Articles | Volume 10, issue 1
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 15–34, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-15-2017
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 15–34, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-15-2017

Research article 03 Jan 2017

Research article | 03 Jan 2017

Open-loop GPS signal tracking at low elevation angles from a ground-based observation site

Georg Beyerle and Florian Zus

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Cited articles

Anderson, K. D.: Determination of water level and tides using interferometric observations of GPS signals, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 17, 1118–1127, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(2000)017<1118:DOWLAT>2.0.CO;2, 2000.
Ao, C. O., Meehan, T. K., Hajj, G. A., Mannucci, A. J., and Beyerle, G.: Lower-troposphere refractivity bias in GPS occultation retrievals, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4577, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD003216, 2003.
Ao, C. O., Hajj, G. A., Meehan, T. K., Dong, D., Iijima, B. A., Mannucci, A. J., and Kursinski, E. R.: Rising and setting GPS occultations by use of open-loop tracking, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D04101, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010483, 2009.
Axelrad, P., Larson, K., and Jones, B.: Use of the correct satellite repeat period to characterize and reduce site-specific multipath errors, in: Proceedings of the 18th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS 2005), 2638–2648, IEEE, Long Beach, CA, 2005.
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Short summary
Ground-based observations of GPS satellites disappearing below the local horizon are analysed. Starting at +2 degree elevation angle the GPS signals are recorded in open-loop tracking mode down to −1.5 degrees. The open-loop Doppler model has negligible influence on the derived data products for strong signal-to-noise ratios; at lower signal levels, however, a notable bias is uncovered. These results may have implications for the design of future space-based GPS radio occultation missions.