Articles | Volume 15, issue 22
Research article
24 Nov 2022
Research article |  | 24 Nov 2022

A universally applicable method of calculating confidence bands for ice nucleation spectra derived from droplet freezing experiments

William D. Fahy, Cosma Rohilla Shalizi, and Ryan Christopher Sullivan

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Cited articles

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Alpert, P. A. and Knopf, D. A.: Analysis of isothermal and cooling-rate-dependent immersion freezing by a unifying stochastic ice nucleation model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2083–2107,, 2016. 
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Atkinson, J. D., Murray, B. J., Woodhouse, M. T., Whale, T. F., Baustian, K. J., Carslaw, K. S., Dobbie, S., O'Sullivan, D., and Malkin, T. L.: The importance of feldspar for ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase clouds, Nature, 498, 355–358,, 2013. 
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Short summary
Heterogeneous ice nucleation (IN) alters cloud microphysics and climate, and droplet freezing assays are widely used to determine a material's IN ability. Existing statistical procedures require restrictive assumptions that may bias reported results, and there is no rigorous way to compare IN spectra. To improve the accuracy of reported IN data, we present a method for calculating statistics and confidence bands and testing statistical differences between IN activities in different materials.