Articles | Volume 10, issue 8
Research article 01 Aug 2017
Research article | 01 Aug 2017
Simultaneous multicopter-based air sampling and sensing of meteorological variables
Caroline Brosy et al.
No articles found.
Martina Botter, Matthias Zeeman, Paolo Burlando, and Simone Fatichi
Biogeosciences, 18, 1917–1939,
Moritz Mauz, Bram van Kesteren, Andreas Platis, Stefan Emeis, and Jens Bange
Wind Energ. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for WESShort summary
The study aims for a computationally inexpensive model describing the wind deficit behind a wind energy converter analytically using some assumptions and basic governing equations of the atmosphere. Thus, the influence of different atmospheric conditions onto the wake development can be studied in the future which is important e.g. in wind park planning. The model is compared to conventional empirical wake models and in-situ UAS measurements captured along the wake at hub height.
Lutz Merbold, Charlotte Decock, Werner Eugster, Kathrin Fuchs, Benjamin Wolf, Nina Buchmann, and Lukas Hörtnagl
Biogeosciences, 18, 1481–1498,Short summary
Our study investigated the exchange of the three major greenhouse gases (GHGs) over a temperate grassland prior to and after restoration through tillage in central Switzerland. Our results show that irregular management events, such as tillage, have considerable effects on GHG emissions in the year of tillage while leading to enhanced carbon uptake and similar nitrogen losses via nitrous oxide in the years following tillage to those observed prior to tillage.
Christof Lorenz, Tanja C. Portele, Patrick Laux, and Harald Kunstmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Semi-arid regions depend on the freshwater resources from the rainy seasons as they are crucial for ensuring security for drinking water, food, and electricity. Thus, forecasting the conditions for the next season is crucial for pro-active water management. We hence present a seasonal forecast product for four semi-arid domains in Iran, Brazil, Sudan/Ethiopia, and Ecuador/Peru. It provides a benchmark for seasonal forecasts and, finally, a crucial contribution for improved disaster preparedness.
Benjamin Fersch, Till Francke, Maik Heistermann, Martin Schrön, Veronika Döpper, Jannis Jakobi, Gabriele Baroni, Theresa Blume, Heye Bogena, Christian Budach, Tobias Gränzig, Michael Förster, Andreas Güntner, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Mandy Kasner, Markus Köhli, Birgit Kleinschmit, Harald Kunstmann, Amol Patil, Daniel Rasche, Lena Scheiffele, Ulrich Schmidt, Sandra Szulc-Seyfried, Jannis Weimar, Steffen Zacharias, Marek Zreda, Bernd Heber, Ralf Kiese, Vladimir Mares, Hannes Mollenhauer, Ingo Völksch, and Sascha Oswald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2289–2309,
Julius Polz, Christian Chwala, Maximilian Graf, and Harald Kunstmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3835–3853,Short summary
Commercial microwave link (CML) networks can be used to estimate path-averaged rain rates. This study evaluates the ability of convolutional neural networks to distinguish between wet and dry periods in CML time series data and the ability to transfer this detection skill to sensors not used for training. Our data set consists of several months of data from 3904 CMLs covering all of Germany. Compared to a previously used detection method, we could show a significant increase in performance.
Moritz Mauz, Bram van Kesteren, Andreas Platis, Stefan Emeis, and Jens Bange
Wind Energ. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The submitted manuscript suggests an analytical model/approach to connect the near-wake wind deficit with the mid an far-wake deficit. The atmospheric turbulence is considered as the main driver for the wind deficit decay rate in this approach. The analytical solution is backed by a numerical solution of the momentum conservation equation derived from Navier-Stokes equations. In-situ wake UAS measurements are the basis and motivation for the model approach shown in the manuscript.
Maximilian Graf, Christian Chwala, Julius Polz, and Harald Kunstmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2931–2950,Short summary
Commercial microwave links (CMLs), which form large parts of the backhaul from the ubiquitous cellular communication networks, can be used to estimate path-integrated rainfall rates. This study presents the processing and evaluation of the largest CML data set to date, covering the whole of Germany with almost 4000 CMLs. The CML-derived rainfall information compares well to a standard precipitation data set from the German Meteorological Service, which combines radar and rain gauge data.
Stephen J. Harris, Jesper Liisberg, Longlong Xia, Jing Wei, Kerstin Zeyer, Longfei Yu, Matti Barthel, Benjamin Wolf, Bryce F. J. Kelly, Dioni I. Cendón, Thomas Blunier, Johan Six, and Joachim Mohn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2797–2831,Short summary
The latest commercial laser spectrometers have the potential to revolutionize N2O isotope analysis. However, to do so, they must be able to produce trustworthy data. Here, we test the performance of widely used laser spectrometers for ambient air applications and identify instrument-specific dependencies on gas matrix and trace gas concentrations. We then provide a calibration workflow to facilitate the operation of these instruments in order to generate reproducible and accurate data.
Benjamin Fersch, Alfonso Senatore, Bianca Adler, Joël Arnault, Matthias Mauder, Katrin Schneider, Ingo Völksch, and Harald Kunstmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2457–2481,
Astrid Lampert, Konrad Bärfuss, Andreas Platis, Simon Siedersleben, Bughsin Djath, Beatriz Cañadillas, Robert Hunger, Rudolf Hankers, Mark Bitter, Thomas Feuerle, Helmut Schulz, Thomas Rausch, Maik Angermann, Alexander Schwithal, Jens Bange, Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth, Thomas Neumann, and Stefan Emeis
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 935–946,Short summary
With the research aircraft Do-128 of TU Braunschweig, meteorological measurements were performed in the wakes of offshore wind parks during the project WIPAFF. During stable atmospheric conditions, the areas of reduced wind speed and enhanced turbulence behind wind parks had an extension larger than 45 km downwind. The data set consisting of 41 measurement flights is presented. Parameters include wind vector, temperature, humidity and significant wave height.
Martin Kunz, Jost V. Lavric, Rainer Gasche, Christoph Gerbig, Richard H. Grant, Frank-Thomas Koch, Marcus Schumacher, Benjamin Wolf, and Matthias Zeeman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1671–1692,Short summary
The nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) budget method enables the quantification of gas fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere under nocturnal stable stratification, a condition under which standard approaches struggle. However, up to now the application of the NBL method has been limited by difficulties in obtaining the required measurements. We show how an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) equipped with a carbon dioxide analyser can make this method more accessible.
Bernd Schalge, Gabriele Baroni, Barbara Haese, Daniel Erdal, Gernot Geppert, Pablo Saavedra, Vincent Haefliger, Harry Vereecken, Sabine Attinger, Harald Kunstmann, Olaf A. Cirpka, Felix Ament, Stefan Kollet, Insa Neuweiler, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Clemens Simmer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
In this study a nine year simulation of complete model output of a coupled atmosphere-land surface-subsurface model on the catchment scale is discussed. We used the Neckar catchment in SW-Germany as the basis of this simulation. Since the dataset includes the full model output it is not only possible to investigate model behaviour and interactions between the component models but also use it as a virtual truth for comparison of for example data assimilation experiments.
Genki Katata, Rüdiger Grote, Matthias Mauder, Matthias J. Zeeman, and Masakazu Ota
Biogeosciences, 17, 1071–1085,Short summary
In this paper, we demonstrate that high physiological activity levels during the extremely warm winter are allocated into the below-ground biomass and only to a minor extent used for additional plant growth during early spring. This process is so far largely unaccounted for in scenario analysis using global terrestrial biosphere models, and it may lead to carbon accumulation in the soil and/or carbon loss from the soil as a response to global warming.
Simon K. Siedersleben, Andreas Platis, Julie K. Lundquist, Bughsin Djath, Astrid Lampert, Konrad Bärfuss, Beatriz Cañadillas, Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth, Jens Bange, Tom Neumann, and Stefan Emeis
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 249–268,Short summary
Wind farms affect local weather and microclimates. These effects can be simulated in weather models, usually by removing momentum at the location of the wind farm. Some debate exists whether additional turbulence should be added to capture the enhanced mixing of wind farms. By comparing simulations to measurements from airborne campaigns near offshore wind farms, we show that additional turbulence is necessary. Without added turbulence, the mixing is underestimated during stable conditions.
Erkan Ibraim, Benjamin Wolf, Eliza Harris, Rainer Gasche, Jing Wei, Longfei Yu, Ralf Kiese, Sarah Eggleston, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Matthias Zeeman, Béla Tuzson, Lukas Emmenegger, Johan Six, Stephan Henne, and Joachim Mohn
Biogeosciences, 16, 3247–3266,Short summary
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and the major stratospheric ozone-depleting substance; therefore, mitigation of anthropogenic N2O emissions is needed. To trace N2O-emitting source processes, in this study, we observed N2O isotopocules above an intensively managed grassland research site with a recently developed laser spectroscopy method. Our results indicate that the domain of denitrification or nitrifier denitrification was the major N2O source.
Rebecca Mott, Andreas Wolf, Maximilian Kehl, Harald Kunstmann, Michael Warscher, and Thomas Grünewald
The Cryosphere, 13, 1247–1265,Short summary
The mass balance of very small glaciers is often governed by anomalous snow accumulation, winter precipitation being multiplied by snow redistribution processes, or by suppressed snow ablation driven by micrometeorological effects lowering net radiation and turbulent heat exchange. In this study we discuss the relative contribution of snow accumulation (avalanches) versus micrometeorology (katabatic flow) on the mass balance of the lowest perennial ice field of the Alps, the Ice Chapel.
Anne Klosterhalfen, Alexander Graf, Nicolas Brüggemann, Clemens Drüe, Odilia Esser, María P. González-Dugo, Günther Heinemann, Cor M. J. Jacobs, Matthias Mauder, Arnold F. Moene, Patrizia Ney, Thomas Pütz, Corinna Rebmann, Mario Ramos Rodríguez, Todd M. Scanlon, Marius Schmidt, Rainer Steinbrecher, Christoph K. Thomas, Veronika Valler, Matthias J. Zeeman, and Harry Vereecken
Biogeosciences, 16, 1111–1132,Short summary
To obtain magnitudes of flux components of H2O and CO2 (e.g., transpiration, soil respiration), we applied source partitioning approaches after Scanlon and Kustas (2010) and after Thomas et al. (2008) to high-frequency eddy covariance measurements of 12 study sites covering various ecosystems (croplands, grasslands, and forests) in different climatic regions. We analyzed the interrelations among turbulence, site characteristics, and the performance of both partitioning methods.
Ashish Singh, Khadak S. Mahata, Maheswar Rupakheti, Wolfgang Junkermann, Arnico K. Panday, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 245–258,Short summary
This paper reports the first airborne measurement campaign in the central Himalayan foothill region, one of the polluted but relatively poorly sampled regions of the world. The measurement campaign quantifies the vertical distribution of aerosols over a polluted mountain valley in the Himalayan foothills and investigates the extent of regional emission transport.
Paola Formenti, Stuart John Piketh, Andreas Namwoonde, Danitza Klopper, Roelof Burger, Mathieu Cazaunau, Anaïs Feron, Cécile Gaimoz, Stephen Broccardo, Nicola Walton, Karine Desboeufs, Guillaume Siour, Mattheus Hanghome, Samuel Mafwila, Edosa Omoregie, Wolfgang Junkermann, and Willy Maenhaut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17003–17016,Short summary
Three-years of continuous measurements at the Henties Bay Aerosol Observatory (HBAO; 22°S, 14°05’E), Namibia, show that during the austral wintertime, long- and medium-range transport of pollution from biomass and fossil fuel burning give rise to peaks of light-absorbing black carbon aerosols into the marine boundary layer ahead of the main biomass burning season. This could affect the cloud properties.
Erika von Schneidemesser, Boris Bonn, Tim M. Butler, Christian Ehlers, Holger Gerwig, Hannele Hakola, Heidi Hellén, Andreas Kerschbaumer, Dieter Klemp, Claudia Kofahl, Jürgen Kura, Anja Lüdecke, Rainer Nothard, Axel Pietsch, Jörn Quedenau, Klaus Schäfer, James J. Schauer, Ashish Singh, Ana-Maria Villalobos, Matthias Wiegner, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8621–8645,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the measurements done at an urban background site in Berlin from June-August of 2014. Results show that natural source contributions to ozone and particulate matter (PM) air pollutants are substantial. Large contributions of secondary aerosols formed in the atmosphere to PM10 concentrations were quantified. An analysis of the sources also identified contributions to PM from plant-based sources, vehicles, and a small contribution from wood burning.
Dominikus Heinzeller, Diarra Dieng, Gerhard Smiatek, Christiana Olusegun, Cornelia Klein, Ilse Hamann, Seyni Salack, Jan Bliefernicht, and Harald Kunstmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 815–835,Short summary
Climate change and population growth pose severe challenges to 21st century rural Africa. Within the framework of the West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL), an ensemble of high-resolution regional climate change simulations is provided to support adaptation and mitigation measures. This contribution presents the concept and design of the simulations and provides information on the format and dissemination of the available data.
Xiaowan Zhu, Guiqian Tang, Jianping Guo, Bo Hu, Tao Song, Lili Wang, Jinyuan Xin, Wenkang Gao, Christoph Münkel, Klaus Schäfer, Xin Li, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4897–4910,Short summary
Our study first conducted a long-term observation of mixing layer height (MLH) with high resolution on the North China Plain (NCP), analyzed the spatiotemporal variations of regional MLH, investigated the reasons for MLH differences in the NCP and revealed the meteorological reasons for heavy haze pollution in southern Hebei. The study results provide scientific suggestions for regional industrial structure readjustment and have great importance for achieving the integrated development goals.
Matthias Mauder and Matthias J. Zeeman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 249–263,
Alexander Geiß, Matthias Wiegner, Boris Bonn, Klaus Schäfer, Renate Forkel, Erika von Schneidemesser, Christoph Münkel, Ka Lok Chan, and Rainer Nothard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2969–2988,Short summary
Based on measurements with a ceilometer and from an air quality network, the relationship between the mixing layer height (MLH) and near surface concentrations of pollutants was investigated for summer 2014 in Berlin. It was found that the heterogeneity of the concentrations exceeds the differences due to different MLH retrievals. In particular for PM10 it seems to be unrealistic to find correlations between MLH and concentrations representative for an entire metropolitan area in flat terrain.
Jan Schmieder, Florian Hanzer, Thomas Marke, Jakob Garvelmann, Michael Warscher, Harald Kunstmann, and Ulrich Strasser
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 5015–5033,Short summary
We present novel research on the spatiotemporal variability of snowmelt isotopic content in a high-elevation catchment with complex terrain to improve the isotope-based hydrograph separation method. A modelling approach was used to weight the plot-scale snowmelt isotopic content with melt rates for the north- and south-facing slope. The investigations showed that it is important to sample at least north- and south-facing slopes, because of distinct isotopic differences between both slopes.
Bernd Schalge, Jehan Rihani, Gabriele Baroni, Daniel Erdal, Gernot Geppert, Vincent Haefliger, Barbara Haese, Pablo Saavedra, Insa Neuweiler, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Felix Ament, Sabine Attinger, Olaf A. Cirpka, Stefan Kollet, Harald Kunstmann, Harry Vereecken, and Clemens Simmer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
In this work we show how we used a coupled atmosphere-land surface-subsurface model at highest possible resolution to create a testbed for data assimilation. The model was able to capture all important processes and interactions between the compartments as well as showing realistic statistical behavior. This proves that using a model as a virtual truth is possible and it will enable us to develop data assimilation methods where states and parameters are updated across compartment.
Boris Bonn, Erika von Schneidemesser, Dorota Andrich, Jörn Quedenau, Holger Gerwig, Anja Lüdecke, Jürgen Kura, Axel Pietsch, Christian Ehlers, Dieter Klemp, Claudia Kofahl, Rainer Nothard, Andreas Kerschbaumer, Wolfgang Junkermann, Rüdiger Grote, Tobias Pohl, Konradin Weber, Birgit Lode, Philipp Schönberger, Galina Churkina, Tim M. Butler, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7785–7811,Short summary
The distribution of air pollutants (gases and particles) have been investigated in different environments in Potsdam, Germany. Remarkable variations of the pollutants have been observed for distances of tens of meters by bicycles, vans and aircraft. Vegetated areas caused reductions depending on the pollutants, the vegetation type and dimensions. Our measurements show the pollutants to be of predominantly local origin, resulting in a huge challenge for common models to resolve.
Christian Chwala, Felix Keis, and Harald Kunstmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 991–999,Short summary
Commercial microwave link (CML) networks, like they are used as backbone for the cell phone network, can be used to derive rainfall information. However, data availability is limited due to the lack of suitable data acquisition systems. We have developed and currently operate a custom data acquisition system for CML networks that is able to acquire the required data for a large number of CMLs in real time. This system is the basis for a future countrywide rainfall product derived from CML data.
Guiqian Tang, Jinqiang Zhang, Xiaowan Zhu, Tao Song, Christoph Münkel, Bo Hu, Klaus Schäfer, Zirui Liu, Junke Zhang, Lili Wang, Jinyuan Xin, Peter Suppan, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2459–2475,Short summary
This is the first paper to validate and characterize mixing layer height and discuss its relationship with air pollution, using a ceilometer in Beijing. The novelty, originality, and importance of this paper are as follows: (1) the applicable conditions of the ceilometer; (2) the variations of mixing layer height; (3) thermal/dynamic structure inside mixing layers with different degrees of pollution; and (4) critical meteorological conditions for the formation of heavy air pollution.
D. Heinzeller, M. G. Duda, and H. Kunstmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 77–110,Short summary
We present an in-depth evaluation of the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) with regards to technical aspects of performing model runs and scalability for medium-size meshes on several HPCs. We also demonstrate the model performance in terms of its capability to reproduce the dynamics of the West African monsoon and its associated precipitation in a pilot study. Finally, we conduct extreme scaling tests on a global 3km mesh with 65,536,002 horizontal grid cells on up to 458,752 cores.
F. Alshawaf, B. Fersch, S. Hinz, H. Kunstmann, M. Mayer, and F. J. Meyer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4747–4764,Short summary
This work aims at deriving high spatially resolved maps of atmospheric water vapor by the fusion data from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The data fusion approach exploits the redundant and complementary spatial properties of all data sets to provide more accurate and high-resolution maps of water vapor. The comparison with maps from MERIS shows rms values of less than 1 mm.
M. Frey, F. Hase, T. Blumenstock, J. Groß, M. Kiel, G. Mengistu Tsidu, K. Schäfer, M. K. Sha, and J. Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3047–3057,
F. Hase, M. Frey, T. Blumenstock, J. Groß, M. Kiel, R. Kohlhepp, G. Mengistu Tsidu, K. Schäfer, M. K. Sha, and J. Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3059–3068,
B. Wolf, L. Merbold, C. Decock, B. Tuzson, E. Harris, J. Six, L. Emmenegger, and J. Mohn
Biogeosciences, 12, 2517–2531,
G. Mao, S. Vogl, P. Laux, S. Wagner, and H. Kunstmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1787–1806,
A. Wagner, J. Seltmann, and H. Kunstmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further review
K. Schäfer, M. Elsasser, J. M. Arteaga-Salas, J. Gu, M. Pitz, J. Schnelle-Kreis, J. Cyrys, S. Emeis, A. S. H. Prevot, and R. Zimmermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
P. Michna, W. Eugster, R. V. Hiller, M. J. Zeeman, and H. Wanner
Geogr. Helv., 68, 249–263,
R. J. van der Ent, O. A. Tuinenburg, H.-R. Knoche, H. Kunstmann, and H. H. G. Savenije
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4869–4884,
G. J. Luo, R. Kiese, B. Wolf, and K. Butterbach-Bahl
Biogeosciences, 10, 3205–3219,
S. Metzger, W. Junkermann, M. Mauder, K. Butterbach-Bahl, B. Trancón y Widemann, F. Neidl, K. Schäfer, S. Wieneke, X. H. Zheng, H. P. Schmid, and T. Foken
Biogeosciences, 10, 2193–2217,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Validation and IntercomparisonsMethane emissions from an oil sands tailings pond: a quantitative comparison of fluxes derived by different methodsPerformance of open-path GasFinder3 devices for CH4 concentration measurements close to ambient levelsWater vapor density and turbulent fluxes from three generations of infrared gas analyzersQuantifying fugitive gas emissions from an oil sands tailings pond with open-path Fourier transform infrared measurementsRobust statistical calibration and characterization of portable low-cost air quality monitoring sensors to quantify real-time O3 and NO2 concentrations in diverse environmentsA field intercomparison of three passive air samplers for gaseous mercury in ambient airOn-farm beef cattle methane emissions measured with tracer-ratio and inverse-dispersion modelling techniquesA miniature Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) for real-driving monitoring of motorcyclesIn situ measurement of CO2 and CH4 from aircraft over northeast China and comparison with OCO-2 dataMobile-platform measurement of air pollutant concentrations in California: performance assessment, statistical methods for evaluating spatial variations, and spatial representativenessContinuous methane concentration measurements at the Greenland ice sheet–atmosphere interface using a low-cost, low-power metal oxide sensor systemThe development of the Atmospheric Measurements by Ultra-Light Spectrometer (AMULSE) greenhouse gas profiling system and application for satellite retrieval validationAtmospheric observations of the water vapour continuum in the near-infrared windows between 2500 and 6600 cm−1Intercomparison study of atmospheric 222Rn and 222Rn progeny monitorsSources of error in open-path FTIR measurements of N2O and CO2 emitted from agricultural fieldsConstraining the accuracy of flux estimates using OTM 33AEvaluating the measurement interference of wet rotating-denuder–ion chromatography in measuring atmospheric HONO in a highly polluted areaIntercomparison of nitrous acid (HONO) measurement techniques in a megacity (Beijing)Validity and limitations of simple reaction kinetics to calculate concentrations of organic compounds from ion counts in PTR-MSRecent advances in measurement techniques for atmospheric carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide observationsTrue eddy accumulation trace gas flux measurements: proof of conceptSimultaneous detection of C2H6, CH4, and δ13C-CH4 using optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region: towards application for dissolved gas measurementsAn improved low-power measurement of ambient NO2 and O3 combining electrochemical sensor clusters and machine learningComparison of slant open-path flux gradient and static closed chamber techniques to measure soil N2O emissionsField measurements of methylglyoxal using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry and comparison to the DNPH–HPLC–UV methodHow well can global chemistry models calculate the reactivity of short-lived greenhouse gases in the remote troposphere, knowing the chemical compositionEstimation of nocturnal CO2 and N2O soil emissions from changes in surface boundary layer mass storageIntra-urban spatial variability of surface ozone in Riverside, CA: viability and validation of low-cost sensorsField calibration of electrochemical NO2 sensors in a citizen science contextCalibration and field testing of cavity ring-down laser spectrometers measuring CH4, CO2, and δ13CH4 deployed on towers in the Marcellus Shale regionCalibration and assessment of electrochemical air quality sensors by co-location with regulatory-grade instrumentsComparison of VOC measurements made by PTR-MS, adsorbent tubes–GC-FID-MS and DNPH derivatization–HPLC during the Sydney Particle Study, 2012: a contribution to the assessment of uncertainty in routine atmospheric VOC measurementsMeasurement of interferences associated with the detection of the hydroperoxy radical in the atmosphere using laser-induced fluorescenceMeasurements of a potential interference with laser-induced fluorescence measurements of ambient OH from the ozonolysis of biogenic alkenesStatistical atmospheric inversion of local gas emissions by coupling the tracer release technique and local-scale transport modelling: a test case with controlled methane emissionsComparison of OH reactivity measurements in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIRUse of electrochemical sensors for measurement of air pollution: correcting interference response and validating measurementsObservations of VOC emissions and photochemical products over US oil- and gas-producing regions using high-resolution H3O+ CIMS (PTR-ToF-MS)Evaluation and environmental correction of ambient CO2 measurements from a low-cost NDIR sensorA closed-chamber method to measure greenhouse gas fluxes from dry aquatic sedimentsMethods to homogenize electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde measurements across changes in sensing solution concentration or ozonesonde manufacturerComparison of optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography for ground-based and airborne measurements of atmospheric CO concentrationA European-wide 222radon and 222radon progeny comparison studyAn eddy-covariance system with an innovative vortex intake for measuring carbon dioxide and water fluxes of ecosystemsFlux calculation of short turbulent events – comparison of three methodsUsing in situ GC-MS for analysis of C2–C7 volatile organic acids in ambient air of a boreal forest siteMeasuring OVOCs and VOCs by PTR-MS in an urban roadside microenvironment of Hong Kong: relative humidity and temperature dependence, and field intercomparisonsComparison of two closed-path cavity-based spectrometers for measuring air–water CO2 and CH4 fluxes by eddy covarianceA comparison of very short lived halocarbon (VSLS) and DMS aircraft measurements in the tropical west Pacific from CAST, ATTREX and CONTRASTAssessment of recent advances in measurement techniques for atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane observations
Yuan You, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, James Beck, and Richard L. Mittermeier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1879–1892,Short summary
Tailings ponds in the Alberta oil sands can be significant sources of methane, an important greenhouse gas. This paper describes a 1-month study conducted in 2017 to measure methane emissions from a pond using a variety of micrometeorological flux methods and demonstrates some advantages of these methods over flux chambers.
Christoph Häni, Marcel Bühler, Albrecht Neftel, Christof Ammann, and Thomas Kupper
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1733–1741,
Seth Kutikoff, Xiaomao Lin, Steven R. Evett, Prasanna Gowda, David Brauer, Jerry Moorhead, Gary Marek, Paul Colaizzi, Robert Aiken, Liukang Xu, and Clenton Owensby
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1253–1266,Short summary
Fast-response infrared gas sensors have been used over 3 decades for long-term monitoring of water vapor fluxes. As optically improved infrared gas sensors are newly employed, we evaluated the performance of water vapor density and water vapor flux from three generations of infrared gas sensors in Bushland, Texas, USA. From our experiments, fluxes from the old sensors were best representative of evapotranspiration based on a world-class lysimeter reference measurement.
Yuan You, Samar G. Moussa, Lucas Zhang, Long Fu, James Beck, and Ralf M. Staebler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 945–959,Short summary
Tailings ponds in the Alberta oil sands represent an insufficiently characterized source of fugitive emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere. In this study, a novel approach of using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer along with measurements of atmospheric turbulence is shown to present a practical, non-intrusive method of quantifying emission rates for ammonia, alkanes, and methane. Results from a 1-month field study are presented and discussed.
Ravi Sahu, Ayush Nagal, Kuldeep Kumar Dixit, Harshavardhan Unnibhavi, Srikanth Mantravadi, Srijith Nair, Yogesh Simmhan, Brijesh Mishra, Rajesh Zele, Ronak Sutaria, Vidyanand Motiram Motghare, Purushottam Kar, and Sachchida Nand Tripathi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 37–52,Short summary
A unique feature of our low-cost sensor deployment is a swap-out experiment wherein four of the six sensors were relocated to different sites in the two phases. The swap-out experiment is crucial in investigating the efficacy of calibration models when applied to weather and air quality conditions vastly different from those present during calibration. We developed a novel local calibration algorithm based on metric learning that offers stable and accurate calibration performance.
Attilio Naccarato, Antonella Tassone, Maria Martino, Sacha Moretti, Antonella Macagnano, Emiliano Zampetti, Paolo Papa, Joshua Avossa, Nicola Pirrone, Michelle Nerentorp, John Munthe, Ingvar Wängberg, Geoff W. Stupple, Carl P. J. Mitchell, Adam R. Martin, Alexandra Steffen, Diana Babi, Eric M. Prestbo, Francesca Sprovieri, and Frank Wania
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Mercury monitoring in support of the Minamata Convention will require effective and reliable analytical tools. Passive sampling is a promising approach for creating a sustainable long-term network for atmospheric mercury with improved spatial resolution and global coverage. In this study the analytical performance of three Passive Air Samplers (CNR-PAS, IVL-PAS, MerPAS) was assessed over extended deployment periods and the accuracy of concentrations was judged by comparison with active sampling.
Mei Bai, José I. Velazco, Trevor W. Coates, Frances A. Phillips, Thomas K. Flesch, Julian Hill, David G. Mayer, Nigel W. Tomkins, Roger S. Hegarty, and Deli Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMT
Michal Vojtisek-Lom, Alessandro A. Zardini, Martin Pechout, Lubos Dittrich, Fausto Forni, François Montigny, Massimo Carriero, Barouch Giechaskiel, and Giorgio Martini
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5827–5843,Short summary
The feasibility of monitoring on-road emissions from small motorcycles with two highly compact portable emissions monitoring systems was evaluated on three motorcycles, with positive results. Mass emissions measured on the road were consistent among repeated runs, with differences between laboratory and on-road tests much larger than those between portable and laboratory systems, which were, on the average, within units of percent over standard test cycles.
Xiaoyu Sun, Minzheng Duan, Yang Gao, Rui Han, Denghui Ji, Wenxing Zhang, Nong Chen, Xiangao Xia, Hailei Liu, and Yanfeng Huo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3595–3607,Short summary
The accurate measurement of greenhouse gases and their vertical distribution in the atmosphere is significant to the study of climate change and satellite remote sensing. Carbon dioxide and methane between 0.6 and 7 km were measured by the aircraft King Air 350ER in Jiansanjiang, northeast China, on 7–11 August 2018. The profiles show strong variation with the altitude and time, so the vertical structure of gases should be taken into account in the current satellite retrieval algorithm.
Paul A. Solomon, Dena Vallano, Melissa Lunden, Brian LaFranchi, Charles L. Blanchard, and Stephanie L. Shaw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3277–3301,Short summary
Analyzing street-level air pollutants (2016–2017), this assessment indicates that mobile measurement is precise and accurate (5 % to 25 % bias) relative to regulatory sites, with higher spatial resolution. Collocated sensor measurements in California showed differences less than 20 %, suggesting that greater differences represent spatial variability. Mobile data confirm regulatory-site spatial representation and that pollutant levels can also be 6 to 8 times higher just blocks apart.
Christian Juncher Jørgensen, Jacob Mønster, Karsten Fuglsang, and Jesper Riis Christiansen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3319–3328,Short summary
Recent discoveries have shown large emissions of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere from meltwater at the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). Low-cost and low-power gas sensor technology offers great potential to supplement CH4 measurements using very expensive reference analyzers under harsh and remote conditions. In this paper we evaluate the in situ performance at the GrIS of a low-cost CH4 sensor to a state-of-the-art analyzer and find very excellent agreement between the two methods.
Lilian Joly, Olivier Coopmann, Vincent Guidard, Thomas Decarpenterie, Nicolas Dumelié, Julien Cousin, Jérémie Burgalat, Nicolas Chauvin, Grégory Albora, Rabih Maamary, Zineb Miftah El Khair, Diane Tzanos, Joël Barrié, Éric Moulin, Patrick Aressy, and Anne Belleudy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3099–3118,Short summary
This article presents an instrument weighing less than 3 kg for accurate and rapid measurement of greenhouse gases between 0 and 30 km altitude using a meteorological balloon. This article shows the interest of these measurements for the validation of simulations of infrared satellite observations.
Jonathan Elsey, Marc D. Coleman, Tom D. Gardiner, Kaah P. Menang, and Keith P. Shine
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2335–2361,Short summary
Water vapour is an important component in trying to understand the flows of energy between the Sun and Earth, since it is opaque to radiation emitted by both the surface and the Sun. In this paper, we study how it absorbs sunlight by way of its
continuum, a property which is poorly understood and with few measurements. Our results indicate that this continuum absorption may be more significant than previously thought, potentially impacting satellite observations and climate studies.
Claudia Grossi, Scott D. Chambers, Olivier Llido, Felix R. Vogel, Victor Kazan, Alessandro Capuana, Sylvester Werczynski, Roger Curcoll, Marc Delmotte, Arturo Vargas, Josep-Anton Morguí, Ingeborg Levin, and Michel Ramonet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2241–2255,Short summary
The sustainable support of radon metrology at the environmental level offers new scientific possibilities for the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the determination of their source terms as well as for the identification of radioactive sources for the assessment of radiation exposure. This study helps to harmonize the techniques commonly used for atmospheric radon and radon progeny activity concentration measurements.
Cheng-Hsien Lin, Richard H. Grant, Albert J. Heber, and Cliff T. Johnston
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2001–2013,Short summary
Gas quantification using the open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (OP-FTIR) is subject to interferences of environmental variables, leading to errors in gas concentration calculations. This study investigated the effects of ambient water vapour content, temperature, path lengths, and wind speed on the quantification of N2O and CO2 concentrations, which can help the OP-FTIR users to avoid these errors and improve the precision and accuracy of the atmospheric gas quantification.
Rachel Edie, Anna M. Robertson, Robert A. Field, Jeffrey Soltis, Dustin A. Snare, Daniel Zimmerle, Clay S. Bell, Timothy L. Vaughn, and Shane M. Murphy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 341–353,Short summary
Ground-based measurements of emissions from oil and natural gas production are important for understanding emission distributions and improving emission inventories. Here, measurement technique Other Test Method 33A (OTM 33A) is validated through several test releases staged at the Methane Emissions Technology Evaluation Center. These tests suggest OTM 33A has no inherent bias and that a group of OTM measurements is within 5 % of the known mean emission rate.
Zheng Xu, Yuliang Liu, Wei Nie, Peng Sun, Xuguang Chi, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6737–6748,Short summary
We evaluated the performance of HONO measurement by a wet-denuder--ion0chromatography system (WD/IC, MARGA). We found significant artificial HONO formed from the reaction of NO2 oxidizing SO2 in the denuder solution. High ambient NH3 would elevate the pH of the denuder solution and promote the overestimation of HONO. A method was established to correct the HONO measurement by WD/IC instruments.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Bin Ouyang, Jun Duan, Wenqian Zhang, Shengrui Tong, Maofa Ge, Ke Tang, Min Qin, Pinhua Xie, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, James Allan, Carl J. Percival, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Roderic L. Jones, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6449–6463,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is key species for understanding tropospheric chemistry, yet accurate and precise measurements are challenging. Here we report an inter–comparison exercise of a number of instruments that measured HONO in a highly polluted location (Beijing). All instruments agreed on the temporal trends yet displayed divergence in absolute concentrations. The cause of this divergence was unclear, but it may in part be due to spatial variability in instrument location.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
Christoph Zellweger, Rainer Steinbrecher, Olivier Laurent, Haeyoung Lee, Sumin Kim, Lukas Emmenegger, Martin Steinbacher, and Brigitte Buchmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5863–5878,Short summary
We analysed results obtained through CO and N2O performance audits conducted within the framework of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) quality management system of the World Meteorology Organization (WMO). The results reveal that current spectroscopic measurement techniques have clear advantages with respect to data quality objectives compared to more traditional methods. Further, they allow for a smooth continuation of historic CO and N2O time series.
Lukas Siebicke and Anas Emad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4393–4420,Short summary
We present the emerging flux measurement method
true eddy accumulation(TEA), able to quantify the land–atmosphere exchange of a large number of trace gases which are important for air quality and atmospheric composition. Our innovative implementation provides proof of concept of TEA and compared well to the established reference, outperforming previous works on TEA. Key to the success was the innovative high-speed air sampling and fully digital real-time data processing system.
Loic Lechevallier, Roberto Grilli, Erik Kerstel, Daniele Romanini, and Jérôme Chappellaz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3101–3109,Short summary
In this work we describe a highly sensitive optical spectrometer for simultaneous measurement of methane, ethane, and the isotopic composition of methane. The coupling of the spectrometer with a dissolved gas extraction system will provide a suitable tool for understanding the origins of the dissolved hydrocarbons and discriminate between the different sources (e.g., biogenic vs. thermogenic).
Kate R. Smith, Peter M. Edwards, Peter D. Ivatt, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, Chengliang Dai, Richard E. Peltier, Mat J. Evans, Yele Sun, and Alastair C. Lewis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1325–1336,Short summary
Clusters of low-cost, low-power atmospheric gas sensors were built into a sensor instrument to monitor NO2 and O3 in Beijing, alongside reference instruments, aiming to improve the reliability of sensor measurements. Clustering identical sensors and using the median sensor signal was used to minimize drift over short and medium timescales. Three different machine learning techniques were used for all the sensor data in an attempt to correct for cross-interferences, which worked to some degree.
Mei Bai, Helen Suter, Shu Kee Lam, Thomas K. Flesch, and Deli Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1095–1102,Short summary
Improving direct field measurement techniques to quantify gas emissions from large agriculture farm is challenging. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions with static closed chambers and slant open-path flux gradient (FG) approaches following chicken manure application. The concurrent emission ratios (FG / chamber) showed N2O fluxes measured by FG were 1.22-1.40 times higher than those from the chambers. This study provides important information for the agriculture gas measurement community.
Vincent Michoud, Stéphane Sauvage, Thierry Léonardis, Isabelle Fronval, Alexandre Kukui, Nadine Locoge, and Sébastien Dusanter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5729–5740,Short summary
This study presents the first measurements of ambient methylglyoxal, an important atmospheric α-dicarbonyl, using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These measurements mostly agree with concomitant measurements from a reference technique: the DNPH derivatization technique and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. In addition, a careful investigation of the differences between the two techniques is carried out to explain the disagreements observed.
Michael J. Prather, Clare M. Flynn, Xin Zhu, Stephen D. Steenrod, Sarah A. Strode, Arlene M. Fiore, Gustavo Correa, Lee T. Murray, and Jean-Francois Lamarque
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2653–2668,Short summary
A new protocol for merging in situ atmospheric chemistry measurements with 3-D models is developed. This technique can identify the most reactive air parcels in terms of tropospheric production/loss of O3 & CH4. This approach highlights differences in 6 global chemistry models even with composition specified. Thus in situ measurements from, e.g., NASA's ATom mission can be used to develop a chemical climatology of, not only the key species, but also the rates of key reactions in each air parcel.
Richard H. Grant and Rex A. Omonode
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2119–2133,Short summary
Annual emissions of trace gases requires knowledge of the emissions throughout the day and year. Unfortunately emissions into the surface boundary layer during calm nights are rarely measured. During such conditions surface layer concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) often accumulate in the surface boundary layer and the time rate of change of this accumulation was used to estimate emissions. Results showed this approach to be reasonable.
Kira Sadighi, Evan Coffey, Andrea Polidori, Brandon Feenstra, Qin Lv, Daven K. Henze, and Michael Hannigan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1777–1792,Short summary
Ground-level ozone has negative human health impacts. In the summer of 2015, 13 low-cost sensor monitors were deployed to several neighborhoods around Riverside, California. There were significant spatial differences between monitors. This is important because it means that ozone in certain places may be higher than what EPA monitors report for an area, which is pertinent for residents of those communities. This research helps inform the limitations and advantages of low-cost sensor networks.
Bas Mijling, Qijun Jiang, Dave de Jonge, and Stefano Bocconi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1297–1312,Short summary
Although in many cities the population is exposed to air pollution, real-time air quality is usually only measured at a few locations. New low-cost sensor technology has the potential to extend the monitoring network significantly. We show that citizen science campaigns using the current generations of electrochemical NO2 sensors may provide useful complementary data on local air quality in an urban setting, provided that experiments are properly set up and the data are carefully analysed.
Natasha L. Miles, Douglas K. Martins, Scott J. Richardson, Christopher W. Rella, Caleb Arata, Thomas Lauvaux, Kenneth J. Davis, Zachary R. Barkley, Kathryn McKain, and Colm Sweeney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1273–1295,Short summary
Analyzers measuring methane and methane isotopic ratio were deployed at four towers in the Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction region of Pennsylvania. The methane isotopic ratio is helpful for differentiating emissions from natural gas activities from other sources (e.g., landfills). We describe the analyzer calibration. The signals observed in the study region were generally small, but the instrumental performance demonstrated here could be used in regions with stronger enhancements.
David H. Hagan, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Jonathan P. Franklin, Lisa M. M. Wallace, Benjamin D. Kocar, Colette L. Heald, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 315–328,Short summary
The use of low-cost sensors for air pollution research has outpaced our understanding of their capabilities and limitations under real-world conditions. Here we describe the deployment, calibration and evaluation of electrochemical sensors on the Island of Hawai‘i. We obtain excellent performance (RMSE < 7 ppb, r2 = 0.997) across a wide dynamic range (1 ppb–2 ppm). We introduce a hybrid regression algorithm which works across a large dynamic range and shows little decay in sensitivity over time.
Erin Dunne, Ian E. Galbally, Min Cheng, Paul Selleck, Suzie B. Molloy, and Sarah J. Lawson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 141–159,Short summary
A comparison of measurements of 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban air by 3 different methods is presented. An uncertainty was calculated for each method and VOCs measured to provide some idea of the reliability of the data. Even when this uncertainty was accounted for, the measurements from the different methods did not agree for 4 of the 7 VOCs. Thus, there is unaccounted uncertainty in VOC measurements which must be considered when utilizing the data and assessing their reliability.
Michelle M. Lew, Sebastien Dusanter, and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 95–109,Short summary
This paper describes measurements of the conversion efficiency of several organic peroxy radicals upon reaction with nitric oxide to the hydroperoxy radical, which can interfere with measurements of the latter. This interference could explain some of the discrepancies between measurements and model predictions of the hydroperoxy radical. Previous measurements of the hydroperoxy radical during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area campaign in 2006 are reanalyzed to account for the interference.
Pamela Rickly and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1–16,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical is the primary atmospheric oxidant in the atmosphere, and measurements of its concentration provide a rigorous test of our understanding of atmospheric chemistry. This paper presents measurements of a potential interference with measurements of OH using laser-induced fluorescence techniques, which may contribute to measurements of OH in forested environments. The results may help to explain discrepancies between measurements and model predictions in these environments.
Sébastien Ars, Grégoire Broquet, Camille Yver Kwok, Yelva Roustan, Lin Wu, Emmanuel Arzoumanian, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 5017–5037,Short summary
This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site combining the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a practical implementation based on a series of inversions of controlled methane and tracer point sources in different spatial configurations to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison with the classic tracer method.
Hendrik Fuchs, Anna Novelli, Michael Rolletter, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Stephan Kessel, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams, Vincent Michoud, Sebastien Dusanter, Nadine Locoge, Nora Zannoni, Valerie Gros, Francois Truong, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Danny R. Cryer, Charlotte A. Brumby, Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Paul W. Seakins, Dwayne E. Heard, Coralie Schoemaecker, Marion Blocquet, Sebastien Coudert, Sebastien Batut, Christa Fittschen, Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, Cheryl Ernest, Hartwig Harder, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Thomas Elste, Dagmar Kubistin, Stefanie Andres, Birger Bohn, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Qi Zou, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4023–4053,Short summary
Hydroxyl radical reactivity (k(OH)) is closely related to processes that lead to the formation of oxidised, secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosol. In order to compare the performances of instruments measuring k(OH), experiments were conducted in the simulation chamber SAPHIR. Chemical conditions were chosen either to be representative of the atmosphere or to test potential limitations of instruments. Overall, the results show that instruments are capable of measuring k(OH).
Eben S. Cross, Leah R. Williams, David K. Lewis, Gregory R. Magoon, Timothy B. Onasch, Michael L. Kaminsky, Douglas R. Worsnop, and John T. Jayne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3575–3588,Short summary
Low-cost air quality sensor technologies offer new opportunities for fast and distributed measurements of air pollution, but a persistent characterization gap remains when it comes to evaluating sensor performance under realistic environmental sampling conditions. We present results from a newly developed integrated AQ-sensor system (ARISense) and demonstrate the utility of using high-dimensional model representation to improve the conversion of raw sensor signal to ambient concentration.
Abigail Koss, Bin Yuan, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B. Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, Patrick R. Veres, Jeff Peischl, Scott Eilerman, Rob Wild, Steven S. Brown, Chelsea R. Thompson, Thomas Ryerson, Thomas Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Mitchell Thayer, Frank N. Keutsch, Shane Murphy, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2941–2968,Short summary
Oil and gas extraction activity can cause air quality issues through emission of reactive chemicals. VOCs related to extraction operations in the United States were measured by PTR-ToF-MS from aircraft during the SONGNEX campaign in March–April 2015. The detailed analysis in this work provides a guide to interpreting PTR-ToF measurements in oil- and gas-producing regions, and it includes fundamental observations of VOC speciation and mixing ratios.
Cory R. Martin, Ning Zeng, Anna Karion, Russell R. Dickerson, Xinrong Ren, Bari N. Turpie, and Kristy J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2383–2395,Short summary
A low-cost sensor for measuring carbon dioxide is evaluated for its performance in detecting concentrations in Earth's atmosphere. After a multivariate regression correcting for environmental variables, the root mean square error between it and a research-grade gas analyzer is less than 0.5 % of the observed average value. This demonstrates the viability for using these sensors in certain real-world atmospheric observing applications.
Lukas Lesmeister and Matthias Koschorreck
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2377–2382,Short summary
Greenhouse gas emissions from dry aquatic sediments are probably globally relevant. However, they are difficult to measure because of the often rocky substrate. We tested the performance of different materials to seal a closed chamber to stony ground both in laboratory and field experiments. Pottery clay was a convenient sealing material, while the use of on-site material produced artefacts. We confirmed that CO2 fluxes from dry aquatic sediments were similar to fluxes from
Terry Deshler, Rene Stübi, Francis J. Schmidlin, Jennifer L. Mercer, Herman G. J. Smit, Bryan J. Johnson, Rigel Kivi, and Bruno Nardi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2021–2043,Short summary
Ozonesondes, small balloon-borne instruments to measure ozone profiles, are used once and lost. Quality control is thus essential. From the mid-1990s to late 2000s differences in manufacturers' (Science Pump and ENSCI) recommended sensor solution concentrations, 1.0 % and 0.5 % potassium iodide, led to some confusion. This paper uses comparison measurements to derive transfer functions to homogenize the measurements made with non-standard combinations of instrument and sensor solution.
Irène Ventrillard, Irène Xueref-Remy, Martina Schmidt, Camille Yver Kwok, Xavier Faïn, and Daniele Romanini
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1803–1812,Short summary
We present a comparison of CO measurements performed with a portable OF-CEAS laser spectrometer against a high-performance gas chromatograph. For both surface and airborne measurements, the instruments show an excellent agreement very close to the 2 ppb World Meteorological Organization recommendation for CO inter-laboratory comparison. This work establishes that this laser technique allows for the development of sensitive, compact, robust and reliable instruments for in situ trace-gas analysis.
Dominik Schmithüsen, Scott Chambers, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Juha Hatakka, Victor Kazan, Rolf Neubert, Jussi Paatero, Michel Ramonet, Clemens Schlosser, Sabine Schmid, Alex Vermeulen, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1299–1312,Short summary
A European-wide 222radon/222radon progeny comparison study has been conducted at nine measurement stations in order to determine differences between existing 222radon instrumentation and atmospheric data sets, respectively. Mean differences up to 45 % were found between monitors. These differences need to be taken into account if the data shall serve for quantitative regional atmospheric transport model validation.
Jingyong Ma, Tianshan Zha, Xin Jia, Steve Sargent, Rex Burgon, Charles P.-A. Bourque, Xinhua Zhou, Peng Liu, Yujie Bai, and Yajuan Wu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1259–1267,Short summary
The vortex intake significantly reduced maintenance requirements and downtime for a closed-path eddy-covariance system compared to the original inline filter design. Vortex intake kept the sample cell windows cleaner, preserving the optical signal strength of CO2 longer. Its installation also avoided the need for an inline filter in the sample path, sustaining an acceptable sample cell differential pressure over a much longer period. There was no significant attenuation of high frequencies.
Carsten Schaller, Mathias Göckede, and Thomas Foken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 869–880,Short summary
The eddy covariance (EC) method allows for measuring and calculating vertical turbulent exchange fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere. It fails in non-steady-state flow conditions, e.g. in Arctic regions. Two alternative calculation methods, conditional sampling and wavelet analysis, were implemented and compared to EC. Wavelet analysis for allows calculating a trustworthy flux even in non-stationary times and offers new possibilities for exact flux calculation in difficult environments.
Heidi Hellén, Simon Schallhart, Arnaud P. Praplan, Tuukka Petäjä, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 281–289,Short summary
There is a lack of knowledge of volatile organic acids (VOAs), other than formic and acetic acids in gas phase, and this is at least partly due to the lack of sensitive enough measurement methods. In the present study we developed an in situ GC–MS measurement method for measuring C2–C7 monocarboxylic VOAs at ambient air concentration levels, which we used to measure ambient air concentrations in a boreal forest site. In addition, found mixing ratios were compared with PTR-TOFMS data.
Long Cui, Zhou Zhang, Yu Huang, Shun Cheng Lee, Donald Ray Blake, Kin Fai Ho, Bei Wang, Yuan Gao, Xin Ming Wang, and Peter Kwok Keung Louie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5763–5779,Short summary
In this manuscript, the effect of ambient RH and T on HCHO measurements by PTR-MS was investigated, and the Poly 2-D regression was found to be a good nonlinear surface simulation of R (RH, T) for correcting measured HCHO concentration. Intercomparisons between PTR-MS and other OVOC and VOC measuring techniques were conducted through a field study in urban roadside areas of Hong Kong primarily, and good agreements were found between these different techniques.
Mingxi Yang, John Prytherch, Elena Kozlova, Margaret J. Yelland, Deepulal Parenkat Mony, and Thomas G. Bell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5509–5522,Short summary
The exchange of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane between the ocean and the atmosphere is of critical importance for the earth's climate. Despite this, direct measurements of these fluxes are relatively scarce, especially for methane, in large part due to instrumental challenges. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of two of the latest carbon dioxide and methane flux analysers. We also compare their detection limits to predicted air–sea fluxes of these gases.
Stephen J. Andrews, Lucy J. Carpenter, Eric C. Apel, Elliot Atlas, Valeria Donets, James R. Hopkins, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Alastair C. Lewis, Richard T. Lidster, Richard Lueb, Jamie Minaeian, Maria Navarro, Shalini Punjabi, Daniel Riemer, and Sue Schauffler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5213–5225,Short summary
We present a comparison of aircraft measurements of important trace gases from a co-ordinated campaign in Jan–Feb 2014 in the tropical west Pacific involving the NASA Global Hawk, NCAR GV and FAAM BAe-146 aircraft. The paper studies the comparability of separate measurements across platforms and demonstrates that aircraft measurements are relevant for characterising the vertical uplift of important gases, such as those with ozone-depleting potential, to the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere.
Christoph Zellweger, Lukas Emmenegger, Mohd Firdaus, Juha Hatakka, Martin Heimann, Elena Kozlova, T. Gerard Spain, Martin Steinbacher, Marcel V. van der Schoot, and Brigitte Buchmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4737–4757,Short summary
We compared instruments using more traditional techniques for measuring CO2 and CH4 at different stations of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme with a travelling instrument using a spectroscopic technique. Our results show that the newer analytical techniques have clear advantages over the traditional methods which will lead to the improved accuracy of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 measurement. The work was carried out in the framework of the GAW quality assurance/quality control system.
Altstädter, B., Platis, A., Wehner, B., Scholtz, A., Wildmann, N., Hermann, M., Käthner, R., Baars, H., Bange, J., and Lampert, A.: ALADINA – an unmanned research aircraft for observing vertical and horizontal distributions of ultrafine particles within the atmospheric boundary layer, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1627–1639, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-8-1627-2015, 2015.
Alvarado, M., Gonzalez, F., Fletcher, A., and Doshi, A.: Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites, Sensors, 15, 19667–19687, https://doi.org/10.3390/s150819667, 2015.
Alvarado, M., Gonzales, F., Erskine, P., Cliff, D., and Heuff, D.: A Methodology to Monitor Airborne PM10 Dust Particles Using a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Sensors, 17, 343, https://doi.org/10.3390/s17020343, 2017.
Andrews, A. E., Kofler, J. D., Trudeau, M. E., Williams, J. C., Neff, D. H., Masarie, K. A., Chao, D. Y., Kitzis, D. R., Novelli, P. C., Zhao, C. L., Dlugokencky, E. J., Lang, P. M., Crotwell, M. J., Fischer, M. L., Parker, M. J., Lee, J. T., Baumann, D. D., Desai, A. R., Stanier, C. O., De Wekker, S. F. J., Wolfe, D. E., Munger, J. W., and Tans, P. P.: CO2, CO, and CH4 measurements from tall towers in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis, and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 647–687, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-7-647-2014, 2014.
Anfossi, D., Oetti, D., Degrazia, G., and Goulart A.: An analysis of sonic anemometer observations in low wind speed conditions, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 114, 179–203, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-004-1984-4, 2005.
Bamberger, I., Stieger, J., Buchmann, N., and Eugster, W.: Spatial variability of methane: Attributing atmospheric concentrations to emissions, Environ. Pollut., 190, 65–74, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.03.028, 2014.
Banta, R. M., Pichugina, Y. L., Kelley, N. D., Hardesty, R. M., and Brewer, W. A.: Wind energy meteorology: Insight into wind properties in the turbine-rotor layer of the atmosphere from high-resolution Doppler lidar, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 94, 883–902, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00057.1, 2013.
Båserud, L., Reuder, J., Jonassen, M. O., Kral, S. T., Paskyabi, M. B., and Lothon, M.: Proof of concept for turbulence measurements with the RPAS SUMO during the BLLAST campaign, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4901–4913, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-4901-2016, 2016.
Berman, E. S. F., Fladeland, M. L. J., Kolyer, R., and Gupta, M.: Greenhouse gas analyzer for measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor aboard an unmanned aerial vehicle, Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem., 169, 128–135, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2012.04.036, 2012.
Beswick, K. M., Simpson, T. W., Fowler, D., Choularton, T. W., Gallagher, M. W., Hargreaves, K. J., Sutton, M. A., and Kaye, A.: Methane emissions on large scales, Atmos. Environ., 32, 3283–3291, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00080-6, 1998.
Chang, C.-C., Wang, J.-L., Chang, C.-Y., and Liang, M.-C.: Development of a multicopter-carried whole air sampling apparatus and its applications in environmental studies, Chemosphere, 144, 484–492, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.08.028, 2016.
Choularton, T. W., Gallagher, M. W., Bower, K. N., Fowler, D., Zahniser, M., and Kaye, A.: Trace Gas Flux Measurements at the Landscape Scale Using Boundary-Layer Budgets, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A., 351, 357–369, 1995.
Dämmgen, U., Rösemann, C., Haenel, H.-D., and Hutchings, N. J.: Enteric methane emissions from German dairy cows, Landbauforsch. Appl. Agric. Forestry Res., 1/2, 21–32, 2012.
de Boer, G., Palo, S., Argrow, B., LoDolce, G., Mack, J., Gao, R.-S., Telg, H., Trussel, C., Fromm, J., Long, C. N., Bland, G., Maslanik, J., Schmid, B., and Hock, T.: The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1845–1857, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-1845-2016, 2016.
Denmead, O. T., Leuning, R., Griffith, D. W. T., Jamie, I. M., Esler, M. B., Harper, L. A., and Freney, J. R.: Verifying inventory predictions of animal methane emissions with meteorological measurements, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 69, 187–209, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1002604505377, 2000.
Dlugokencky, E. J., Nisbet, E. G., Fisher, R., and Lowry, D.: Global atmospheric methane: budget, changes and dangers, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A., 369, 2058–2072, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2010.0341, 2011.
Egger, J., Bajrachaya, S., Heinrich, R., Kolb, P., Lämmlein, S., Mech, M., Reuder, J., Schäper, W., Shakya, P., Schween, J., and Wendt, H.: Diurnal winds in the Himalayan Kali Gandaki valley. Part III: Remotely piloted aircraft soundings, Mon. Weather Rev., 130, 2042–2058, 2002.
Emeis, S., Schäfer, K., and Münkel, C.: Observation of the structure of the urban boundary layer with different ceilometers and validation by RASS data, Meteorol. Z., 18, 149–154, https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2009/0365, 2009.
Forster, P., Ramaswamy, V., Artaxo, P., Berntsen, T., Betts, R., Fahey, D. W., Haywood, J., Lean, J., Lowe, D. C., Myhre, G., Nganga, J., Prinn, R., Raga, G., Schulz, M., and Van Dorland, R.: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing, in: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K. B., Tignor, M., and Miller, H. L., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2007.
Hacker, J. M., Chen, D., Bai, M., Ewenz, C., Junkermann, W., Lieff, W., McManus, B., Neininger, B., Sun, J., Coates, T., Denmead, T., Flesch, T., McGinn, S., and Hill, J.: Using airborne technology to quantify and apportion emissions of CH4 and NH3 from feedlots, Anim. Prod. Sci., 56, 190–203, 2016.
Hammann, E., Behrendt, A., Le Mounier, F., and Wulfmeyer, V.: Temperature profiling of the atmospheric boundary layer with rotational Raman lidar during the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2867–2881, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-2867-2015, 2015.
Holland, G. J., McGeer, T., and Youngren, H.: Autonomous aerosondes for economical atmospheric soundings anywhere on the globe, B. Am. Meteor. Soc., 73, 1987–1998, 1992.
IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories, Vol. 4: Agriculture, forestry and other land use, Chapter 10, http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_Volume4/V4_10_Ch10_Livestock.pdf (last access: 21 June 2017), 2006.
Khan, A., Schaefer, D., Tao, L., Miller, D. J., Sun, K., Zondlo, M. A., Harrison, W. A., Roscoe, B., and Lary, D. J.: Low Power Greenhouse Gas Sensors for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Remote Sens., 4, 1355–1368, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs4051355, 2012.
Kirschke, S., Bousquet, P., Ciais, P., Saunois, M., Canadell, J. G., Dlugokencky, E. J., Bergamaschi, P., Bergmann, D., Blake, D. R., Bruhwiler, L., Cameron-Smith, P., Castaldi, S., Chevallier, F., Feng, L., Fraser, A., Heimann, M., Hodson, E. L., Houweling, S., Josse, B., Fraser, P. J., Krummel, P. B., Lamarque, J. F., Langenfelds, R. L., Le Quere, C., Naik, V., O'Doherty, S., Palmer, P. I., Pison, I., Plummer, D., Poulter, B., Prinn, R. G., Rigby, M., Ringeval, B., Santini, M., Schmidt, M., Shindell, D. T., Simpson, I. J., Spahni, R., Steele, L. P., Strode, S. A., Sudo, K., Szopa, S., Van Der Werf, G. R., Voulgarakis, A., Van Weele, M., Weiss, R. F., Williams, J. E., and Zeng, G.: Three decades of global methane sources and sinks, Nat. Clim. Change, 6, 813–823, https://doi.org/10.1038/NGEO1955, 2013.
Konrad, T., Hill, M., Rowland, J., and Meyer J.: A small, radio-controlled aircraft as a platform for meteorological sensors, Appl. Phys. Lab. Tech. Digest, 10, 11–19, 1970.
Korhonen, K., Giannakaki, E., Mielonen, T., Pfüller, A., Laakso, L., Vakkari, V., Baars, H., Engelmann, R., Beukes, J. P., Van Zyl, P. G., Ramandh, A., Ntsangwane, L., Josipovic, M., Tiitta, P., Fourie, G., Ngwana, I., Chiloane, K., and Komppula, M.: Atmospheric boundary layer top height in South Africa: measurements with lidar and radiosonde compared to three atmospheric models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4263–4278, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-4263-2014, 2014.
Kunstmann, H., Schneider, K., Forkel, R., and Knoche, R.: Impact analysis of climate change for an Alpine catchment using high resolution dynamic downscaling of ECHAM4 time slices, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 1031–1045, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-8-1031-2004, 2004.
Kunstmann, H., Krause, J., and Mayr, S.: Inverse distributed hydrological modelling of Alpine catchments, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 395–412, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-10-395-2006, 2006.
Lothon, M., Lohou, F., Pino, D., Couvreux, F., Pardyjak, E. R., Reuder, J., Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J., Durand, P., Hartogensis, O., Legain, D., Augustin, P., Gioli, B., Lenschow, D. H., Faloona, I., Yagüe, C., Alexander, D. C., Angevine, W. M., Bargain, E., Barrié, J., Bazile, E., Bezombes, Y., Blay-Carreras, E., van de Boer, A., Boichard, J. L., Bourdon, A., Butet, A., Campistron, B., de Coster, O., Cuxart, J., Dabas, A., Darbieu, C., Deboudt, K., Delbarre, H., Derrien, S., Flament, P., Fourmentin, M., Garai, A., Gibert, F., Graf, A., Groebner, J., Guichard, F., Jiménez, M. A., Jonassen, M., van den Kroonenberg, A., Magliulo, V., Martin, S., Martinez, D., Mastrorillo, L., Moene, A. F., Molinos, F., Moulin, E., Pietersen, H. P., Piguet, B., Pique, E., Román-Cascón, C., Rufin-Soler, C., Saïd, F., Sastre-Marugán, M., Seity, Y., Steeneveld, G. J., Toscano, P., Traullé, O., Tzanos, D., Wacker, S., Wildmann, N., and Zaldei, A.: The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10931–10960, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-10931-2014, 2014.
Mahrt, L.: Surface Wind Direction Variability, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 50, 144–152, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JAMC2560.1, 2011.
Martin, S., Bange, J., and Beyrich, F.: Meteorological profiling of the lower troposphere using the research UAV “M2AV Carolo”, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 705–716, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-705-2011, 2011.
Mathieu, N., Strachan, I. B., Leclerc, M. Y., Karipot, A., and Pattey, E.: Role of low-level jets and boundary-layer properties on the NBL budget technique, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 135, 35–43, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.10.001, 2005.
Mauder, M., Cuntz, M., Drüe, C., Graf, A., Rebmann, C., Schmid, H. P., Schmidt, M., and Steinbrecher, R.: A strategy for quality and uncertainty assessment of long-term eddy-covariance measurements, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 169, 122–135, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.09.006, 2013.
McGeer, T. and Holland, G.: Small autonomous aircraft for economical oceanographic observations on a wide scale, Oceanography, 6, 129–135, 1993.
Nathan, B. J., Golston, L. M., O'Brien, A. S., Ross, K., Harrison, W. A., Tao, L., Lary, D. J., Johnson, D. R., Covington, A. N., Clark, N. N., and Zondlo, M.: Near-field characterization of methane emission variability from a compressor station using a model aircraft, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 7896–7903, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b00705, 2015.
Neumann, P. P. and Bartholomai, M.: Real-time wind estimation on a micro unmanned aerial vehicle using its inertial measurement unit, Sensor Actuat. A-Phys., 235, 300–310, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2015.09.036, 2015.
Palomaki, R. T., Rose, N. T., van den Bossche, M., Sherman, T. J., and De Wekker, S. F. J.: Wind Estimation in the Lower Atmosphere Using Multirotor Aircraft, Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 34, 1183–1191, https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0177.1, 2017.
Rennó, N. O. and Williams, E. R.: Quasi-lagrangian measurements in convective boundary layer plumes and their implications for the calculation of cape, Mon. Weather Rev, 123, 2733–2742, 1995.
Sasakawa, M., Shimoyama, K., Machida, T., Tsuda, N., Suto, H., Arshinov, M., Davydov, D., Fofonov, A., Krasnov, O., Saeki, T., Koyama, Y., and Maksyutov, S.: Continuous measurements of methane from a tower network over Siberia, Tellus B, 62, 403–416, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00494.x, 2010.
Saunois, M., Jackson, R. B., Bousquet, P., Poulter, B., and Canadell, J. G.: The growing role of methane in anthropogenic climate change, Environ. Res. Lett., 11, 120207, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/120207, 2016.
Soddell, J. R., McGuffie, K., and Holland, G. J.: Intercomparison of atmospheric soundings from the aerosonde and radiosondes, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 43, 1260–1269, 2004.
Spiess, T., Bange, J., Buschmann, M., and Vörsmann, P.: First application of the meteorological Mini-UAV “M2AV”, Meteorol. Z., 16, 159–169, https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2007/0195, 2007.
Stieger, J., Bamberger, I., Buchmann, N., and Eugster, W.: Validation of farm-scale methane emissions using nocturnal boundary layer budgets, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 14055–14069, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-14055-2015, 2015.
Stull, R.: An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology, 9th Edn., Dordrecht, 1988.
Velasco, E., Márquez, C., Bueno, E., Bernabé, R. M., Sánchez, A., Fentanes, O., Wöhrnschimmel, H., Cárdenas, B., Kamilla, A., Wakamatsu, S., and Molina, L. T.: Vertical distribution of ozone and VOCs in the low boundary layer of Mexico City, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3061–3079, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-3061-2008, 2008.
Villa, T. F., Gonzalez, F., Miljievic, B., Ristovski, Z. D., and Morawska, L.: An Overview of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Air Quality Measurements: Present Applications and Future Prospectives, Sensors, 16, 1072, https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071072, 2016.
Wang, J. M., Murphy, J. G., Geddes, J. A., Winsborough, C. L., Basiliko, N., and Thomas, S. C.: Methane fluxes measured by eddy covariance and static chamber techniques at a temperate forest in central Ontario, Canada, Biogeosciences, 10, 4371–4382, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-4371-2013, 2013.
Wolf, B., Chwala, C., Fersch, B., Garvelmann, J., Junkermann, W., Zeeman, M., Angerer, A., Adler, B., Beck, C., Brosy, C., Brugger, P., Emeis, S., Dannenmann, M., De Roo, F., Diaz-Pines, E., Haas, E., Hagen, M., Hajnsek, I., Jacobeit, J., Jagdhuber, T., Kalthoff, N., Kiese, R., Kunstmann, H., Kosak, O., Krieg, R., Malchow, C., Mauder, M., Merz, R., Notarnicola, C., Philipp, A., Reif, W., Reineke, S., Rödiger, T., Ruehr, N., Schäfer, K., Schrön, M., Senatore, A., Shupe, H., Völksch., I., Wanninger, C., Zacharias, S., and Schmid, H. P.: The ScaleX campaign: scale-crossing land-surface and boundary layer processes in the TERENO-preAlpine observatory, B. Am. Meteor. Soc., 98, 1217–1234, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00277.1, 2017.
Worden, J., Kulawik, S., Frankenberg, C., Payne, V., Bowman, K., Cady-Peirara, K., Wecht, K., Lee, J.-E., and Noone, D.: Profiles of CH4, HDO, H2O, and N2O with improved lower tropospheric vertical resolution from Aura TES radiances, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 397–411, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-5-397-2012, 2012.
Zacharias, S., Bogena, H., Samaniego, L., Mauder, M., Fuß, R., Pütz, T., Frenzel, M., Schwank, M., Baessler, C., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Bens, O., Borg, E., Brauer, A., Dietrich, P., Hajnsek, I., Helle, G., Kiese, R., Kunstmann, H., Klotz, S., Munch, J. C., Papen, H., Priesack, E., Schmid, H. P., Steinbrecher, R., Rosenbaum, U., Teutsch, G., and Vereecken, H.: A Network of Terrestrial Environmental Observatories in Germany, Vadose Zone J., 10, 955–973, https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2010.0139, 2011.
Zeeman, M. J., Mauder, M., Steinbrecher, R., Heidbach, K., Eckart, E., and Schmid, H. P.: Reduced snow cover affects productivity of upland temperate grasslands, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 232, 514–526, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.09.002, 2017.
Vertical and horizontal sounding of the planetary boundary layer can be complemented by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Utilizing a multicopter-type UAV spatial sampling of air and simultaneously sensing of meteorological variables is possible for the study of surface exchange processes. During stable atmospheric conditions, vertical methane gradients of about 300 ppb were found. This approach extended the vertical profile height of existing tower-based infrastructure by a factor of five.
Vertical and horizontal sounding of the planetary boundary layer can be complemented by unmanned...