Articles | Volume 11, issue 10
Research article
12 Oct 2018
Research article |  | 12 Oct 2018

Experiments with CO2-in-air reference gases in high-pressure aluminum cylinders

Michael F. Schibig, Duane Kitzis, and Pieter P. Tans

Related authors

Revision of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) CO2 calibration scale
Bradley D. Hall, Andrew M. Crotwell, Duane R. Kitzis, Thomas Mefford, Benjamin R. Miller, Michael F. Schibig, and Pieter P. Tans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3015–3032,,, 2021
Short summary
Gravimetrically prepared carbon dioxide standards in support of atmospheric research
Bradley D. Hall, Andrew M. Crotwell, Benjamin R. Miller, Michael Schibig, and James W. Elkins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 517–524,,, 2019
Short summary
Intercomparison of in situ NDIR and column FTIR measurements of CO2 at Jungfraujoch
Michael F. Schibig, Emmanuel Mahieu, Stephan Henne, Bernard Lejeune, and Markus C. Leuenberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9935–9949,,, 2016
Short summary
Gas adsorption and desorption effects on cylinders and their importance for long-term gas records
M. C. Leuenberger, M. F. Schibig, and P. Nyfeler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5289–5299,,, 2015
Short summary
Comparison of continuous in situ CO2 observations at Jungfraujoch using two different measurement techniques
M. F. Schibig, M. Steinbacher, B. Buchmann, I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx, S. van der Laan, S. Ranjan, and M. C. Leuenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 57–68,,, 2015

Related subject area

Subject: Gases | Technique: Laboratory Measurement | Topic: Instruments and Platforms
Influence of ozone and humidity on PTR-MS and GC-MS VOC measurements with and without a Na2S2O3 ozone scrubber
Lisa Ernle, Monika Akima Ringsdorf, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1179–1194,,, 2023
Short summary
Laser-induced sublimation extraction for centimeter-resolution multi-species greenhouse gas analysis on ice cores
Lars Mächler, Daniel Baggenstos, Florian Krauss, Jochen Schmitt, Bernhard Bereiter, Remo Walther, Christoph Reinhard, Béla Tuzson, Lukas Emmenegger, and Hubertus Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 355–372,,, 2023
Short summary
Ozone reactivity measurement of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions
Detlev Helmig, Alex Guenther, Jacques Hueber, Ryan Daly, Wei Wang, Jeong-Hoo Park, Anssi Liikanen, and Arnaud P. Praplan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5439–5454,,, 2022
Short summary
Comparison of two photolytic calibration methods for nitrous acid
Andrew J. Lindsay and Ezra C. Wood
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5455–5464,,, 2022
Short summary
Measurement of enantiomer percentages for five monoterpenes from six conifer species by cartridge-tube-based passive sampling adsorption–thermal desorption (ps-ATD)
Ying Wang, Wentai Luo, Todd N. Rosenstiel, and James F. Pankow
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4651–4661,,, 2022
Short summary

Cited articles

Andrews, A. E., Kofler, J. D., Trudeau, M. E., Williams, J. C., Neff, D. H., Masarie, K. A., Chao, D. Y., Kitzis, D. R., Novelli, P. C., Zhao, C. L., Dlugokencky, E. J., Lang, P. M., Crotwell, M. J., Fischer, M. L., Parker, M. J., Lee, J. T., Baumann, D. D., Desai, A. R., Stanier, C. O., De Wekker, S. F. J., Wolfe, D. E., Munger, J. W., and Tans, P. P.: CO2, CO, and CH4 measurements from tall towers in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis, and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 647–687,, 2014. 
Brewer, P. J., Brown, R. J. C., Resner, K. V., Hill-Pearce, R. E., Worton, D. R., Allen, N. D. C., Blakley, K. C., Benucci, D., and Ellison, M. R.: Influence of Pressure on the Composition of Gaseous Reference Materials, Anal. Chem., 90, 3490–3495,, 2018. 
Chapman, S. and Cowling, T. G.: The Mathematical Theory of Non-uniform Gases: An Account of the Kinetic Theory of Viscosity, Thermal Conduction and Diffusion in Gases, illustrated, 3rd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1970. 
Hofmann, D. J., Butler, J. H., Dlugokencky, E. J., Elkins, J. W., Masarie, K., Montzka, S. A., and Tans, P.: The role of carbon dioxide in climate forcing from 1979 to 2004: introduction of the Annual Greenhouse Gas Index, Tellus B, 58, 614–619,, 2006. 
IPCC: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp., 2013. 
Short summary
For long-term monitoring of CO2 in the atmosphere it is crucial that standard reference gas mixtures stored in high-pressure aluminum cylinders, used to calibrate global measurements, remain stable over their whole time of use. This study finds a reproducible small enrichment as a cylinder is emptied at a low-flow rate, as well as somewhat larger and variable effects when a cylinder is emptied using a high-flow rate.