Articles | Volume 14, issue 8
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Something fishy going on? Evaluating the Poisson hypothesis for rainfall estimation using intervalometers: results from an experiment in Tanzania
Didier de Villiers
Department of Water Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands
Department of Geoscience & Remote Sensing, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands
Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis
Department of Water Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands
Department of Water Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands
Nick van de Giesen
No articles found.
Jessica A. Eisma, Gerrit Schoups, Jeffrey C. Davids, and Nick van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 3565–3579,Short summary
Citizen scientists often submit high-quality data, but a robust method for assessing data quality is needed. This study develops a semi-automated program that characterizes the mistakes made by citizen scientists by grouping them into communities of citizen scientists with similar mistake tendencies and flags potentially erroneous data for further review. This work may help citizen science programs assess the quality of their data and can inform training practices.
Luuk D. van der Valk, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, Rolf W. Hut, Aart Overeem, Bas Walraven, and Remko Uijlenhoet
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).Short summary
Microwave links, often part of mobile phone networks, can be used to measure rainfall along the link path by determining the signal loss caused by rainfall. We use high-frequency data of multiple microwave links to recreate commonly used sampling strategies. For time intervals up to 1 min, the influence of sampling strategies on estimated rainfall intensities is relatively little, while for intervals longer than 5–15 min, the sampling strategy can have significant influences on the estimates.
Christos Gatidis, Marc Schleiss, and Christine Unal
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
A common method to retrieve important information about the microphysical structure of rain (DSD retrievals) requires a constrained relationship between the drop size distribution parameters. The most widely accepted empirical relationship is between μ and Λ. The relationship shows variability across the different types of rainfall (convective or stratiform). The new proposed power-law model to represent the μ-Λ relation provide a better physical interpretation of the relationship coefficients.
Cynthia Maan, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, and Bas J. H. van de Wiel
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 2341–2355,Short summary
Their flexible growth provides the plants with a strong ability to adapt and develop resilience to droughts and climate change. But this adaptability is badly included in crop and climate models. To model plant development in changing environments, we need to include the survival strategies of plants. Based on experimental data, we set up a simple model for soil-moisture-driven root growth. The model performance suggests that soil moisture is a key parameter determining root growth.
Jerom P.M. Aerts, Jannis M. Hoch, Gemma Coxon, Nick C. van de Giesen, and Rolf W. Hut
Hydrological model performance involves comparing simulated states and fluxes with observed counterparts. Often, it is overlooked that there is inherent uncertainty surrounding the observations. This can significantly impact the results. In this publication, we emphasize the significance of accounting for observation uncertainty in model comparison. We propose a practical method that is applicable for any observational time series with available uncertainty estimations.
Henry Zimba, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, Kawawa Banda, Bart Schilperoort, Nick van de Giesen, Imasiku Nyambe, and Hubert H. G. Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 1695–1722,Short summary
Miombo woodland plants continue to lose water even during the driest part of the year. This appears to be facilitated by the adapted features such as deep rooting (beyond 5 m) with access to deep soil moisture, potentially even ground water. It appears the trend and amount of water that the plants lose is correlated more to the available energy. This loss of water in the dry season by miombo woodland plants appears to be incorrectly captured by satellite-based evaporation estimates.
Henry Zimba, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, Kawawa Banda, Petra Hulsman, Nick van de Giesen, Imasiku Nyambe, and Hubert H. G. Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for HESSShort summary
In the dry season some Miombo plant species may have no leaves while several others are full of leaves and have access to water in deep soils and within the plants. Therefore, the plants continue to lose water to the atmosphere as they interact with the available energy and water. All the six satellite-based evaporation estimates compared in this study underestimates this plant water loss because they appear to have difficulties capturing the unique dry season Miombo plants attributes.
Pau Wiersma, Jerom Aerts, Harry Zekollari, Markus Hrachowitz, Niels Drost, Matthias Huss, Edwin H. Sutanudjaja, and Rolf Hut
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5971–5986,Short summary
We test whether coupling a global glacier model (GloGEM) with a global hydrological model (PCR-GLOBWB 2) leads to a more realistic glacier representation and to improved basin runoff simulations across 25 large-scale basins. The coupling does lead to improved glacier representation, mainly by accounting for glacier flow and net glacier mass loss, and to improved basin runoff simulations, mostly in strongly glacier-influenced basins, which is where the coupling has the most impact.
Christos Gatidis, Marc Schleiss, and Christine Unal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4951–4969,Short summary
Knowledge of the raindrop size distribution (DSD) is crucial for understanding rainfall microphysics and quantifying uncertainty in quantitative precipitation estimates. In this study a general overview of the DSD retrieval approach from a polarimetric radar is discussed, highlighting sensitivity to potential sources of errors, either directly linked to the radar measurements or indirectly through the critical modeling assumptions behind the method such as the shape–size (μ–Λ) relationship.
Jerom P. M. Aerts, Rolf W. Hut, Nick C. van de Giesen, Niels Drost, Willem J. van Verseveld, Albrecht H. Weerts, and Pieter Hazenberg
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4407–4430,Short summary
In recent years gridded hydrological modelling moved into the realm of hyper-resolution modelling (<10 km). In this study, we investigate the effect of varying grid-cell sizes for the wflow_sbm hydrological model. We used a large sample of basins from the CAMELS data set to test the effect that varying grid-cell sizes has on the simulation of streamflow at the basin outlet. Results show that there is no single best grid-cell size for modelling streamflow throughout the domain.
Rolf Hut, Niels Drost, Nick van de Giesen, Ben van Werkhoven, Banafsheh Abdollahi, Jerom Aerts, Thomas Albers, Fakhereh Alidoost, Bouwe Andela, Jaro Camphuijsen, Yifat Dzigan, Ronald van Haren, Eric Hutton, Peter Kalverla, Maarten van Meersbergen, Gijs van den Oord, Inti Pelupessy, Stef Smeets, Stefan Verhoeven, Martine de Vos, and Berend Weel
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5371–5390,Short summary
With the eWaterCycle platform, we are providing the hydrological community with a platform to conduct their research that is fully compatible with the principles of both open science and FAIR science. The eWatercyle platform gives easy access to well-known hydrological models, big datasets and example experiments. Using eWaterCycle hydrologists can easily compare the results from different models, couple models and do more complex hydrological computational research.
Henry Zimba, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, Kawawa Banda, Petra Hulsman, Nick van de Giesen, Imasiku Nyambe, and Hubert Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
We compare performance of evaporation models in the Luangwa Basin located in a semi-arid and complex Miombo ecosystem in Africa. Miombo plants changes colour, drop off leaves and acquire new leaves during the dry season. In addition, the plant roots go deep in the soil and appear to access groundwater. Results show that evaporation models with structure and process that do not capture this unique plant structure and behaviour appears to have difficulties to correctly estimating evaporation.
Paul C. Vermunt, Susan C. Steele-Dunne, Saeed Khabbazan, Jasmeet Judge, and Nick C. van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1223–1241,Short summary
This study investigates the use of hydrometeorological sensors to reconstruct variations in internal vegetation water content of corn and relates these variations to the sub-daily behaviour of polarimetric L-band backscatter. The results show significant sensitivity of backscatter to the daily cycles of vegetation water content and dew, particularly on dry days and for vertical and cross-polarizations, which demonstrates the potential for using radar for studies on vegetation water dynamics.
Punpim Puttaraksa Mapiam, Monton Methaprayun, Thom Bogaard, Gerrit Schoups, and Marie-Claire Ten Veldhuis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 775–794,Short summary
The density of rain gauge networks plays an important role in radar rainfall bias correction. In this work, we aimed to assess the extent to which daily rainfall observations from a dense network of citizen scientists improve the accuracy of hourly radar rainfall estimates in the Tubma Basin, Thailand. Results show that citizen rain gauges significantly enhance the performance of radar rainfall bias adjustment up to a range of about 40 km from the center of the citizen rain gauge network.
Caitlyn A. Hall, Sheila M. Saia, Andrea L. Popp, Nilay Dogulu, Stanislaus J. Schymanski, Niels Drost, Tim van Emmerik, and Rolf Hut
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 647–664,Short summary
Impactful open, accessible, reusable, and reproducible hydrologic research practices are being embraced by individuals and the community, but taking the plunge can seem overwhelming. We present the Open Hydrology Principles and Practical Guide to help hydrologists move toward open science, research, and education. We discuss the benefits and how hydrologists can overcome common challenges. We encourage all hydrologists to join the open science community (https://open-hydrology.github.io).
Vassilis Aschonitis, Dimos Touloumidis, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, and Miriam Coenders-Gerrits
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 163–177,Short summary
This work provides a global database of correction coefficients for improving the performance of the temperature-based Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration formula and aridity indices (e.g., UNEP, Thornthwaite) that make use of this formula. The coefficients were produced using as a benchmark the ASCE-standardized reference evapotranspiration formula (formerly FAO-56) that requires temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity data.
Wouter Dorigo, Irene Himmelbauer, Daniel Aberer, Lukas Schremmer, Ivana Petrakovic, Luca Zappa, Wolfgang Preimesberger, Angelika Xaver, Frank Annor, Jonas Ardö, Dennis Baldocchi, Marco Bitelli, Günter Blöschl, Heye Bogena, Luca Brocca, Jean-Christophe Calvet, J. Julio Camarero, Giorgio Capello, Minha Choi, Michael C. Cosh, Nick van de Giesen, Istvan Hajdu, Jaakko Ikonen, Karsten H. Jensen, Kasturi Devi Kanniah, Ileen de Kat, Gottfried Kirchengast, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Jenni Kyrouac, Kristine Larson, Suxia Liu, Alexander Loew, Mahta Moghaddam, José Martínez Fernández, Cristian Mattar Bader, Renato Morbidelli, Jan P. Musial, Elise Osenga, Michael A. Palecki, Thierry Pellarin, George P. Petropoulos, Isabella Pfeil, Jarrett Powers, Alan Robock, Christoph Rüdiger, Udo Rummel, Michael Strobel, Zhongbo Su, Ryan Sullivan, Torbern Tagesson, Andrej Varlagin, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Jeffrey Walker, Jun Wen, Fred Wenger, Jean Pierre Wigneron, Mel Woods, Kun Yang, Yijian Zeng, Xiang Zhang, Marek Zreda, Stephan Dietrich, Alexander Gruber, Peter van Oevelen, Wolfgang Wagner, Klaus Scipal, Matthias Drusch, and Roberto Sabia
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5749–5804,Short summary
The International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) is a community-based open-access data portal for soil water measurements taken at the ground and is accessible at https://ismn.earth. Over 1000 scientific publications and thousands of users have made use of the ISMN. The scope of this paper is to inform readers about the data and functionality of the ISMN and to provide a review of the scientific progress facilitated through the ISMN with the scope to shape future research and operations.
Anna Špačková, Vojtěch Bareš, Martin Fencl, Marc Schleiss, Joël Jaffrain, Alexis Berne, and Jörg Rieckermann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4219–4240,Short summary
An original dataset of microwave signal attenuation and rainfall variables was collected during 1-year-long field campaign. The monitored 38 GHz dual-polarized commercial microwave link with a short sampling resolution (4 s) was accompanied by five disdrometers and three rain gauges along its path. Antenna radomes were temporarily shielded for approximately half of the campaign period to investigate antenna wetting impacts.
Moctar Dembélé, Bettina Schaefli, Nick van de Giesen, and Grégoire Mariéthoz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5379–5406,Short summary
This study evaluates 102 combinations of rainfall and temperature datasets from satellite and reanalysis sources as input to a fully distributed hydrological model. The model is recalibrated for each input dataset, and the outputs are evaluated with streamflow, evaporation, soil moisture and terrestrial water storage data. Results show that no single rainfall or temperature dataset consistently ranks first in reproducing the spatio-temporal variability of all hydrological processes.
Rolf Hut, Thanda Thatoe Nwe Win, and Thom Bogaard
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 435–442,Short summary
GPS drifters that float down rivers are important tools in studying rivers, but they can be expensive. Recently, both GPS receivers and cellular modems have become available at lower prices to tinkering scientists due to the rise of open hardware and the Arduino. We provide detailed instructions on how to build a low-power GPS drifter with local storage and a cellular model that we tested in a fieldwork in Myanmar. These instructions allow fellow geoscientists to recreate the device.
Justus G. V. van Ramshorst, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, Bart Schilperoort, Bas J. H. van de Wiel, Jonathan G. Izett, John S. Selker, Chad W. Higgins, Hubert H. G. Savenije, and Nick C. van de Giesen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5423–5439,Short summary
In this work we present experimental results of a novel actively heated fiber-optic (AHFO) observational wind-probing technique. We utilized a controlled wind-tunnel setup to assess both the accuracy and precision of AHFO under a range of operational conditions (wind speed, angles of attack and temperature differences). AHFO has the potential to provide high-resolution distributed observations of wind speeds, allowing for better spatial characterization of fine-scale processes.
Martine G. de Vos, Wilco Hazeleger, Driss Bari, Jörg Behrens, Sofiane Bendoukha, Irene Garcia-Marti, Ronald van Haren, Sue Ellen Haupt, Rolf Hut, Fredrik Jansson, Andreas Mueller, Peter Neilley, Gijs van den Oord, Inti Pelupessy, Paolo Ruti, Martin G. Schultz, and Jeremy Walton
Geosci. Commun., 3, 191–201,Short summary
At the 14th IEEE International eScience Conference domain specialists and data and computer scientists discussed the road towards open weather and climate science. Open science offers manifold opportunities but goes beyond sharing code and data. Besides domain-specific technical challenges, we observed that the main challenges are non-technical and impact the system of science as a whole.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3699–3723,Short summary
A new way to downscale rainfall fields based on the notion of equal-volume areas (EVAs) is proposed. Experiments conducted on 100 rainfall events in the Netherlands show that the EVA method outperforms classical methods based on fixed grid cell sizes, producing fields with more realistic spatial structures. The main novelty of the method lies in its adaptive sampling strategy, which avoids many of the mathematical challenges associated with the presence of zero rainfall values.
Marc Schleiss, Jonas Olsson, Peter Berg, Tero Niemi, Teemu Kokkonen, Søren Thorndahl, Rasmus Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk Nielsen, Denica Bozhinova, and Seppo Pulkkinen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3157–3188,Short summary
A multinational assessment of radar's ability to capture heavy rain events is conducted. In total, six different radar products in Denmark, the Netherlands, Finland and Sweden were considered. Results show a fair agreement, with radar underestimating by 17 %-44 % on average compared with gauges. Despite being adjusted for bias, five of six radar products still exhibited strong conditional biases with intensities of 1–2% per mm/h. Median peak intensity bias was significantly higher, reaching 44 %–67%.
Rolf Hut, Casper Albers, Sam Illingworth, and Chris Skinner
Geosci. Commun., 2, 117–124,Short summary
Game worlds in modern computer games, while they include very Earth-like landscapes, are ultimately fake. Since games can be used for learning, we wondered if people pick up wrong information from games. Using a survey we tested if people with a background in geoscience are better than people without such a background at distinguishing if game landscapes are realistic. We found that geoscientists are significantly better at this, but the difference is small and overall everyone is good at it.
Jeffrey C. Davids, Martine M. Rutten, Anusha Pandey, Nischal Devkota, Wessel David van Oyen, Rajaram Prajapati, and Nick van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1045–1065,Short summary
Wise management of water resources requires data. Nevertheless, the amount of water data being collected continues to decline. We evaluated potential citizen science approaches for measuring flows of headwater streams and springs. After selecting salt dilution as the preferred approach, we partnered with Nepali students to cost-effectively measure flows and water quality with smartphones at 264 springs and streams which provide crucial water supplies to the rapidly expanding Kathmandu Valley.
Gemma J. Venhuizen, Rolf Hut, Casper Albers, Cathelijne R. Stoof, and Ionica Smeets
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 393–403,Short summary
Do experts attach the same meaning as laypeople to terms often used in hydrology such as "river", "flooding" and "downstream"? In this study a survey was completed by 34 experts and 119 laypeople to answer this question. We found that there are some profound differences between experts and laypeople: words like "river" and "river basin" turn out to have a different interpretation between the two groups. However, when using pictures there is much more agreement between the groups.
Tim van Emmerik, Susan Steele-Dunne, Pierre Gentine, Rafael S. Oliveira, Paulo Bittencourt, Fernanda Barros, and Nick van de Giesen
Biogeosciences, 15, 6439–6449,Short summary
Trees are very important for the water and carbon cycles. Climate and weather models often assume constant vegetation parameters because good measurements are missing. We used affordable accelerometers to measure tree sway of 19 trees in the Amazon rainforest. We show that trees respond very differently to the same weather conditions, which means that vegetation parameters are dynamic. With our measurements trees can be accounted for more realistically, improving climate and weather models.
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 955–968,Short summary
The present study aims at explaining how intermittency (i.e., the alternation of dry and rainy periods) affects the rate at which precipitation extremes increase with temperature. Using high-resolution rainfall data from 99 stations in the United States, we show that at scales beyond a few hours, intermittency causes rainfall extremes to deviate substantially from Clausius–Clapeyron. A new model is proposed to better represent and predict these changes across scales.
Stefanie R. Lutz, Andrea Popp, Tim van Emmerik, Tom Gleeson, Liz Kalaugher, Karsten Möbius, Tonie Mudde, Brett Walton, Rolf Hut, Hubert Savenije, Louise J. Slater, Anna Solcerova, Cathelijne R. Stoof, and Matthias Zink
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3589–3599,Short summary
Media play a key role in the communication between scientists and the general public. However, the interaction between scientists and journalists is not always straightforward. In this opinion paper, we present insights from hydrologists and journalists into the benefits, aftermath and potential pitfalls of science–media interaction. We aim to encourage scientists to participate in the diverse and evolving media landscape, and we call on the scientific community to support scientists who do so.
Elena Cristiano, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, Santiago Gaitan, Susana Ochoa Rodriguez, and Nick van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2425–2447,Short summary
In this work we investigate the influence rainfall and catchment scales have on hydrological response. This problem is quite relevant in urban areas, where the response is fast due to the high degree of imperviousness. We presented a new approach to classify rainfall variability in space and time and use this classification to investigate rainfall aggregation effects on urban hydrological response. This classification allows the spatial extension of the main core of the storm to be identified.
Koen Hilgersom, Marcel Zijlema, and Nick van de Giesen
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 521–540,Short summary
This study models the local inflow of groundwater at the bottom of a stream with large density gradients between the groundwater and surface water. Modelling salt and heat transport in a water body is very challenging, as it requires large computation times. Due to the circular local groundwater inflow and a negligible stream discharge, we assume axisymmetry around the inflow, which is easily implemented in an existing model, largely reduces the computation times, and still performs accurately.
Hubertus M. Coerver, Martine M. Rutten, and Nick C. van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 831–851,Short summary
Global hydrological models aim to model hydrological processes, like flows in a river, on a global scale, as opposed to traditional models which are regional. A big challenge in creating these models is the inclusion of impacts on the hydrological cycle caused by humans, for example by the operation of large (hydropower) dams. The presented study investigates a new way to include these impacts by dams into global hydrological models.
Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, Zhengzheng Zhou, Long Yang, Shuguang Liu, and James Smith
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 417–436,Short summary
The effect of storm scale and movement on runoff flows in urban catchments remains poorly understood due to the complexity of urban land use and man-made infrastructure. In this study, interactions among rainfall, urbanisation and peak flows were analyzed based on 15 years of radar rainfall and flow observations. We found that flow-path networks strongly smoothed rainfall peaks. Unexpectedly, the storm position relative to impervious cover within the basins had little effect on flow peaks.
Christian Bouwens, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, Marc Schleiss, Xin Tian, and Jerôme Schepers
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Urban drainage systems are challenged by both urbanization and climate change, intensifying flooding impacts by rainfall. We performed this study to better understand and predict this process. The paper provides an approach to analyze the functioning of an urban drainage system without the need to run hydrodynamic models. Rainfall thresholds for urban flood prediction were derived, which surprisingly are only approximately half of the theoretical drainage system design capacity.
Abdellah Ichiba, Auguste Gires, Ioulia Tchiguirinskaia, Daniel Schertzer, Philippe Bompard, and Marie-Claire Ten Veldhuis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 331–350,Short summary
This paper proposes a two-step investigation to illustrate the extent of scale effects in urban hydrology. First, fractal tools are used to highlight the scale dependency observed within GIS data inputted in urban hydrological models. Then an intensive multi-scale modelling work was carried out to confirm effects on model performances. The model was implemented at 17 spatial resolutions ranging from 100 to 5 m. Results allow the understanding of scale challenges in hydrology modelling.
Natalie C. Ceperley, Theophile Mande, Nick van de Giesen, Scott Tyler, Hamma Yacouba, and Marc B. Parlange
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4149–4167,Short summary
We relate land cover (savanna forest and agriculture) to evaporation in Burkina Faso, west Africa. We observe more evaporation and temperature movement over the savanna forest in the headwater area relative to the agricultural section of the watershed. We find that the fraction of available energy converted to evaporation relates to vegetation cover and soil moisture. From the results, evaporation can be calculated where ground-based measurements are lacking, frequently the case across Africa.
Matthieu Spekkers, Viktor Rözer, Annegret Thieken, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, and Heidi Kreibich
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1337–1355,
Elena Cristiano, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, and Nick van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3859–3878,Short summary
In the last decades, new instruments were developed to measure rainfall and hydrological processes at high resolution. Weather radars are used, for example, to measure how rainfall varies in space and time. At the same time, new models were proposed to reproduce and predict hydrological response, in order to prevent flooding in urban areas. This paper presents a review of our current knowledge of rainfall and hydrological processes in urban areas, focusing on their variability in time and space.
Auguste Gires, Ioulia Tchiguirinskaia, Daniel Schertzer, Susana Ochoa-Rodriguez, Patrick Willems, Abdellah Ichiba, Li-Pen Wang, Rui Pina, Johan Van Assel, Guendalina Bruni, Damian Murla Tuyls, and Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2361–2375,Short summary
Data from 10 urban or peri-urban catchments located in five EU countries are used to analyze the imperviousness distribution and sewer network geometry. Consistent scale invariant features are retrieved for both (fractal dimensions can be defined), which enables to define a level of urbanization. Imperviousness representation in operational model is also found to exhibit scale-invariant features (even multifractality). The research was carried out as part of the UE INTERREG IV RainGain project.
Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis and Marc Schleiss
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1991–2013,Short summary
In this paper we analysed flow measurements from 17 watersheds in a (semi-)urban region, to characterise flow patterns according to basin features. Instead of sampling flows at fixed time intervals, we looked at how fast given amounts of flow were accumulated. By doing so, we could identify patterns of flow regulation in urban streams and quantify flashiness of hydrological response. We were able to show that in this region, higher urbanisation was clearly associated with lower basin flashiness.
Søren Thorndahl, Thomas Einfalt, Patrick Willems, Jesper Ellerbæk Nielsen, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, Karsten Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Michael R. Rasmussen, and Peter Molnar
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1359–1380,Short summary
This paper reviews how weather radar data can be used in urban hydrological applications. It focuses on three areas of research: (1) temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data, (2) rainfall estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Moreover, the paper provides examples of urban hydrological applications which can benefit from radar rainfall data in comparison to tradition rain gauge measurements of rainfall.
Rolf Hut, Niels Drost, Maarten van Meersbergen, Edwin Sutanudjaja, Marc Bierkens, and Nick van de Giesen
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
A system that predicts the amount of water flowing in each river on earth, 9 days ahead, is build using existing parts of open source computer code build by different researchers in other projects. The glue between all pre-existing parts are all open interfaces which means that the pieces system click together like a house of LEGOs. It is easy to remove a piece (a brick) and replace it with another, improved, piece. The resulting predictions are available online at forecast.ewatercycle.org
Rolf Hut, Anne M. Land-Zandstra, Ionica Smeets, and Cathelijne R. Stoof
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2507–2518,Short summary
To help geo-scientists prepare for TV appearances, we review the scientific literature on effective science communication related to TV. We identify six main themes: scientist motivation, target audience, narratives and storytelling, jargon and information transfer, relationship between scientists and journalists, and stereotypes of scientists on TV. We provide a detailed case study as illustration for each theme.
Koen Hilgersom, Tim van Emmerik, Anna Solcerova, Wouter Berghuijs, John Selker, and Nick van de Giesen
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 151–162,Short summary
Fibre optic distributed temperature sensing allows one to measure temperature patterns along a fibre optic cable with resolutions down to 25 cm. In geosciences, we sometimes wrap the cable to a coil to measure temperature at even smaller scales. We show that coils with narrow bends affect the measured temperatures. This also holds for the object to which the coil is attached, when heated by solar radiation. We therefore recommend the necessity to carefully design such distributed temperature probes.
Rolf Hut, Scott Tyler, and Tim van Emmerik
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 45–51,Short summary
Temperature-sensor-incorporated waders worn by the public can give scientists an additional source of information on stream water-groundwater interaction. A pair of waders was equipped with a thermistor and calibrated in the lab. Field tests in a deep polder ditch with a known localized groundwater contribution showed that the waders are capable of identifying the boil location. This can be used to decide where the most interesting places are to do more detailed and more expensive research.
K. E. R. Pramana, M. W. Ertsen, and N. C. van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
J. Hoogeveen, J.-M. Faurès, L. Peiser, J. Burke, and N. van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3829–3844,Short summary
GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by FAO to assess water use in irrigated agriculture, the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed high-resolution data sets that are consistent at global level and is calibrated and validated against information published in global databases. The paper describes methodology, input and output data, calibration and validation of the model.
S. Gaitan and J. A. E. ten Veldhuis
Proc. IAHS, 370, 9–14,Short summary
The objective of this paper is to outline opportunities for multivariate analysis of open spatial datasets to characterize urban flooding risks. To that end, a cluster analysis is performed. Results indicate that incidence of rainfall-related impacts is higher in areas characterized by older infrastructure and higher population density.
M. Stähli, M. Sättele, C. Huggel, B. W. McArdell, P. Lehmann, A. Van Herwijnen, A. Berne, M. Schleiss, A. Ferrari, A. Kos, D. Or, and S. M. Springman
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 905–917,Short summary
This review paper describes the state of the art in monitoring and predicting rapid mass movements for early warning. It further presents recent innovations in observation technologies and modelling to be used in future early warning systems (EWS). Finally, the paper proposes avenues towards successful implementation of next-generation EWS.
M. H. Spekkers, F. H. L. R. Clemens, and J. A. E. ten Veldhuis
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 261–272,
G. Bruni, R. Reinoso, N. C. van de Giesen, F. H. L. R. Clemens, and J. A. E. ten Veldhuis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 691–709,
S. A. P. de Jong, J. D. Slingerland, and N. C. van de Giesen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 335–339,Short summary
By using two cylindrical thermometers with different diameters, one can determine what temperature a zero diameter thermometer would have. Such a virtual thermometer would not be affected by solar heating and would take on the temperature of the surrounding air. We applied this principle to atmospheric temperature measurements with fiber optic cables using distributed temperature sensing (DTS). With two unshielded cable pairs, one black pair and one white pair, good results were obtained.
M. H. Spekkers, M. Kok, F. H. L. R. Clemens, and J. A. E. ten Veldhuis
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2531–2547,
S. V. Weijs, N. van de Giesen, and M. B. Parlange
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3171–3187,
O. A. C. Hoes, R. W. Hut, N. C. van de Giesen, and M. Boomgaard
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
M. H. Spekkers, M. Kok, F. H. L. R. Clemens, and J. A. E. ten Veldhuis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 913–922,
Related subject area
Subject: Others (Wind, Precipitation, Temperature, etc.) | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Validation and IntercomparisonsValidation of the WRF-ARW eclipse model with measurements from the 2019 and 2020 total solar eclipsesHow observations from automatic hail sensors in Switzerland shed light on local hailfall duration and compare with hailpad measurementsA data-driven persistence test for robust (probabilistic) quality control of measured environmental time series: constant value episodesEstimating the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate from one-dimensional velocity measurements in timeA comparative evaluation of snowflake particle shape estimation techniques used by the Precipitation Imaging Package (PIP), Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC), and Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer (2DVD)Comparison of GRUAN data products for Meisei iMS-100 and Vaisala RS92 radiosondes at Tateno, JapanValidation of the Aeolus Level-2B wind product over Northern Canada and the ArcticBoundary-layer height and surface stability at Hyytiälä, Finland, in ERA5 and observationsCharacterizing and correcting the warm bias observed in Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) temperature observationsSuitability of fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing for revealing mixing processes and higher-order moments at the forest–air interfaceValidation of Aeolus winds using radiosonde observations and numerical weather prediction model equivalentsSmartphone pressure data: quality control and impact on atmospheric analysisAutomated precipitation monitoring with the Thies disdrometer: biases and ways for improvementMore science with less: evaluation of a 3D-printed weather stationCharacteristics and performance of wind profiles as observed by the radar wind profiler network of ChinaConfronting the boundary layer data gap: evaluating new and existing methodologies of probing the lower atmosphereOn the estimation of vertical air velocity and detection of atmospheric turbulence from the ascent rate of balloon soundingsComparison of turbulence measurements by a CSAT3B sonic anemometer and a high-resolution bistatic Doppler lidarUsing computational fluid dynamics and field experiments to improve vehicle-based wind measurements for environmental monitoringComparison of the GRUAN data products for Meisei RS-11G and Vaisala RS92-SGP radiosondes at Tateno (36.06° N, 140.13° E), JapanA method to assess the accuracy of sonic anemometer measurementsUsing reference radiosondes to characterise NWP model uncertainty for improved satellite calibration and validationEvaluation of OAFlux datasets based on in situ air–sea flux tower observations over Yongxing Island in 2016Characteristics of vertical velocities estimated from drop size and fall velocity spectra of a Parsivel disdrometerEffects of temporal averaging on short-term irradiance variability under mixed sky conditionsComparison of Lyman-alpha and LI-COR infrared hygrometers for airborne measurement of turbulent fluctuations of water vapourHotplate precipitation gauge calibrations and field measurementsField intercomparison of prevailing sonic anemometersA new method for estimating UV fluxes at ground level in cloud-free conditionsPrecipitable water characteristics during the 2013 Colorado flood using ground-based GPS measurementsComparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 launched over the oceans from the Arctic to the tropicsComparison of hourly surface downwelling solar radiation estimated from MSG–SEVIRI and forecast by the RAMS model with pyranometers over ItalyQuantitative analysis of the radiation error for aerial coiled-fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing deployments using reinforcing fabric as support structureAn automated method for the evaluation of the pointing accuracy of Sun-tracking devicesAssessment of snowfall accumulation underestimation by tipping bucket gauges in the Spanish operational networkCompatibility of different measurement techniques of global solar radiation and application for long-term observations at Izaña ObservatoryUncertainties of ground-based microwave radiometer retrievals in zenith and off-zenith observations under snow conditionsPerformance of post-processing algorithms for rainfall intensity using measurements from tipping-bucket rain gaugesComparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains siteHOAPS and ERA-Interim precipitation over the sea: validation against shipboard in situ measurementsQuality assessment of solar UV irradiance measured with array spectroradiometersSpatial mapping of ground-based observations of total ozonePerformance of WVSS-II hygrometers on the FAAM research aircraftSolar irradiances measured using SPN1 radiometers: uncertainties and clues for developmentStatistical modelling of collocation uncertainty in atmospheric thermodynamic profilesEstimation of atmospheric mixing layer height from radiosonde dataAssessment of GPS radiosonde descent dataTrajectory matching of ozonesondes and MOZAIC measurements in the UTLS – Part 1: Method description and application at Payerne, SwitzerlandA comparison of rainfall measurements from multiple instrumentsEddy-covariance flux measurements with a weight-shift microlight aircraft
Carl E. Spangrude, Jennifer W. Fowler, W. Graham Moss, and June Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5167–5179,Short summary
Atmospheric measurements were completed for two total solar eclipses. An eclipse-specific weather model was utilized to model the atmosphere before, during, and after the eclipse events. These measurements have enabled further validation of the model's performance in simulating atmospheric responses to total solar eclipses. The paper concludes by recommending further scientific analyses to be explored utilizing the unique datasets presented.
Jérôme Kopp, Agostino Manzato, Alessandro Hering, Urs Germann, and Olivia Martius
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3487–3503,Short summary
We present the first study of extended field observations made by a network of 80 automatic hail sensors from Switzerland. The sensors record the exact timing of hailstone impacts, providing valuable information about the local duration of hailfall. We found that the majority of hailfalls lasts just a few minutes and that most hailstones, including the largest, fall during a first phase of high hailstone density, while a few remaining and smaller hailstones fall in a second low-density phase.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3085–3100,Short summary
Although quality control is a well-known issue in data application, research initiatives and organizations apply given methods based on traditional techniques (ad hoc thresholds and manual). These approaches are not only error prone but also unsuitable for a large volume of data. The method proposed in this paper is based on a new concept (probability) as an intuitive indicator and data’s characteristics, which leads it to be applicable to a wide variety of data and eases its
fit for purpose.
Marcel Schröder, Tobias Bätge, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Michael Wilczek, and Gholamhossein Bagheri
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The rate at which energy is dissipated in a turbulent flow is an extremely important quantity. In the atmosphere, it is usually measured by recording a velocity time at a specific location. Our goal is to understand how best to estimate the dissipation rate from such data based on various available methods. Our reference for evaluating the performance of the different methods is data generated with numerical simulations and in highly controlled laboratory setups.
Charles Nelson Helms, Stephen Joseph Munchak, Ali Tokay, and Claire Pettersen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6545–6561,Short summary
This study compares the techniques used to measure snowflake shape by three instruments: PIP, MASC, and 2DVD. Our findings indicate that the MASC technique produces reliable shape measurements; the 2DVD technique performs better than expected considering the instrument was designed to measure raindrops; and the PIP technique does not produce reliable snowflake shape measurements. We also demonstrate that the PIP images can be reprocessed to correct the shape measurement issues.
Shunsuke Hoshino, Takuji Sugidachi, Kensaku Shimizu, Eriko Kobayashi, Masatomo Fujiwara, and Masami Iwabuchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5917–5948,Short summary
GRUAN data products (GDPs) from Meisei iMS-100 and Vaisala RS92 were compared with 59 dual sounding data. For daytime observations, the iMS-100 temperature is around 0.5 K lower than RS92-GDP in the stratosphere, but for nighttime observations, the difference is around −0.1 K, and data are mostly in agreement. For relative humidity (RH), iMS-100 is around 1–2 % RH higher in the troposphere and 1 % RH smaller in the stratosphere than RS92, but both GDPs are in agreement for most of the profile.
Chih-Chun Chou, Paul J. Kushner, Stéphane Laroche, Zen Mariani, Peter Rodriguez, Stella Melo, and Christopher G. Fletcher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4443–4461,Short summary
Aeolus is the first satellite that provides global wind profile measurements. The mission aims to improve the weather forecasts in the tropics, but also, potentially, in the polar regions. We evaluate the performance of the instrument over the Canadian North and the Arctic by comparing its measured winds in both cloudy and non-cloudy layers to wind data from forecasts, reanalysis, and ground-based instruments. Overall, good agreement was seen, but Aeolus winds have greater dispersion.
Victoria Anne Sinclair, Jenna Ritvanen, Gabin Urbancic, Irina Statnaia, Yurii Batrak, Dmitri Moisseev, and Mona Kurppa
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3075–3103,Short summary
We investigate the boundary-layer (BL) height and surface stability in southern Finland using radiosondes, a microwave radiometer and ERA5 reanalysis. Accurately quantifying the BL height is challenging, and the diagnosed BL height can depend strongly on the method used. Microwave radiometers provide reliable estimates of the BL height but only in unstable conditions. ERA5 captures the BL height well except under very stable conditions, which occur most commonly at night during the warm season.
Siebren de Haan, Paul M. A. de Jong, and Jitze van der Meulen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 811–818,Short summary
AMDAR temperatures suffer from a bias, which can be related to a difference in the timing of height and measurement and to internal corrections applied to pressure altitude. Based on NWP model temperature data, combined with Mach number and true airspeed, we could estimate corrections. Comparing corrected temperatures with (independent) radiosonde observations demonstrates a reduction in the bias, from 0.5 K to around zero, and standard deviation, of almost 10 %.
Olli Peltola, Karl Lapo, Ilkka Martinkauppi, Ewan O'Connor, Christoph K. Thomas, and Timo Vesala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2409–2427,Short summary
We evaluated the suitability of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) for observing spatial (>25 cm) and temporal (>1 s) details of airflow within and above forests. The DTS measurements could discern up to third-order moments of the flow and observe spatial details of coherent flow motions. Similar measurements are not possible with more conventional measurement techniques. Hence, the DTS measurements will provide key insights into flows close to roughness elements, e.g. trees.
Anne Martin, Martin Weissmann, Oliver Reitebuch, Michael Rennie, Alexander Geiß, and Alexander Cress
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2167–2183,Short summary
This study provides an overview of validation activities to determine the Aeolus HLOS wind errors and to understand the biases by investigating possible dependencies and testing bias correction approaches. To ensure meaningful validation statistics, collocated radiosondes and two different global NWP models, the ECMWF IFS and the ICON model (DWD), are used as reference data. To achieve an estimate for the Aeolus instrumental error the representativeness errors for the comparisons are evaluated.
Rumeng Li, Qinghong Zhang, Juanzhen Sun, Yun Chen, Lili Ding, and Tian Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 785–801,Short summary
In this paper, we describe a bias-correction method based on machine learning without the need to obtain users' personal information and demonstrate that the method can effectively reduce the bias in smartphone pressure observations. The characteristics of this dataset are discussed, and the potential application of the bias-corrected data is illustrated by the fine-scale analysis of a hailstorm that occurred on 10 June 2016 in Beijing, China.
Michael Fehlmann, Mario Rohrer, Annakaisa von Lerber, and Markus Stoffel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4683–4698,Short summary
The Thies disdrometer is used to monitor precipitation intensity and its phase and thus may provide valuable information for the management of meteorological and hydrological risks. In this study, we characterize biases of this instrument using common reference instruments at a pre-alpine study site in Switzerland. We find a systematic underestimation of liquid precipitation amounts and suggest possible reasons for and corrections to this bias and relate these findings to other study sites.
Adam Theisen, Max Ungar, Bryan Sheridan, and Bradley G. Illston
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4699–4713,Short summary
A low-cost weather station with 3D-printed components was built, based on the UCAR 3D-PAWS project, and deployed alongside an Oklahoma Mesonet station for an 8-month study to determine the longevity of these sensors and their performance compared with standard commercial sensors. Results show that the low-cost sensors can perform as well as the more expensive commercial ones for short-term deployments with the possibility for long-term deployments with proper maintenance and replacement.
Boming Liu, Jianping Guo, Wei Gong, Lijuan Shi, Yong Zhang, and Yingying Ma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4589–4600,Short summary
Vertical wind profiles are crucial to a wide range of atmospheric disciplines. However, the wind profile across China remains poorly understood. Here we reveal the salient features of winds from the radar wind profile of China, including the main instruments, spatial coverage and sampling frequency. This work is expected to allow the public and scientific community to be more familiar with the nationwide network and encourage the use of these valuable data in future research and applications.
Tyler M. Bell, Brian R. Greene, Petra M. Klein, Matthew Carney, and Phillip B. Chilson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3855–3872,Short summary
It is well known that the atmospheric boundary layer is under-sampled in the vertical dimension. Recently, weather-sensing uncrewed aerial systems (WxUAS) have created new opportunities to sample this region of the atmosphere. This study compares a WxUAS developed at the University of Oklahoma to ground-based remote sensing and radiosondes. We find that overall the systems generally agreed well both thermodynamically and kinematically. However, there is still room to improve each system.
Hubert Luce and Hiroyuki Hashiguchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1989–1999,Short summary
Vertical ascent rate Vb of meteorological balloons is sometimes used for retrieving vertical air velocity, an important parameter for meteorological applications. Comparisons with concurrent radar and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) measurements of atmospheric turbulence showed that Vb can be increased in turbulent layers due to the probable decrease in the drag coefficient of the balloon. We conclude that Vb can also potentially be used for the detection of atmospheric turbulence.
Matthias Mauder, Michael Eggert, Christian Gutsmuths, Stefan Oertel, Paul Wilhelm, Ingo Voelksch, Luise Wanner, Jens Tambke, and Ivan Bogoev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 969–983,Short summary
Sonic anemometers are prone to probe-induced flow distortion effects. Here, we present the results of an intercomparison experiment between a CSAT3B sonic anemometer and a high-resolution bistatic Doppler lidar, which is inherently free of flow distortion. Our results show an agreement of the mean wind velocity measurements and the standard deviations of the vertical wind speed with comparabilities of 0.082 and 0.020 m s−1, respectively. Friction velocity is underestimated by the CSAT3B by 3 %.
Tara Hanlon and David Risk
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 191–203,Short summary
In this study, we aimed to improve accuracy of wind speed and direction measurements from an anemometer mounted atop a research vehicle. Controlled field tests and computer simulations showed that the vehicle shape biases airflow above the vehicle. The results indicate that placing an anemometer at a significant height (> 1 m) above the vehicle, and calibrating anemometer measurements for vehicle shape and wind angle, can be effective in reducing bias in measurements of wind speed and direction.
Eriko Kobayashi, Shunsuke Hoshino, Masami Iwabuchi, Takuji Sugidachi, Kensaku Shimizu, and Masatomo Fujiwara
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3039–3065,Short summary
The authors carried out dual flights of RS-11G and RS92-SGP radiosondes and investigated the differences in the performance of the radiosondes to help characterize GRUAN data products. A novel aspect of GRUAN data products is that vertically resolved uncertainty estimates and metadata are provided for each sounding and comparison of GRUAN data products is important in securing the temporal homogeneity of climate data records.
Alfredo Peña, Ebba Dellwik, and Jakob Mann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 237–252,Short summary
We propose a method to assess the accuracy of turbulence measurements by sonic anemometers. The idea is to compute the ratio of the vertical to along-wind velocity spectrum within the inertial subrange. We found that the Metek USA-1 and the Campbell CSAT3 sonic anemometers do not show the expected theoretical ratio. A wind-tunnel-based correction recovers the expected ratio for the USA-1. A correction for the CSAT3 does not, illustrating that this sonic anemometer suffers from flow distortion.
Fabien Carminati, Stefano Migliorini, Bruce Ingleby, William Bell, Heather Lawrence, Stuart Newman, James Hocking, and Andrew Smith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 83–106,Short summary
The GRUAN processor is a software developed to collocate radiosonde profiles and numerical weather prediction model fields, simulate top-of-atmosphere brightness temperature at frequencies used by space-borne instruments, and propagate the radiosonde uncertainties in that simulation. This work responds to an identified lack of metrologically traceable characterisation of uncertainties in model fields that are increasingly used for the validation and calibration of space-borne instruments.
Fenghua Zhou, Rongwang Zhang, Rui Shi, Ju Chen, Yunkai He, Dongxiao Wang, and Qiang Xie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6091–6106,Short summary
In this work, successive air–sea heat flux-related data were acquired over the course of a year (01/02/2016–31/01/2017) at the YXASFT on Yongxing Island. Then, seasonal comparisons were conducted for the daily mean surface bulk variables and heat fluxes between the WHOI OAFlux products and YXASFT observations. The conclusions in this paper will provide useful reference for researchers on how to select the appropriate OAFlux datasets in different seasons over the South China Sea.
Dong-Kyun Kim and Chang-Keun Song
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3851–3860,Short summary
A new technique to estimate vertical velocities from Parsivel-measured drop and velocity spectra is developed. The estimated vertical velocities (w) were compared with w components of winds measured from the anemometer at the same site. They showed good agreement with each other, suggesting that this technique is reliable and applicable to rainfall studies. With these w values, rainfall characteristics related to up-/downdraft were investigated on the windward and leeward sides of a mountain.
Gerald M. Lohmann and Adam H. Monahan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3131–3144,Short summary
Using high-resolution surface irradiance data with original temporal resolutions between 0.01 s and 1 s from six different locations in the Northern Hemisphere, we characterize the changes in representation of temporal variability resulting from time averaging. Our results indicate that a temporal averaging time scale of around 1 s marks a transition in representing single-point irradiance variability, such that longer averages result in substantial underestimates of variability.
Astrid Lampert, Jörg Hartmann, Falk Pätzold, Lennart Lobitz, Peter Hecker, Katrin Kohnert, Eric Larmanou, Andrei Serafimovich, and Torsten Sachs
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2523–2536,Short summary
We compared two different fast-response humidity sensors simultaneously on different airborne platforms. One is a particular, well-establed Lyman-alpha hygrometer that has been used for decades as the standard for fast airborne humidity measurements. However, it is not available any more. The other one is a hygrometer based on the absorption of infrared radiation, from LI-COR. For an environment of low vibrations, the LI-COR sensor is suitable for fast airborne water vapour measurements.
Nicholas Zelasko, Adam Wettlaufer, Bujidmaa Borkhuu, Matthew Burkhart, Leah S. Campbell, W. James Steenburgh, and Jefferson R. Snider
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 441–458,Short summary
The hotplate precipitation gauge has the potential to solve some problems with conventional precipitation gauge measurements, especially for snowfall. This paper extends the seminal published work, Rasmussen et al. (2011). We assert that the precipitation rate algorithm we have developed for the hotplate is an improvement on that which was previously published.
Matthias Mauder and Matthias J. Zeeman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 249–263,
William Wandji Nyamsi, Mikko R. A. Pitkänen, Youva Aoun, Philippe Blanc, Anu Heikkilä, Kaisa Lakkala, Germar Bernhard, Tapani Koskela, Anders V. Lindfors, Antti Arola, and Lucien Wald
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4965–4978,Short summary
This paper proposes a new, fast and accurate method for estimating UV fluxes at ground level in cloud-free conditions at any place and time. The method performs very well with the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service products as inputs describing the state of the atmosphere. An accuracy that is close to the uncertainty of the measurements themselves is reached. We believe that our research will be widely used in the near future.
Hannah K. Huelsing, Junhong Wang, Carl Mears, and John J. Braun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4055–4066,Short summary
The precipitable water (PW) was examined for the 2013 Colorado flood to determine how climatologically abnormal this event was. The seasonal PW maximum extended into early September and the September monthly mean PW exceeded the 99th percentile of climatology with a value 25% higher than the 40-year climatology. The above-normal, near-saturation PW values during the flood were the result of large-scale moisture transport into Colorado from the eastern tropical Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico.
Yoshimi Kawai, Masaki Katsumata, Kazuhiro Oshima, Masatake E. Hori, and Jun Inoue
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2485–2498,Short summary
The model RS92 radiosonde manufactured by Vaisala Ltd. is now being replaced with a successor model, the RS41, and we need to clarify accuracy differences between them for a variety of research. For this purpose, 36 twin-radiosonde flights were performed over the oceans from the Arctic to the tropics. Basically the differences between the RS41 and RS92 were smaller than the nominal combined uncertainties of the RS41; however, we found non-negligible biases in relative humidity and pressure.
Stefano Federico, Rosa Claudia Torcasio, Paolo Sanò, Daniele Casella, Monica Campanelli, Jan Fokke Meirink, Ping Wang, Stefania Vergari, Henri Diémoz, and Stefano Dietrich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2337–2352,Short summary
In this paper we evaluate the performance of two estimates of the global horizontal irradiance (GHI), one derived from the Meteosat Second Generation and one from a meteorological model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) forecast. The focus area is Italy, and the performance is evaluated for 12 pyranometers spanning a range of climate conditions, from Mediterranean maritime to Alpine.
Armin Sigmund, Lena Pfister, Chadi Sayde, and Christoph K. Thomas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2149–2162,
Dietmar J. Baumgartner, Werner Pötzi, Heinrich Freislich, Heinz Strutzmann, Astrid M. Veronig, and Harald E. Rieder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1181–1190,Short summary
In this work we present KSO-STREAMS (KSO-SunTRackEr Accuracy Monitoring System), a platform-independent, fully automated, and cost-effective system to evaluate the pointing accuracy of Sun-tracking devices as well as its application at the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO) Austrian radiation monitoring network (ARAD) site and to the results from a 15-week evaluating period.
Samuel T. Buisán, Michael E. Earle, José Luís Collado, John Kochendorfer, Javier Alastrué, Mareile Wolff, Craig D. Smith, and Juan I. López-Moreno
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1079–1091,Short summary
Within the framework of the WMO-SPICE (Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment) the Thies tipping bucket precipitation gauge, widely used at AEMET, was assessed against the SPICE reference. Most countries use tipping buckets and for this reason the underestimation of snowfall precipitation is a large-scale problem. The methodology presented here can be used by other national weather services to test precipitation bias corrections and to identify regions where errors are higher.
Rosa Delia García, Emilio Cuevas, Omaira Elena García, Ramón Ramos, Pedro Miguel Romero-Campos, Fernado de Ory, Victoria Eugenia Cachorro, and Angel de Frutos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 731–743,Short summary
A 1-year intercomparison of classical and modern radiation and sunshine duration instruments has been performed at Izaña Atmospheric Observatory. We compare global solar radiation (GSR) records measured with a Kipp & Zonen CM-21 pyranometer, taken in the framework of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network, with those measured with a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer and a bimetallic pyranometer, and with GSR estimated from sunshine duration performed with a CS sunshine recorder.
Wengang Zhang, Guirong Xu, Yuanyuan Liu, Guopao Yan, Dejun Li, and Shengbo Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 155–165,Short summary
A comparison between a microwave radiometer and radiosonde is carried out, and performances of zenith and off-zenith observations during snowfall are shown. In off-zenith observations, the effect of snow is obviously mitigated, and the deviation between microwave radiometer and radiosonde is small. With the aid of off-zenith observation, reliable thermodynamic atmospheric profiles can be collected, and those will be useful for the analysis and forecasting of severe convective weather.
Mattia Stagnaro, Matteo Colli, Luca Giovanni Lanza, and Pak Wai Chan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5699–5706,Short summary
The research presented in this work involves field data analysis, numerical modelling techniques and approaches to a long-standing problem of liquid precipitation measurements: the sampling and the interpretation of the tipping-bucket sensor signal. The present study shows relevant implications of the adopted data processing methods for the accuracy of the rainfall intensity measurements provided by traditional tipping-bucket gauges.
Michael P. Jensen, Donna J. Holdridge, Petteri Survo, Raisa Lehtinen, Shannon Baxter, Tami Toto, and Karen L. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3115–3129,Short summary
An intercomparison of Vaisala's latest-generation radiosonde RS41 and the widely used RS92 was performed in north-central Oklahoma, USA, during June 2014. The results indicate that for the conditions observed during the intercomparison the measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds agree to within the manufacturer-specified combined uncertainties. Some important exceptions were noted when exiting liquid cloud layers where evaporative cooling has less impact for RS41 measurements.
Karl Bumke, Gert König-Langlo, Julian Kinzel, and Marc Schröder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2409–2423,Short summary
Satellite-derived HOAPS and ERA-Interim reanalysis data were validated against shipboard precipitation measurements. Results show that HOAPS detects the frequency of precipitation well, while ERA-Interim strongly overestimates it, especially at low latitudes. However, HOAPS underestimates precipitation rates, while ERA-Interim's Atlantic-wide precipitation rate is close to measurements. ERA-Interim strongly overestimates it in the intertropical convergence zone and southern subtropics.
Luca Egli, Julian Gröbner, Gregor Hülsen, Luciano Bachmann, Mario Blumthaler, Jimmy Dubard, Marina Khazova, Richard Kift, Kees Hoogendijk, Antonio Serrano, Andrew Smedley, and José-Manuel Vilaplana
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1553–1567,Short summary
Array spectroradiometers are small, light, robust and cost-effective instruments, and are increasingly used for atmospheric measurements. The quality of array spectroradiometers is assessed for the reliable quantification of ultraviolet radiation (UV) in order to monitor the exposure of UV radiation to human health. The study shows that reliable UV measurements with these instruments are limited for observations around noon and show large biases in the morning and evening.
K.-L. Chang, S. Guillas, and V. E. Fioletov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4487–4505,Short summary
The aim of this article is to analyze the total column ozone data from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC) that consists of around 150 stations irregularly spaced over the globe. Our use of a new statistical spatial technique over the globe can greatly outperform the currently used spatial approximation of the total column ozone in terms of approximation. We feel that this technique could benefit the ozone science community.
A. K. Vance, S. J. Abel, R. J. Cotton, and A. M. Woolley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1617–1625,Short summary
Comparisons on the FAAM BAe 146-301 aircraft show good agreement between chilled mirror hygrometers and a WVSS-II fed from a modified Rosemount inlet (wvssR) in coud-free conditions, but a WVSS-II fed from the standard flush inlet (wvssF) over-reads, except at higher humidities. Case studies in cloudy conditions show that wvssF is immune to liquid water and ice, whilst wvssR is susceptible to both. Both WVSS-II inlets respond much more rapidly than the chilled mirror devices, especially wvssF.
J. Badosa, J. Wood, P. Blanc, C. N. Long, L. Vuilleumier, D. Demengel, and M. Haeffelin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4267–4283,
A. Fassò, R. Ignaccolo, F. Madonna, B. B. Demoz, and M. Franco-Villoria
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1803–1816,
X. Y. Wang and K. C. Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1701–1709,
M. Venkat Ratnam, N. Pravallika, S. Ravindra Babu, G. Basha, M. Pramitha, and B. V. Krishna Murthy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1011–1025,
J. Staufer, J. Staehelin, R. Stübi, T. Peter, F. Tummon, and V. Thouret
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3393–3406,
X. C. Liu, T. C. Gao, and L. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1585–1595,
S. Metzger, W. Junkermann, M. Mauder, F. Beyrich, K. Butterbach-Bahl, H. P. Schmid, and T. Foken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1699–1717,
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Ground-based rainfall observations across the African continent are sparse. We present a new and inexpensive rainfall measuring instrument (the intervalometer) and use it to derive reasonably accurate rainfall rates. These are dependent on a fundamental assumption that is widely used in parameterisations of the rain drop size distribution. This assumption is tested and found to not apply for most raindrops but is still useful in deriving rainfall rates. The intervalometer shows good potential.
Ground-based rainfall observations across the African continent are sparse. We present a new and...