Articles | Volume 12, issue 2
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1219–1231, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-1219-2019
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1219–1231, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-1219-2019

Research article 26 Feb 2019

Research article | 26 Feb 2019

Revisiting the differential freezing nucleus spectra derived from drop-freezing experiments: methods of calculation, applications, and confidence limits

Gabor Vali

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Cited articles

Beydoun, H., Polen, M., and Sullivan, R. C.: Effect of particle surface area on ice active site densities retrieved from droplet freezing spectra, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13359–13378, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-13359-2016, 2016. 
Blank, L.: Statistical procedures for engineering, management, and science, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York and others, ISBN 0-07-005851-2, 649 pp., 1980. 
Boose, Y., Baloh, P., Plötze, M., Ofner, J., Grothe, H., Sierau, B., Lohmann, U., and Kanji, Z. A.: Heterogeneous ice nucleation on dust particles sourced from nine deserts worldwide – Part 2: Deposition nucleation and condensation freezing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1059–1076, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1059-2019, 2019. 
Connolly, P. J., Möhler, O., Field, P. R., Saathoff, H., Burgess, R., Choularton, T., and Gallagher, M.: Studies of heterogeneous freezing by three different desert dust samples, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2805–2824, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-2805-2009, 2009. 
DeMott, P. J., Hill, T. C. J., Petters, M. D., Bertram, A. K., Tobo, Y., Mason, R. H., Suski, K. J., McCluskey, C. S., Levin, E. J. T., Schill, G. P., Boose, Y., Rauker, A. M., Miller, A. J., Zaragoza, J., Rocci, K., Rothfuss, N. E., Taylor, H. P., Hader, J. D., Chou, C., Huffman, J. A., Pöschl, U., Prenni, A. J., and Kreidenweis, S. M.: Comparative measurements of ambient atmospheric concentrations of ice nucleating particles using multiple immersion freezing methods and a continuous flow diffusion chamber, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11227–11245, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-11227-2017, 2017. 
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Short summary
The abundance of freezing nuclei in water samples is routinely determined by experiments involving the cooling of sample drops and observing the temperatures at which the drops freeze. This is used for characterizing the nucleating abilities of materials in laboratory preparations or to determine the numbers of nucleating particles in rain, snow, river water or other natural waters. The evaluation of drop-freezing experiments in terms of differential nucleus spectra is advocated in the paper.