Articles | Volume 8, issue 9
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Characterizing black carbon in rain and ice cores using coupled tangential flow filtration and transmission electron microscopy
Physics and Astronomy, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia
Physics and Astronomy, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia
Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation, and Analysis, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia
R. K. Chakrabarty
Department of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
A. van Riessen
Physics and Astronomy, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia
A. M. Smith
Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT, Australia
L. J. Nunes
Physics and Astronomy, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia
Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
I. D. Goodwin
Marine Climate Risk Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia
A. D. Moy
Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, TAS, Australia
Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia
M. A. J. Curran
Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, TAS, Australia
Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia
T. D. van Ommen
Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, TAS, Australia
Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia
No articles found.
Aymeric P. M. Servettaz, Anaïs J. Orsi, Mark A. J. Curran, Andrew D. Moy, Amaelle Landais, Joseph R. McConnell, Trevor J. Popp, Emmanuel Le Meur, Xavier Faïn, and Jérôme Chappelaz
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for CPShort summary
The temperature of the past 2000 years is still poorly known in vast parts of the East Antarctic plateau. In this study, we present temperature reconstructions based on water and gases stables isotopes from the Aurora Basin North ice core. Spatial and temporal significance of each proxy differs, and we can identify some cold periods in the snow temperature, consistent with Southern Annular Mode variability, which could not be determined with water isotopes only.
Payton Beeler and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14825–14836,Short summary
Understanding and parameterizing the influences of black carbon (BC) particle morphology and compositional heterogeneity on its light absorption represent a fundamental problem. We develop scaling laws using a single unifying parameter that effectively encompasses large-scale diversity observed in BC light absorption on a per-particle basis. The laws help reconcile the disparities between field observations and model predictions. Our framework is packaged in an open-source Python application.
Helle Astrid Kjær, Patrick Zens, Samuel Black, Kasper Holst Lund, Anders Svensson, and Paul Vallelonga
Clim. Past, 18, 2211–2230,Short summary
Six shallow cores from northern Greenland spanning a distance of 426 km were retrieved during a traversal in 2015. We identify several recent acid horizons associated with Icelandic eruptions and eruptions in the Barents Sea region and obtain a robust forest fire proxy associated primarily with Canadian forest fires. We also observe an increase in the large dust particle fluxes that we attribute to an activation of Greenland local sources in recent years (1998–2015).
Joshin Kumar, Theo Paik, Nishit J. Shetty, Patrick Sheridan, Allison C. Aiken, Manvendra K. Dubey, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4569–4583,Short summary
Accurate long-term measurement of aerosol light absorption is vital for assessing direct aerosol radiative forcing. Light absorption by aerosols at the US Department of Energy long-term climate monitoring SGP site is measured using the Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), which suffers from artifacts and biases difficult to quantify. Machine learning offers a promising path forward to correct for biases in the long-term absorption dataset at the SGP site and similar Class-I areas.
Lenneke M. Jong, Christopher T. Plummer, Jason L. Roberts, Andrew D. Moy, Mark A. J. Curran, Tessa R. Vance, Joel B. Pedro, Chelsea A. Long, Meredith Nation, Paul A. Mayewski, and Tas D. van Ommen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3313–3328,Short summary
Ice core records from Law Dome in East Antarctica, collected over the the last 3 decades, provide high-resolution data for studies of the climate of Antarctica, Australia and the Southern and Indo-Pacific oceans. Here, we present a set of annually dated records from Law Dome covering the last 2000 years. This dataset provides an update and extensions both forward and back in time of previously published subsets of the data, bringing them together into a coherent set with improved dating.
Eric W. Wolff, Hubertus Fischer, Tas van Ommen, and David A. Hodell
Clim. Past, 18, 1563–1577,Short summary
Projects are underway to drill ice cores in Antarctica reaching 1.5 Myr back in time. Dating such cores will be challenging. One method is to match records from the new core against datasets from existing marine sediment cores. Here we explore the options for doing this and assess how well the ice and marine records match over the existing 800 000-year time period. We are able to recommend a strategy for using marine data to place an age scale on the new ice cores.
Jie Luo, Zhengqiang Li, Chenchong Zhang, Qixing Zhang, Yongming Zhang, Ying Zhang, Gabriele Curci, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7647–7666,Short summary
The fractal black carbon was applied to re-evaluate the regional impacts of morphologies on aerosol–radiation interactions (ARIs), and the effects were compared between the US and China. The regional-mean clear-sky ARI is significantly affected by the BC morphology, and relative differences of 17.1 % and 38.7 % between the fractal model with a Df of 1.8 and the spherical model were observed in eastern China and the northwest US, respectively.
Julien Westhoff, Giulia Sinnl, Anders Svensson, Johannes Freitag, Helle Astrid Kjær, Paul Vallelonga, Bo Vinther, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, and Ilka Weikusat
Clim. Past, 18, 1011–1034,Short summary
We present a melt event record from an ice core from central Greenland, which covers the past 10 000 years. Our record displays warm summer events, which can be used to enhance our understanding of the past climate. We compare our data to anomalies in tree ring width, which also represents summer temperatures, and find a good correlation. Furthermore, we investigate an outstandingly warm event in the year 986 AD or 991 AD, which has not been analyzed before.
Tobias Erhardt, Matthias Bigler, Urs Federer, Gideon Gfeller, Daiana Leuenberger, Olivia Stowasser, Regine Röthlisberger, Simon Schüpbach, Urs Ruth, Birthe Twarloh, Anna Wegner, Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Takayuki Kuramoto, Helle A. Kjær, Paul T. Vallelonga, Marie-Louise Siggaard-Andersen, Margareta E. Hansson, Ailsa K. Benton, Louise G. Fleet, Rob Mulvaney, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Nerilie Abram, Thomas F. Stocker, and Hubertus Fischer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1215–1231,Short summary
The datasets presented alongside this manuscript contain high-resolution concentration measurements of chemical impurities in deep ice cores, NGRIP and NEEM, from the Greenland ice sheet. The impurities originate from the deposition of aerosols to the surface of the ice sheet and are influenced by source, transport and deposition processes. Together, these records contain detailed, multi-parameter records of past climate variability over the last glacial period.
Yaowen Zheng, Lenneke M. Jong, Steven J. Phipps, Jason L. Roberts, Andrew D. Moy, Mark A. J. Curran, and Tas D. van Ommen
Clim. Past, 17, 1973–1987,Short summary
South West Western Australia has experienced a prolonged drought in recent decades. The causes of this drought are unclear. We use an ice core from East Antarctica to reconstruct changes in rainfall over the past 2000 years. We find that the current drought is unusual, with only two other droughts of similar severity having occurred during this period. Climate modelling shows that greenhouse gas emissions during the industrial era are likely to have contributed to the recent drying trend.
Camilla K. Crockart, Tessa R. Vance, Alexander D. Fraser, Nerilie J. Abram, Alison S. Criscitiello, Mark A. J. Curran, Vincent Favier, Ailie J. E. Gallant, Christoph Kittel, Helle A. Kjær, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Lenneke M. Jong, Andrew D. Moy, Christopher T. Plummer, Paul T. Vallelonga, Jonathan Wille, and Lingwei Zhang
Clim. Past, 17, 1795–1818,Short summary
We present preliminary analyses of the annual sea salt concentrations and snowfall accumulation in a new East Antarctic ice core, Mount Brown South. We compare this record with an updated Law Dome (Dome Summit South site) ice core record over the period 1975–2016. The Mount Brown South record preserves a stronger and inverse signal for the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (in austral winter and spring) compared to the Law Dome record (in summer).
Helle Astrid Kjær, Lisa Lolk Hauge, Marius Simonsen, Zurine Yoldi, Iben Koldtoft, Maria Hörhold, Johannes Freitag, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Anders Svensson, and Paul Vallelonga
The Cryosphere, 15, 3719–3730,Short summary
Ice core analyses are often done in home laboratories after costly transport of samples from the field. This limits the amount of sample that can be analysed. Here, we present the first truly field-portable continuous flow analysis (CFA) system for the analysis of impurities in snow, firn and ice cores while still in the field: the lightweight in situ analysis (LISA) box. LISA is demonstrated in Greenland to reconstruct accumulation, conductivity and peroxide in snow cores.
Benjamin Sumlin, Edward Fortner, Andrew Lambe, Nishit J. Shetty, Conner Daube, Pai Liu, Francesca Majluf, Scott Herndon, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11843–11856,Short summary
We present a comparison of the changes to light absorption behavior and chemical composition of wildfire smoke particles from day- and nighttime oxidation processes and discuss the results within the context of previous laboratory findings.
Delia Segato, Maria Del Carmen Villoslada Hidalgo, Ross Edwards, Elena Barbaro, Paul Vallelonga, Helle Astrid Kjær, Marius Simonsen, Bo Vinther, Niccolò Maffezzoli, Roberta Zangrando, Clara Turetta, Dario Battistel, Orri Vésteinsson, Carlo Barbante, and Andrea Spolaor
Clim. Past, 17, 1533–1545,Short summary
Human influence on fire regimes in the past is poorly understood, especially at high latitudes. We present 5 kyr of fire proxies levoglucosan, black carbon, and ammonium in the RECAP ice core in Greenland and reconstruct for the first time the fire regime in the high North Atlantic region, comprising coastal east Greenland and Iceland. Climate is the main driver of the fire regime, but at 1.1 kyr BP a contribution may be made by the deforestation resulting from Viking colonization of Iceland.
François Burgay, Andrea Spolaor, Jacopo Gabrieli, Giulio Cozzi, Clara Turetta, Paul Vallelonga, and Carlo Barbante
Clim. Past, 17, 491–505,Short summary
We present the first Fe record from the NEEM ice core, which provides insight into past atmospheric Fe deposition in the Arctic. Considering the biological relevance of Fe, we questioned if the increased eolian Fe supply during glacial periods could explain the marine productivity variability in the Fe-limited subarctic Pacific Ocean. We found no overwhelming evidence that eolian Fe fertilization triggered any phytoplankton blooms, likely because other factors play a more relevant role.
Helle Astrid Kjær, Patrick Zens, Ross Edwards, Martin Olesen, Ruth Mottram, Gabriel Lewis, Christian Terkelsen Holme, Samuel Black, Kasper Holst Lund, Mikkel Schmidt, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Bo Vinther, Anders Svensson, Nanna Karlsson, Jason E. Box, Sepp Kipfstuhl, and Paul Vallelonga
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
We have reconstructed accumulation in 6 firn cores and 8 snow cores in Northern Greenland and compared with a regional Climate model over Greenland. We find the model underestimate precipitation especially in north-eastern part of the ice cap- an important finding if aiming to reconstruct surface mass balance. Temperatures at 10 meters depth at 6 sites in Greenland were also determined and show a significant warming since the 1990's of 0.9 to 2.5 °C.
Christine S. Hvidberg, Aslak Grinsted, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Shfaqat Abbas Khan, Anders Kusk, Jonas Kvist Andersen, Niklas Neckel, Anne Solgaard, Nanna B. Karlsson, Helle Astrid Kjær, and Paul Vallelonga
The Cryosphere, 14, 3487–3502,Short summary
The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) extends around 600 km from its onset in the interior of Greenland to the coast. Several maps of surface velocity and topography in Greenland exist, but accuracy is limited due to the lack of validation data. Here we present results from a 5-year GPS survey in an interior section of NEGIS. We use the data to assess a list of satellite-derived ice velocity and surface elevation products and discuss the implications for the ice stream flow in the area.
James E. Lee, Edward J. Brook, Nancy A. N. Bertler, Christo Buizert, Troy Baisden, Thomas Blunier, V. Gabriela Ciobanu, Howard Conway, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Tyler J. Fudge, Richard Hindmarsh, Elizabeth D. Keller, Frédéric Parrenin, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Paul Vallelonga, Edwin D. Waddington, and Mai Winstrup
Clim. Past, 16, 1691–1713,Short summary
The Roosevelt Island ice core was drilled to investigate climate from the eastern Ross Sea, West Antarctica. We describe the ice age-scale and gas age-scale of the ice core for 0–763 m (83 000 years BP). Old ice near the bottom of the core implies the ice dome existed throughout the last glacial period and that ice streaming was active in the region. Variations in methane, similar to those used as evidence of early human influence on climate, were observed prior to significant human populations.
Anders Svensson, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Jørgen Peder Steffensen, Thomas Blunier, Sune O. Rasmussen, Bo M. Vinther, Paul Vallelonga, Emilie Capron, Vasileios Gkinis, Eliza Cook, Helle Astrid Kjær, Raimund Muscheler, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Frank Wilhelms, Thomas F. Stocker, Hubertus Fischer, Florian Adolphi, Tobias Erhardt, Michael Sigl, Amaelle Landais, Frédéric Parrenin, Christo Buizert, Joseph R. McConnell, Mirko Severi, Robert Mulvaney, and Matthias Bigler
Clim. Past, 16, 1565–1580,Short summary
We identify signatures of large bipolar volcanic eruptions in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores during the last glacial period, which allows for a precise temporal alignment of the ice cores. Thereby the exact timing of unexplained, abrupt climatic changes occurring during the last glacial period can be determined in a global context. The study thus provides a step towards a full understanding of elements of the climate system that may also play an important role in the future.
Niccolò Maffezzoli, Paul Vallelonga, Ross Edwards, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Clara Turetta, Helle Astrid Kjær, Carlo Barbante, Bo Vinther, and Andrea Spolaor
Clim. Past, 15, 2031–2051,Short summary
This study provides the first ice-core-based history of sea ice in the North Atlantic Ocean, reaching 120 000 years back in time. This record was obtained from bromine and sodium measurements in the RECAP ice core, drilled in east Greenland. We found that, during the last deglaciation, sea ice started to melt ~ 17 500 years ago. Over the 120 000 years of the last glacial cycle, sea ice extent was maximal during MIS2, while minimum sea ice extent exists for the Holocene.
Juan Pablo Corella, Niccolo Maffezzoli, Carlos Alberto Cuevas, Paul Vallelonga, Andrea Spolaor, Giulio Cozzi, Juliane Müller, Bo Vinther, Carlo Barbante, Helle Astrid Kjær, Ross Edwards, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Clim. Past, 15, 2019–2030,Short summary
This study provides the first reconstruction of atmospheric iodine levels in the Arctic during the last 11 700 years from an ice core record in coastal Greenland. Dramatic shifts in iodine level variability coincide with abrupt climatic transitions in the North Atlantic. Since atmospheric iodine levels have significant environmental and climatic implications, this study may serve as a past analog to predict future changes in Arctic climate in response to global warming.
Nishit J. Shetty, Apoorva Pandey, Stephen Baker, Wei Min Hao, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8817–8830,Short summary
We investigated biases in particle-phase absorption coefficients for organic aerosol from bulk-phase absorbance measurements of solvent extracts in the visible spectrum. These biases were systematically studied as a function of organic-to-total carbon mass ratios and aerosol single scattering albedo. A linear correlation between SSA and OC / TC ratios was observed. Differences in the absorption Ångström exponents from bulk- and particle-phase measurements were also investigated.
Mauro Rubino, David M. Etheridge, David P. Thornton, Russell Howden, Colin E. Allison, Roger J. Francey, Ray L. Langenfelds, L. Paul Steele, Cathy M. Trudinger, Darren A. Spencer, Mark A. J. Curran, Tas D. van Ommen, and Andrew M. Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 473–492,Short summary
The scientific community uses numerical models to predict future atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases causing global warming. This study presents the history of atmospheric concentration of the major greenhouse gases over the last 2000 years measured in ice core bubbles from the site of Law Dome (East Antarctica). The associated dataset is useful to test climate models and help provide accurate predictions of future climate change.
Mai Winstrup, Paul Vallelonga, Helle A. Kjær, Tyler J. Fudge, James E. Lee, Marie H. Riis, Ross Edwards, Nancy A. N. Bertler, Thomas Blunier, Ed J. Brook, Christo Buizert, Gabriela Ciobanu, Howard Conway, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Aja Ellis, B. Daniel Emanuelsson, Richard C. A. Hindmarsh, Elizabeth D. Keller, Andrei V. Kurbatov, Paul A. Mayewski, Peter D. Neff, Rebecca L. Pyne, Marius F. Simonsen, Anders Svensson, Andrea Tuohy, Edwin D. Waddington, and Sarah Wheatley
Clim. Past, 15, 751–779,Short summary
We present a 2700-year timescale and snow accumulation history for an ice core from Roosevelt Island, Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. We observe a long-term slightly decreasing trend in accumulation during most of the period but a rapid decline since the mid-1960s. The latter is linked to a recent strengthening of the Amundsen Sea Low and the expansion of regional sea ice. The year 1965 CE may thus mark the onset of significant increases in sea-ice extent in the eastern Ross Sea.
François Klein, Nerilie J. Abram, Mark A. J. Curran, Hugues Goosse, Sentia Goursaud, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Andrew Moy, Raphael Neukom, Anaïs Orsi, Jesper Sjolte, Nathan Steiger, Barbara Stenni, and Martin Werner
Clim. Past, 15, 661–684,Short summary
Antarctic temperature changes over the past millennia have been reconstructed from isotope records in ice cores in several studies. However, the link between both variables is complex. Here, we investigate the extent to which this affects the robustness of temperature reconstructions using pseudoproxy and data assimilation experiments. We show that the reconstruction skill is limited, especially at the regional scale, due to a weak and nonstationary covariance between δ18O and temperature.
Shiwen Teng, Chao Liu, Martin Schnaiter, Rajan K. Chakrabarty, and Fengshan Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2917–2931,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) possesses complex minor structures besides the overall aggregate geometry, thus altering their optical properties. This study introduces volume variation to quantify and unify different minor structures and develops an empirical relation to account for their effects on BC optical properties. We find the effects of minor structures are mainly contributed by their influence on particle volume/mass, and a relative difference of 5 % is noticed after removing volume differences.
Apoorva Pandey, Nishit J. Shetty, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1365–1373,Short summary
This study quantitatively establishes simple-to-use correction factors for accurately estimating particle-phase light absorption properties from bulk-phase attenuation measurements of Teflon filter samples. Using contact-free optical instrumentation with a two-stream radiative transfer model, we developed a wavelength-independent empirical correction formulation by comparing filter attenuation of aerosol-laden Teflon filter samples with in situ light absorption for a range of real-world fuels.
Christian M. Zdanowicz, Bernadette C. Proemse, Ross Edwards, Wang Feiteng, Chad M. Hogan, Christophe Kinnard, and David Fisher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12345–12361,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) particles emitted by natural and anthropogenic sources (e.g., wildfires, coal burning) can amplify climate warming by increasing sunlight energy absorption on snow-covered surfaces. This paper presents a new ice-core record of historical (1810–1990) BC deposition in the Canadian Arctic. The Devon ice cap record differs from Greenland ice cores, implying large variations in BC deposition across the Arctic that must be accounted for to better quantity their future climate impact.
Dario Battistel, Natalie M. Kehrwald, Piero Zennaro, Giuseppe Pellegrino, Elena Barbaro, Roberta Zangrando, Xanthi X. Pedeli, Cristiano Varin, Andrea Spolaor, Paul T. Vallelonga, Andrea Gambaro, and Carlo Barbante
Clim. Past, 14, 871–886,Short summary
From the analysis of an Antarctic ice core we showed that during the mid- to late Holocene (6000–750 BP) the long-term fire activity increased with higher rates starting at ~ 4000 BP and, more surprisingly, peaked between 2500 and 1500 BP. The anomalous increase in biomass burning centered at about 2000 BP is due to a complex interaction between changes in atmospheric circulation and biomass availability, with the main contribution coming from southern South America.
Marius Folden Simonsen, Llorenç Cremonesi, Giovanni Baccolo, Samuel Bosch, Barbara Delmonte, Tobias Erhardt, Helle Astrid Kjær, Marco Potenza, Anders Svensson, and Paul Vallelonga
Clim. Past, 14, 601–608,Short summary
Ice core dust size distributions are more often measured today by an Abakus laser sensor than by the more technically demanding but also very accurate Coulter counter. However, Abakus measurements consistently give larger particle sizes. We show here that this bias exists because the particles are flat and elongated. Correcting for this gives more accurate Abakus measurements. Furthermore, the shape of the particles can be extracted from a combination of Coulter counter and Abakus measurements.
Nancy A. N. Bertler, Howard Conway, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Daniel B. Emanuelsson, Mai Winstrup, Paul T. Vallelonga, James E. Lee, Ed J. Brook, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Taylor J. Fudge, Elizabeth D. Keller, W. Troy Baisden, Richard C. A. Hindmarsh, Peter D. Neff, Thomas Blunier, Ross Edwards, Paul A. Mayewski, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Christo Buizert, Silvia Canessa, Ruzica Dadic, Helle A. Kjær, Andrei Kurbatov, Dongqi Zhang, Edwin D. Waddington, Giovanni Baccolo, Thomas Beers, Hannah J. Brightley, Lionel Carter, David Clemens-Sewall, Viorela G. Ciobanu, Barbara Delmonte, Lukas Eling, Aja Ellis, Shruthi Ganesh, Nicholas R. Golledge, Skylar Haines, Michael Handley, Robert L. Hawley, Chad M. Hogan, Katelyn M. Johnson, Elena Korotkikh, Daniel P. Lowry, Darcy Mandeno, Robert M. McKay, James A. Menking, Timothy R. Naish, Caroline Noerling, Agathe Ollive, Anaïs Orsi, Bernadette C. Proemse, Alexander R. Pyne, Rebecca L. Pyne, James Renwick, Reed P. Scherer, Stefanie Semper, Marius Simonsen, Sharon B. Sneed, Eric J. Steig, Andrea Tuohy, Abhijith Ulayottil Venugopal, Fernando Valero-Delgado, Janani Venkatesh, Feitang Wang, Shimeng Wang, Dominic A. Winski, V. Holly L. Winton, Arran Whiteford, Cunde Xiao, Jiao Yang, and Xin Zhang
Clim. Past, 14, 193–214,Short summary
Temperature and snow accumulation records from the annually dated Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core show that for the past 2 700 years, the eastern Ross Sea warmed, while the western Ross Sea showed no trend and West Antarctica cooled. From the 17th century onwards, this dipole relationship changed. Now all three regions show concurrent warming, with snow accumulation declining in West Antarctica and the eastern Ross Sea.
Barbara Stenni, Mark A. J. Curran, Nerilie J. Abram, Anais Orsi, Sentia Goursaud, Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Raphael Neukom, Hugues Goosse, Dmitry Divine, Tas van Ommen, Eric J. Steig, Daniel A. Dixon, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Nancy A. N. Bertler, Elisabeth Isaksson, Alexey Ekaykin, Martin Werner, and Massimo Frezzotti
Clim. Past, 13, 1609–1634,Short summary
Within PAGES Antarctica2k, we build an enlarged database of ice core water stable isotope records. We produce isotopic composites and temperature reconstructions since 0 CE for seven distinct Antarctic regions. We find a significant cooling trend from 0 to 1900 CE across all regions. Since 1900 CE, significant warming trends are identified for three regions. Only for the Antarctic Peninsula is this most recent century-scale trend unusual in the context of last-2000-year natural variability.
Apoorva Pandey, Sameer Patel, Shamsh Pervez, Suresh Tiwari, Gautam Yadama, Judith C. Chow, John G. Watson, Pratim Biswas, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13721–13729,Short summary
This study presents real-world aerosol mass emission factors for traditional biomass cookstoves in India to help constrain regional inventory emissions. Aerosol emissions were sampled from an in-use traditional mud stove burning common biomass fuel types in an Indian household. Measured particulate emission factors and their organic carbon content were higher than those from previous laboratory studies. Field emissions showed a distinct profile of temperature-resolved carbon mass fractions.
Elizabeth R. Thomas, J. Melchior van Wessem, Jason Roberts, Elisabeth Isaksson, Elisabeth Schlosser, Tyler J. Fudge, Paul Vallelonga, Brooke Medley, Jan Lenaerts, Nancy Bertler, Michiel R. van den Broeke, Daniel A. Dixon, Massimo Frezzotti, Barbara Stenni, Mark Curran, and Alexey A. Ekaykin
Clim. Past, 13, 1491–1513,Short summary
Regional Antarctic snow accumulation derived from 79 ice core records is evaluated as part of the PAGES Antarctica 2k working group. Our results show that surface mass balance for the total Antarctic ice sheet has increased at a rate of 7 ± 0.13 Gt dec-1 since 1800 AD, representing a net reduction in sea level of ~ 0.02 mm dec-1 since 1800 and ~ 0.04 mm dec-1 since 1900 AD. The largest contribution is from the Antarctic Peninsula.
Jason Roberts, Andrew Moy, Christopher Plummer, Tas van Ommen, Mark Curran, Tessa Vance, Samuel Poynter, Yaping Liu, Joel Pedro, Adam Treverrow, Carly Tozer, Lenneke Jong, Pippa Whitehouse, Laetitia Loulergue, Jerome Chappellaz, Vin Morgan, Renato Spahni, Adrian Schilt, Cecilia MacFarling Meure, David Etheridge, and Thomas Stocker
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Here we present a revised Law Dome, Dome Summit South (DSS) ice core age model (denoted LD2017) that significantly improves the chronology over the last 88 thousand years. An ensemble approach was used, allowing for the computation of both a median age and associated uncertainty as a function of depth. We use a non-linear interpolation between age ties and unlike previous studies, we made an independent estimate of the snow accumulation rate, where required, for the use of gas based age ties.
Duncan A. Young, Jason L. Roberts, Catherine Ritz, Massimo Frezzotti, Enrica Quartini, Marie G. P. Cavitte, Carly R. Tozer, Daniel Steinhage, Stefano Urbini, Hugh F. J. Corr, Tas van Ommen, and Donald D. Blankenship
The Cryosphere, 11, 1897–1911,Short summary
To find records of the greenhouse gases found in key periods of climate transition, we need to find sites of unmelted old ice at the base of the Antarctic ice sheet for ice core retrieval. A joint US–Australian–EU team performed a high-resolution survey of such a site (1 km line spacing) near Concordia Station in East Antarctica, using airborne ice-penetrating radar. We found promising targets in rough subglacial terrain, surrounded by subglacial lakes restricted below a minimum hydraulic head.
Damiano Della Lunga, Wolfgang Müller, Sune Olander Rasmussen, Anders Svensson, and Paul Vallelonga
The Cryosphere, 11, 1297–1309,Short summary
In our study we combined the wealth of information provided by Greenland ice cores with an ultra-high-resolution technique well known in geoscience (laser ablation). Our set-up was developed and applied to investigate the variability in concentration of ions across a rapid climatic change from the oldest part of the last glaciation, showing that concentrations drop abruptly from cold to warm periods, representing a shift in atmospheric transport that happens even faster than previously thought.
Mana Inoue, Mark A. J. Curran, Andrew D. Moy, Tas D. van Ommen, Alexander D. Fraser, Helen E. Phillips, and Ian D. Goodwin
Clim. Past, 13, 437–453,Short summary
A 120 m ice core from Mill Island, East Antarctica, was studied its chemical components. The Mill Island ice core contains 97 years of climate record (1913–2009) and has a mean snow accumulation of 1.35 m yr−1 (ice equivalent). Trace ion concentrations were generally higher than other Antarctic ice core sites. Nearby sea ice concentration was found to influence the annual mean sea salt record. The Mill Island ice core records are unexpectedly complex, with strong modulation of the trace chemistry.
Niccolò Maffezzoli, Andrea Spolaor, Carlo Barbante, Michele Bertò, Massimo Frezzotti, and Paul Vallelonga
The Cryosphere, 11, 693–705,Short summary
Sea ice is a crucial parameter within Earth's climate system. Understanding its dynamics and its response to other climatic variables is therefore of primary importance in view of a warming climate and sea ice decline. In this work we investigate some features of a chemical parameter in ice cores, bromine enrichment, which is linked to sea ice and can therefore be used to reconstruct sea ice in the past.
Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Peter Zotter, Robert Wolf, Emily Anne Bruns, André S. H. Prévôt, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Jean Sciare, Ian J. Arnold, Rajan K. Chakrabarty, Hans Moosmüller, Agnes Filep, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1043–1059,Short summary
Black carbon measurements are usually conducted with absorption filter photometers, which are prone to the filter-loading effect – a saturation of the instrumental response due to the accumulation of the sample in the filter matrix. In this paper, we conducted several field campaigns to investigate the hypothesis that this filter-loading effect depends on the optical properties of particles present in the filter matrix, especially on the coating of black carbon particles.
Paul Vallelonga, Niccolo Maffezzoli, Andrew D. Moy, Mark A. J. Curran, Tessa R. Vance, Ross Edwards, Gwyn Hughes, Emily Barker, Gunnar Spreen, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, J. Pablo Corella, Carlos A. Cuevas, and Andrea Spolaor
Clim. Past, 13, 171–184,Short summary
We present a study of bromine, iodine and sodium in an ice core from Law Dome, in coastal East Antarctica. We find that bromine and iodine variability at Law Dome is correlated to changes in the area of sea ice along the Law Dome coast as observed by satellite since the early 1970s. These findings are in agreement with a previous study based on MSA and confirm a long-term trend of sea ice decrease for this sector of Antarctica over the 20th century.
Marie Bigot, Mark A. J. Curran, Andrew D. Moy, Derek C. G. Muir, Darryl W. Hawker, Roger Cropp, Camilla F. Teixeira, and Susan M. Bengtson Nash
The Cryosphere, 10, 2533–2539,
V. Holly L. Winton, Ross Edwards, Andrew R. Bowie, Melita Keywood, Alistair G. Williams, Scott D. Chambers, Paul W. Selleck, Maximilien Desservettaz, Marc D. Mallet, and Clare Paton-Walsh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12829–12848,Short summary
The deposition of soluble aerosol iron (Fe) can initiate nitrogen fixation and trigger toxic algal blooms in nitrate-poor tropical waters. We present dry season soluble Fe data from northern Australia that reflect coincident dust and biomass burning sources of soluble Fe. Our results show that while biomass burning species are not a direct source of soluble Fe, biomass burning may substantially enhance the solubility of mineral dust with fractional Fe solubility up to 12 % in mixed aerosols.
Carly R. Tozer, Tessa R. Vance, Jason L. Roberts, Anthony S. Kiem, Mark A. J. Curran, and Andrew D. Moy
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1703–1717,Short summary
A 1013-year annual rainfall reconstruction was developed for the Williams River catchment in coastal eastern Australia, based on a linear relationship between sea salt deposition in East Antarctica and rainfall in eastern Australia. The reconstruction allows for the instrumental climate record (~ 100 years) to be assessed in the context of millennial climate variability, allowing for better characterisation of flood and drought risk.
Holly Winton, Andrew Bowie, Melita Keywood, Pier van der Merwe, and Ross Edwards
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Aerosols containing iron have been investigated over the remote Southern Ocean to constrain iron budgets in surface waters and related biological production. Protocols for the sampling of ambient air were used to assess the suitability of high-volume aerosol samplers for aerosol iron studies in pristine air masses. Significant evidence of airborne insect and local soil contamination was detected in exposure blank filters. Suggestions for future aerosol iron sampling in clean air are provided.
Michael Sigl, Tyler J. Fudge, Mai Winstrup, Jihong Cole-Dai, David Ferris, Joseph R. McConnell, Ken C. Taylor, Kees C. Welten, Thomas E. Woodruff, Florian Adolphi, Marion Bisiaux, Edward J. Brook, Christo Buizert, Marc W. Caffee, Nelia W. Dunbar, Ross Edwards, Lei Geng, Nels Iverson, Bess Koffman, Lawrence Layman, Olivia J. Maselli, Kenneth McGwire, Raimund Muscheler, Kunihiko Nishiizumi, Daniel R. Pasteris, Rachael H. Rhodes, and Todd A. Sowers
Clim. Past, 12, 769–786,Short summary
Here we present a chronology (WD2014) for the upper part (0–2850 m; 31.2 ka BP) of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice core, which is based on layer counting of distinctive annual cycles preserved in the elemental, chemical and electrical conductivity records. We validated the chronology by comparing it to independent high-accuracy, absolutely dated chronologies. Given its demonstrated high accuracy, WD2014 can become a reference chronology for the Southern Hemisphere.
Rajan K. Chakrabarty, Madhu Gyawali, Reddy L. N. Yatavelli, Apoorva Pandey, Adam C. Watts, Joseph Knue, Lung-Wen A. Chen, Robert R. Pattison, Anna Tsibart, Vera Samburova, and Hans Moosmüller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3033–3040,Short summary
Brown carbon aerosols dominate particulate emissions from the burning of Alaskan and Siberian peatlands. They physically occur as amorphous "tar balls" with negligible black carbon mixing. They absorb very strongly in the shorter visible wavelengths, characterized by a mean Ångström coefficient of ≈ 9. These aerosols could result in a net warming of the atmosphere, provided the albedo of the underlying surface is greater than 0.6.
Tessa R. Vance, Jason L. Roberts, Andrew D. Moy, Mark A. J. Curran, Carly R. Tozer, Ailie J. E. Gallant, Nerilie J. Abram, Tas D. van Ommen, Duncan A. Young, Cyril Grima, Don D. Blankenship, and Martin J. Siegert
Clim. Past, 12, 595–610,Short summary
This study details a systematic approach to finding a new high-resolution East Antarctic ice core site. The study initially outlines seven criteria that a new site must fulfil, encompassing specific accumulation, ice dynamics and atmospheric circulation aspects. We then use numerous techniques including Antarctic surface mass balance syntheses, ground-truthing of satellite data by airborne radar surveys and reanalysis products to pinpoint promising regions.
A. Spolaor, T. Opel, J. R. McConnell, O. J. Maselli, G. Spreen, C. Varin, T. Kirchgeorg, D. Fritzsche, A. Saiz-Lopez, and P. Vallelonga
The Cryosphere, 10, 245–256,Short summary
The role of sea ice in the Earth climate system is still under debate, although it is known to influence albedo, ocean circulation, and atmosphere-ocean heat and gas exchange. Here we present a reconstruction of 1950 to 1998 AD sea ice in the Laptev Sea based on the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic) and halogen measurements. The results suggest a connection between bromine and sea ice, as well as a connection between iodine concentration in snow and summer sea ice.
C. S. M. Turney, C. J. Fogwill, A. R. Klekociuk, T. D. van Ommen, M. A. J. Curran, A. D. Moy, and J. G. Palmer
The Cryosphere, 9, 2405–2415,Short summary
Recent trends in ocean circulation, sea ice and climate over the Southern Ocean and Antarctica are highly complex. Here we report a new snow core from the South Pole alongside reanalysis of 20th century global atmospheric circulation. We demonstrate for the first time that atmospheric pressure anomalies in the mid-latitudes act as "gatekeepers" to meridional exchange over continental Antarctica, modulated by the tropical Pacific, with potentially significant impacts on surface mass balance.
J. L. Lieser, M. A. J. Curran, A. R. Bowie, A. T. Davidson, S. J. Doust, A. D. Fraser, B. K. Galton-Fenzi, R. A. Massom, K. M. Meiners, J. Melbourne-Thomas, P. A. Reid, P. G. Strutton, T. R. Vance, M. Vancoppenolle, K. J. Westwood, and S. W. Wright
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
A. Svensson, S. Fujita, M. Bigler, M. Braun, R. Dallmayr, V. Gkinis, K. Goto-Azuma, M. Hirabayashi, K. Kawamura, S. Kipfstuhl, H. A. Kjær, T. Popp, M. Simonsen, J. P. Steffensen, P. Vallelonga, and B. M. Vinther
Clim. Past, 11, 1127–1137,
S. A. Browning and I. D. Goodwin
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
A new global paleoclimate reanalysis (PaleoR) of the past 1200 years is presented. Proxy-data assimilation is used to combine multivariate proxy data with an ensemble simulation of the last millennium. This approach overcomes many constraints facing regression-based paleoclimate approaches by not relying on stable teleconnections through time. Full spatial fields are produced across multiple dynamically consistent variables and have been applied to investigate long-term climate variability.
J. R. Roscioli, T. I. Yacovitch, C. Floerchinger, A. L. Mitchell, D. S. Tkacik, R. Subramanian, D. M. Martinez, T. L. Vaughn, L. Williams, D. Zimmerle, A. L. Robinson, S. C. Herndon, and A. J. Marchese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2017–2035,Short summary
This report presents an overview and detailed description of the measurement methods, analysis approach, and example data from a 10-week EDF-sponsored field campaign measuring methane emissions from natural gas gathering and processing facilities across the US. The dual-tracer ratio method was employed to quantify methane release rates and identify emission sources at a wide variety of facilities, using downwind measurements of CH4, C2H6, CO2, and CO with N2O and C2H2 as tracers.
J. Roberts, C. Plummer, T. Vance, T. van Ommen, A. Moy, S. Poynter, A. Treverrow, M. Curran, and S. George
Clim. Past, 11, 697–707,Short summary
The Law Dome, East Antarctica snow accumulation record is extended back to 22 BCE using a power-law vertical strain rate model. The periods of 380-442, 727-783 and 1970-2009 CE show above-average snow accumulation rates, while 663-704, 933-975 and 1429-1468 CE were below average. The calculated snow accumulation rates show good correlation with atmospheric reanalysis estimates and significant spatial correlation over a wide expanse of East Antarctica.
P. Zennaro, N. Kehrwald, J. R. McConnell, S. Schüpbach, O. J. Maselli, J. Marlon, P. Vallelonga, D. Leuenberger, R. Zangrando, A. Spolaor, M. Borrotti, E. Barbaro, A. Gambaro, and C. Barbante
Clim. Past, 10, 1905–1924,
J. D. Fast, J. Allan, R. Bahreini, J. Craven, L. Emmons, R. Ferrare, P. L. Hayes, A. Hodzic, J. Holloway, C. Hostetler, J. L. Jimenez, H. Jonsson, S. Liu, Y. Liu, A. Metcalf, A. Middlebrook, J. Nowak, M. Pekour, A. Perring, L. Russell, A. Sedlacek, J. Seinfeld, A. Setyan, J. Shilling, M. Shrivastava, S. Springston, C. Song, R. Subramanian, J. W. Taylor, V. Vinoj, Q. Yang, R. A. Zaveri, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10013–10060,
A. Spolaor, P. Vallelonga, J. Gabrieli, T. Martma, M. P. Björkman, E. Isaksson, G. Cozzi, C. Turetta, H. A. Kjær, M. A. J. Curran, A. D. Moy, A. Schönhardt, A.-M. Blechschmidt, J. P. Burrows, J. M. C. Plane, and C. Barbante
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9613–9622,
P. Vallelonga, K. Christianson, R. B. Alley, S. Anandakrishnan, J. E. M. Christian, D. Dahl-Jensen, V. Gkinis, C. Holme, R. W. Jacobel, N. B. Karlsson, B. A. Keisling, S. Kipfstuhl, H. A. Kjær, M. E. L. Kristensen, A. Muto, L. E. Peters, T. Popp, K. L. Riverman, A. M. Svensson, C. Tibuleac, B. M. Vinther, Y. Weng, and M. Winstrup
The Cryosphere, 8, 1275–1287,
S. O. Rasmussen, P. M. Abbott, T. Blunier, A. J. Bourne, E. Brook, S. L. Buchardt, C. Buizert, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, E. Cook, D. Dahl-Jensen, S. M. Davies, M. Guillevic, S. Kipfstuhl, T. Laepple, I. K. Seierstad, J. P. Severinghaus, J. P. Steffensen, C. Stowasser, A. Svensson, P. Vallelonga, B. M. Vinther, F. Wilhelms, and M. Winstrup
Clim. Past, 9, 2713–2730,
H. Fischer, J. Severinghaus, E. Brook, E. Wolff, M. Albert, O. Alemany, R. Arthern, C. Bentley, D. Blankenship, J. Chappellaz, T. Creyts, D. Dahl-Jensen, M. Dinn, M. Frezzotti, S. Fujita, H. Gallee, R. Hindmarsh, D. Hudspeth, G. Jugie, K. Kawamura, V. Lipenkov, H. Miller, R. Mulvaney, F. Parrenin, F. Pattyn, C. Ritz, J. Schwander, D. Steinhage, T. van Ommen, and F. Wilhelms
Clim. Past, 9, 2489–2505,
A. Spolaor, J. Gabrieli, T. Martma, J. Kohler, M. B. Björkman, E. Isaksson, C. Varin, P. Vallelonga, J. M. C. Plane, and C. Barbante
The Cryosphere, 7, 1645–1658,
A. Spolaor, P. Vallelonga, J. M. C. Plane, N. Kehrwald, J. Gabrieli, C. Varin, C. Turetta, G. Cozzi, R. Kumar, C. Boutron, and C. Barbante
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6623–6635,
A. Svensson, M. Bigler, T. Blunier, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, S. Fujita, K. Goto-Azuma, S. J. Johnsen, K. Kawamura, S. Kipfstuhl, M. Kohno, F. Parrenin, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, J. Schwander, I. Seierstad, M. Severi, J. P. Steffensen, R. Udisti, R. Uemura, P. Vallelonga, B. M. Vinther, A. Wegner, F. Wilhelms, and M. Winstrup
Clim. Past, 9, 749–766,
P. Vallelonga, C. Barbante, G. Cozzi, J. Gabrieli, S. Schüpbach, A. Spolaor, and C. Turetta
Clim. Past, 9, 597–604,
Y. H. Lee, J.-F. Lamarque, M. G. Flanner, C. Jiao, D. T. Shindell, T. Berntsen, M. M. Bisiaux, J. Cao, W. J. Collins, M. Curran, R. Edwards, G. Faluvegi, S. Ghan, L. W. Horowitz, J. R. McConnell, J. Ming, G. Myhre, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, S. T. Rumbold, R. B. Skeie, K. Sudo, T. Takemura, F. Thevenon, B. Xu, and J.-H. Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2607–2634,
K. M. Sterle, J. R. McConnell, J. Dozier, R. Edwards, and M. G. Flanner
The Cryosphere, 7, 365–374,
J. L. Roberts, A. D. Moy, T. D. van Ommen, M. A. J. Curran, A. P. Worby, I. D. Goodwin, and M. Inoue
The Cryosphere, 7, 263–273,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Technique: Laboratory Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsOnline measurement of highly oxygenated compounds from organic aerosolThe AERosol and TRACe gas Collector (AERTRACC): an online-measurement-controlled sampler for source-resolved emission analysisQuantitative chemical assay of nanogram-level particulate matter using aerosol mass spectrometry: characterization of particles collected from uncrewed atmospheric measurement platformsAn optimised organic carbon ∕ elemental carbon (OC ∕ EC) fraction separation method for radiocarbon source apportionment applied to low-loaded Arctic aerosol filtersAn Automated Online Field Instrument to Quantify the Oxidative Potential of Aerosol Particles via Ascorbic Acid OxidationInvestigating the dependence of mineral dust depolarization on complex refractive index and size with a laboratory polarimeter at 180.0° lidar backscattering angleEvaluation of a low-cost dryer for a low-cost optical particle counterEffects of temperature and salinity on bubble-bursting aerosol formation simulated with a bubble-generating chamberA new hot-stage microscopy technique for measuring temperature-dependent viscosities of aerosol particles and its application to farnesene secondary organic aerosolCharacterization of a modified printed optical particle spectrometer for high-frequency and high-precision laboratory and field measurementsDesign and fabrication of an electrostatic precipitator for infrared spectroscopyCombined application of online FIGAERO-CIMS and offline LC-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS) to characterize the chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in smog chamber studiesHigh-frequency gaseous and particulate chemical characterization using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (Dual-Phase-EESI-TOF)An evaluation of the heat test for the ice-nucleating ability of minerals and biological materialDevelopment, characterization, and application of an improved online reactive oxygen species analyzer based on the Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in ambient Air (MARGA)Characterization of soot produced by the mini inverted soot generator with an atmospheric simulation chamberLED-based solar simulator to study photochemistry over a wide temperature range in the large simulation chamber AIDALaboratory evaluation of the scattering matrix of ragweed, ash, birch and pine pollen towards pollen classificationCloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity analysis of low-hygroscopicity aerosols using the aerodynamic aerosol classifier (AAC)Characterisation of the Manchester Aerosol Chamber facilityA study on the fragmentation of sulfuric acid and dimethylamine clusters inside an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometerA semi-automated instrument for cellular oxidative potential evaluation (SCOPE) of water-soluble extracts of ambient particulate matterUtilizing an electrical low-pressure impactor to indirectly probe water uptake via particle bounce measurementsCalibration and evaluation of a broad supersaturation scanning (BS2) cloud condensation nuclei counter for rapid measurement of particle hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activityCorrecting bias in log-linear instrument calibrations in the context of chemical ionization mass spectrometryEffects of aerosol size and coating thickness on the molecular detection using extractive electrospray ionizationThe nano-scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (nSEMS) and its application to size distribution measurements of 1.5–25 nm particlesA dual-droplet approach for measuring the hygroscopicity of aqueous aerosolA method for liquid spectrophotometric measurement of total and water-soluble iron and copper in ambient aerosolsEfficacy of a portable, moderate-resolution, fast-scanning differential mobility analyzer for ambient aerosol size distribution measurementsComparative characterization of the performance of bio-aerosol nebulizers in connection with atmospheric simulation chambersCoupling a gas chromatograph simultaneously to a flame ionization detector and chemical ionization mass spectrometer for isomer-resolved measurements of particle-phase organic compoundsInvestigation of structural changes of atmospheric aerosol samples during two thermal–optical measurement procedures (EUSAAR2, NIOSH870)Development of the drop Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), intercomparison of droplet freezing techniques, and use of soluble lignin as an atmospheric ice nucleation standardElemental analysis of oxygenated organic coating on black carbon particles using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometerOn the calibration of FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS: importance and impact of calibrant delivery for the particle-phase calibrationA single-beam photothermal interferometer for in situ measurements of aerosol light absorptionAqueous particle generation with a 3D printed nebulizerA new method for operating a continuous-flow diffusion chamber to investigate immersion freezing: assessment and performance studyCharacterization of a non-thermal plasma source for use as a mass specrometric calibration tool and non-radioactive aerosol chargerApplication of time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry for the real-time measurement of particle-phase organic peroxides: an online redox derivatization–aerosol mass spectrometer (ORD-AMS)Nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) for investigating hygroscopic properties of sub-10 nm aerosol nanoparticlesQuantification of toxic metals using machine learning techniques and spark emission spectroscopyA new approach for measuring the carbon and oxygen content of atmospherically relevant compounds and mixturesAn experimental study on light scattering matrices for Chinese loess dust with different particle size distributionsCounting on chemistry: laboratory evaluation of seed-material-dependent detection efficiencies of ultrafine condensation particle countersPhotophoretic spectroscopy in atmospheric chemistry – high-sensitivity measurements of light absorption by a single particleLaboratory evaluation of particle-size selectivity of optical low-cost particulate matter sensorsMapping ice formation to mineral-surface topography using a micro mixing chamber with video and atomic-force microscopyHigh-humidity tandem differential mobility analyzer for accurate determination of aerosol hygroscopic growth, microstructure, and activity coefficients over a wide range of relative humidity
Ella Häkkinen, Jian Zhao, Frans Graeffe, Nicolas Fauré, Jordan E. Krechmer, Douglas Worsnop, Hilkka Timonen, Mikael Ehn, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1705–1721,Short summary
Highly oxygenated compounds contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric organic aerosol and thus impact the global climate. Knowledge of their transformations and fate after condensing into the particle phase has been limited by the lack of suitable detection techniques. Here, we present an online method for measuring highly oxygenated compounds from organic aerosol. We evaluate the performance of the method and demonstrate that the method is applicable to different organic species.
Julia Pikmann, Lasse Moormann, Frank Drewnick, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1323–1341,Short summary
Aerosols measured in complex environments are usually a mixture of emissions from different sources. To characterize sources individually, we developed a sampling system for particles and organic trace gases which is coupled to real-time data of physical and chemical aerosol properties, gas concentrations, and meteorological variables. Using suitable sampling conditions for individual aerosols which are compared with the real-time data the desired aerosols are sampled separately from each other.
Christopher R. Niedek, Fan Mei, Maria A. Zawadowicz, Zihua Zhu, Beat Schmid, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 955–968,Short summary
This novel micronebulization aerosol mass spectrometry (MS) technique requires a low sample volume (10 μL) and can quantify nanogram levels of organic and inorganic particulate matter (PM) components when used with 34SO4. This technique was successfully applied to PM samples collected from uncrewed atmospheric measurement platforms and provided chemical information that agrees well with real-time data from a co-located aerosol chemical speciation monitor and offline data from secondary ion MS.
Martin Rauber, Gary Salazar, Karl Espen Yttri, and Sönke Szidat
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 825–844,Short summary
Carbon-containing aerosols from ambient air are analysed for radioactive isotope radiocarbon to determine the contribution from fossil-fuel emissions. Light-absorbing soot-like aerosols are isolated by water extraction and thermal separation. This separation is affected by artefacts, for which we developed a new correction method. The investigation of aerosols from the Arctic shows that our approach works well for such samples, where many artefacts are expected.
Battist Utinger, Steven John Campbell, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Alexandre Barth, Benjamin Gfeller, Ray Freshwater, Hans-Rudolf Ruegg, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Exposure to atmospheric aerosols can lead to adverse health effect but particle components responsible for this are unknown. Redox-active compounds, some with very short lifetimes, are considered to be a toxic class of compounds in particles. We developed the first online field instrument to quantify short-lived and stable redox-active compounds with a physiological assay based on ascorbic acid and a high time resolution and detection limits to allow measurements also at unpolluted locations.
Alain Miffre, Danaël Cholleton, Clément Noël, and Patrick Rairoux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 403–417,Short summary
The depolarization ratio of hematite, silica, Arizona and Asian dust is evaluated in a lab with a π-polarimeter operating at lidar 180 ° and at (355, 532) nm wavelengths. The hematite depolarization equals (10±1) % at 355 nm for coarser particles, while that of silica is (33±1) %. This huge difference is explained by accounting for the high imaginary part of the hematite complex refractive index, thus revealing the key role played by light absorption in mineral dust lidar depolarization.
Miriam Chacón-Mateos, Bernd Laquai, Ulrich Vogt, and Cosima Stubenrauch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7395–7410,Short summary
The study evaluates a low-cost dryer to avoid the negative effect of hygroscopic growth and fog droplets in the particulate matter (PM) concentrations of sensors. The results show a reduction in the overestimation of the PM but also an underestimation compared to reference devices. Special care is needed when designing a dryer as high temperatures change the sampled air by evaporating the most volatile particulate species. Low-cost dryers are very promising for different sensor applications.
Svetlana Sofieva, Eija Asmi, Nina S. Atanasova, Aino E. Heikkinen, Emeline Vidal, Jonathan Duplissy, Martin Romantschuk, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Jaakko Kukkonen, Dennis H. Bamford, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, and Mikhail Sofiev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6201–6219,Short summary
A new bubble-generating glass chamber design with an extensive set of aerosol production experiments is presented to re-evaluate bubble-bursting-mediated aerosol production as a function of water parameters: bubbling air flow, water salinity, and temperature. Our main findings suggest modest dependence of aerosol production on the water salinity and a strong dependence on temperature below ~ 10 °C.
Kristian J. Kiland, Kevin L. Marroquin, Natalie R. Smith, Shaun Xu, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5545–5561,Short summary
Information on the viscosity of secondary organic aerosols is needed when making air quality, climate, and atmospheric chemistry predictions. Viscosity depends on temperature, so we developed a new method for measuring the temperature-dependent viscosity of small samples. As an application of the method, we measured the viscosity of farnesene secondary organic aerosol at different temperatures.
Sabin Kasparoglu, Mohammad Maksimul Islam, Nicholas Meskhidze, and Markus D. Petters
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5007–5018,Short summary
A modified version of a Handix Scientific printed optical particle spectrometer is introduced. The paper presents characterization experiments, including concentration, size, and time responses. Integration of an external multichannel analyzer card removes counting limitations of the original instrument. It is shown that the high-resolution light-scattering amplitude data can be used to sense particle-phase transitions.
Nikunj Dudani and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4693–4707,Short summary
We designed and fabricated an aerosol collector with high collection efficiency that enables quantitative infrared spectroscopy analysis. By collecting particles on optical windows, typical substrate interferences are eliminated. New methods for fabricating aerosol devices using 3D printing with post-treatment to reduce the time and cost of prototyping are described.
Mao Du, Aristeidis Voliotis, Yunqi Shao, Yu Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Kelly L. Pereira, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Carl J. Percival, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4385–4406,Short summary
Atmospheric chemistry plays a key role in the understanding of aerosol formation and air pollution. We designed chamber experiments for the characterization of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from a biogenic precursor with inorganic seed. Our results highlight the advantages of a combination of online FIGAERO-CIMS and offline LC-Orbitrap MS analytical techniques to characterize the chemical composition of SOA in chamber studies.
Chuan Ping Lee, Mihnea Surdu, David M. Bell, Josef Dommen, Mao Xiao, Xueqin Zhou, Andrea Baccarini, Stamatios Giannoukos, Günther Wehrle, Pascal André Schneider, Andre S. H. Prevot, Jay G. Slowik, Houssni Lamkaddam, Dongyu Wang, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3747–3760,Short summary
Real-time detection of both the gas and particle phase is needed to elucidate the sources and chemical reaction pathways of organic vapors and particulate matter. The Dual-EESI was developed to measure gas- and particle-phase species to provide new insights into aerosol sources or formation mechanisms. After characterizing the relative gas and particle response factors of EESI via organic aerosol uptake experiments, the Dual-EESI is more sensitive toward gas-phase analyes.
Martin I. Daily, Mark D. Tarn, Thomas F. Whale, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2635–2665,Short summary
Mineral dust and particles of biological origin are important types of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) that can trigger ice formation of supercooled cloud droplets. Heat treatments are used to detect the presence of biological INPs in samples collected from the environment as the activity of mineral INPs is assumed unchanged, although not fully assessed. We show that the ice-nucleating ability of some minerals can change after heating and discuss how INP heat tests should be interpreted.
Jiyan Wu, Chi Yang, Chunyan Zhang, Fang Cao, Aiping Wu, and Yanlin Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2623–2633,Short summary
We introduced an online method to simultaneously determine the content of inorganic salt ions and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PM2.5 hour by hour. We verified the accuracy and precision of the instrument. And we got the daily changes in ROS and the main sources that affect ROS. This breakthrough enables the quantitative assessment of atmospheric particulate matter ROS at the diurnal scale, providing an effective tool to study sources and environmental impacts of ROS.
Virginia Vernocchi, Marco Brunoldi, Silvia G. Danelli, Franco Parodi, Paolo Prati, and Dario Massabò
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2159–2175,Short summary
The performance of a mini inverted soot generator was investigated at a simulation chamber facility by studying the soot generated by ethylene and propane combustion, together with the number, size, optical properties, and EC / OC concentrations. Mass absorption coefficients and Ångström absorption exponents are compatible with the literature, with some differences. The characterization of MISG soot particles is fundamental to design and perform experiments in atmospheric simulation chambers.
Magdalena Vallon, Linyu Gao, Feng Jiang, Bianca Krumm, Jens Nadolny, Junwei Song, Thomas Leisner, and Harald Saathoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1795–1810,Short summary
A LED-based light source has been constructed for the AIDA simulation chamber at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. It allows aerosol formation and ageing studies under atmospherically relevant illumination intensities and spectral characteristics at temperatures from –90 °C to 30 °C with the possibility of changing the photon flux and irradiation spectrum at any point. The first results of photolysis experiments with 2,3-pentanedione, iron oxalate and a brown carbon component are shown.
Danaël Cholleton, Émilie Bialic, Antoine Dumas, Pascal Kaluzny, Patrick Rairoux, and Alain Miffre
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1021–1032,Short summary
While pollen impacts public health and the Earth’s climate, the identification of each pollen taxon remains challenging. In this context, a laboratory evaluation of the polarimetric light-scattering characteristics of ragweed, ash, birch and pine pollen, when embedded in ambient air, is here performed at two wavelengths. Interestingly, the achieved precision of the retrieved scattering matrix elements allows unequivocal light scattering characteristics of each studied taxon to be identified.
Kanishk Gohil and Akua A. Asa-Awuku
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1007–1019,Short summary
This work develops a methodology and software to study and analyze the cloud-droplet-forming ability of aerosols with an aerodynamic aerosol classifier (AAC). This work quantifies the uncertainties in size-resolved measurements and subsequent uncertainties propagated to cloud droplet parameterizations. Lastly, we present the best practices for AAC cloud droplet measurement.
Yunqi Shao, Yu Wang, Mao Du, Aristeidis Voliotis, M. Rami Alfarra, Simon P. O'Meara, S. Fiona Turner, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 539–559,Short summary
A comprehensive description and characterisation of the Manchester Aerosol Chamber (MAC) was conducted. The MAC has good temperature and relative humidity homogeneity, fast mixing times, and comparable losses of gases and particles with other chambers. The MAC's bespoke control system allows improved duty cycles and repeatable experiments. Moreover, the effect of contamination on performance was also investigated. It is highly recommended to regularly track the chamber's performance.
Dina Alfaouri, Monica Passananti, Tommaso Zanca, Lauri Ahonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Jakub Kubečka, Nanna Myllys, and Hanna Vehkamäki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 11–19,Short summary
To study what is happening in the atmosphere, it is important to be able to measure the molecules and clusters present in it. In our work, we studied an artifact that happens inside a mass spectrometer, in particular the fragmentation of clusters. We were able to quantify the fragmentation and retrieve the correct concentration and composition of the clusters using our dual (experimental and theoretical) approach.
Sudheer Salana, Yixiang Wang, Joseph V. Puthussery, and Vishal Verma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7579–7593,Short summary
Oxidative potential (OP) of particulate matter (PM) is an important indicator of PM toxicity. However, no automated instrument has ever been developed to provide a rapid high-throughput analysis of cell-based OP measurements. Here, we developed a semi-automated instrument, the first of its kind, for measuring oxidative potential using rat alveolar cells. We also developed a dataset on the intrinsic cellular OP of several compounds commonly known to be present in ambient PM.
Kevin B. Fischer and Giuseppe A. Petrucci
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7565–7577,Short summary
The viscosity of organic particles in atmospheric aerosol is sometimes correlated to bounce factor. It is generally accepted that more viscous particles will be more likely to bounce following acceleration toward and impaction on a surface. We demonstrate that use of multi-stage low-pressure impactors for this purpose may result in measurement artifacts that depend on chemical composition, particle size, and changing relative humidity. A hypothesis for the observed effect is presented.
Najin Kim, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Mira L. Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Thomas F. Mentel, Ovid O. Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6991–7005,Short summary
A broad supersaturation scanning CCN (BS2-CCN) system, in which particles are exposed to a range of supersaturation simultaneously, can measure a broad range of CCN activity distribution with a high time resolution. We describe how the BS2-CCN system can be effectively calibrated and which factors can affect the calibration curve. Intercomparison experiments between typical DMA-CCN and BS2-CCN measurements to evaluate the BS2-CCN system showed high correlation and good agreement.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6551–6560,Short summary
Calibration techniques have been recently developed to log-linearly correlate analyte sensitivity with CIMS operating conditions particularly for compounds without authentic standards. In this work, we examine the previously ignored bias in the log-linear-based calibration method and estimate an average bias of 30 %, with 1 order of magnitude for less sensitive compounds in some circumstances. A step-by-step guide was provided to reduce and even remove the bias.
Chuan Ping Lee, Mihnea Surdu, David M. Bell, Houssni Lamkaddam, Mingyi Wang, Farnoush Ataei, Victoria Hofbauer, Brandon Lopez, Neil M. Donahue, Josef Dommen, Andre S. H. Prevot, Jay G. Slowik, Dongyu Wang, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5913–5923,Short summary
Extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been deployed for high throughput online detection of particles with minimal fragmentation. Our study elucidates the extraction mechanism between the particles and electrospray (ES) droplets of different properties. The results show that the extraction rate is likely affected by the coagulation rate between the particles and ES droplets. Once coagulated, the particles undergo complete extraction within the ES droplet.
Weimeng Kong, Stavros Amanatidis, Huajun Mai, Changhyuk Kim, Benjamin C. Schulze, Yuanlong Huang, Gregory S. Lewis, Susanne V. Hering, John H. Seinfeld, and Richard C. Flagan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5429–5445,Short summary
We present the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of the nano-scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (nSEMS), a recently developed instrument that probes particle physical properties in the 1.5–25 nm range. The nSEMS has proven to be extremely powerful in examining atmospheric nucleation and the subsequent growth of nanoparticles in the CERN CLOUD experiment, which provides a valuable asset to study atmospheric nanoparticles and to evaluate their impact on climate.
Jack M. Choczynski, Ravleen Kaur Kohli, Craig S. Sheldon, Chelsea L. Price, and James F. Davies
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5001–5013,Short summary
Relative humidity (RH) and hygroscopicity play an important role in regulating the physical, chemical, and optical properties of aerosol. In this work, we develop a new method to characterize hygroscopicity using particle levitation. We levitate two droplets with an electrodynamic balance and measure their size with light-scattering methods using one droplet as a probe of the RH. We demonstrate highly accurate and precise measurements of the RH and hygroscopic growth of a range of samples.
Yuhan Yang, Dong Gao, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4707–4719,Short summary
Iron and copper are commonly found in ambient aerosols and have been linked to adverse health effects. We describe a relatively simple benchtop instrument that can be used to quantify these metals in aqueous solutions and verify the method by comparison with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The approach is based on forming light-absorbing metal–ligand complexes that can be measured with high sensitivity utilizing a long-path liquid waveguide capillary cell.
Stavros Amanatidis, Yuanlong Huang, Buddhi Pushpawela, Benjamin C. Schulze, Christopher M. Kenseth, Ryan X. Ward, John H. Seinfeld, Susanne V. Hering, and Richard C. Flagan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4507–4516,Short summary
We assess the performance of a highly portable mobility analyzer, the Spider DMA, in measuring ambient aerosol particle size distributions, with specific attention to its moderate sizing resolution (R=3). Long-term field testing showed excellent correlation with a conventional mobility analyzer (R=10) over the 17–500 nm range, suggesting that moderate resolution may be sufficient to obtain key properties of ambient size distributions, enabling smaller instruments and better counting statistics.
Silvia G. Danelli, Marco Brunoldi, Dario Massabò, Franco Parodi, Virginia Vernocchi, and Paolo Prati
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4461–4470,Short summary
Experiments conducted inside confined artificial environments, such as atmospheric simulation chambers (ASCs), where atmospheric conditions and composition are controlled, can provide valuable information on bio-aerosol viability, dispersion, and impact. We focus here on the reproducible aerosolization and injection of viable microorganisms into an ASC, the first and crucial step of any experimental protocol to expose bio-aerosols to different atmospheric conditions.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Graham O. Frazier, Wen Xu, Andrew T. Lambe, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3895–3907,Short summary
Measurement techniques that can achieve molecular characterizations are necessary to understand the differences of fate and transport within isomers produced in the atmospheric oxidation process. In this work, we develop an instrument to conduct isomer-resolved measurements of particle-phase organics. We assess the number of isomers per chemical formula in atmospherically relevant samples and examine the feasibility of extending the use of an existing instrument to a broader range of analytes.
Theresa Haller, Eva Sommer, Thomas Steinkogler, Christian Rentenberger, Anna Wonaschuetz, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Hinrich Grothe, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3721–3735,Short summary
Structural changes of carbonaceous aerosol samples during thermal–optical measurement techniques cause a darkening of the sample during the heating procedure which can influence the attribution of the carbonaceous material to organic and elemental carbon. We analyzed structural changes of atmospheric aerosol samples occurring during the EUSAAR2 and NIOSH870 measurement protocols with Raman spectroscopy. We found that the darkening of the sample is not necessarily caused by graphitization.
Anna J. Miller, Killian P. Brennan, Claudia Mignani, Jörg Wieder, Robert O. David, and Nadine Borduas-Dedekind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3131–3151,Short summary
To characterize atmospheric ice nuclei, we present (1) the development of our home-built droplet freezing technique (DFT), which involves the Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), (2) an intercomparison campaign using NX-illite and an ambient sample with two other DFTs, and (3) the application of lignin as a soluble and commercial ice nuclei standard with three DFTs. We further compiled the growing number of DFTs in use for atmospheric ice nucleation since 2000 and add FINC.
Mutian Ma, Laura-Hélèna Rivellini, YuXi Cui, Megan D. Willis, Rio Wilkie, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Junfeng Wang, Xinlei Ge, and Alex K. Y. Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2799–2812,Short summary
Chemical characterization of organic coatings is important to advance our understanding of the physio-chemical properties and atmospheric processing of black carbon (BC) particles. This work develops two approaches to improve the elemental analysis of oxygenated organic coatings using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer. Analyzing ambient data with the new approaches indicated that secondary organics that coated on BC were likely less oxygenated compared to those externally mixed with BC.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Luis M. F. Barreira, Iida Pullinen, Angela Buchholz, John Jayne, Jordan E. Krechmer, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 355–367,Short summary
FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS enables online volatility measurements of chemical compounds in ambient aerosols. Previously published volatility calibration results however differ from each other significantly. In this study we investigate the reason for this discrepancy. We found a major source of error in the widely used syringe deposition method and propose a new method for volatility calibration by using atomized calibration compounds.
Bradley Visser, Jannis Röhrbein, Peter Steigmeier, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, and Ernest Weingartner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 7097–7111,Short summary
Here we report on the development of a novel single-beam photothermal interferometer and its use in the measurement of aerosol light absorption. We demonstrate how light-absorbing gases can be used to calibrate the instrument and how this absorption is automatically subtracted during normal operation. The performance of the instrument is compared to a standard filter-based instrument using a black carbon test aerosol. The 60 s detection limit is found to be less than 10 Mm-1.
Michael Rösch and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6807–6812,Short summary
The need for a simple atomizer with a high-output stability combined with the capabilities of CAD software and high-resolution 3D printing has allowed for the design, production and testing of the PRinted drOpleT Generator (PROTeGE) to generate liquid particles from solutions. The size and number concentrations of the generated particles have been characterized with different ammonium sulfate and PSL solutions. PROTeGE is easy to operate, requires minimal maintenance and is cost-effective.
Gourihar Kulkarni, Naruki Hiranuma, Ottmar Möhler, Kristina Höhler, Swarup China, Daniel J. Cziczo, and Paul J. DeMott
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6631–6643,Short summary
This study presents a new continuous-flow-diffusion-chamber-style operated ice chamber (Modified Compact Ice Chamber, MCIC) to measure the immersion-freezing efficiency of atmospheric particles. MCIC allowed us to obtain maximum droplet-freezing efficiency at higher time resolution without droplet breakthrough ambiguity. Its evaluation was performed by reproducing published data from the recent ice nucleation workshop and past laboratory data for standard and airborne ice-nucleating particles.
Christian Tauber, David Schmoll, Johannes Gruenwald, Sophia Brilke, Peter Josef Wlasits, Paul Martin Winkler, and Daniela Wimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5993–6006,Short summary
In this paper we show that a commercially available plasma charger with nitrogen as the working gas can enhance the charging probability for sub-12 nm particles. In addition, the charger ion mobilities and the chemical composition have been examined using an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (APi-TOF MS), and comparison of the experimental results revealed that the generated neutralizer ions are not dependent on the charging mechanism.
Marcel Weloe and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5725–5738,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometers (AMSs) are frequently applied in atmospheric aerosol research in connection with climate, environmental or health-related projects. The paper describes a new real-time technique for the measurement of organic peroxides, which play an important role in new particle formation and as
reactive oxygen speciesin aerosol–health-related aspects of atmospheric aerosols.
Ting Lei, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Thomas Tuch, Xin Wang, Zhibin Wang, Mira Pöhlker, Maofa Ge, Weigang Wang, Eugene Mikhailov, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5551–5567,Short summary
We present the design of a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) apparatus that enables high accuracy and precision in hygroscopic growth measurements of aerosol nanoparticles with diameters less than 10 nm. We further introduce comprehensive methods for system calibration and validation of the performance of the system. We then study the size dependence of the deliquescence and the efflorescence of aerosol nanoparticles for sizes down to 6 nm.
Seyyed Ali Davari and Anthony S. Wexler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5369–5377,Short summary
Traditional instruments for detection and quantification of toxic metals in the atmosphere are expensive. In this study, we have designed, fabricated, and tested a low-cost instrument, which employs cheap components to detect and quantify toxic metals. Advanced machine learning (ML) techniques have been used to improve the instrument's performance. This study demonstrates how the combination of low-cost sensors with ML can address problems that traditionally have been too expensive to be solved.
James F. Hurley, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Braden Stump, Chenyang Bi, Purushottam Kumar, Susanne V. Hering, Pat Keady, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4911–4925,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosols has implications for human and ecosystem health. Current methods for determining chemical composition are expensive and require highly trained personnel. Our method is promising for moderate-cost, low-maintenance measurements of oxygen / carbon ratios, a key chemical parameter, and other elements may also be studied. In this work, we coupled two commonly used detectors to assess O / C ratios in a variety of compounds and mixtures within an acceptable error.
Jia Liu, Qixing Zhang, Yinuo Huo, Jinjun Wang, and Yongming Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4097–4109,Short summary
Angular behaviors of light scattering properties for loess dust sampled from the Chinese Loess Plateau were investigated using a self-developed apparatus. Two samples with different size distributions were used to represent dust that can or cannot be transported over long ranges. Analyses of optical simulation results showed that differences of measurements are mainly caused by different sizes. This study is useful for the development of optical models of loess dust during transportation.
Peter Josef Wlasits, Dominik Stolzenburg, Christian Tauber, Sophia Brilke, Sebastian Harald Schmitt, Paul Martin Winkler, and Daniela Wimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3787–3798,Short summary
In this paper we show that chemical similarities between the seed particle material and the working fluid have an impact on the detection efficiency of commonly used CPCs. A remarkable set of CPCs, including the newly developed V-WCPC 3789, was tested. Among others, reproducibly generated organic seeds based on beta-caryophyllene were used. Theoretical simulations of supersaturation profiles were successfully linked to measured data.
Nir Bluvshtein, Ulrich K. Krieger, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3191–3203,Short summary
Light-absorbing organic particles undergo transformations during their exposure in the atmosphere. The role these particles play in the global radiative balance is uncertain. This study describes high-sensitivity and high-precision measurements of light absorption by a single particle levitated in an electrodynamic balance. This high level of sensitivity enables future studies to explore the major processes responsible for changes to the particle's light absorptivity.
Joel Kuula, Timo Mäkelä, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Samu Varjonen, Óscar González, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2413–2423,Short summary
Particle-size-dependent detection ranges of low-cost particulate matter sensors were evaluated in a laboratory experiment. Six different sensor models were evaluated altogether. The results showed that none of the sensor models adhered to the technical specifications provided by the manufacturers, and thus a high risk of sensor misuse is posed. It is paramount that the limitations regarding the particle size discrimination of low-cost sensors are acknowledged properly.
Raymond W. Friddle and Konrad Thürmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2209–2218,Short summary
An obstacle to predicting ice content in mixed-phase clouds is the inability to directly view atmospheric ice nucleation at the nanoscale, where this process occurs. Here we show how a cloud-like environment can be created in a small atomic-force microscopy (AFM) sample cell. By colocating video microscopy of ice formation with high-resolution AFM images, we quantitatively show how the surface topography, down to nanometer-length scales, can determine the preferential locations of ice formation.
Eugene F. Mikhailov and Sergey S. Vlasenko
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2035–2056,Short summary
Here we present the high-humidity tandem differential hygroscopicity analyzer (HHTDMA) and a new method to measure the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles with in situ restructuring to minimize the influence of particle shape. Our results demonstrate that the HHTDMA system described in this work allows us to determine the thermodynamic characteristics of aqueous solutions with an accuracy close to that obtained by bulk methods.
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Black carbon is an important environmental pollutant, and the structure and composition of these particles are important to measuring their affect on the climate. Historical records of black carbon emissions are stored in polar ice. This paper details a new method to study black carbon preserved in Antarctic ice cores. By combining filtration to concentrate the particles and electron microscopy to characterize them, this method opens up a new avenue to study the history of our atmosphere.
Black carbon is an important environmental pollutant, and the structure and composition of these...