Articles | Volume 5, issue 3
Research article 08 Mar 2012
Research article | 08 Mar 2012
Fast simulators for satellite cloud optical centroid pressure retrievals; evaluation of OMI cloud retrievals
J. Joiner et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Validation and IntercomparisonsDissecting effects of orbital drift of polar-orbiting satellites on accuracy and trends of climate data records of cloud fractional coverCalibration of global MODIS cloud amount using CALIOP cloud profilesValidation of the Sentinel-5 Precursor TROPOMI cloud data with Cloudnet, Aura OMI O2-O2, MODIS and Suomi-NPP VIIRSEvaluation of the MODIS Collection 6 multilayer cloud detection algorithm through comparisons with CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar and CALIPSO CALIOP productsAn extended radar relative calibration adjustment (eRCA) technique for higher-frequency radars and range–height indicator (RHI) scansComparing lightning observations of the ground-based European lightning location system EUCLID and the space-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS)Microwave and submillimeter wave scattering of oriented ice particlesShallow cumuli cover and its uncertainties from ground-based lidar–radar data and sky imagesUsing passive and active observations at microwave and sub-millimetre wavelengths to constrain ice particle modelsComparison of the cloud top heights retrieved from MODIS and AHI satellite data with ground-based Ka-band radarCross-comparison of cloud liquid water path derived from observations by two space-borne and one ground-based instrument in northern EuropeShortwave Radiative Effect of Arctic Low-Level Clouds: Evaluation of Imagery-Derived Irradiance with Aircraft ObservationsThe impact of neglecting ice phase on cloud optical depth retrievals from AERONET cloud mode observationsDiurnal and nocturnal cloud segmentation of all-sky imager (ASI) images using enhancement fully convolutional networksCan liquid cloud microphysical processes be used for vertically pointing cloud radar calibration?Calibration of a 35 GHz airborne cloud radar: lessons learned and intercomparisons with 94 GHz cloud radarsAirborne validation of radiative transfer modelling of ice clouds at millimetre and sub-millimetre wavelengthsAssessing the impact of different liquid water permittivity models on the fit between model and observationsCloud liquid water path in the sub-Arctic region of Europe as derived from ground-based and space-borne remote observationsCorrection of CCI cloud data over the Swiss Alps using ground-based radiation measurementsCloud heterogeneity on cloud and aerosol above cloud properties retrieved from simulated total and polarized reflectancesOrographic and convective gravity waves above the Alps and Andes Mountains during GPS radio occultation events – a case studyNeural network cloud top pressure and height for MODISPreliminary verification for application of a support vector machine-based cloud detection method to GOSAT-2 CAI-2Evaluation of Himawari-8 surface downwelling solar radiation by ground-based measurementsCharacterization of AVHRR global cloud detection sensitivity based on CALIPSO-CALIOP cloud optical thickness information: demonstration of results based on the CM SAF CLARA-A2 climate data recordAnalysis of lightning outliers in the EUCLID networkCharacterisation of the artificial neural network CiPS for cirrus cloud remote sensing with MSG/SEVIRIAnalysis and evaluation of WRF microphysical schemes for deep moist convection over south-eastern South America (SESA) using microwave satellite observations and radiative transfer simulationsRemote sensing of multiple cloud layer heights using multi-angular measurementsDifferences in liquid cloud droplet effective radius and number concentration estimates between MODIS collections 5.1 and 6 over global oceansIn-operation field-of-view retrieval (IFR) for satellite and ground-based DOAS-type instruments applying coincident high-resolution imager dataMarine boundary layer cloud property retrievals from high-resolution ASTER observations: case studies and comparison with Terra MODISCoupling sky images with radiative transfer models: a new method to estimate cloud optical depthComparison of MODIS and VIIRS cloud properties with ARM ground-based observations over FinlandOrbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) cloud screening algorithms: validation against collocated MODIS and CALIOP dataNext-generation angular distribution models for top-of-atmosphere radiative flux calculation from CERES instruments: validationLidar multiple scattering factors inferred from CALIPSO lidar and IIR retrievals of semi-transparent cirrus cloud optical depths over oceansComparing satellite- to ground-based automated and manual cloud coverage observations – a case studyMeso-scale modelling and radiative transfer simulations of a snowfall event over France at microwaves for passive and active modes and evaluation with satellite observationsRemote sensing of cloud top pressure/height from SEVIRI: analysis of ten current retrieval algorithmsEvaluation of SCIAMACHY Oxygen A band cloud heights using Cloudnet measurementsCharacteristics of cloud liquid water path from SEVIRI onboard the Meteosat Second Generation 2 satellite for several cloud typesDetection of convective initiation using Meteosat SEVIRI: implementation in and verification with the tracking and nowcasting algorithm Cb-TRAMValidation of the Meteosat storm detection and nowcasting system Cb-TRAM with lightning network data – Europe and South AfricaOn the optimal method for evaluating cloud products from passive satellite imagery using CALIPSO-CALIOP data: example investigating the CM SAF CLARA-A1 datasetDepolarization ratio of polar stratospheric clouds in coastal Antarctica: comparison analysis between ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar and space-borne CALIOP observationsAn improved cirrus detection algorithm MeCiDA2 for SEVIRI and its evaluation with MODISApplying spaceborne reflectivity measurements for calculation of the solar ultraviolet radiation at ground levelAn intercomparison of radar-based liquid cloud microphysics retrievals and implications for model evaluation studies
Jędrzej S. Bojanowski and Jan P. Musiał
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6771–6788,Short summary
Satellites such as NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer can uniquely observe changes in cloud cover but are affected by orbital drift that results in shifted image acquisition times, which in turn lead to spurious trends in cloud cover detected during climatological analyses. Providing a detailed quantification of these trends, we show that climate data records must be analysed with caution, as for some periods and regions they do not comply with the requirements for climate data.
Andrzej Z. Kotarba
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4995–5012,Short summary
This paper evaluates the operational approach for producing global (Level 3) cloud amount based on MODIS cloud masks (Level 2). Using CALIPSO we calculate the actual cloud fractions for each cloud mask category, which are 21.5 %, 27.7 %, 66.6 %, and 94.7 % instead of assumed 0 %, 0 %, 100 %, and 100 %. Consequently we find the operational procedure unreliable, especially on a regional/local scale. A method of how to correct and calibrate MODIS global data using CALIPSO detections is suggested.
Steven Compernolle, Athina Argyrouli, Ronny Lutz, Maarten Sneep, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Ann Mari Fjæraa, Daan Hubert, Arno Keppens, Diego Loyola, Ewan O'Connor, Fabian Romahn, Piet Stammes, Tijl Verhoelst, and Ping Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The high-resolution satellite Sentinel-5p TROPOMI observes several atmospheric gases. To account for cloud interference with the observations, S5P cloud data products (CLOUD OCRA/ROCINN_CAL, OCRA/ROCINN_CRB and FRESCO) provide vital input: cloud fraction, cloud height and cloud optical thickness. Here, the S5P cloud parameters are validated by comparing with other satellite sensors (VIIRS, MODIS, OMI) and with ground-based CLOUDNET data. The agreement depends on product type and cloud height.
Benjamin Marchant, Steven Platnick, Kerry Meyer, and Galina Wind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3263–3275,Short summary
Multilayer cloud scenes (such as an ice cloud overlapping a liquid cloud) are common in the Earth's atmosphere and are quite difficult to detect from space. The detection of multilayer clouds is important to better understand how they interact with the light and their impact on the climate. So, for the instrument MODIS an algorithm has been developed to detect those clouds, and this paper presents an evaluation of this algorithm by comparing it with other instruments.
Alexis Hunzinger, Joseph C. Hardin, Nitin Bharadwaj, Adam Varble, and Alyssa Matthews
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3147–3166,Short summary
The calibration of weather radars is one of the most dominant sources of errors hindering their use. This work takes a technique for tracking the changes in radar calibration using the radar clutter from the ground and extends it to higher-frequency research radars. It demonstrates that after modifications the technique is successful but that special care needs to be taken in its application at high frequencies. The technique is verified using data from multiple DOE ARM field campaigns.
Dieter R. Poelman and Wolfgang Schulz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2965–2977,Short summary
The objective of this work is to quantify the similarities and contrasts between the lightning observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS) and the ground-based European Cooperation for Lightning Detection (EUCLID) network. This work is timely, given that the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), which has a lightning imager (LI) on board, is going to be launched in 2 years.
Manfred Brath, Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, Oliver Lemke, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2309–2333,Short summary
Microwave dual-polarization observations consistently show that larger atmospheric ice particles tend to have a preferred orientation. We provide a publicly available database of microwave and submillimeter wave scattering properties of oriented ice particles based on discrete dipole approximation scattering calculations. Detailed radiative transfer simulations, recreating observed polarization patterns, are additionally presented in this study.
Erin A. Riley, Jessica M. Kleiss, Laura D. Riihimaki, Charles N. Long, Larry K. Berg, and Evgueni Kassianov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2099–2117,Short summary
Discrepancies in hourly shallow cumuli cover estimates can be substantial. Instrument detection differences contribute to long-term bias in shallow cumuli cover estimates, whereas narrow field-of-view configurations impact measurement uncertainty as averaging time decreases. A new tool is introduced to visually assess both impacts on sub-hourly cloud cover estimates. Accurate shallow cumuli cover estimation is needed for model–observation comparisons and studying cloud-surface interactions.
Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, and Simon Pfreundschuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 501–520,Short summary
Atmospheric ice particles (e.g. snow and ice crystals) are an important part of weather, climate, and the hydrological cycle. This study investigates whether combined satellite measurements by radar and radiometers at microwave wavelengths can be used to find the most likely shape of such ice particles. The method was limited when using only currently operating sensors (CloudSat radar and the GPM Microwave Imager) but shows promise if the upcoming Ice Cloud Imager is also considered.
Juan Huo, Daren Lu, Shu Duan, Yongheng Bi, and Bo Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1–11,Short summary
Cloud top height (CTH) is one of the important cloud parameters providing information about the vertical structure of cloud water content. To better understand the accuracy of CTH derived from passive satellite data, 2 years of ground-based Ka-band radar measurements are compared with CTH inferred from Terra/Aqua MODIS and Himawari AHI. It is found that MODIS and AHI underestimate CTH relative to radar by −1.10 km. Both MODIS and AHI CTH retrieval accuracy depend strongly on cloud depth.
Vladimir S. Kostsov, Anke Kniffka, Martin Stengel, and Dmitry V. Ionov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5927–5946,Short summary
Cloud liquid water path (LWP) is one of the target atmospheric parameters retrieved remotely from ground-based and space-borne platforms. The LWP data delivered by the satellite instruments SEVIRI and AVHRR together with the data provided by the ground-based radiometer RPG-HATPRO near St. Petersburg, Russia, have been compared. Our study revealed considerable differences between LWP data from SEVIRI and AVHRR in winter over ice-covered relatively small water bodies in this region.
Hong Chen, Sebastian Schmidt, Michael D. King, Galina Wind, Anthony Bucholtz, Elizabeth A. Reid, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, William L. Smith, Patrick C. Taylor, Seiji Kato, and Peter Pilewskie
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
In this paper, we accessed the shortwave irradiance derived from MODIS cloud optical properties by using aircraft measurements. We developed a data aggregation technique to parameterize spectral surface albedo by snow fraction in the Arctic. We found that undetected clouds have the most significant impact on the imagery-derived irradiance. This study suggests that passive imagery cloud detection could be improved through a multi-pixel approach, that would make it more dependable in the Arctic.
Jonathan K. P. Shonk, Jui-Yuan Christine Chiu, Alexander Marshak, David M. Giles, Chiung-Huei Huang, Gerald G. Mace, Sally Benson, Ilya Slutsker, and Brent N. Holben
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5087–5099,Short summary
Retrievals of cloud optical depth made using AERONET radiometers in “cloud mode” rely on the assumption that all cloud is liquid. The presence of ice cloud therefore introduces errors in the retrieved optical depth, which can be over 25 in optically thick ice clouds. However, such clouds are not frequent and the long-term mean optical depth error is about 3 for a sample of real clouds. A correction equation could improve the retrieval further, although this would require extra instrumentation.
Chaojun Shi, Yatong Zhou, Bo Qiu, Jingfei He, Mu Ding, and Shiya Wei
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4713–4724,Short summary
Cloud segmentation plays a very important role in astronomical observatory site selection. At present, few researchers segment cloud in nocturnal all-sky imager (ASI) images. We propose a new automatic cloud segmentation algorithm to segment cloud pixels from diurnal and nocturnal ASI images called an enhancement fully convolutional network (EFCN). Experiments showed that the proposed EFCN was much more accurate in cloud segmentation for diurnal and nocturnal ASI images.
Maximilian Maahn, Fabian Hoffmann, Matthew D. Shupe, Gijs de Boer, Sergey Y. Matrosov, and Edward P. Luke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3151–3171,Short summary
Cloud radars are unique instruments for observing cloud processes, but uncertainties in radar calibration have frequently limited data quality. Here, we present three novel methods for calibrating vertically pointing cloud radars. These calibration methods are based on microphysical processes of liquid clouds, such as the transition of cloud droplets to drizzle drops. We successfully apply the methods to cloud radar data from the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Oliktok Point (OLI) ARM sites.
Florian Ewald, Silke Groß, Martin Hagen, Lutz Hirsch, Julien Delanoë, and Matthias Bauer-Pfundstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1815–1839,Short summary
This study gives a summary of lessons learned during the absolute calibration of the airborne, high-power Ka-band cloud radar HAMP MIRA on board the German research aircraft HALO. The first part covers the internal calibration of the instrument where individual instrument components are characterized in the laboratory. In the second part, the internal calibration is validated with external reference sources like the ocean surface backscatter and different air- and spaceborne cloud radars.
Stuart Fox, Jana Mendrok, Patrick Eriksson, Robin Ekelund, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Keith N. Bower, Anthony J. Baran, R. Chawn Harlow, and Juliet C. Pickering
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1599–1617,Short summary
Airborne observations of ice clouds are used to validate radiative transfer simulations using a state-of-the-art database of cloud ice optical properties. Simulations at these wavelengths are required to make use of future satellite instruments such as the Ice Cloud Imager. We show that they can generally reproduce observed cloud signals, but for a given total ice mass there is considerable sensitivity to the cloud microphysics, including the particle shape and distribution of ice mass.
Katrin Lonitz and Alan J. Geer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 405–429,Short summary
Permittivity models for microwave frequencies of liquid water below 0°C are poorly constrained due to limited laboratory experiments and observations, especially for high microwave frequencies. This uncertainty translates directly into errors in retrieved liquid water paths of up to 80 %. This study investigates the effect of different liquid water permittivity models including models based on the most recent observations.
Vladimir S. Kostsov, Anke Kniffka, and Dmitry V. Ionov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5439–5460,Short summary
Clouds are a very important component of the climate system and of the hydrological cycle in the Arctic and sub-Arctic. A joint analysis of the cloud parameters obtained remotely from satellite and ground-based observations near St Petersburg, Russia, has been made. Our study has revealed considerable differences between the cloud properties over land and over water areas in the region under investigation.
Fanny Jeanneret, Giovanni Martucci, Simon Pinnock, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4153–4170,Short summary
Above mountainous regions, satellites may have difficulty in discriminating snow from clouds: this study proposes a new method that combines different ground-based measurements to assess the sky cloudiness with high temporal resolution. The method's output is used as input to a model capable of identifying false satellite cloud detections. Results show that 62 ± 13 % of these false detections can be identified by the model when applied to the AVHRR-PM and MODIS Aqua data sets of the Cloud_cci.
Céline Cornet, Laurent C.-Labonnote, Fabien Waquet, Frédéric Szczap, Lucia Deaconu, Frédéric Parol, Claudine Vanbauce, François Thieuleux, and Jérôme Riédi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3627–3643,Short summary
Simulations of total and polarized cloud reflectance angular signatures such as the ones measured by the multi-angular and polarized radiometer POLDER3/PARASOL are used to evaluate cloud heterogeneity effects on cloud parameter retrievals. Effects on optical thickness, albedo of the cloudy scenes, effective radius and variance of the cloud droplet size distribution, cloud top pressure and aerosol above cloud are analyzed.
Rodrigo Hierro, Andrea K. Steiner, Alejandro de la Torre, Peter Alexander, Pablo Llamedo, and Pablo Cremades
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3523–3539,Short summary
This paper analyzed the collocated GPS radio occultation profiles near the convective systems identified from ISCCP over two orographic regions of the Alps and Andes. Gravity wave (GW) analysis over both selected regions was also carried out. The gravity wave signature from the two case studies were investigated using mesoscale WRF simulations, ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and measured RO temperature profiles. The absence of fronts or jets during both case studies reveals similar relevant GWs.
Nina Håkansson, Claudia Adok, Anke Thoss, Ronald Scheirer, and Sara Hörnquist
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3177–3196,Short summary
In this paper a new algorithm for cloud top height retrieval from imager instruments like MODIS is presented. It uses artificial neural networks and reduces the mean absolute error by 32 % compared to two other operational cloud height algorithms. This means that improved cloud height retrieval for nowcasting, as input to models and in cloud climatologies is possible.
Yu Oishi, Haruma Ishida, Takashi Y. Nakajima, Ryosuke Nakamura, and Tsuneo Matsunaga
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2863–2878,Short summary
Preparations are continuing for the launch of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite 2 (GOSAT-2) in the fiscal year 2018. To improve the accuracy of the estimates of greenhouse gases concentrations, we need to refine the existing cloud discrimination algorithm. In this paper we showed a new cloud discrimination algorithm of pre-launch version for GOSAT-2, and compared the existing algorithm with the new algorithm.
Alessandro Damiani, Hitoshi Irie, Takashi Horio, Tamio Takamura, Pradeep Khatri, Hideaki Takenaka, Takashi Nagao, Takashi Y. Nakajima, and Raul R. Cordero
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2501–2521,Short summary
The Tohoku Earthquake of March 2011 stressed the need for energy source diversity, and the governmental policy in Japan has been stimulating a broader use of renewable energy. Solar power is potentially able to mitigate climate change triggered by greenhouse gas emissions, but its instability caused by cloudiness is a critical issue for suppliers. To develop an appropriate control system, surface solar radiation data must be made available as accurately as possible.
Karl-Göran Karlsson and Nina Håkansson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 633–649,Short summary
Data from the high-sensitivity CALIOP cloud lidar onboard the CALIPSO satellite have been used to evaluate cloud amounts estimated from satellite imagery and, specifically, from the climate data record CLARA-A2. The main purpose has been to study the limit of how thin clouds that can be detected efficiently (i.e., detected at the 50 % level) in CLARA-A2 data and how this limit varies globally. The study revealed very large geographical differences in the cloud detection efficiency.
Dieter R. Poelman, Wolfgang Schulz, Rudolf Kaltenboeck, and Laurent Delobbe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4561–4572,Short summary
Lightning data as observed by the European Cooperation for Lightning Detection network EUCLID are used in combination with radar data to retrieve the temporal and spatial behavior of lightning outliers, i.e. discharges located in a wrong place, over a 5-year period from 2011 to 2016 in Belgium and Austria.
Johan Strandgren, Jennifer Fricker, and Luca Bugliaro
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4317–4339,Short summary
We characterise the the performance of a set of artificial neural networks used for the remote sensing of cirrus clouds from the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellites. The retrievals show little interference with the underlying land surface type as well as with possible liquid water clouds or aerosol layers below the cirrus cloud. We also characterise the retrievals as a funtion of optical thickness and top height and gain better understanding of the retrival uncertainties of CiPS
Victoria Sol Galligani, Die Wang, Milagros Alvarez Imaz, Paola Salio, and Catherine Prigent
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3627–3649,Short summary
Three meteorological events with deep convection and severe weather, characteristic of the SESA region, are considered. High-resolution models, a powerful tool to study convection, can be operated with different microphysics schemes (predict the development of hydrometeors, their interactions, growth, precipitation). We present a systematic evaluation of the microphysical schemes available in the WRF model by a direct comparison between satellite-based simulated and observed microwave radiances.
Kenneth Sinclair, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, Brian Cairns, John Yorks, Andrzej Wasilewski, and Matthew McGill
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2361–2375,Short summary
We present a multi-angular contrast approach to retrieve cloud top height (CTH) using photogrammetry. We demonstrate the method’s ability to retrieve heights of multiple cloud layers within single footprints, using the multiple views available for each footprint. This paper provides an in-depth description and performance analysis of the CTH retrieval technique and the retrieved cloud heights are evaluated using collocated data from the Cloud Physics Lidar.
John Rausch, Kerry Meyer, Ralf Bennartz, and Steven Platnick
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2105–2116,Short summary
This paper documents the observed differences in the aggregated (Level-3) cloud droplet effective radius and droplet number concentration estimates inferred from the Aqua–MODIS cloud product collections 5.1 and 6 for warm oceanic cloud scenes over the year 2008. We note significant differences in effective radius and droplet concentration between the two products and discuss the algorithmic and calibration changes which may contribute to observed results.
Holger Sihler, Peter Lübcke, Rüdiger Lang, Steffen Beirle, Martin de Graaf, Christoph Hörmann, Johannes Lampel, Marloes Penning de Vries, Julia Remmers, Ed Trollope, Yang Wang, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 881–903,Short summary
This paper presents the independent and simple IFR method to retrieve the FOV of an instrument, i.e. the two-dimensional sensitivity distribution. IFR relies on correlated measurements featuring a higher spatial resolution and was applied to two satellite instruments, GOME-2 and OMI, and a DOAS instrument integrated in an SO2 camera. Our results confirm the commonly applied FOV distributions. IFR is applicable for verification exercises as well as degradation monitoring in the field.
Frank Werner, Galina Wind, Zhibo Zhang, Steven Platnick, Larry Di Girolamo, Guangyu Zhao, Nandana Amarasinghe, and Kerry Meyer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5869–5894,Short summary
A research–level retrieval algorithm for cloud optical and microphysical properties is developed for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra satellite. This yields reliable estimates of important cloud variables at a horizontal resolution of 30 m. Comparisons of the ASTER retrieval results with the operational cloud products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) show a high agreement for 48 example cloud fields.
Felipe A. Mejia, Ben Kurtz, Keenan Murray, Laura M. Hinkelman, Manajit Sengupta, Yu Xie, and Jan Kleissl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4151–4165,Short summary
A method for retrieving cloud optical depth using a sky imager is presented. The method is applied to images taken at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site and validated against measurements from a microwave radiometer (MWR), output from the Min method for overcast skies, and τc retrieved by Beer's law from direct normal irradiance (DNI) measurements.
Moa K. Sporre, Ewan J. O'Connor, Nina Håkansson, Anke Thoss, Erik Swietlicki, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3193–3203,Short summary
Satellite measurements of cloud top height and liquid water path are compared to ground-based remote sensing to evaluate the satellite retrievals. The overall performance of the satellite retrievals of cloud top height are good, but they become more problematic when several layers of clouds are present. The liquid water path retrievals also agree well, and the average differences are within the estimated measurement uncertainties.
Thomas E. Taylor, Christopher W. O'Dell, Christian Frankenberg, Philip T. Partain, Heather Q. Cronk, Andrey Savtchenko, Robert R. Nelson, Emily J. Rosenthal, Albert Y. Chang, Brenden Fisher, Gregory B. Osterman, Randy H. Pollock, David Crisp, Annmarie Eldering, and Michael R. Gunson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 973–989,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is providing approximately 1 million soundings per day of the total column of carbon dioxide (XCO2). The retrieval of XCO2 can only be performed for soundings sufficiently free of cloud and aerosol. This work highlights comparisons of OCO-2 cloud screening algorithms to the MODIS cloud mask product. We find agreement approximately 85 % of the time with some significant spatial and small seasonal dependencies.
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Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2759–2774,Short summary
Cloud absorption optical depths retrieved at 12.05 microns are compared to extinction optical depths retrieved at 0.532 microns from perfectly co-located observations of single-layered semi-transparent cirrus over oceans made by the space-borne CALIPSO IIR infrared radiometer and CALIOP lidar. A new relationship describing the temperature-dependent effect of multiple scattering in the CALIOP retrievals is derived and discussed.
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