine ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations and to differentiate between ice crystals, water droplets, and aerosols. The method is used to interpret measurements collected using the Texas A&M Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (TAMU CFDC) coupled to a Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarization (CASPOL). This new method extends the range of operating conditions for the CFDC to higher supersaturations.
Matthew Osman, Maria A. Zawadowicz, Sarah B. Das, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4459–4477,Short summary
This study presents the first-time attempt at using time-of-flight single particle mass spectrometry (SPMS) as an emerging online technique for measuring insoluble particles in glacial snow and ice. Using samples from two Greenlandic ice cores, we show that SPMS can constrain the aerodynamic size, composition, and relative abundance of most particulate types on a per-particle basis, reducing the preparation time and resources required of conventional, filter-based particle retrieval methods.
Simon Ruske, David O. Topping, Virginia E. Foot, Paul H. Kaye, Warren R. Stanley, Ian Crawford, Andrew P. Morse, and Martin W. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 695–708,Short summary
Particles such as bacteria, pollen and fungal spores have important implications within the environment and public health sectors. Here we evaluate the performance of various different methods for distinguishing between these different types of particles using a new instrument. We demonstrate that there may be better alternatives to the currently used methods which can be further investigated in future research.
Yan Lyu, Tingting Xu, Xiang Li, Tiantao Cheng, Xin Yang, Xiaomin Sun, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1025–1037,Short summary
This study presents the particle size distribution of PBDEs in the atmosphere of a megacity and evaluates the contribution of size-fractionated PBDEs' deposition in the human respiratory tract.
Matteo Reggente, Ann M. Dillner, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 441–454,Short summary
Organic carbon and elemental carbon are major components of atmospheric PM. Typically they are measured using destructive and relatively expensive methods (e.g., TOR). We aim to reduce the operating costs of large air quality monitoring networks using FT-IR spectra of ambient PTFE filters and PLS regression. We achieve accurate predictions for models (calibrated in 2011) that use samples collected at the same or different sites of the calibration data set and in a different year (2013).
S. S. Steimer, U. K. Krieger, Y.-F. Te, D. M. Lienhard, A. J. Huisman, B. P. Luo, M. Ammann, and T. Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2397–2408,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol is often subject to supersaturated or supercooled conditions where bulk measurements are not possible. Here we demonstrate how measurements using single particle electrodynamic levitation combined with light scattering spectroscopy allow the retrieval of thermodynamic data, optical properties and water diffusivity of such metastable particles even when auxiliary bulk data are not available due to lack of sufficient amounts of sample.
N. Utry, T. Ajtai, M. Pintér, E. Tombácz, E. Illés, Z. Bozóki, and G. Szabó
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 401–410,
A. Quérel, P. Lemaitre, M. Monier, E. Porcheron, A. I. Flossmann, and M. Hervo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1321–1330,
F. Freutel, F. Drewnick, J. Schneider, T. Klimach, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3131–3145,
E. Fuentes and G. McFiggans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 735–757,
C. D. Cappa
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 579–592,
Allan, D. W.: Statistics of atomic frequency standards, P. IEEE, 54, 221–230, https://doi.org/10.1109/PROC.1966.4634, 1966.
Alvarado, M. J., Lonsdale, C. R., Macintyre, H. L., Bian, H., Chin, M., Ridley, D. A., Heald, C. L., Thornhill, K. L., Anderson, B. E., Cubison, M. J., Jimenez, J. L., Kondo, Y., Sahu, L. K., Dibb, J. E., and Wang, C.: Evaluating model parameterizations of submicron aerosol scattering and absorption with in situ data from ARCTAS 2008, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9435–9455, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-9435-2016, 2016.
Anderson, T. L., Covert, D. S., Marshall, S. F., Laucks, M. L., Charlson, R. J., Waggoner, A. P., Ogren, J. A., Caldow, R., Holm, R. L., Quant, F. R., Sem, G. J., Wiedensohler, A., Ahlquist, N. A., and Bates, T. S.: Performance Characteristics of a High-Sensitivity, Three-Wavelength, Total Scatter/Backscatter Nephelometer, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 13, 967–986, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(1996)013<0967:PCOAHS>2.0.CO;2, 1996.
Andrews, E., Sheridan, P. J., and Ogren, J. A.: Seasonal differences in the vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties over rural Oklahoma, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10661–10676, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-10661-2011, 2011.
Andrews, E., Sheridan, P. J., Ogren, J. A., Hageman, D., Jefferson, A., Wendell, J., Alástuey, A., Alados-Arboledas, L., Bergin, M., Ealo, M., Hallar, A. G., Hoffer, A., Kalapov, I., Keywood, M., Kim, J., Kim, S.-W., Kolonjari, F., Labuschagne, C., Lin, N.-H., Macdonald, A., Mayol-Bracero, O. L., McCubbin, I. B., Pandolfi, M., Reisen, F., Sharma, S., Sherman, J. P., Sorribas, M., and Sun, J.: Overview of the NOAA/ESRL Federated Aerosol Network, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 100, 123–135, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0175.1, 2019.
Arnott, W. P., Moosmüller, H., Sheridan, P. J., Ogren, J. A., Raspet, R., Slaton, W. V., Hand, J. L., Kreidenweis, S. M., and Collett, J. L.: Photoacoustic and filter-based ambient aerosol light absorption measurements: Instrument comparisons and the role of relative humidity, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4034, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002165, 2003.
Arnott, W. P., Hamasha, K., Moosmüller, H., Sheridan, P. J., and Ogren, J. A.: Towards Aerosol Light-Absorption Measurements with a 7-Wavelength Aethalometer: Evaluation with a Photoacoustic Instrument and 3-Wavelength Nephelometer, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 39, 17–29, https://doi.org/10.1080/027868290901972, 2005.
Ayers, G. P.: Comment on regression analysis of air quality data, Atmos. Environ., 35, 2423–2425, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00527-6, 2001.
Backman, J., Virkkula, A., Vakkari, V., Beukes, J. P., Van Zyl, P. G., Josipovic, M., Piketh, S., Tiitta, P., Chiloane, K., Petäjä, T., Kulmala, M., and Laakso, L.: Differences in aerosol absorption Ångström exponents between correction algorithms for a particle soot absorption photometer measured on the South African Highveld, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4285–4298, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-7-4285-2014, 2014.
Bergstrom, R. W., Pilewskie, P., Russell, P. B., Redemann, J., Bond, T. C., Quinn, P. K., and Sierau, B.: Spectral absorption properties of atmospheric aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 5937–5943, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-5937-2007, 2007.
Bond, T. C. and Bergstrom, R. W.: Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 40, 27–67, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786820500421521, 2006.
Bond, T. C., Anderson, T. L., and Campbell, D.: Calibration and Intercomparison of Filter-Based Measurements of Visible Light Absorption by Aerosols, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 30, 582–600, https://doi.org/10.1080/027868299304435, 1999.
Boucher, O.: Atmospheric Aerosols, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015.
Cappa, C. D., Lack, D. A., Burkholder, J. B., and Ravishankara, A. R.: Bias in Filter-Based Aerosol Light Absorption Measurements Due to Organic Aerosol Loading: Evidence from Laboratory Measurements, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 42, 1022–1032, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786820802389285, 2008.
Cappa, C. D., Kolesar, K. R., Zhang, X., Atkinson, D. B., Pekour, M. S., Zaveri, R. A., Zelenyuk, A., and Zhang, Q.: Understanding the optical properties of ambient sub- and supermicron particulate matter: results from the CARES 2010 field study in northern California, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6511–6535, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-6511-2016, 2016.
Chen, S., Russell, L. M., Cappa, C. D., Zhang, X., Kleeman, M. J., Kumar, A., Liu, D., and Ramanathan, V.: Comparing black and brown carbon absorption from AERONET and surface measurements at wintertime Fresno, Atmos. Environ., 199, 164–176, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.11.032, 2019.
Collaud Coen, M., Weingartner, E., Apituley, A., Ceburnis, D., Fierz-Schmidhauser, R., Flentje, H., Henzing, J. S., Jennings, S. G., Moerman, M., Petzold, A., Schmid, O., and Baltensperger, U.: Minimizing light absorption measurement artifacts of the Aethalometer: evaluation of five correction algorithms, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 457–474, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-3-457-2010, 2010.
Davies, N. W., Fox, C., Szpek, K., Cotterell, M. I., Taylor, J. W., Allan, J. D., Williams, P. I., Trembath, J., Haywood, J. M., and Langridge, J. M.: Evaluating biases in filter-based aerosol absorption measurements using photoacoustic spectroscopy, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3417–3434, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-3417-2019, 2019.
Drinovec, L., Gregorič, A., Zotter, P., Wolf, R., Bruns, E. A., Prévôt, A. S. H., Petit, J.-E., Favez, O., Sciare, J., Arnold, I. J., Chakrabarty, R. K., Moosmüller, H., Filep, A., and Močnik, G.: The filter-loading effect by ambient aerosols in filter absorption photometers depends on the coating of the sampled particles, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1043–1059, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-1043-2017, 2017.
Fischer, D. A. and Smith, G. D.: A portable, four-wavelength, single-cell photoacoustic spectrometer for ambient aerosol absorption, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 52, 393–406, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786826.2017.1413231, 2018.
Horvath, H.: Atmospheric light absorption – A review, Atmos. Environ. A-Gen., 27, 293–317, https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-1686(93)90104-7, 1993.
Jiang, Y., Yang, J., Gagné, S., Chan, T. W., Thomson, K., Fofie, E., Cary, R. A., Rutherford, D., Comer, B., Swanson, J., Lin, Y., Van Rooy, P., Asa-Awuku, A., Jung, H., Barsanti, K., Karavalakis, G., Cocker, D., Durbin, T. D., Miller, J. W., and Johnson, K. C.: Sources of variance in BC mass measurements from a small marine engine: Influence of the instruments, fuels and loads, Atmos. Environ., 182, 128–137, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.03.008, 2018.
Kirchstetter, T. W. and Novakov, T.: Controlled generation of black carbon particles from a diffusion flame and applications in evaluating black carbon measurement methods, Atmos. Environ., 41, 1874–1888, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.10.067, 2007.
Koss, A. R., Sekimoto, K., Gilman, J. B., Selimovic, V., Coggon, M. M., Zarzana, K. J., Yuan, B., Lerner, B. M., Brown, S. S., Jimenez, J. L., Krechmer, J., Roberts, J. M., Warneke, C., Yokelson, R. J., and de Gouw, J.: Non-methane organic gas emissions from biomass burning: identification, quantification, and emission factors from PTR-ToF during the FIREX 2016 laboratory experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3299–3319, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-3299-2018, 2018.
Lack, D. A., Lovejoy, E. R., Baynard, T., Pettersson, A., and Ravishankara, A. R.: Aerosol Absorption Measurement using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: Sensitivity, Calibration, and Uncertainty Developments, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 40, 697–708, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786820600803917, 2006.
Lack, D. A., Cappa, C. D., Covert, D. S., Baynard, T., Massoli, P., Sierau, B., Bates, T. S., Quinn, P. K., Lovejoy, E. R., and Ravishankara, A. R.: Bias in Filter-Based Aerosol Light Absorption Measurements Due to Organic Aerosol Loading: Evidence from Ambient Measurements, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 42, 1033–1041, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786820802389277, 2008a.
Lack, D. A., Lerner, B., Granier, C., Baynard, T., Lovejoy, E., Massoli, P., Ravishankara, A. R., and Williams, E.: Light absorbing carbon emissions from commercial shipping, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L13815, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033906, 2008b.
Lack, D. A., Moosmüller, H., McMeeking, G. R., Chakrabarty, R. K., and Baumgardner, D.: Characterizing elemental, equivalent black, and refractory black carbon aerosol particles: A review of techniques, their limitations and uncertainties, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 406, 99–122, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-013-7402-3, 2014.
Laing, J. R., Jaffe, D. A., and Hee, J. R.: Physical and optical properties of aged biomass burning aerosol from wildfires in Siberia and the Western USA at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15185–15197, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-15185-2016, 2016.
Levenberg, K.: A method for the solution of certain non-linear problems in least squares, Q. Appl. Math., 2, 164–168, 1944.
Lewis, K., Arnott, W. P., Moosmüller, H., and Wold, C. E.: Strong spectral variation of biomass smoke light absorption and single scattering albedo observed with a novel dual-wavelength photoacoustic instrument, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, 1–14, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009699, 2008.
Li, H., Lamb, K. D., Schwarz, J. P., Selimovic, V., Yokelson, R. J., McMeeking, G. R., and May, A. A.: Inter-comparison of black carbon measurement methods for simulated open biomass burning emissions, Atmos. Environ., 206, 156–169, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.03.010, 2019.
Li, H., McMeeking G., and May A.: A New Correction Algorithm Applicable to any Filter-Based Absorption Photometers (Version 1.1), Zenodo, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3742342, 2020.
Lim, S., Lee, M., Kim, S.-W., and Laj, P.: Sulfate alters aerosol absorption properties in East Asian outflow, Sci. Rep.-UK, 8, 5172, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23021-1, 2018.
Liu, S., Aiken, A. C., Arata, C., Dubey, M. K., Stockwell, C. E., Yokelson, R. J., Stone, E. A., Jayarathne, T., Robinson, A. L., DeMott, P. J., and Kreidenweis, S. M.: Aerosol single scattering albedo dependence on biomass combustion efficiency: Laboratory and field studies, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 742–748, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GL058392, 2014.
McMeeking, G. R., Fortner, E., Onasch, T. B., Taylor, J. W., Flynn, M., Coe, H., and Kreidenweis, S. M.: Impacts of nonrefractory material on light absorption by aerosols emitted from biomass burning, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 12272–12286, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD021750, 2014.
Moosmüller, H., Chakrabarty, R. K., and Arnott, W. P.: Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: A review, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 110, 844–878, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.02.035, 2009.
Moteki, N., Kondo, Y., and Nakamura, S.: Method to measure refractive indices of small nonspherical particles: Application to black carbon particles, J. Aerosol Sci., 41, 513–521, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2010.02.013, 2010.
Müller, T., Henzing, J. S., de Leeuw, G., Wiedensohler, A., Alastuey, A., Angelov, H., Bizjak, M., Collaud Coen, M., Engström, J. E., Gruening, C., Hillamo, R., Hoffer, A., Imre, K., Ivanow, P., Jennings, G., Sun, J. Y., Kalivitis, N., Karlsson, H., Komppula, M., Laj, P., Li, S.-M., Lunder, C., Marinoni, A., Martins dos Santos, S., Moerman, M., Nowak, A., Ogren, J. A., Petzold, A., Pichon, J. M., Rodriquez, S., Sharma, S., Sheridan, P. J., Teinilä, K., Tuch, T., Viana, M., Virkkula, A., Weingartner, E., Wilhelm, R., and Wang, Y. Q.: Characterization and intercomparison of aerosol absorption photometers: result of two intercomparison workshops, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 245–268, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-245-2011, 2011a.
Müller, T., Laborde, M., Kassell, G., and Wiedensohler, A.: Design and performance of a three-wavelength LED-based total scatter and backscatter integrating nephelometer, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 1291–1303, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-1291-2011, 2011b.
Müller, T., Virkkula, A., and Ogren, J. A.: Constrained two-stream algorithm for calculating aerosol light absorption coefficient from the Particle Soot Absorption Photometer, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4049–4070, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-7-4049-2014, 2014.
Nakayama, T., Kondo, Y., Moteki, N., Sahu, L. K., Kinase, T., Kita, K., and Matsumi, Y.: Size-dependent correction factors for absorption measurements using filter-based photometers: PSAP and COSMOS, J. Aerosol Sci., 41, 333–343, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2010.01.004, 2010.
Nakayama, T., Suzuki, H., Kagamitani, S., Ikeda, Y., Uchiyama, A., and Matsumi, Y.: Characterization of a Three Wavelength Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS-3) and a Photoacoustic Extinctiometer (PAX), J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 93, 285–308, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2015-016, 2015.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Chemical Sciences Division): Fire Lab 2016, available at: https://esrl.noaa.gov/csl/projects/firex/firelab/, last access: 26 May 2020.
Ogren, J. A.: Comment on “ Calibration and Intercomparison of Filter-Based Measurements of Visible Light Absorption by Aerosols”, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 44, 589–591, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786826.2010.482111, 2010.
Ogren, J. A., Wendell, J., Andrews, E., and Sheridan, P. J.: Continuous light absorption photometer for long-term studies, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4805–4818, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-4805-2017, 2017.
Olson, M. R., Victoria Garcia, M., Robinson, M. A., Van Rooy, P., Dietenberger, M. A., Bergin, M., and Schauer, J. J.: Investigation of black and brown carbon multiple-wavelength-dependent light absorption from biomass and fossil fuel combustion source emissions, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 6682–6697, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022970, 2015.
Ogren, J. A., Wendell, J., Andrews, E., and Sheridan, P. J.: Continuous light absorption photometer for long-term studies, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4805–4818, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-4805-2017, 2017.
Rajesh, T. A. and Ramachandran, S.: Black carbon aerosol mass concentration, absorption and single scattering albedo from single and dual spot aethalometers: Radiative implications, J. Aerosol Sci., 119, 77–90, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2018.02.001, 2018.
Schmeisser, L., Andrews, E., Ogren, J. A., Sheridan, P., Jefferson, A., Sharma, S., Kim, J. E., Sherman, J. P., Sorribas, M., Kalapov, I., Arsov, T., Angelov, C., Mayol-Bracero, O. L., Labuschagne, C., Kim, S.-W., Hoffer, A., Lin, N.-H., Chia, H.-P., Bergin, M., Sun, J., Liu, P., and Wu, H.: Classifying aerosol type using in situ surface spectral aerosol optical properties, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12097–12120, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-12097-2017, 2017.
Schmid, O., Artaxo, P., Arnott, W. P., Chand, D., Gatti, L. V., Frank, G. P., Hoffer, A., Schnaiter, M., and Andreae, M. O.: Spectral light absorption by ambient aerosols influenced by biomass burning in the Amazon Basin. I: Comparison and field calibration of absorption measurement techniques, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3443–3462, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-3443-2006, 2006.
Schwarz, J. P., Spackman, J. R., Fahey, D. W., Gao, R. S., Lohmann, U., Stier, P., Watts, L. A., Thomson, D. S., Lack, D. A., Pfister, L., Mahoney, M. J., Baumgardner, D., Wilson, J. C., and Reeves, J. M.: Coatings and their enhancement of black carbon light absorption in the tropical atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D03203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009042, 2008.
Sedlacek, A. J.: DOE/SC-ARM-TR-156 Aethalometer™ Instrument Handbook, DOE Office of Science Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, https://doi.org/10.2172/1251391, 2016.
Selimovic, V., Yokelson, R. J., Warneke, C., Roberts, J. M., de Gouw, J., Reardon, J., and Griffith, D. W. T.: Aerosol optical properties and trace gas emissions by PAX and OP-FTIR for laboratory-simulated western US wildfires during FIREX, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2929–2948, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-2929-2018, 2018.
Sheridan, P. J., Arnott, W. P., Ogren, J. A., Andrews, E., Atkinson, D. B., Covert, D. S., Moosmüller, H., Petzold, A., Schmid, B., Strawa, A. W., Varma, R., and Virkkula, A.: The Reno Aerosol Optics Study: An Evaluation of Aerosol Absorption Measurement Methods, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 39, 1–16, https://doi.org/10.1080/027868290901891, 2005.
Sherman, J. P., Sheridan, P. J., Ogren, J. A., Andrews, E., Hageman, D., Schmeisser, L., Jefferson, A., and Sharma, S.: A multi-year study of lower tropospheric aerosol variability and systematic relationships from four North American regions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12487–12517, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-12487-2015, 2015.
Springston, S. R.: DOE/SC-ARM-TR-176 Radiance Research Particle Soot/Absorption Photometer Instrument Handbook, DOE Office of Science Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (United States), 2016.
Subramanian, R., Roden, C. A., Boparai, P., and Bond, T. C.: Yellow Beads and Missing Particles: Trouble Ahead for Filter-Based Absorption Measurements, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 41, 630–637, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786820701344589, 2007.
Vignati, E., Karl, M., Krol, M., Wilson, J., Stier, P., and Cavalli, F.: Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 2595–2611, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-2595-2010, 2010.
Virkkula, A.: Correction of the Calibration of the 3-wavelength Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (3λ PSAP), Aerosol Sci. Tech., 44, 706–712, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786826.2010.482110, 2010.
Virkkula, A., Ahlquist, N. C., Covert, D. S., Arnott, W. P., Sheridan, P. J., Quinn, P. K., and Coffman, D. J.: Modification, calibration and a field test of an instrument for measuring light absorption by particles, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 39, 68–83, https://doi.org/10.1080/027868290901963, 2005.
Virkkula, A., Mäkelä, T., Hillamo, R., Yli-Tuomi, T., Hirsikko, A., Hämeri, K., and Koponen, I. K.: A simple procedure for correcting loading effects of aethalometer data, J. Air Waste Manage., 57, 1214–1222, https://doi.org/10.3155/1047-32220.127.116.114, 2007.
Virkkula, A., Chi, X., Ding, A., Shen, Y., Nie, W., Qi, X., Zheng, L., Huang, X., Xie, Y., Wang, J., Petäjä, T., and Kulmala, M.: On the interpretation of the loading correction of the aethalometer, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4415–4427, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-8-4415-2015, 2015.
Wang, X., Heald, C. L., Sedlacek, A. J., de Sá, S. S., Martin, S. T., Alexander, M. L., Watson, T. B., Aiken, A. C., Springston, S. R., and Artaxo, P.: Deriving brown carbon from multiwavelength absorption measurements: method and application to AERONET and Aethalometer observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12733–12752, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-12733-2016, 2016.
Weingartner, E., Saathoff, H., Schnaiter, M., Streit, N., Bitnar, B., and Baltensperger, U.: Absorption of light by soot particles: Determination of the absorption coefficient by means of aethalometers, J. Aerosol Sci., 34, 1445–1463, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-8502(03)00359-8, 2003.
We present a new correction algorithm that addresses biases in measurements of aerosol light absorption by filter-based photometers, incorporating the transmission of light through the filter and some aerosol optical properties. It was developed using biomass burning aerosols and tested using rural ambient aerosols. This new algorithm is applicable to any filter-based photometer, resulting in good agreement between different colocated instruments in both the laboratory and the field.
We present a new correction algorithm that addresses biases in measurements of aerosol light...