Articles | Volume 13, issue 10
Research article 12 Oct 2020
Research article | 12 Oct 2020
Development and application of a mass closure PM2.5 composition online monitoring system
Cui-Ping Su et al.
No articles found.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Nan Xu, Yanhong Qin, Zhijun Wu, Liwu Zeng, Xiaofeng Huang, and Lingyan He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13721–13734,Short summary
Field straw residue burning is a widespread type of biomass burning in Asia, while its emissions are poorly understood. In this study, we designed lab-controlled experiments to comprehensively investigate the emission factors, chemical compositions and light absorption properties of both water-soluble and water-insoluble carbonaceous aerosols emitted from straw burning. The results clearly highlight the significant influences of burning conditions and combustion efficiency on the emissions.
Lu Qi, Alexander L. Vogel, Sepideh Esmaeilirad, Liming Cao, Jing Zheng, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Paola Fermo, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Mindong Chen, Xinlei Ge, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7875–7893,Short summary
We present the first application of this online and offline strategy using the new extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF), which achieves increased chemical specificity relative to other online techniques. Measurement and source apportionment of 1 year of filter samples collected in Zurich, Switzerland, show seasonal contributions from fresh and aged wood combustion in winter and biogenic emission-derived SOA in summer, as well as other sources.
Jiayun Li, Liming Cao, Wenkang Gao, Lingyan He, Yingchao Yan, Dongsheng Ji, Zirui Liu, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
For the first time, we investigated the highly time-resolved chemical characterization, sources, and evolution of atmospheric submicron aerosols at a regional background site in the North China Plain (NCP) using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry, and evaluated the seasonal differentials of photochemical and aqueous-phase processing on SOA composition and oxidation degree of OA. The results will help to understand air pollution in the NCP on a regional scale.
Kuangyou Yu, Qiao Zhu, Ke Du, and Xiao-Feng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5235–5249,Short summary
Organic nitrates are important atmospheric species, as their fate could affect nitrogen cycle, ozone production, and secondary organic aerosols; few related studies focus on the regions with high anthropogenic pollution. In this study, we find that organic nitrates contribute a notable fraction of organic aerosol during warm seasons, and nighttime particulate organic nitrate formation is highly relevant not only to biogenic VOCs but also to anthropogenic VOCs for urban air pollution in China.
Xiao-Feng Huang, Bei-Bing Zou, Ling-Yan He, Min Hu, André S. H. Prévôt, and Yuan-Hang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11563–11580,Short summary
A novel multilinear engine (ME-2) model was applied to the PM2.5 dataset observed in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China in 2015 and identified the sources of secondary sulfate (21 %), vehicle emissions (14 %), industrial emissions (13 %), secondary nitrate (11 %), biomass burning (11 %), secondary organic aerosol (7 %), coal burning (6 %), fugitive dust (5 %), ship emissions (3 %) and aged sea salt (2 %). The central PRD area was clearly identified as the key emission area in the PRD.
Qiao Zhu, Xiao-Feng Huang, Li-Ming Cao, Lin-Tong Wei, Bin Zhang, Ling-Yan He, Miriam Elser, Francesco Canonaco, Jay G. Slowik, Carlo Bozzetti, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1049–1060,Short summary
Organic aerosol constitutes one of the major components of atmospheric particulate matter globally and is emitted from various sources. Therefore, identifying and quantifying the sources of organic aerosol accurately is a key task in the field. In this study, we applied a rather novel procedure for an improved source apportionment method (ME-2) to resolve the
less meaningful or mixed factorsproblems for organic aerosol using the traditional method (PMF).
Li-Ming Cao, Xiao-Feng Huang, Yuan-Yuan Li, Min Hu, and Ling-Yan He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1729–1743,Short summary
A TD-AMS (thermodenuder aerosol mass spectrometer) system was deployed to study the volatility of non-refractory PM1 species during winter in Shenzhen, China. The volatility of chemical species measured with the AMS varied, with nitrate showing the highest volatility. Organics showed semi-volatile characteristics, and five subtypes of OA resolved by PMF modeling presented different volatilities. The results can contribute to the understanding of the formation and ageing of submicron aerosols.
Chuan Wang, Xiao-Feng Huang, Qiao Zhu, Li-Ming Cao, Bin Zhang, and Ling-Yan He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9103–9114,Short summary
The emission of pollutants is extremely reduced during the annual Chinese Spring Festival (SF) in Shenzhen, China. To characterize the variation in ambient air pollutants due to the SF, various pollutants were measured in real time in urban Shenzhen over three consecutive winters (2014–2016). The results indicate that reducing emissions of SO2 and VOCs on a regional scale rather than on an urban scale was found to be necessary to reduce urban PM2.5 in Shenzhen.
Jing Zheng, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Zhaoheng Gong, Yanhong Qin, Jingyao Fang, Fangting Gu, Mengren Li, Jianfei Peng, Jie Li, Yuqia Zhang, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Yusheng Wu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6853–6864,Short summary
By monitoring aerosol properties as a function of high-resolution chemical composition, this study sheds light on the evolution processes of particles in the Tibetan Plateau background environment during the pre-monsoon season. A positive matrix factorization analysis integrated with a mesoscale meteorological model clearly shows that the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau was affected by air pollutants transported from active biomass burning areas in South Asia.
Qiao Zhu, Ling-Yan He, Xiao-Feng Huang, Li-Ming Cao, Zhao-Heng Gong, Chuan Wang, Xin Zhuang, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10283–10297,Short summary
An high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, together with other relevant instruments, was deployed at two of China's national background sites in northern and southern China in the spring season, in order to characterize submicron aerosol composition and sources. The findings indicated that possible sources might not only include emissions from the Chinese mainland but also include emissions from ocean-going cargo ships and biomass burning in neighboring countries.
J.-F. Yuan, X.-F. Huang, L.-M. Cao, J. Cui, Q. Zhu, C.-N. Huang, Z.-J. Lan, and L.-Y. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1433–1443,Short summary
Aerosol light absorption is regarded to influence aerosol's radiative forcing significantly, and brown carbon (BrC) in aerosol is a potentially important contributor. In this study, we utilized statistical analysis of on-line measurement data in both urban and rural environments in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China to quantify the aerosol light absorption of BrC, and the results indicate that the BrC contribution is not negligible in PRD, with a percent of up to > 10 %.
Y. Z. Tian, J. Wang, X. Peng, G. L. Shi, and Y. C. Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9469–9479,
W. W. Hu, M. Hu, B. Yuan, J. L. Jimenez, Q. Tang, J. F. Peng, W. Hu, M. Shao, M. Wang, L. M. Zeng, Y. S. Wu, Z. H. Gong, X. F. Huang, and L. Y. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10095–10112,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsNew in situ aerosol hyperspectral optical measurements over 300–700 nm – Part 1: Spectral Aerosol Extinction (SpEx) instrument field validation during the KORUS-OC cruiseNew in situ aerosol hyperspectral optical measurements over 300–700 nm – Part 2: Extinction, total absorption, water- and methanol-soluble absorption observed during the KORUS-OC cruiseContinuous online monitoring of ice-nucleating particles: development of the automated Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC-Auto)Evaluation of optical particulate matter sensors under realistic conditions of strong and mild urban pollutionOptimizing the detection, ablation, and ion extraction efficiency of a single-particle laser ablation mass spectrometer for application in environments with low aerosol particle concentrationsMeasurements of PM2.5 with PurpleAir under atmospheric conditionsImproved chloride quantification in quadrupole aerosol chemical speciation monitors (Q-ACSMs)Airborne Extractive Electrospray Mass Spectrometry Measurements of the Chemical Composition of Organic AerosolApplication of TXRF in monitoring trace metals in particulate matter and cloud waterDetailed characterization of the CAPS single scattering albedo monitor (CAPS PMssa) as a field-deployable instrument for measuring aerosol light absorption with the extinction-minus-scattering methodA new optical-based technique for real-time measurements of mineral dust concentration in PM10 using a virtual impactorMIMiX: a Multipurpose In situ Microreactor system for X-ray microspectroscopy to mimic atmospheric aerosol processingApplication of an O-ring pinch device as a constant-pressure inlet (CPI) for airborne samplingA novel rocket borne ion mass spectrometer with large mass range: instrument description and first flight resultsResolving the size of ice-nucleating particles with a balloon deployable aerosol sampler: the SHARKSimultaneous measurements of the relative-humidity-dependent aerosol light extinction, scattering, absorption, and single-scattering albedo with a humidified cavity-enhanced albedometerFlow-induced errors in airborne in situ measurements of aerosols and cloudsDevelopment of a new nanoparticle sizer equipped with a 12-channel multi-port differential mobility analyzer and multi-condensation particle countersReal-time pollen monitoring using digital holographyA semi-continuous study on the toxicity of atmospheric particles using a versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES): development and field characterizationEffect of aerosol composition on the performance of low-cost optical particle counter correction factorsIncrease of the particle hit rate in a laser single-particle mass spectrometer by pulse delayed extraction technologyAerosol measurement methods to quantify spore emissions from fungi and cryptogamic covers in the AmazonThe Universal Cloud and Aerosol Sounding System (UCASS): a low-cost 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and low-concentration environmentsLong-term evaluation of air sensor technology under ambient conditions in Denver, ColoradoDetermining the link between hygroscopicity and composition for semi-volatile aerosol speciesHOVERCAT: a novel aerial system for evaluation of aerosol–cloud interactionsFast time response measurements of particle size distributions in the 3–60 nm size range with the nucleation mode aerosol size spectrometerUse of the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) as a pre-filter for ice nucleation measurements: effect of particle mixing state and determination of SP2 conditions to fully vaporize refractory black carbonAggregated particles caused by instrument artifactLight-absorption of dust and elemental carbon in snow in the Indian Himalayas and the Finnish ArcticA low-cost particulate matter (PM2.5) monitor for wildland fire smokeEvaluation of a low-cost optical particle counter (Alphasense OPC-N2) for ambient air monitoringA humidity-controlled fast integrated mobility 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Carolyn E. Jordan, Ryan M. Stauffer, Brian T. Lamb, Charles H. Hudgins, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Gregory L. Schuster, Richard H. Moore, Ewan C. Crosbie, Edward L. Winstead, Bruce E. Anderson, Robert F. Martin, Michael A. Shook, Luke D. Ziemba, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Claire E. Robinson, Chelsea A. Corr, and Maria A. Tzortziou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 695–713,Short summary
First field data from a custom-built in situ instrument measuring hyperspectral (300–700 nm, 0.8 nm resolution) ambient atmospheric aerosol extinction are presented. The advantage of this capability is that it can be directly linked to other in situ techniques that measure physical and chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Second-order polynomials provided a better fit to the data than traditional power law fits, yielding greater discrimination among distinct ambient aerosol populations.
Carolyn E. Jordan, Ryan M. Stauffer, Brian T. Lamb, Michael Novak, Antonio Mannino, Ewan C. Crosbie, Gregory L. Schuster, Richard H. Moore, Charles H. Hudgins, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Edward L. Winstead, Bruce E. Anderson, Robert F. Martin, Michael A. Shook, Luke D. Ziemba, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Claire E. Robinson, Chelsea A. Corr, and Maria A. Tzortziou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 715–736,Short summary
In situ measurements of ambient atmospheric aerosol hyperspectral (300–700 nm) optical properties (extinction, total absorption, water- and methanol-soluble absorption) were observed around the Korean peninsula. Such in situ observations provide a direct link between ambient aerosol optical properties and their physicochemical properties. The benefit of hyperspectral measurements is evident as simple mathematical functions could not fully capture the observed spectral detail of ambient aerosols.
Cyril Brunner and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 269–293,Short summary
Subvisual microscopic particles in the atmosphere are needed to act as seeds for cloud droplets or ice crystals to form. The microscopic particles, called ice-nucleating particles (INPs), form ice crystals and are rare, and their properties are not well understood, in part because measuring them is challenging and time consuming, and to date has not been automated. Here, we present the first online instrument that can continuously and autonomously measure INP concentration at 243 K.
Adnan Masic, Dzevad Bibic, Boran Pikula, Almir Blazevic, Jasna Huremovic, and Sabina Zero
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6427–6443,Short summary
Optical-based particulate matter sensors offer some advantages: price (especially low-cost sensors), time and space resolution, but they are less accurate than reference instruments. Understanding their performance and limitations is crucial for wider adoption. This is a case study for strong and mild air pollution done in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina. Tested optical sensors were found to be generally acceptable in this study, but proper calibration is required for getting reliable data.
Hans-Christian Clemen, Johannes Schneider, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Franziska Köllner, Andreas Hünig, Florian Rubach, Stephan Mertes, Heike Wex, Frank Stratmann, André Welti, Rebecca Kohl, Fabian Frank, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5923–5953,Short summary
We improved the efficiency of a single-particle mass spectrometer with a newly developed aerodynamic lens system, delayed ion extraction, and better electric shielding. The new components result in significantly improved particle analysis and sample statistics. This is particularly important for measurements of low-number-density particles, such as ice-nucleating particles, and for aircraft-based measurements at high altitudes or where high temporal and spatial resolution is required.
Karin Ardon-Dryer, Yuval Dryer, Jake N. Williams, and Nastaran Moghimi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5441–5458,Short summary
The PurpleAir PA-II is a low-cost sensor for monitoring changes in the concentrations of particulate matter of various sizes. This study examined the behaviour of multiple PA-II units in four locations in the USA under atmospheric conditions when exposed to a variety of pollutants and different PM2.5 concentrations. The PA-II unit is a promising tool for measuring PM2.5 concentrations and identifying relative concentration changes, as long as the PA-II PM2.5 values can be corrected.
Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Dongyu S. Wang, Philip Croteau, Katarzyna Styszko, Jarosław Nęcki, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5293–5301,Short summary
Some quadrupole aerosol chemical speciation monitors (Q-ACSMs) have had issues with the quantification of particulate chloride, resulting in apparent negative chloride concentrations. We can show that this is due to the different behavior of Cl+ and HCl+, and we present a correction for the more accurate quantification of chloride. The correction can be applied to measurements in environments where the particulate chloride is dominated by NH4Cl.
Demetrios Pagonis, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Hongyu Guo, Douglas A. Day, Melinda K. Schueneman, Wyatt L. Brown, Benjamin A. Nault, Harald Stark, Kyla Siemens, Alex Laskin, Felix Piel, Laura Tomsche, Armin Wisthaler, Matthew M. Coggon, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Hannah S. Halliday, Jordan E. Krechmer, Richard H. Moore, David S. Thomson, Carsten Warneke, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We describe the airborne deployment of an extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-MS). The instrument provides a quantitative 1 Hz measurement of the chemical composition of organic aerosol up to altitudes of 7 km, with single-compound detection limits as low as 50 ng per standard cubic meter.
Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nabil Deabji, Sayf El Islam Barcha, Ibrahim Ouchen, El Mehdi Elbaramoussi, Rajaa Cherkaoui El Moursli, Mimoun Harnafi, Souad El Hajjaji, Abdelwahid Mellouki, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4773–4790,Short summary
As air quality monitoring networks often sample aerosol particles on quartz filters, the development and applicability of analytical methods with quartz filters are becoming important. In this study different filter preparation methods (e.g., baking, acid digestion) were investigated for quantifying trace metals on quartz and polycarbonate filters, and cloud water using the total reflection X-Ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique, with low detection limits of about 0.3 ng cm−3 for some elements.
Rob L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Benjamin T. Brem, Martin Irwin, Michele Bertò, Rosaria E. Pileci, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Bas Henzing, Marcel M. Moerman, Fengshan Liu, Thomas Müller, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Extinction-minus-scattering is an important method for measuring aerosol light absorption, but its application in the field presents a number of challenges. A recently developed instrument based on this method – the CAPS PMssa – has the potential to overcome some of these challenges. We present a compilation of theory, lab measurements, and field examples to characterize this instrument and show the conditions under which it can deliver reliable absorption measurements for atmospheric aerosols.
Luka Drinovec, Jean Sciare, Iasonas Stavroulas, Spiros Bezantakos, Michael Pikridas, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Bojana Višić, Maja Remškar, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3799–3813,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust influences Earth's radiative budget, has adverse health effects, and affects regulatory PM10 concentrations. We present a highly time resolved online technique for quantification of mineral dust concentration in ambient air. The technique uses a virtual impactor to concentrate coarse particles, where absorption is then measured using a filter photometer. The method was tested in the field at a regional background site on Cyprus.
Jan-David Förster, Christian Gurk, Mark Lamneck, Haijie Tong, Florian Ditas, Sarah S. Steimer, Peter A. Alpert, Markus Ammann, Jörg Raabe, Markus Weigand, Benjamin Watts, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3717–3729,Short summary
A gas flow system coupled with a microreactor for X-ray microspectroscopy is presented. Its core objective is to mimic the atmospheric processing of aerosol particles under laboratory conditions in a controlled gas-phase environment and allow in situ observations with high spatial and chemical resolution. We here emphasize its analytical capabilities and show initial results from hydration–dehydration experiments and the observation of water ice at low temperature and high relative humidity.
Sergej Molleker, Frank Helleis, Thomas Klimach, Oliver Appel, Hans-Christian Clemen, Antonis Dragoneas, Christian Gurk, Andreas Hünig, Franziska Köllner, Florian Rubach, Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3651–3660,Short summary
A novel constant-pressure-inlet design for use in airborne aerosol particle mass spectrometry – an aerodynamic lens focuses aerosol particles into a vacuum chamber – is presented. The pressure of a few hectopascals at the lens is precisely controlled over a large flight altitude range up to 21 km. The constant pressure is achieved by changing the inner diameter of a properly scaled flexible O-ring acting as a critical orifice. Particle transmission at various inlet pressures is characterized.
Joan Stude, Heinfried Aufmhoff, Hans Schlager, Markus Rapp, Frank Arnold, and Boris Strelnikov
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
In this paper we describe the instrument ROMARA and show data from the first flight on a research rocket. On the way through the atmosphere, the instrument detects positive and negative, natural occurring ions before returning back to ground. ROMARA was successfully launched together with other instruments into a special radar echo. We detected typical, light ions of positive and negative charge and heavy negative ions, exceeding the instruments capabilities, but no heavy positive ions.
Grace C. E. Porter, Sebastien N. F. Sikora, Michael P. Adams, Ulrike Proske, Alexander D. Harrison, Mark D. Tarn, Ian M. Brooks, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2905–2921,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles affect cloud development, lifetime, and radiative properties. Hence it is important to know the abundance of INPs throughout the atmosphere. Here we present the development and application of a radio-controlled payload capable of collecting size-resolved aerosol from a tethered balloon for the primary purpose of offline INP analysis. Test data are presented from four locations: southern Finland, northern England, Svalbard, and southern England.
Jiacheng Zhou, Xuezhe Xu, Weixiong Zhao, Bo Fang, Qianqian Liu, Yuanqing Cai, Weijun Zhang, Dean S. Venables, and Weidong Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2623–2634,Short summary
We report the first demonstration of a humidified cavity-enhanced albedometer (H-CEA) that combines a broadband cavity-enhanced aerosol albedometer with a humidigraph system for simultaneous and accurate measurements of multiple optical hygroscopic parameters (f(RH)ext,scat,abs,ω) at λ = 532 nm. The instrument is suitable for operating under high RH-conditions and has sampling advantages over independent measurements of different parameters with different instruments.
Antonio Spanu, Maximilian Dollner, Josef Gasteiger, T. Paul Bui, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1963–1987,Short summary
This study investigates how the airflow around wing-mounted instruments on fast-flying aircraft affects aerosol and cloud measurements. It combines airborne data with numerical simulations and shows that particle speed, particle concentration, and shape of water droplets are modified by the airflow. The proposed correction strategy for optical particle counters and optical array probes considers airflow effects and significantly reduces errors of derived ambient aerosol and cloud properties.
Hong Ku Lee, Handol Lee, and Kang-Ho Ahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1551–1562,Short summary
We developed a nanoparticle sizer (NPS), consisting of a multi-port differential mobility analyzer (MP-DMA) with 12 sampling ports and multi-condensation particle counters (M-CPCs) for fast measurement of particle size distribution. The NPS can successfully capture the changes in particle size distribution under fast-changing particle concentration conditions. In this study, particle emissions from cooking activity are analyzed as an exemplary real-world application.
Eric Sauvageat, Yanick Zeder, Kevin Auderset, Bertrand Calpini, Bernard Clot, Benoît Crouzy, Thomas Konzelmann, Gian Lieberherr, Fiona Tummon, and Konstantina Vasilatou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1539–1550,Short summary
We present the first validation of the only operational automatic pollen monitoring system based on holography, the Swisens Poleno. The device produces real-time images of coarse aerosols, and by applying a machine learning algorithm we identify a range of pollen taxa with accuracy >90 %. The device was further validated in controlled chamber experiments to verify the counting ability and the performance of additional fluorescence measurements, which can further be used in pollen identification.
Xiaona Shang, Ling Li, Xinlian Zhang, Huihui Kang, Guodong Sui, Gehui Wang, Xingnan Ye, Hang Xiao, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Particulate toxicity is health-related, but it is not currently detectable online. Thus, we extended an aerosol concentrator to toxicity assay and verified its characteristics. The semi-continuous results showed the feasibility of the system in future online toxicity study. We also found that the particle mass did not fully reflect the change in toxicity, likely due to the combination effects of compositions, which indicates the necessity to further study the toxicity of specific components.
Leigh R. Crilley, Ajit Singh, Louisa J. Kramer, Marvin D. Shaw, Mohammed S. Alam, Joshua S. Apte, William J. Bloss, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, Pingqing Fu, Weiqi Fu, Shahzad Gani, Michael Gatari, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Alastair C. Lewis, David Ng'ang'a, Yele Sun, Rachel C. W. Whitty, Siyao Yue, Stuart Young, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1181–1193,Short summary
There is considerable interest in using low-cost optical particle counters (OPCs) for particle mass measurements; however, there is no agreed upon method with respect to calibration. Here we exploit a number of datasets globally to demonstrate that particle composition and relative humidity are the key factors affecting measured concentrations from a low-cost OPC, and we present a simple correction methodology that corrects for this influence.
Ying Chen, Viacheslav Kozlovskiy, Xubing Du, Jinnuo Lv, Sergei Nikiforov, Jiajun Yu, Alexander Kolosov, Wei Gao, Zhen Zhou, Zhengxu Huang, and Lei Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 941–949,Short summary
Ion delayed extraction technique in single particle mass spectrometry has been found to improve the mass resolution of instruments. Through further research, it was found that it can improve the aerosol particle detection efficiency because it can eliminate the influence of the electrical field on the charged aerosol trajectory so that more effective data can be obtained in a short time in laboratory or field atmospheric aerosol research, especially in low-concentration aerosol sample analysis.
Nina Löbs, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Sebastian Brill, David Walter, Florian Ditas, Marta de Oliveira Sá, Alessandro C. de Araújo, Leonardo R. de Oliveira, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Stefan Wolff, Meike Piepenbring, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, and Bettina Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 153–164,Short summary
Bioaerosols are considered to play a relevant role in atmospheric processes, but their sources, properties, and spatiotemporal distribution in the atmosphere are not yet well characterized. Measurement data on the release of fungal spores under natural conditions are also sparse. Here, we present an experimental approach to analyze and quantify the spore release from fungi and other spore-producing organisms under natural and laboratory conditions.
Helen R. Smith, Zbigniew Ulanowski, Paul H. Kaye, Edwin Hirst, Warren Stanley, Richard Kaye, Andreas Wieser, Chris Stopford, Maria Kezoudi, Joseph Girdwood, Richard Greenaway, and Robert Mackenzie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6579–6599,Short summary
The Universal Cloud and Aerosol Sounding System (UCASS) is a low-cost miniature optical particle counter (OPC) capable of sizing particles in the size range 0.4–40 μm. The open-geometry design makes the instrument suitable for deployment on balloon-borne sounding systems, dropsonde systems or as part of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Laboratory and field experiments show good agreement with reference instruments in a range of cloudy and dusty environments.
Karl D. Froyd, Daniel M. Murphy, Charles A. Brock, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack E. Dibb, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Agnieszka Kupc, Ann M. Middlebrook, Gregory P. Schill, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Christina J. Williamson, James C. Wilson, and Luke D. Ziemba
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6209–6239,Short summary
Single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) instruments characterize the composition of individual aerosol particles in real time. We present a new method that combines SPMS composition with independently measured particle size distributions to determine absolute number, surface area, volume, and mass concentrations of mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, and other climate-relevant atmospheric particle types, with a fast time response applicable to aircraft sampling.
Felix Piel, Markus Müller, Tomas Mikoviny, Sally E. Pusede, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5947–5958,Short summary
Herein we report on the first successful airborne deployment of a CHARON PTR–ToF–MS instrument aboard the NASA DC–8 research aircraft. The analyzer is capable of chemically characterizing submicrometer atmospheric particles in a quantitative manner, at the near–molecular level, in real time. This brings a new and unprecedented measurement capability to the airborne atmospheric science community.
Eric A. Wendt, Casey W. Quinn, Daniel D. Miller-Lionberg, Jessica Tryner, Christian L'Orange, Bonne Ford, Azer P. Yalin, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Shantanu Jathar, and John Volckens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5431–5441,Short summary
We introduce a low-cost, compact device (aerosol mass and optical depth (AMOD) sampler) that can be used by citizen scientists to measure air quality. Our paper discusses the development and different components for measuring aerosols. It also shows that measurements made by the AMOD next to reference-grade monitors agreed within 10 %. Coupled with the cost of these instruments, this agreement demonstrates that the AMOD can be widely deployed to monitor air quality by citizen scientists.
Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Veronika Pospisilova, Wei Huang, Markus Kalberer, Claudia Mohr, Giulia Stefenelli, Joel A. Thornton, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4867–4886,Short summary
We present a novel, field-deployable extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF), which provides real-time, near-molecular measurements of organic aerosol at atmospherically relevant concentrations, addressing a critical gap in existing measurement capabilities. Successful deployments of the EESI-TOF for laboratory measurements, ground-based ambient sampling, and aboard a research aircraft highlight the versatility and potential of the EESI-TOF system.
Yunfei Wu, Yunjie Xia, Rujin Huang, Zhaoze Deng, Ping Tian, Xiangao Xia, and Renjian Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4347–4359,Short summary
The morphology and effective density of externally mixed black carbon (extBC) aerosols were studied using a tandem technique coupling a DMA with a SP2. The study extended the mass–mobility relationship to large extBC with a mobility diameter larger than 350 nm, a size range seldom included in previous tandem measurements of BC aggregates. On this basis, quantities such as the mass–mobility scaling exponent were revealed for extBC in urban Beijing.
Katie Foster, Rudra Pokhrel, Matthew Burkhart, and Shane Murphy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3351–3363,Short summary
A new technique for calibrating photo-acoustic absorption spectrometers (PASs) has been developed utilizing polydisperse, highly-absorbing aerosol and a commercially available instrument that measures particle extinction and scattering. This is the first calibration technique for multi-pass PAS instruments that does not require particles with known refractive index or reactive gases. Three substances were tested: Aquadag, Regal Black, and Nigrosin. All calibrations were consistent to within 5 %.
Charles A. Brock, Christina Williamson, Agnieszka Kupc, Karl D. Froyd, Frank Erdesz, Nicholas Wagner, Matthews Richardson, Joshua P. Schwarz, Ru-Shan Gao, Joseph M. Katich, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Jose L. Jimenez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Maximilian Dollner, ThaoPaul Bui, and Daniel M. Murphy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3081–3099,Short summary
From 2016 to 2018 a NASA aircraft profiled the atmosphere from 180 m to ~12 km from the Arctic to the Antarctic over both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. This program, ATom, sought to sample atmospheric chemical composition to compare with global climate models. We describe the how measurements of particulate matter were made during ATom, and show that the instrument performance was excellent. Data from this project can be used with confidence to evaluate models and compare with satellites.
Reece A. Brown, Svetlana Stevanovic, Steven Bottle, and Zoran D. Ristovski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2387–2401,Short summary
The paper details the design and characterization of a novel instrument for the measurement of particle reactivity and potential bioactivity, the PINQ. It continuously collects particles, regardless of size or composition, directly into a very small amount of liquid with a collection efficiency of > 0.97 and a cut-off size of 20 nm. PINQ has the highest time resolution, of only 1 min, and is very sensitive to various reactive species from the air.
Claudio Crazzolara, Martin Ebner, Andreas Platis, Tatiana Miranda, Jens Bange, and Annett Junginger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1581–1598,Short summary
A newly developed in situ measurement method provides new insights into the propagation behaviour of aerosol particles such as pollen grains and spores, possibly improving the pollen prognosis for allergy sufferers and providing new discoveries in the propagation behaviour of fine dust particles of different origins. This publication describes the development of the remote-controlled multicopter-based system as well as initial tests and validations to overcome various technical challenges.
Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Le Breton, Michael Priestley, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Nicholas A. Marsden, Archit Mehra, Julia Hammes, Mattias Hallquist, M. Rami Alfarra, Ulrich K. Krieger, Jonathan P. Reid, John Jayne, Wade Robinson, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, and Dave Topping
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1429–1439,Short summary
The Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) is an inlet designed to be coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) and provides simultaneous molecular information relating to both the gas- and particle-phase samples. This method has been used to extract vapour pressures of compounds whilst giving quantitative concentrations in the particle phase. Here we detail an ideal set of benchmark compounds for characterization of the FIGAERO.
Tommaso F. Villa, Reece A. Brown, E. Rohan Jayaratne, L. Felipe Gonzalez, Lidia Morawska, and Zoran D. Ristovski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 691–702,Short summary
This research demonstrates the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to characterize the gaseous and diesel particle emissions of a ship at sea. The field study was part of the research voyage “The Great Barrier Reef as a significant source of climatically relevant aerosol particles” on board the RV Investigator around the Australian Great Barrier Reef. Measurements of the RV Investigator exhaust plume were carried out while the ship was operating at sea, at a steady engine load.
Bastian Stieger, Gerald Spindler, Dominik van Pinxteren, Achim Grüner, Markus Wallasch, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 281–298,Short summary
A MARGA was combined with an additional IC system specialized for the 2 h interval online quantification of 12 low-molecular-weight organic acids in the gas and particle phases. Low limits of detection and good precision were achieved. The suitability for field measurements was shown. This setup reduces laboratory work and filter sampling artifacts. Diurnal profiles, sources and phase distributions of these compounds will improve the knowledge of the tropospheric multiphase chemistry.
Nicholas D. Beres and Hans Moosmüller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6803–6813,Short summary
Particulate matter found in the atmosphere, or aerosols, can deposit on snow and ice and significantly change its reflectivity. Consequently, the timing of snow melt and snow water runoff is also changed. To study these processes, it is important to be able to deposit aerosols in a controlled manner on snow surfaces. Here, we present the design and demonstrate the use of an apparatus for deposition of common mineral dust and combustion aerosols.
Joseph V. Puthussery, Chen Zhang, and Vishal Verma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5767–5780,Short summary
The oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particulate matter (PM) has recently gained attention as an alternative metric for assessing the ambient PM toxicity. However, a major constraint in measuring the OP is its labor-intensive protocol. Here, we developed a new online instrument by coupling a mist chamber to an automated analytical system which can measure the real-time OP of ambient PM. We also report for the first time, the hourly averaged diurnal profile of ambient PM OP at an urban site.
Gabriel Giono, Boris Strelnikov, Heiner Asmus, Tristan Staszak, Nickolay Ivchenko, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5299–5314,Short summary
Energetic photons, such as ultraviolet light, are able to eject electrons from a material surface, thus creating an electrical current, also called a photocurrent. A proper estimation of this photocurrent can be crucial for space- or rocket-borne particle detectors, as it can dominate over the currents that are of scientific interest (induced by charged particles, for example). This article outlines the design for photocurrent modelling and for experimental confirmation in a laboratory.
Tongshu Zheng, Michael H. Bergin, Karoline K. Johnson, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Shilpa Shirodkar, Matthew S. Landis, Ronak Sutaria, and David E. Carlson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4823–4846,Short summary
Low-cost particulate matter sensors are promising tools for supplementing existing air quality monitoring networks but their performance under field conditions is not well understood. We characterized how well Plantower PMS3003 sensors measure PM2.5 in a wide range of ambient conditions against different reference sensors. When a more precise reference method is used for calibration and proper RH corrections are made, our work suggests PMS3003's can measure PM2.5 within ~ 10 % of ambient values.
Stephen Feinberg, Ron Williams, Gayle S. W. Hagler, Joshua Rickard, Ryan Brown, Daniel Garver, Greg Harshfield, Phillip Stauffer, Erick Mattson, Robert Judge, and Sam Garvey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4605–4615,Short summary
Air pollution sensors are quickly proliferating for use in a wide variety of applications, with a low price point that supports use in high-density networks, citizen science, and individual consumer use. We evaluated the performance of particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide sensors in Denver, Colorado, over a period of seven months. We found that these sensors could vary greatly in their performance, but some were able to replicate trends measured by traditional instruments.
Joel Alroe, Luke T. Cravigan, Marc D. Mallet, Zoran D. Ristovski, Branka Miljevic, Chiemeriwo G. Osuagwu, and Graham R. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4361–4372,Short summary
This study describes a new volatility-based method to directly examine the composition and corresponding hygroscopic contribution of mixed aerosol components. Measurements of chamber-generated secondary organic aerosol and coastal marine aerosol demonstrated effective separation of both internal and external mixtures. In each case, the findings enabled composition-based models to reliably reproduce observed particle hygroscopicities.
Jessie M. Creamean, Katherine M. Primm, Margaret A. Tolbert, Emrys G. Hall, Jim Wendell, Allen Jordan, Patrick J. Sheridan, Jedediah Smith, and Russell C. Schnell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3969–3985,Short summary
A new balloon-borne system has been developed to measure the properties of aerosol particles that form cloud ice in the lower troposphere, called HOVERCAT (Honing On VERtical Cloud and Aerosol properTies). Test flights in Colorado demonstrated the utility of HOVERCAT for profiling these ice nucleating particles (INPs), where we found higher numbers of INPs from agricultural sources. Measurements by HOVERCAT can help improve understanding of how aerosols impact clouds in the atmosphere.
Christina Williamson, Agnieszka Kupc, James Wilson, David W. Gesler, J. Michael Reeves, Frank Erdesz, Richard McLaughlin, and Charles A. Brock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3491–3509,Short summary
We describe the operating principle, design and performance of the Nucleation Mode Aerosol Size Spectrometer (NMASS), an instrument composed of 5 condensation particle counters measuring size selected particle concentrations between 3 and 60 nm. An inversion to recover size distributions from the data is evaluated. Calibrations of a 2-NMASS system for measuring size distributions on the NASA Atmospheric Tomography Mission, and examples of its in-flight performance are presented.
Gregory P. Schill, Paul J. DeMott, Ezra J. T. Levin, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3007–3020,Short summary
Few techniques can measure the contribution of refractory black carbon (rBC) to ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations. One technique uses the single particle soot photometer (SP2) as a pre-filter to an online INP counter to selectively remove rBC particles from an aerosol stream. In this work, we expand upon this technique by determining the effect of the SP2 laser on INP proxies mixed with rBC. We also bounded the SP2 conditions under which rBC is fully vaporized in the SP2 exhaust.
Ashley M. Pierce, S. Marcela Loría-Salazar, W. Patrick Arnott, Grant C. Edwards, Matthieu B. Miller, and Mae S. Gustin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2225–2237,Short summary
This paper investigates the possible sources of anomalous particulate matter collected at a high-elevation site during June to November 2014. Particles were collected on a sample filter that were > 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, on a system that theoretically should not collect particulate matter that large. These samples indicated that either the observed particles had unique dimensions and behavior or that there was an issue with the particulate monitor inlet setup.
Jonas Svensson, Johan Ström, Niku Kivekäs, Nathaniel B. Dkhar, Shresth Tayal, Ved P. Sharma, Arttu Jutila, John Backman, Aki Virkkula, Meri Ruppel, Antti Hyvärinen, Anna Kontu, Henna-Reetta Hannula, Matti Leppäranta, Rakesh K. Hooda, Atte Korhola, Eija Asmi, and Heikki Lihavainen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1403–1416,Short summary
Receding glaciers in the Himalayas are of concern. Here we present measurements of light-absorbing impurities, known to contribute to the ongoing glacier decrease, in snow from Indian Himalayas and compare them to snow samples from the Finnish Arctic. The soot particles in the snow are shown to have lower light absorbing efficiency, possibly affecting their radiative forcing potential in the snow. Further, dust influences the snow in the Himalayas to a much greater extent than in Finland.
Scott Kelleher, Casey Quinn, Daniel Miller-Lionberg, and John Volckens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1087–1097,Short summary
Wildland fires, whether natural or prescribed, are increasing in frequency and magnitude worldwide. Smoke from these fires poses a threat to public and environmental health. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a low-cost monitor for wildland fire smoke. The monitor was designed to be compact, capable of real-time and time-integrated PM2.5 measures, and powered by a combination of solar and battery power. Initial field testing of this device gave encouraging results.
Leigh R. Crilley, Marvin Shaw, Ryan Pound, Louisa J. Kramer, Robin Price, Stuart Young, Alastair C. Lewis, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 709–720,Short summary
The affordability and small size of low-cost particle sensors make them attractive for air pollution experiments that require multiple instruments, or take place in hard-to-access locations or low-income countries. For any sensor to be useful, its accuracy and precision need to be known. We evaluate the Alphasense OPC-N2 for monitoring airborne particles at typical UK urban background sites. The devices were found to be accurate provided they are correctly calibrated.
Tamara Pinterich, Steven R. Spielman, Yang Wang, Susanne V. Hering, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4915–4925,Short summary
The ability of atmospheric particles to uptake water (particle hygroscopicity) is a key parameter in determining their impact on global climate. We present a humidity-controlled fast integrated mobility spectrometer (HFIMS) for rapid measurement of particle hygroscopicity. The HFIMS' performance evaluation shows that it is about an order of magnitude faster than traditional systems, greatly improving our capability to study particle hygroscopicity especially for rapidly evolving aerosols.
Al-Naiema, I. M., Hettiyadura, A. P. S., Wallace, H. W., Sanchez, N. P., Madler, C. J., Cevik, B. K., Bui, A. A. T., Kettler, J., Griffin, R. J., and Stone, E. A.: Source apportionment of fine particulate matter in Houston, Texas: insights to secondary organic aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15601–15622, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-15601-2018, 2018.
Amil, N., Latif, M. T., Khan, M., and Mohamad, M.: Seasonal variability of PM2.5 composition and sources in the Klang Valley urban-industrial environment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5357–5381, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-5357-2016, 2016.
Boris, A. J., Takahama, S., Weakley, A. T., Debus, B. M., Fredrickson, C. D., Esparza-Sanchez, M., Burki, C., Reggente, M., Shaw, S. L., Edgerton, E. S., and Dillner, A. M.: Quantifying organic matter and functional groups in particulate matter filter samples from the southeastern United States – Part 1: Methods, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5391–5415, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-5391-2019, 2019.
Budisulistiorini, S. H., Canagaratna, M. R., Croteau, P. L., Baumann, K., Edgerton, E. S., Kollman, M. S., Ng, N. L., Verma, V., Shaw, S. L., Knipping, E. M., Worsnop, D. R., Jayne, J. T., Weber, R. J., and Surratt, J. D.: Intercomparison of an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) with ambient fine aerosol measurements in downtown Atlanta, Georgia, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1929–1941, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-7-1929-2014, 2014.
Campbell, P., Zhang, Y., Yan, F., Lu, Z. F., and Streets, D.: Impacts of transportation sector emissions on future US air quality in a changing climate. Part II: Air quality projections and the interplay between emissions and climate change, Environ. Pollut., 238, 918–903, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.03.016, 2018.
Canonaco, F., Crippa, M., Slowik, J. G., Baltensperger, U., and Próvôt, A. S. H.: SoFi, an IGOR-based interface for the efficient use of the generalized multilinear engine (ME-2) for the source apportionment: ME-2 application to aerosol mass spectrometer data, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3649–3661, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-6-3649-2013, 2013.
Carlton, A. G., Wiedinmyer, C., and Kroll, J. H.: A review of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 4987–5005, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-4987-2009, 2009.
Cesari, D., Donateo, A., Conte, M., Merico, E., Giangreco, A., Giangreco, F., and Contini, D.: An inter-comparison of PM2.5 at urban and urban background sites: Chemical characterization and source apportionment, Atmos. Res., 174, 106–119, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.02.004, 2016.
Chow, J. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Chen, L. W. A., Wang, X. L., and Watson, J. G.: Mass reconstruction methods for PM2.5: a review, Air. Qual. Atoms. Hlth., 8, 243–263, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-015-0338-3, 2015.
Chow, J. C., Cao, J., Antony Chen, L.-W., Wang, X., Wang, Q., Tian, J., Ho, S. S. H., Watts, A. C., Carlson, T. B., Kohl, S. D., and Watson, J. G.: Changes in PM2.5 peat combustion source profiles with atmospheric aging in an oxidation flow reactor, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5475–5501, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-5475-2019, 2019.
Diómoz, H., Barnaba, F., Magri, T., Pession, G., Dionisi, D., Pittavino, S., Tombolato, I. K. F., Campanelli, M., Della Ceca, L. S., Hervo, M., Di Liberto, L., Ferrero, L., and Gobbi, G. P.: Transport of Po Valley aerosol pollution to the northwestern Alps – Part 1: Phenomenology, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3065–3095, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-3065-2019, 2019.
Ellis, R. A., Murphy, J. G., Markovic, M. Z., VandenBoer, T. C., Makar, P. A., Brook, J., and Mihele, C.: The influence of gas-particle partitioning and surface-atmosphere exchange on ammonia during BAQS-Met, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 133–145, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-133-2011, 2011.
Gao, M., Saide, P. E., Xin, J., Wang, Y., Wang, Z., Pagowski, M., Guttikunda, S. K., and Carmichael, G. R.: Estimates of Health Impacts and Radiative Forcing in Winter Haze in Eastern China through Constraints of Surface PM2.5 Predictions, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 2178–2185, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b03745, 2017.
Glotfelty, T., Zhang, Y., Karamchandani, P., and Streets, D. G.: Will the role of intercontinental transport change in a changing climate?, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9379–9402, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-9379-2014, 2014.
Han, B., Zhang, R., Yang, W., Bai, Z. P., Ma, Z. Q., and Zhang, W. J.: Heavy haze episodes in Beijing during January 2013: Inorganic ion chemistry and source analysis using highly time-resolved measurements from an urban site, Sci. Total. Environ., 544, 319–329, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.10.053, 2016.
Hand, J. L., Copeland, S. A., Day, D. E., Dillner, A. E., Indresand, H., Malm, W. C., McDade, C. E., Moore Jr., C. T., Pitchford, M. L., Schichtel, B. A., and Watson, J. G.: Spatial and Seasonal Patterns and Temporal Variability of Haze and its Constituents in the United States, IMPROVE Report V, Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, C. S. U, Fort Collins, Colorado, ISSN 0737-5352-97, 2011.
Hand, J. L., Prenni, A. J., Schichtel, B. A., Malm, W. C., and Chow, J. C. Trends in remote PM2.5 residual mass across the United States: Implications for aerosol mass reconstruction in the IMPROVE network, Atmos. Environ., 203, 141–152, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.01.049, 2019.
He, L. Y., Huang, X. F., Xue, L., Hu, M., Lin, Y., Zheng, J., Zhang, R., and Zhang, Y. H.: Submicron aerosol analysis and organic source apportionment in an urban atmosphere in Pearl River Delta of China using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D12304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014566, 2011.
Hu, W., Campuzano-Jost, P., Day, D. A., Croteau, P., Canagaratna, M. R., Jayne, J. T., Worsnop, D. R., and Jimenez, J. L.: Evaluation of the new capture vapourizer for aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) through laboratory studies of inorganic species, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2897–2921, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-2897-2017, 2017.
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Huang, X.-F., Zou, B.-B., He, L.-Y., Hu, M., Próvôt, A. S. H., and Zhang, Y.-H.: Exploration of PM2.5 sources on the regional scale in the Pearl River Delta based on ME-2 modeling, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11563–11580, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-11563-2018, 2018.
Huang, X. H. H., Bian, Q., Ng, W. M., Louie, P. K., and Yu, J. Z.: Characterization of PM2.5 Major Components and Source Investigation in Suburban Hong Kong: A One Year Monitoring Study, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 14, 237–250, https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2013.01.0020, 2014.
Jayarathne, T., Stockwell, C. E., Gilbert, A. A., Daugherty, K., Cochrane, M. A., Ryan, K. C., Putra, E. I., Saharjo, B. H., Nurhayati, A. D., Albar, I., Yokelson, R. J., and Stone, E. A.: Chemical characterization of fine particulate matter emitted by peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, during the 2015 El Niño, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2585–2600, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-2585-2018, 2018.
Ji, D. S., Cui, Y., Li, L., He, J., Wang, L. L., Zhang, H. L., Wang, W., Zhou, L. X., Maenhaut, W., Wen, T. X., and Wang, Y. S.: Characterization and source identification of fine particulate matter in urban Beijing during the 2015 Spring Festival, Sci. Total Environ., 628–629, 430–440, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.304, 2018.
Kong, S. F., Ji, Y. Q., Lu, B., Chen, L., Han, B., Li, Z. Y., and Bai, Z. P.: Characterization of PM10 source profiles for fugitive dust in Fushun-a city famous for coal, Atmos. Environ., 45, 5351–5365, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.06.050, 2011.
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Li, Y. J., Sun, Y., Zhang, Q., Li, X., Li, M., Zhou, Z., and Chan, C. K.: Real-time chemical characterization of atmospheric particulate matter in China: A review, Atmos. Environ., 158, 270–304, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.02.027, 2017.
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Online instruments have been widely applied for the measurement of PM2.5 and its chemical components; however, these instruments have a major shortcoming in terms of the limited number (or lack) of species in field measurements. To this end, a new mass closure PM2.5 online-integrated system was developed and applied in this work to achieve more comprehensive information on chemical species in PM2.5, thus providing a powerful tool for PM2.5 long-term daily measurement and source apportionment.
Online instruments have been widely applied for the measurement of PM2.5 and its chemical...