Articles | Volume 14, issue 1
Research article 14 Jan 2021
Research article | 14 Jan 2021
Continuous online monitoring of ice-nucleating particles: development of the automated Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC-Auto)
Cyril Brunner and Zamin A. Kanji
No articles found.
Claudia Mignani, Jörg Wieder, Michael A. Sprenger, Zamin A. Kanji, Jan Henneberger, Christine Alewell, and Franz Conen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 657–664,Short summary
Most precipitation above land starts with ice in clouds. It is promoted by extremely rare particles. Some ice-nucleating particles (INPs) cause cloud droplets to already freeze above −15°C, a temperature at which many clouds begin to snow. We found that the abundance of such INPs among other particles of similar size is highest in precipitating air masses and lowest when air carries desert dust. This brings us closer to understanding the interactions between land, clouds, and precipitation.
Paraskevi Georgakaki, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Jörg Wieder, Claudia Mignani, Fabiola Ramelli, Zamin A. Kanji, Jan Henneberger, Maxime Hervo, Alexis Berne, Ulrike Lohmann, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Aerosol and cloud observations coupled with a droplet activation parameterization was used to investigate the aerosol-cloud droplet link in mixed-phase Alpine clouds. Predicted droplet number, Nd, agrees with observations, and never exceeds a characteristic
limiting droplet number, Ndlim, which depends solely on σw. Nd becomes velocity-limited when it is to within 50 % of Ndlim. Identifying when dynamical changes control Nd variability is central for understanding aerosol-cloud interactions.
Robert O. David, Jonas Fahrni, Claudia Marcolli, Fabian Mahrt, Dominik Brühwiler, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9419–9440,Short summary
Ice crystal formation plays an important role in controlling the Earth's climate. However, the mechanisms responsible for ice formation in the atmosphere are still uncertain. Here we use surrogates for atmospherically relevant porous particles to determine the role of pore diameter and wettability on the ability of porous particles to nucleate ice in the atmosphere. Our results are consistent with the pore condensation and freeing mechanism.
Mikhail Paramonov, Saskia Drossaart van Dusseldorp, Ellen Gute, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Paavo Heikkilä, Jorma Keskinen, Xuemeng Chen, Krista Luoma, Liine Heikkinen, Liqing Hao, Tuukka Petäjä, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6687–6706,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particle (INP) measurements were performed in the boreal environment of southern Finland in the winter–spring of 2018. It was found that no single parameter could be used to predict the INP number concentration at the measurement location during the examined time period. It was also not possible to identify physical and chemical properties of ambient INPs despite the complexity of the instrumental set-up. Therefore, this paper addresses the necessity for future INP measurements.
Robert O. David, Maria Cascajo-Castresana, Killian P. Brennan, Michael Rösch, Nora Els, Julia Werz, Vera Weichlinger, Lin S. Boynton, Sophie Bogler, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, Claudia Marcolli, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6865–6888,Short summary
Here we present the development and applicability of the DRoplet Ice Nuclei Counter Zurich (DRINCZ). DRINCZ allows for ice nuclei in the immersion mode to be quantified between 0 and -25 °C with an uncertainty of ±0.9 °C. Furthermore, we present a new method for assessing biases in drop-freezing apparatuses and cumulative ice-nucleating-particle concentrations from snow samples collected in the Austrian Alps at the Sonnblick Observatory.
Albert Ansmann, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, Johannes Bühl, Patric Seifert, Ronny Engelmann, Julian Hofer, Argyro Nisantzi, James D. Atkinson, Zamin A. Kanji, Berko Sierau, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15087–15115,Short summary
For the first time, a closure study of the relationship between the ice-nucleating particle concentration (INPC) and ice crystal number concentration (ICNC) in altocumulus and cirrus layers, solely based on ground-based active remote sensing, is presented. The closure studies were conducted in Cyprus. A focus was on altocumulus and cirrus layers which developed in pronounced Saharan dust layers. The closure studies show that heterogeneous ice nucleation can play a dominant role in ice formation.
Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, Rachele Ossola, Robert O. David, Lin S. Boynton, Vera Weichlinger, Zamin A. Kanji, and Kristopher McNeill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12397–12412,Short summary
During atmospheric transport, dissolved organic matter (DOM) within aqueous aerosols undergoes photochemistry. We find that photochemical processing of DOM increases its ability to form cloud droplets but decreases its ability to form ice crystals over a simulated 4.6 days in the atmosphere. A photomineralization mechanism involving the loss of organic carbon and the production of organic acids, CO and CO2 explains the observed changes and affects the liquid-water-to-ice ratio in clouds.
André Welti, Ulrike Lohmann, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10901–10918,Short summary
The ice nucleation ability of singly immersed feldspar particles in suspended water droplets relevant for ice crystal formation under mixed-phase cloud conditions is presented. The effects of particle size, crystal structure, trace metal and mineralogical composition are discussed by testing up to five different diameters in the submicron range and nine different feldspar samples at conditions relevant for ice nucleation in mixed-phase clouds.
Fabian Mahrt, Jörg Wieder, Remo Dietlicher, Helen R. Smith, Chris Stopford, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3183–3208,Short summary
A new instrument, the High Speed Particle Phase Discriminator (PPD-HS), is presented, with the goal of quantifying liquid and ice fraction in conditions relevant for mixed-phase clouds. PPD-HS captures the near-forward spatial intensity distribution of scattered light on a single particle basis. Symmetry analysis of the scattering pattern is used to determine the shape of the particles, with cloud droplets and ice crystals producing symmetrical and asymmetrical scattering patterns, respectively.
Zamin A. Kanji, Ryan C. Sullivan, Monika Niemand, Paul J. DeMott, Anthony J. Prenni, Cédric Chou, Harald Saathoff, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5091–5110,Short summary
The ice nucleation ability of two natural desert dusts coated with a proxy of secondary organic aerosol is presented for temperatures and relative humidity conditions relevant for mixed-phase clouds. We find that at the tested conditions, there is no effect on the ice nucleation ability of the particles due to the organic coating. Furthermore, the two dust samples do not show variability within measurement uncertainty. Particle size and surface area may play a role in any difference observed.
Yvonne Boose, Philipp Baloh, Michael Plötze, Johannes Ofner, Hinrich Grothe, Berko Sierau, Ulrike Lohmann, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1059–1076,Short summary
The role non-mineral components play in the freezing behavior of atmospheric desert dust is not well known. In this study, we use chemical imaging methods to investigate this for airborne and surface-collected desert dust samples. We find that in most cases the ice nucleation behavior is determined by the dust mineralogical composition. However, volatile organic material can coat active sites and decrease the dust ice nucleation ability, while biological particles can significantly increase it.
Mikhail Paramonov, Robert O. David, Ruben Kretzschmar, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16515–16536,Short summary
The paper presents an overview of the ice nucleation activity of surface-collected mineral and soil dust. Emphasis is placed on disentangling the effects of mineral, biogenic and soluble components of the dust on its ice nucleation activity. The results revealed that it is not possible to predict the ice nucleation activity of the surface-collected dust based on the presence and amount of certain minerals or any particular class of compounds, such as soluble or proteinaceous/organic compounds.
Paul J. DeMott, Ottmar Möhler, Daniel J. Cziczo, Naruki Hiranuma, Markus D. Petters, Sarah S. Petters, Franco Belosi, Heinz G. Bingemer, Sarah D. Brooks, Carsten Budke, Monika Burkert-Kohn, Kristen N. Collier, Anja Danielczok, Oliver Eppers, Laura Felgitsch, Sarvesh Garimella, Hinrich Grothe, Paul Herenz, Thomas C. J. Hill, Kristina Höhler, Zamin A. Kanji, Alexei Kiselev, Thomas Koop, Thomas B. Kristensen, Konstantin Krüger, Gourihar Kulkarni, Ezra J. T. Levin, Benjamin J. Murray, Alessia Nicosia, Daniel O'Sullivan, Andreas Peckhaus, Michael J. Polen, Hannah C. Price, Naama Reicher, Daniel A. Rothenberg, Yinon Rudich, Gianni Santachiara, Thea Schiebel, Jann Schrod, Teresa M. Seifried, Frank Stratmann, Ryan C. Sullivan, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Miklós Szakáll, Hans P. Taylor, Romy Ullrich, Jesus Vergara-Temprado, Robert Wagner, Thomas F. Whale, Daniel Weber, André Welti, Theodore W. Wilson, Martin J. Wolf, and Jake Zenker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6231–6257,Short summary
The ability to measure ice nucleating particles is vital to quantifying their role in affecting clouds and precipitation. Methods for measuring droplet freezing were compared while co-sampling relevant particle types. Measurement correspondence was very good for ice nucleating particles of bacterial and natural soil origin, and somewhat more disparate for those of mineral origin. Results reflect recently improved capabilities and provide direction toward addressing remaining measurement issues.
Fabian Mahrt, Claudia Marcolli, Robert O. David, Philippe Grönquist, Eszter J. Barthazy Meier, Ulrike Lohmann, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13363–13392,Short summary
The ice nucleation ability of different soot particles in the cirrus and mixed-phase cloud temperature regime is presented. The impact of aerosol particle size, particle morphology, organic matter and hydrophilicity on ice nucleation is examined. We propose ice nucleation proceeds via a pore condensation freezing mechanism for soot particles with the necessary physicochemical properties that nucleated ice well below water saturation.
Larissa Lacher, Ulrike Lohmann, Yvonne Boose, Assaf Zipori, Erik Herrmann, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martin Steinbacher, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15199–15224,Short summary
We characterize the new Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber HINC to measure ambient ice nucleating particle concentrations at mixed‐phase cloud conditions. Results from winter measurements at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch compare well to previous measurements. We find increased ice nucleating particle concentrations during the influence of Saharan dust events and marine events, which highlights the importance of these species on ice nucleation in the free troposphere.
Monika Burkert-Kohn, Heike Wex, André Welti, Susan Hartmann, Sarah Grawe, Lisa Hellner, Paul Herenz, James D. Atkinson, Frank Stratmann, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11683–11705,Short summary
Several instruments can investigate properties of ice-nucleating particles (INPs), which are crucial to understanding ice cloud formation. We intercompare four online ice nucleation counters and reasonable agreement is found when the same ice nucleation mode is tested. A variable scaling factor was necessary to reconcile condensation freezing results with immersion freezing. Factors related to instrumental setup and aerosol generation are discussed to explain observed differences.
Sarvesh Garimella, Daniel A. Rothenberg, Martin J. Wolf, Robert O. David, Zamin A. Kanji, Chien Wang, Michael Rösch, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10855–10864,Short summary
This study investigates systematic and variable low bias in the measurement of ice nucleating particle concentration using continuous flow diffusion chambers. We find that non-ideal instrument behavior exposes particles to different humidities and/or temperatures than predicted from theory. We use a machine learning approach to quantify and minimize the uncertainty associated with this measurement bias.
Yvonne Boose, André Welti, James Atkinson, Fabiola Ramelli, Anja Danielczok, Heinz G. Bingemer, Michael Plötze, Berko Sierau, Zamin A. Kanji, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15075–15095,Short summary
We compare the immersion freezing behavior of four airborne to 11 surface-collected dust samples to investigate the role of different minerals for atmospheric ice nucleation on desert dust. We find that present K-feldspars dominate at T > 253 K, while quartz does at colder temperatures, and surface-collected dust samples are not necessarily representative for airborne dust. For improved ice cloud prediction, modeling of quartz and feldspar emission and transport are key.
Yvonne Boose, Berko Sierau, M. Isabel García, Sergio Rodríguez, Andrés Alastuey, Claudia Linke, Martin Schnaiter, Piotr Kupiszewski, Zamin A. Kanji, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9067–9087,Short summary
Mineral dust is known to be among the most prevalent ice-nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere, playing a crucial role for ice cloud formation. We present 2 months of ground-based in situ measurements of INP concentrations in the free troposphere close to the largest global dust source, the Sahara. We find that some atmospheric processes such as mixing with biological particles and ammonium increase the dust INP ability. This is important when predicting INPs based on emissions.
N. Hiranuma, S. Augustin-Bauditz, H. Bingemer, C. Budke, J. Curtius, A. Danielczok, K. Diehl, K. Dreischmeier, M. Ebert, F. Frank, N. Hoffmann, K. Kandler, A. Kiselev, T. Koop, T. Leisner, O. Möhler, B. Nillius, A. Peckhaus, D. Rose, S. Weinbruch, H. Wex, Y. Boose, P. J. DeMott, J. D. Hader, T. C. J. Hill, Z. A. Kanji, G. Kulkarni, E. J. T. Levin, C. S. McCluskey, M. Murakami, B. J. Murray, D. Niedermeier, M. D. Petters, D. O'Sullivan, A. Saito, G. P. Schill, T. Tajiri, M. A. Tolbert, A. Welti, T. F. Whale, T. P. Wright, and K. Yamashita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2489–2518,Short summary
Seventeen ice nucleation measurement techniques contributed to investigate the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX. All data showed a similar temperature trend, but the measured ice nucleation activity was on average smaller for the wet suspended samples and higher for the dry-dispersed aerosol samples at high temperatures. A continued investigation and collaboration is necessary to obtain further insights into consistency or diversity of ice nucleation measurements.
H. Wex, S. Augustin-Bauditz, Y. Boose, C. Budke, J. Curtius, K. Diehl, A. Dreyer, F. Frank, S. Hartmann, N. Hiranuma, E. Jantsch, Z. A. Kanji, A. Kiselev, T. Koop, O. Möhler, D. Niedermeier, B. Nillius, M. Rösch, D. Rose, C. Schmidt, I. Steinke, and F. Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1463–1485,Short summary
Immersion freezing measurements from seven different measurement techniques were intercompared using a biological ice nucleating material from bacteria. Although different techniques examined differently concentrated droplets, it was possible to find a uniform description, which showed that results from all experiments were generally in good agreement and were also in agreement with parameterizations published earlier in literature.
Z. A. Kanji, A. Welti, C. Chou, O. Stetzer, and U. Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9097–9118,
C. Chou, Z. A. Kanji, O. Stetzer, T. Tritscher, R. Chirico, M. F. Heringa, E. Weingartner, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, and U. Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 761–772,
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Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2891–2906,Short summary
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Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2635–2648,Short summary
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Demetrios Pagonis, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Hongyu Guo, Douglas A. Day, Melinda K. Schueneman, Wyatt L. Brown, Benjamin A. Nault, Harald Stark, Kyla Siemens, Alex Laskin, Felix Piel, Laura Tomsche, Armin Wisthaler, Matthew M. Coggon, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Hannah S. Halliday, Jordan E. Krechmer, Richard H. Moore, David S. Thomson, Carsten Warneke, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1545–1559,Short summary
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Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1037–1045,Short summary
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Rob L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Benjamin T. Brem, Martin Irwin, Michele Bertò, Rosaria E. Pileci, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Bas Henzing, Marcel M. Moerman, Fengshan Liu, Thomas Müller, and Martin Gysel-Beer
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Candice L. Sirmollo, Don R. Collins, Jordan M. McCormick, Cassandra F. Milan, Matthew H. Erickson, James H. Flynn, Rebecca J. Sheesley, Sascha Usenko, Henry W. Wallace, Alexander A. T. Bui, Robert J. Griffin, Matthew Tezak, Sean M. Kinahan, and Joshua L. Santarpia
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMT
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Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6427–6443,Short summary
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Hans-Christian Clemen, Johannes Schneider, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Franziska Köllner, Andreas Hünig, Florian Rubach, Stephan Mertes, Heike Wex, Frank Stratmann, André Welti, Rebecca Kohl, Fabian Frank, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5923–5953,Short summary
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Mengying Bao, Yan-Lin Zhang, Fang Cao, Yu-Chi Lin, Yuhang Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Wenqi Zhang, Meiyi Fan, Feng Xie, Robert Cary, Joshua Dixon, and Lihua Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
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Karin Ardon-Dryer, Yuval Dryer, Jake N. Williams, and Nastaran Moghimi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5441–5458,Short summary
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Cui-Ping Su, Xing Peng, Xiao-Feng Huang, Li-Wu Zeng, Li-Ming Cao, Meng-Xue Tang, Yao Chen, Bo Zhu, Yishi Wang, and Ling-Yan He
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5407–5422,Short summary
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Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Dongyu S. Wang, Philip Croteau, Katarzyna Styszko, Jarosław Nęcki, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5293–5301,Short summary
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Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nabil Deabji, Sayf El Islam Barcha, Ibrahim Ouchen, El Mehdi Elbaramoussi, Rajaa Cherkaoui El Moursli, Mimoun Harnafi, Souad El Hajjaji, Abdelwahid Mellouki, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4773–4790,Short summary
As air quality monitoring networks often sample aerosol particles on quartz filters, the development and applicability of analytical methods with quartz filters are becoming important. In this study different filter preparation methods (e.g., baking, acid digestion) were investigated for quantifying trace metals on quartz and polycarbonate filters, and cloud water using the total reflection X-Ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique, with low detection limits of about 0.3 ng cm−3 for some elements.
Luka Drinovec, Jean Sciare, Iasonas Stavroulas, Spiros Bezantakos, Michael Pikridas, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Bojana Višić, Maja Remškar, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3799–3813,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust influences Earth's radiative budget, has adverse health effects, and affects regulatory PM10 concentrations. We present a highly time resolved online technique for quantification of mineral dust concentration in ambient air. The technique uses a virtual impactor to concentrate coarse particles, where absorption is then measured using a filter photometer. The method was tested in the field at a regional background site on Cyprus.
Jan-David Förster, Christian Gurk, Mark Lamneck, Haijie Tong, Florian Ditas, Sarah S. Steimer, Peter A. Alpert, Markus Ammann, Jörg Raabe, Markus Weigand, Benjamin Watts, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3717–3729,Short summary
A gas flow system coupled with a microreactor for X-ray microspectroscopy is presented. Its core objective is to mimic the atmospheric processing of aerosol particles under laboratory conditions in a controlled gas-phase environment and allow in situ observations with high spatial and chemical resolution. We here emphasize its analytical capabilities and show initial results from hydration–dehydration experiments and the observation of water ice at low temperature and high relative humidity.
Sergej Molleker, Frank Helleis, Thomas Klimach, Oliver Appel, Hans-Christian Clemen, Antonis Dragoneas, Christian Gurk, Andreas Hünig, Franziska Köllner, Florian Rubach, Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3651–3660,Short summary
A novel constant-pressure-inlet design for use in airborne aerosol particle mass spectrometry – an aerodynamic lens focuses aerosol particles into a vacuum chamber – is presented. The pressure of a few hectopascals at the lens is precisely controlled over a large flight altitude range up to 21 km. The constant pressure is achieved by changing the inner diameter of a properly scaled flexible O-ring acting as a critical orifice. Particle transmission at various inlet pressures is characterized.
Grace C. E. Porter, Sebastien N. F. Sikora, Michael P. Adams, Ulrike Proske, Alexander D. Harrison, Mark D. Tarn, Ian M. Brooks, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2905–2921,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles affect cloud development, lifetime, and radiative properties. Hence it is important to know the abundance of INPs throughout the atmosphere. Here we present the development and application of a radio-controlled payload capable of collecting size-resolved aerosol from a tethered balloon for the primary purpose of offline INP analysis. Test data are presented from four locations: southern Finland, northern England, Svalbard, and southern England.
Jiacheng Zhou, Xuezhe Xu, Weixiong Zhao, Bo Fang, Qianqian Liu, Yuanqing Cai, Weijun Zhang, Dean S. Venables, and Weidong Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2623–2634,Short summary
We report the first demonstration of a humidified cavity-enhanced albedometer (H-CEA) that combines a broadband cavity-enhanced aerosol albedometer with a humidigraph system for simultaneous and accurate measurements of multiple optical hygroscopic parameters (f(RH)ext,scat,abs,ω) at λ = 532 nm. The instrument is suitable for operating under high RH-conditions and has sampling advantages over independent measurements of different parameters with different instruments.
Antonio Spanu, Maximilian Dollner, Josef Gasteiger, T. Paul Bui, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1963–1987,Short summary
This study investigates how the airflow around wing-mounted instruments on fast-flying aircraft affects aerosol and cloud measurements. It combines airborne data with numerical simulations and shows that particle speed, particle concentration, and shape of water droplets are modified by the airflow. The proposed correction strategy for optical particle counters and optical array probes considers airflow effects and significantly reduces errors of derived ambient aerosol and cloud properties.
Hong Ku Lee, Handol Lee, and Kang-Ho Ahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1551–1562,Short summary
We developed a nanoparticle sizer (NPS), consisting of a multi-port differential mobility analyzer (MP-DMA) with 12 sampling ports and multi-condensation particle counters (M-CPCs) for fast measurement of particle size distribution. The NPS can successfully capture the changes in particle size distribution under fast-changing particle concentration conditions. In this study, particle emissions from cooking activity are analyzed as an exemplary real-world application.
Eric Sauvageat, Yanick Zeder, Kevin Auderset, Bertrand Calpini, Bernard Clot, Benoît Crouzy, Thomas Konzelmann, Gian Lieberherr, Fiona Tummon, and Konstantina Vasilatou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1539–1550,Short summary
We present the first validation of the only operational automatic pollen monitoring system based on holography, the Swisens Poleno. The device produces real-time images of coarse aerosols, and by applying a machine learning algorithm we identify a range of pollen taxa with accuracy >90 %. The device was further validated in controlled chamber experiments to verify the counting ability and the performance of additional fluorescence measurements, which can further be used in pollen identification.
Leigh R. Crilley, Ajit Singh, Louisa J. Kramer, Marvin D. Shaw, Mohammed S. Alam, Joshua S. Apte, William J. Bloss, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, Pingqing Fu, Weiqi Fu, Shahzad Gani, Michael Gatari, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Alastair C. Lewis, David Ng'ang'a, Yele Sun, Rachel C. W. Whitty, Siyao Yue, Stuart Young, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1181–1193,Short summary
There is considerable interest in using low-cost optical particle counters (OPCs) for particle mass measurements; however, there is no agreed upon method with respect to calibration. Here we exploit a number of datasets globally to demonstrate that particle composition and relative humidity are the key factors affecting measured concentrations from a low-cost OPC, and we present a simple correction methodology that corrects for this influence.
Ying Chen, Viacheslav Kozlovskiy, Xubing Du, Jinnuo Lv, Sergei Nikiforov, Jiajun Yu, Alexander Kolosov, Wei Gao, Zhen Zhou, Zhengxu Huang, and Lei Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 941–949,Short summary
Ion delayed extraction technique in single particle mass spectrometry has been found to improve the mass resolution of instruments. Through further research, it was found that it can improve the aerosol particle detection efficiency because it can eliminate the influence of the electrical field on the charged aerosol trajectory so that more effective data can be obtained in a short time in laboratory or field atmospheric aerosol research, especially in low-concentration aerosol sample analysis.
Nina Löbs, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Sebastian Brill, David Walter, Florian Ditas, Marta de Oliveira Sá, Alessandro C. de Araújo, Leonardo R. de Oliveira, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Stefan Wolff, Meike Piepenbring, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, and Bettina Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 153–164,Short summary
Bioaerosols are considered to play a relevant role in atmospheric processes, but their sources, properties, and spatiotemporal distribution in the atmosphere are not yet well characterized. Measurement data on the release of fungal spores under natural conditions are also sparse. Here, we present an experimental approach to analyze and quantify the spore release from fungi and other spore-producing organisms under natural and laboratory conditions.
Helen R. Smith, Zbigniew Ulanowski, Paul H. Kaye, Edwin Hirst, Warren Stanley, Richard Kaye, Andreas Wieser, Chris Stopford, Maria Kezoudi, Joseph Girdwood, Richard Greenaway, and Robert Mackenzie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6579–6599,Short summary
The Universal Cloud and Aerosol Sounding System (UCASS) is a low-cost miniature optical particle counter (OPC) capable of sizing particles in the size range 0.4–40 μm. The open-geometry design makes the instrument suitable for deployment on balloon-borne sounding systems, dropsonde systems or as part of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Laboratory and field experiments show good agreement with reference instruments in a range of cloudy and dusty environments.
Karl D. Froyd, Daniel M. Murphy, Charles A. Brock, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack E. Dibb, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Agnieszka Kupc, Ann M. Middlebrook, Gregory P. Schill, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Christina J. Williamson, James C. Wilson, and Luke D. Ziemba
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6209–6239,Short summary
Single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) instruments characterize the composition of individual aerosol particles in real time. We present a new method that combines SPMS composition with independently measured particle size distributions to determine absolute number, surface area, volume, and mass concentrations of mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, and other climate-relevant atmospheric particle types, with a fast time response applicable to aircraft sampling.
Felix Piel, Markus Müller, Tomas Mikoviny, Sally E. Pusede, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5947–5958,Short summary
Herein we report on the first successful airborne deployment of a CHARON PTR–ToF–MS instrument aboard the NASA DC–8 research aircraft. The analyzer is capable of chemically characterizing submicrometer atmospheric particles in a quantitative manner, at the near–molecular level, in real time. This brings a new and unprecedented measurement capability to the airborne atmospheric science community.
Eric A. Wendt, Casey W. Quinn, Daniel D. Miller-Lionberg, Jessica Tryner, Christian L'Orange, Bonne Ford, Azer P. Yalin, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Shantanu Jathar, and John Volckens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5431–5441,Short summary
We introduce a low-cost, compact device (aerosol mass and optical depth (AMOD) sampler) that can be used by citizen scientists to measure air quality. Our paper discusses the development and different components for measuring aerosols. It also shows that measurements made by the AMOD next to reference-grade monitors agreed within 10 %. Coupled with the cost of these instruments, this agreement demonstrates that the AMOD can be widely deployed to monitor air quality by citizen scientists.
Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Veronika Pospisilova, Wei Huang, Markus Kalberer, Claudia Mohr, Giulia Stefenelli, Joel A. Thornton, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4867–4886,Short summary
We present a novel, field-deployable extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF), which provides real-time, near-molecular measurements of organic aerosol at atmospherically relevant concentrations, addressing a critical gap in existing measurement capabilities. Successful deployments of the EESI-TOF for laboratory measurements, ground-based ambient sampling, and aboard a research aircraft highlight the versatility and potential of the EESI-TOF system.
Yunfei Wu, Yunjie Xia, Rujin Huang, Zhaoze Deng, Ping Tian, Xiangao Xia, and Renjian Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4347–4359,Short summary
The morphology and effective density of externally mixed black carbon (extBC) aerosols were studied using a tandem technique coupling a DMA with a SP2. The study extended the mass–mobility relationship to large extBC with a mobility diameter larger than 350 nm, a size range seldom included in previous tandem measurements of BC aggregates. On this basis, quantities such as the mass–mobility scaling exponent were revealed for extBC in urban Beijing.
Katie Foster, Rudra Pokhrel, Matthew Burkhart, and Shane Murphy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3351–3363,Short summary
A new technique for calibrating photo-acoustic absorption spectrometers (PASs) has been developed utilizing polydisperse, highly-absorbing aerosol and a commercially available instrument that measures particle extinction and scattering. This is the first calibration technique for multi-pass PAS instruments that does not require particles with known refractive index or reactive gases. Three substances were tested: Aquadag, Regal Black, and Nigrosin. All calibrations were consistent to within 5 %.
Charles A. Brock, Christina Williamson, Agnieszka Kupc, Karl D. Froyd, Frank Erdesz, Nicholas Wagner, Matthews Richardson, Joshua P. Schwarz, Ru-Shan Gao, Joseph M. Katich, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Jose L. Jimenez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Maximilian Dollner, ThaoPaul Bui, and Daniel M. Murphy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3081–3099,Short summary
From 2016 to 2018 a NASA aircraft profiled the atmosphere from 180 m to ~12 km from the Arctic to the Antarctic over both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. This program, ATom, sought to sample atmospheric chemical composition to compare with global climate models. We describe the how measurements of particulate matter were made during ATom, and show that the instrument performance was excellent. Data from this project can be used with confidence to evaluate models and compare with satellites.
Reece A. Brown, Svetlana Stevanovic, Steven Bottle, and Zoran D. Ristovski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2387–2401,Short summary
The paper details the design and characterization of a novel instrument for the measurement of particle reactivity and potential bioactivity, the PINQ. It continuously collects particles, regardless of size or composition, directly into a very small amount of liquid with a collection efficiency of > 0.97 and a cut-off size of 20 nm. PINQ has the highest time resolution, of only 1 min, and is very sensitive to various reactive species from the air.
Claudio Crazzolara, Martin Ebner, Andreas Platis, Tatiana Miranda, Jens Bange, and Annett Junginger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1581–1598,Short summary
A newly developed in situ measurement method provides new insights into the propagation behaviour of aerosol particles such as pollen grains and spores, possibly improving the pollen prognosis for allergy sufferers and providing new discoveries in the propagation behaviour of fine dust particles of different origins. This publication describes the development of the remote-controlled multicopter-based system as well as initial tests and validations to overcome various technical challenges.
Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Le Breton, Michael Priestley, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Nicholas A. Marsden, Archit Mehra, Julia Hammes, Mattias Hallquist, M. Rami Alfarra, Ulrich K. Krieger, Jonathan P. Reid, John Jayne, Wade Robinson, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, and Dave Topping
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1429–1439,Short summary
The Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) is an inlet designed to be coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) and provides simultaneous molecular information relating to both the gas- and particle-phase samples. This method has been used to extract vapour pressures of compounds whilst giving quantitative concentrations in the particle phase. Here we detail an ideal set of benchmark compounds for characterization of the FIGAERO.
Tommaso F. Villa, Reece A. Brown, E. Rohan Jayaratne, L. Felipe Gonzalez, Lidia Morawska, and Zoran D. Ristovski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 691–702,Short summary
This research demonstrates the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to characterize the gaseous and diesel particle emissions of a ship at sea. The field study was part of the research voyage “The Great Barrier Reef as a significant source of climatically relevant aerosol particles” on board the RV Investigator around the Australian Great Barrier Reef. Measurements of the RV Investigator exhaust plume were carried out while the ship was operating at sea, at a steady engine load.
Bastian Stieger, Gerald Spindler, Dominik van Pinxteren, Achim Grüner, Markus Wallasch, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 281–298,Short summary
A MARGA was combined with an additional IC system specialized for the 2 h interval online quantification of 12 low-molecular-weight organic acids in the gas and particle phases. Low limits of detection and good precision were achieved. The suitability for field measurements was shown. This setup reduces laboratory work and filter sampling artifacts. Diurnal profiles, sources and phase distributions of these compounds will improve the knowledge of the tropospheric multiphase chemistry.
Nicholas D. Beres and Hans Moosmüller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6803–6813,Short summary
Particulate matter found in the atmosphere, or aerosols, can deposit on snow and ice and significantly change its reflectivity. Consequently, the timing of snow melt and snow water runoff is also changed. To study these processes, it is important to be able to deposit aerosols in a controlled manner on snow surfaces. Here, we present the design and demonstrate the use of an apparatus for deposition of common mineral dust and combustion aerosols.
Joseph V. Puthussery, Chen Zhang, and Vishal Verma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5767–5780,Short summary
The oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particulate matter (PM) has recently gained attention as an alternative metric for assessing the ambient PM toxicity. However, a major constraint in measuring the OP is its labor-intensive protocol. Here, we developed a new online instrument by coupling a mist chamber to an automated analytical system which can measure the real-time OP of ambient PM. We also report for the first time, the hourly averaged diurnal profile of ambient PM OP at an urban site.
Gabriel Giono, Boris Strelnikov, Heiner Asmus, Tristan Staszak, Nickolay Ivchenko, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5299–5314,Short summary
Energetic photons, such as ultraviolet light, are able to eject electrons from a material surface, thus creating an electrical current, also called a photocurrent. A proper estimation of this photocurrent can be crucial for space- or rocket-borne particle detectors, as it can dominate over the currents that are of scientific interest (induced by charged particles, for example). This article outlines the design for photocurrent modelling and for experimental confirmation in a laboratory.
Tongshu Zheng, Michael H. Bergin, Karoline K. Johnson, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Shilpa Shirodkar, Matthew S. Landis, Ronak Sutaria, and David E. Carlson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4823–4846,Short summary
Low-cost particulate matter sensors are promising tools for supplementing existing air quality monitoring networks but their performance under field conditions is not well understood. We characterized how well Plantower PMS3003 sensors measure PM2.5 in a wide range of ambient conditions against different reference sensors. When a more precise reference method is used for calibration and proper RH corrections are made, our work suggests PMS3003's can measure PM2.5 within ~ 10 % of ambient values.
Stephen Feinberg, Ron Williams, Gayle S. W. Hagler, Joshua Rickard, Ryan Brown, Daniel Garver, Greg Harshfield, Phillip Stauffer, Erick Mattson, Robert Judge, and Sam Garvey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4605–4615,Short summary
Air pollution sensors are quickly proliferating for use in a wide variety of applications, with a low price point that supports use in high-density networks, citizen science, and individual consumer use. We evaluated the performance of particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide sensors in Denver, Colorado, over a period of seven months. We found that these sensors could vary greatly in their performance, but some were able to replicate trends measured by traditional instruments.
Joel Alroe, Luke T. Cravigan, Marc D. Mallet, Zoran D. Ristovski, Branka Miljevic, Chiemeriwo G. Osuagwu, and Graham R. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4361–4372,Short summary
This study describes a new volatility-based method to directly examine the composition and corresponding hygroscopic contribution of mixed aerosol components. Measurements of chamber-generated secondary organic aerosol and coastal marine aerosol demonstrated effective separation of both internal and external mixtures. In each case, the findings enabled composition-based models to reliably reproduce observed particle hygroscopicities.
Jessie M. Creamean, Katherine M. Primm, Margaret A. Tolbert, Emrys G. Hall, Jim Wendell, Allen Jordan, Patrick J. Sheridan, Jedediah Smith, and Russell C. Schnell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3969–3985,Short summary
A new balloon-borne system has been developed to measure the properties of aerosol particles that form cloud ice in the lower troposphere, called HOVERCAT (Honing On VERtical Cloud and Aerosol properTies). Test flights in Colorado demonstrated the utility of HOVERCAT for profiling these ice nucleating particles (INPs), where we found higher numbers of INPs from agricultural sources. Measurements by HOVERCAT can help improve understanding of how aerosols impact clouds in the atmosphere.
Christina Williamson, Agnieszka Kupc, James Wilson, David W. Gesler, J. Michael Reeves, Frank Erdesz, Richard McLaughlin, and Charles A. Brock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3491–3509,Short summary
We describe the operating principle, design and performance of the Nucleation Mode Aerosol Size Spectrometer (NMASS), an instrument composed of 5 condensation particle counters measuring size selected particle concentrations between 3 and 60 nm. An inversion to recover size distributions from the data is evaluated. Calibrations of a 2-NMASS system for measuring size distributions on the NASA Atmospheric Tomography Mission, and examples of its in-flight performance are presented.
Gregory P. Schill, Paul J. DeMott, Ezra J. T. Levin, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3007–3020,Short summary
Few techniques can measure the contribution of refractory black carbon (rBC) to ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations. One technique uses the single particle soot photometer (SP2) as a pre-filter to an online INP counter to selectively remove rBC particles from an aerosol stream. In this work, we expand upon this technique by determining the effect of the SP2 laser on INP proxies mixed with rBC. We also bounded the SP2 conditions under which rBC is fully vaporized in the SP2 exhaust.
Bi, K., McMeeking, G. R., Ding, D. P., Levin, E. J., DeMott, P. J., Zhao, D. L., Wang, F., Liu, Q., Tian, P., Ma, X. C., Chen, Y. B., Huang, M. Y., Zhang, H. L., Gordon, T. D., and Chen, P.: Measurements of Ice Nucleating Particles in Beijing, China, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 124, 8065–8075, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JD030609, 2019. a
Boucher, O., Randall, D., Artaxo, P., Bretherton, C., Feingold, G., Forster, P., Kerminen, V.-M., Kondo, Y., Liao, H., Lohmann, U., Rasch, P., Satheesh, S. K., Sherwood, S., Stevens, B., and Zhang, X. Y.: Clouds and Aerosols, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.016, 571–658, 2013. a
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Brubaker, T., Polen, M., Cheng, P., Ekambaram, V., Somers, J., Anna, S. L., and Sullivan, R. C.: Development and characterization of a “store and create” microfluidic device to determine the heterogeneous freezing properties of ice nucleating particles, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 54, 79–93, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786826.2019.1679349, 2020. a
Brunner, C. and Kanji, Z. A.: Continuous online-monitoring of Ice Nucleating Particles: development of the automated Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC-Auto), ETH Zürich, https://doi.org/10.3929/ethz-b-000429220, 2020.
DeMott, P. J., Cziczo, D. J., Prenni, A. J., Murphy, D. M., Kreidenweis, S. M., Thomson, D. S., Borys, R., and Rogers, D. C.: Measurements of the concentration and composition of nuclei for cirrus formation, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100, 14655–14660, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2532677100, 2003a. a
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DeMott, P. J., Möhler, O., Stetzer, O., Vali, G., Levin, Z., Petters, M. D., Murakami, M., Leisner, T., Bundke, U., Klein, H., Kanji, Z. A., Cotton, R., Jones, H., Benz, S., Brinkmann, M., Rzesanke, D., Saathoff, H., Nicolet, M., Saito, A., Nillius, B., Bingemer, H., Abbatt, J. P., Ardon, K., Ganor, E., Georgakopoulos, D. G., and Saunders, C.: Resurgence in ice nuclei measurement research, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 92, 1623–1635, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011BAMS3119.1, 2011. a
Garimella, S., Kristensen, T. B., Ignatius, K., Welti, A., Voigtländer, J., Kulkarni, G. R., Sagan, F., Kok, G. L., Dorsey, J., Nichman, L., Rothenberg, D. A., Rösch, M., Kirchgäßner, A. C. R., Ladkin, R., Wex, H., Wilson, T. W., Ladino, L. A., Abbatt, J. P. D., Stetzer, O., Lohmann, U., Stratmann, F., and Cziczo, D. J.: The SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN): an instrument to investigate ice nucleation, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2781–2795, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-2781-2016, 2016. a
Hiranuma, N., Augustin-Bauditz, S., Bingemer, H., Budke, C., Curtius, J., Danielczok, A., Diehl, K., Dreischmeier, K., Ebert, M., Frank, F., Hoffmann, N., Kandler, K., Kiselev, A., Koop, T., Leisner, T., Möhler, O., Nillius, B., Peckhaus, A., Rose, D., Weinbruch, S., Wex, H., Boose, Y., DeMott, P. J., Hader, J. D., Hill, T. C. J., Kanji, Z. A., Kulkarni, G., Levin, E. J. T., McCluskey, C. S., Murakami, M., Murray, B. J., Niedermeier, D., Petters, M. D., O'Sullivan, D., Saito, A., Schill, G. P., Tajiri, T., Tolbert, M. A., Welti, A., Whale, T. F., Wright, T. P., and Yamashita, K.: A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2489–2518, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-2489-2015, 2015. a
Lacher, L., Lohmann, U., Boose, Y., Zipori, A., Herrmann, E., Bukowiecki, N., Steinbacher, M., and Kanji, Z. A.: The Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC): INP measurements at conditions relevant for mixed-phase clouds at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15199–15224, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-15199-2017, 2017. a, b, c
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Subvisual microscopic particles in the atmosphere are needed to act as seeds for cloud droplets or ice crystals to form. The microscopic particles, called ice-nucleating particles (INPs), form ice crystals and are rare, and their properties are not well understood, in part because measuring them is challenging and time consuming, and to date has not been automated. Here, we present the first online instrument that can continuously and autonomously measure INP concentration at 243 K.
Subvisual microscopic particles in the atmosphere are needed to act as seeds for cloud droplets...