Articles | Volume 14, issue 6
Research article 28 Jun 2021
Research article | 28 Jun 2021
A method for liquid spectrophotometric measurement of total and water-soluble iron and copper in ambient aerosols
Yuhan Yang et al.
Mingshuai Zhang, Chun Zhao, Yuhan Yang, Qiuyan Du, Yonglin Shen, Shengfu Lin, and Dasa Gu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) can influence atmosphere chemistry and secondary pollutant formation. This study examines the performance of different versions of Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) in modeling BVOCs and ozone and their sensitivities to vegetation distributions over East China. The results suggest more accurate vegetation distribution and measurements of BVOCs emission flux are needed to reduce the uncertainties.
Yang Wang, Guangjie Zheng, Michael P. Jensen, Daniel A. Knopf, Alexander Laskin, Alyssa A. Matthews, David Mechem, Fan Mei, Ryan Moffet, Arthur J. Sedlacek, John E. Shilling, Stephen Springston, Amy Sullivan, Jason Tomlinson, Daniel Veghte, Rodney Weber, Robert Wood, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11079–11098,Short summary
This paper reports the vertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol properties over the eastern North Atlantic, a region of persistent but diverse subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds. We examined the key processes that drive the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) population and how it varies with season and synoptic conditions. This study helps improve the model representation of the aerosol processes in the remote MBL, reducing the simulated aerosol indirect effects.
Linghan Zeng, Amy P. Sullivan, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Teresa L. Campos, Joseph M. Katich, Ezra Levin, Michael A. Robinson, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Three online systems for measuring water-soluble brown carbon are compared. A mist chamber and two different particle-into-liquid samplers were deployed on separate research aircraft targeting wildfires and followed a similar detection method using a long path liquid waveguide with a spectrometer to measure the light absorption from 300 to 700 nm. Detection limits, signal hysteresis and other sampling issues are compared, and further improvements of these liquid-based systems are provided.
Athanasios Nenes, Spyros N. Pandis, Maria Kanakidou, Armistead G. Russell, Shaojie Song, Petros Vasilakos, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6023–6033,Short summary
Ecosystems and air quality are affected by the dry deposition of inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr, the sum of ammonium and nitrate). Its large variability is driven by the large difference in deposition velocity of N when in the gas or particle phase. Here we show that aerosol liquid water and acidity, by affecting gas–particle partitioning, modulate the dry deposition velocity of NH3, HNO3, and Nr worldwide. These effects explain the rapid accumulation of nitrate aerosol during haze events.
Charles A. Brock, Karl D. Froyd, Maximilian Dollner, Christina J. Williamson, Gregory Schill, Daniel M. Murphy, Nicholas J. Wagner, Agnieszka Kupc, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Douglas A. Day, Derek J. Price, Bernadett Weinzierl, Joshua P. Schwarz, Joseph M. Katich, Linghan Zeng, Rodney Weber, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, ThaoPaul Bui, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Bruce C. Daube, Róisín Commane, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The Atmospheric Tomography Mission was an airborne study that mapped the chemical composition of the remote atmosphere. From this, we developed a comprehensive description of aerosol properties that provides unique, global-scale dataset against which models can be compared. The data show the polluted nature of the remote atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere, and quantify the contributions of sea salt, dust, soot, biomass burning particles, and pollution particles to the haziness of the sky.
Mingshuai Zhang, Chun Zhao, Yuhan Yang, Qiuyan Du, Yonglin Shen, Shengfu Lin, and Dasa Gu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) can influence atmosphere chemistry and secondary pollutant formation. This study examines the performance of different versions of Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) in modeling BVOCs and ozone and their sensitivities to vegetation distributions over East China. The results suggest more accurate vegetation distribution and measurements of BVOCs emission flux are needed to reduce the uncertainties.
Ifayoyinsola Ibikunle, Andreas Beyersdorf, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Chelsea Corr, John D. Crounse, Jack Dibb, Glenn Diskin, Greg Huey, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Michelle J. Kim, Benjamin A. Nault, Eric Scheuer, Alex Teng, Paul O. Wennberg, Bruce Anderson, James Crawford, Rodney Weber, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Analysis of observations over South Korea during the NASA/NIER KORUS-AQ field campaign show that aerosol is fairly acidic (mean pH 2.43 ± 0.68). Aerosol formation is always sensitive to HNO3 levels, especially in highly polluted regions, while it is only exclusively sensitive to NH3 in some rural/remote regions. Nitrate levels accumulate because dry deposition velocity is low. HNO3 reductions achieved by NOx controls can be the most effective PM reduction strategy for all conditions observed.
Yunle Chen, Masayuki Takeuchi, Theodora Nah, Lu Xu, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Harald Stark, Karsten Baumann, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, L. Gregory Huey, Rodney J. Weber, and Nga L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8421–8440,Short summary
Two online mass spectrometry instruments, an aerosol mass spectrometer and a chemical ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols, were deployed at Yorkville, GA, for a comprehensive characterization of organic aerosol. We observed notable secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene and monoterpenes via different pathways during both day and night, and a series of highly oxidized acid-like compounds was found to be closely related to aged SOA.
Dong Gao, Krystal J. Godri Pollitt, James A. Mulholland, Armistead G. Russell, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5197–5210,Short summary
This study provides a direct intercomparison between two assays for quantifying oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particles: the synthetic respiratory-tract-lining fluid (RTLF) assay and the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The results suggest that the DTT assay and the ascorbic acid depletion in RTLF are associated with organic species, transition metal ions, and antagonistic interactions between species. The glutathione depletion in RTLF is strongly dependent on water-soluble copper.
Havala O. T. Pye, Athanasios Nenes, Becky Alexander, Andrew P. Ault, Mary C. Barth, Simon L. Clegg, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Christopher J. Hennigan, Hartmut Herrmann, Maria Kanakidou, James T. Kelly, I-Ting Ku, V. Faye McNeill, Nicole Riemer, Thomas Schaefer, Guoliang Shi, Andreas Tilgner, John T. Walker, Tao Wang, Rodney Weber, Jia Xing, Rahul A. Zaveri, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4809–4888,Short summary
Acid rain is recognized for its impacts on human health and ecosystems, and programs to mitigate these effects have had implications for atmospheric acidity. Historical measurements indicate that cloud and fog droplet acidity has changed in recent decades in response to controls on emissions from human activity, while the limited trend data for suspended particles indicate acidity may be relatively constant. This review synthesizes knowledge on the acidity of atmospheric particles and clouds.
Athanasios Nenes, Spyros N. Pandis, Rodney J. Weber, and Armistead Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3249–3258,Short summary
We show that aerosol acidity (pH) and liquid water content naturally emerge as previously ignored parameters that drive particulate matter formation in the atmosphere, and its sensitivity to emissions of ammonia and nitric acid. The simple framework presented is easily applied to ambient measurements or model output, and it provides the
chemical regimeof PM sensitivity to ammonia and nitric acid availability.
Aoxing Zhang, Yuhang Wang, Yuzhong Zhang, Rodney J. Weber, Yongjia Song, Ziming Ke, and Yufei Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1901–1920,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) are light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols. We developed a module to simulate the emissions, atmospheric processing and direct radiative effect of BrC in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We found that globally BrC is a significant absorber and is more centered in the tropical free troposphere compared to BC. The contribution of BrC heating to the Hadley circulation and latitudinal expansion of the tropics is comparable to BC heating.
Michael A. Battaglia Jr., Rodney J. Weber, Athanasios Nenes, and Christopher J. Hennigan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14607–14620,Short summary
The effects of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) on aerosol pH were characterized for aqueous-phase particles containing a mixture of inorganics and organics. The ISORROPIA-II and E-AIM models were used in conjunction with AIOMFAC to quantify the effect of organics on aerosol pH through (1) changes to the aerosol liquid water content and (2) changes to the hydrogen ion activity coefficient. The study included both organic acids and nonacids, at RH levels ranging from 70 to 90 %.
Jenny P. S. Wong, Maria Tsagkaraki, Irini Tsiodra, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Kalliopi Violaki, Maria Kanakidou, Jean Sciare, Athanasios Nenes, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7319–7334,Short summary
Biomass burning is a major source of light-absorbing organic species in atmospheric aerosols, and it can play an important role in climate and atmospheric chemistry. Through a combination of laboratory experiments and field observations, this work demonstrated that the light absorption properties of aged biomass burning organic aerosols are dominated by high-molecular-weight compounds. In addition, we found that total hydrated sugars may be a robust tracer for aged biomass burning aerosols.
Hongyu Guo, Athanasios Nenes, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17307–17323,Short summary
Overprediction of fine-particle ammonium-sulfate molar ratios (R) by thermodynamic models is suggested as evidence for organic aerosol limiting the condensation of ammonia onto particles, with significant impacts on aerosol chemistry. We find that the effects of small amounts of salt and dust, combined with measurement artifacts, explain the discrepancy in R. These results are highly insensitive to mixing state. This means that aerosol predictions are much more robust than thought before.
Theodora Nah, Yi Ji, David J. Tanner, Hongyu Guo, Amy P. Sullivan, Nga Lee Ng, Rodney J. Weber, and L. Gregory Huey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5087–5104,Short summary
The sources and atmospheric chemistry of gas-phase organic acids are currently poorly understood, due in part to the limited range of measurement techniques available. We evaluated the use of SF6− as a sensitive and selective chemical ionization reagent ion for real-time measurements of gas-phase organic acids at a rural site in Yorkville, Georgia. We found that ambient concentrations of organic acids ranged from a few ppt to several ppb, and are dependent on ambient temperature.
Petros Vasilakos, Armistead Russell, Rodney Weber, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12765–12775,Short summary
In this work, we investigated the role of emission reductions on aerosol acidity and particulate nitrate. We found that models exhibit positive biases in pH predictions, attributed to very high levels of crustal elements (Mg, Ca, K) in model simulations, which in turn led to an increasing aerosol pH trend over the past decade and allowed nitrate to become an important component of aerosol, which is inconsistent with the measurements, highlighting the importance of accurate pH prediction.
Hongyu Guo, Rene Otjes, Patrick Schlag, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Athanasios Nenes, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12241–12256,Short summary
Reduction in ammonia has been proposed as a way to lower fine particle mass and improve air quality, but gas-phase ammonia is linked to agricultural productivity. We assess the feasibility of ammonia control at a variety of locations through an aerosol thermodynamic analysis. We show that aerosol response to ammonia control is highly nonlinear and only becomes effective when ambient particle pH drops below approximately 3. Particle pH is a relevant aerosol air quality parameter.
Theodora Nah, Hongyu Guo, Amy P. Sullivan, Yunle Chen, David J. Tanner, Athanasios Nenes, Armistead Russell, Nga Lee Ng, L. Gregory Huey, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11471–11491,Short summary
We present measurements from a field study conducted in an agriculturally intensive region in the southeastern US during the fall of 2016 to investigate how NH3 affects particle acidity and SOA formation via gas–particle partitioning of semi-volatile organic acids. For this study, higher NH3 concentrations relative to what has been measured in the region in previous studies had minor effects on PM1 organic acids and their influence on the overall organic aerosol and PM1 mass concentrations.
Xuan Wang, Colette L. Heald, Jiumeng Liu, Rodney J. Weber, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Joshua P. Schwarz, and Anne E. Perring
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 635–653,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) contributes significantly to uncertainty in estimating the global direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols. We develop a global model simulation of BrC and test it against BrC absorption measurements from two aircraft campaigns in the continental United States. We suggest that BrC DRE has been overestimated previously due to the lack of observational constraints from direct measurements and omission of the effects of photochemical whitening.
Dong Gao, Ting Fang, Vishal Verma, Linghan Zeng, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2821–2835,Short summary
This work compares three methods to determine the optimal approach for quantifying the total oxidative potential (OP) of fine particles collected with filters using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. An automated system has been developed to facilitate the total OP measurements for use in generation of large data sets needed for epidemiology studies. The results from this study show that the water-insoluble components contribute to PM2.5 OP and the related DTT-active species are largely secondary.
Hongyu Guo, Jiumeng Liu, Karl D. Froyd, James M. Roberts, Patrick R. Veres, Patrick L. Hayes, Jose L. Jimenez, Athanasios Nenes, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5703–5719,Short summary
Fine particle pH is linked to many environmental impacts by affecting particle concentration and composition. Predicted Pasadena, CA (CalNex campaign), PM1 pH is 1.9 and PM2.5 pH 2.7, the latter higher due to sea salts. The model predicted gas–particle partitionings of HNO3–NO3−, NH3–NH4+, and HCl–Cl− are in good agreement, verifying the model predictions. A summary of contrasting locations in the US and eastern Mediterranean shows fine particles are generally highly acidic, with pH below 3.
Wing Y. Tuet, Yunle Chen, Lu Xu, Shierly Fok, Dong Gao, Rodney J. Weber, and Nga L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 839–853,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) comprise a significant fraction of particulate matter (PM) and may have health implications. The water-soluble oxidative potentials of various SOA systems were determined using dithiothreitol consumption. Results from this study demonstrate that precursor identity was more influential than reaction condition in determining SOA oxidative potential and highlight a need to consider SOA contributions from anthropogenic hydrocarbons to PM-induced health effects.
Havala O. T. Pye, Benjamin N. Murphy, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, Annmarie G. Carlton, Hongyu Guo, Rodney Weber, Petros Vasilakos, K. Wyat Appel, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Jason D. Surratt, Athanasios Nenes, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 343–369,Short summary
We use a chemical transport model to examine how organic compounds in the atmosphere interact with water present in particles. Organic compounds themselves lead to water uptake, and organic compounds interact with water associated with inorganic compounds in the rural southeast atmosphere. Including interactions of organic compounds with water requires a treatment of nonideality to more accurately represent aerosol observations during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) 2013.
Amelia F. Longo, David J. Vine, Laura E. King, Michelle Oakes, Rodney J. Weber, Lewis Gregory Huey, Armistead G. Russell, and Ellery D. Ingall
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13389–13398,Short summary
New synchrotron-based techniques were applied to characterize the oxidation state and composition of sulfur in ambient aerosol and emission sources. Individual particles were found to contain surprisingly high levels of elemental sulfur, a form of sulfur found in only one of the emission sources analyzed. We also show metal sulfates as a key component of urban aerosols. These metal sulfate phases are highly soluble and are indicative of acidic processes transforming metals in the environment.
Weruka Rattanavaraha, Kevin Chu, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Matthieu Riva, Ying-Hsuan Lin, Eric S. Edgerton, Karsten Baumann, Stephanie L. Shaw, Hongyu Guo, Laura King, Rodney J. Weber, Miranda E. Neff, Elizabeth A. Stone, John H. Offenberg, Zhenfa Zhang, Avram Gold, and Jason D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4897–4914,Short summary
The mechanisms by which specific anthropogenic pollutants enhance isoprene SOA in ambient PM2.5 remain unclear. As one aspect of an investigation to examine how anthropogenic pollutants influence isoprene-derived SOA formation, high-volume PM2.5 filter samples were collected from Birmingham, AL, during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Isoprene SOA tracers were measured from these samples and compared to gas and aerosol data collected from the SEARCH network.
Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Panayiota Nikolaou, Iasonas Stavroulas, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Rodney Weber, Athanasios Nenes, Maria Kanakidou, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4579–4591,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols and relevant parameters were measured in the eastern Mediterranean during summer and fall 2012. Submicron aerosol water can contribute up to 33 % of total mass, and 27.5 % of this can be associated with organics. Using these data, the pH of the submicron aerosols was calculated to be highly acidic, varying from 0.5 to 2.8 and independently of air masses origin. Such pH values could increase nutrient availability and thus sea water productivity of the Mediterranean Sea.
Ting Fang, Vishal Verma, Josephine T. Bates, Joseph Abrams, Mitchel Klein, Matthew J. Strickland, Stefanie E. Sarnat, Howard H. Chang, James A. Mulholland, Paige E. Tolbert, Armistead G. Russell, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3865–3879,Short summary
Ascorbic acid (AA) and Dithiothreitol (DTT) assay measures of water-soluble PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP) are compared in terms of spatiotemporal trends, chemical selectivity, sources, and health impacts based on an epidemiological study with backcast estimated OP. Both assays point to metals from brake/tire wear, but only the DTT assay also identifies organics from combustion. DTT is associated with emergency department visits for asthma/wheeze and congestive heart failure, whereas AA is not.
T. Fang, H. Guo, V. Verma, R. E. Peltier, and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11667–11682,Short summary
This work presented a new method of quantifying water-soluble elements in PM2.5 aqueous extracts (N~500) with an X-ray fluorescence analyzer. The results indicate that water-soluble elements had marked spatial and temporal patterns. Four sources were resolved: brake/tire wear, biomass burning, secondary formation, and mineral dust. The findings have informed studies on aerosol oxidative potential and provided insights into the health effects of water-soluble metals, especially Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn.
K. M. Cerully, A. Bougiatioti, J. R. Hite Jr., H. Guo, L. Xu, N. L. Ng, R. Weber, and A. Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8679–8694,Short summary
The hygroscopicity of SE US aerosol is mostly water-soluble, with a hygroscopicity that is insensitive to partial volatilization in a thermodenuder. The most and least oxidized components of the aerosol are the most hygroscopic of organic constituents. No clear relationship was found between organic aerosol hygroscopicity and oxygen-to-carbon ratio. The aerosol factors covary in a way that induces the observed diurnal invariance in total organic hygroscopicity.
J. Liu, E. Scheuer, J. Dibb, G. S. Diskin, L. D. Ziemba, K. L. Thornhill, B. E. Anderson, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, J. J. Devi, M. Bergin, A. E. Perring, M. Z. Markovic, J. P. Schwarz, P. Campuzano-Jost, D. A. Day, J. L. Jimenez, and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7841–7858,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) is found throughout the US continental troposphere during a summer of extensive biomass burning and its prevalence relative to black carbon (BC) increases with altitude. A radiative transfer model based on direct measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption by BC and BrC shows BrC reduces top-of-atmosphere forcing by 20%. A method to estimate BrC radiative forcing efficiencies from surface-based measurements is provided.
L. Xu, S. Suresh, H. Guo, R. J. Weber, and N. L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7307–7336,Short summary
Year-long comprehensive characterization of ambient aerosol was performed in both rural and urban sites in the southeastern US as part of Southeastern Center of Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE) study and Southeastern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Three independent methods were applied to estimate the concentration of particle-phase organic nitrates. The spatial distribution of organic aerosol is investigated by comparing simultaneous HR-ToF-AMS and ACSM measurements at different sites.
H. Guo, L. Xu, A. Bougiatioti, K. M. Cerully, S. L. Capps, J. R. Hite Jr., A. G. Carlton, S.-H. Lee, M. H. Bergin, N. L. Ng, A. Nenes, and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5211–5228,Short summary
Particle pH can affect many aerosol processes, including gas-particle partitioning, SOA formation, and mobilization of toxic redox metals. pH is challenging to directly measure and often improperly characterized by proxies like ion balances or molar ratios of measured aerosol ionic species. We present a detailed analysis predicting pH with a thermodynamic model, verify the prediction, and test pH sensitivity to model inputs based on data from the SOAS field campaign.
J. W. Taylor, J. D. Allan, D. Liu, M. Flynn, R. Weber, X. Zhang, B. L. Lefer, N. Grossberg, J. Flynn, and H. Coe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1701–1718,Short summary
When using the SP2 to report black carbon core/shell coating thickness, the core density and refractive index must be estimated from literature values. We systematically vary the assumed parameters and the instrument calibration, and quantify the effects in the derived coatings. The technique is highly sensitive to the core refractive index but has only a minor sensitivity to the core density and coating refractive index. We identify the most appropriate values to use in future analysis.
C. J. Hennigan, J. Izumi, A. P. Sullivan, R. J. Weber, and A. Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2775–2790,Short summary
We show that the ion balance and molar ratio methods are unsuitable for use as aerosol pH proxies. Our recommendation is that 1) thermodynamic equilibrium models constrained by both gas and aerosol inputs run in the forward (open) mode, and 2) the phase partitioning of ammonia provides the best predictions of aerosol pH. Given the significance of acidity for numerous chemical processes in the atmosphere, the implications of this study are important and far reaching.
B. Yuan, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, J. M. Roberts, J. B. Gilman, A. Koss, P. M. Edwards, M. Graus, W. C. Kuster, S.-M. Li, R. J. Wild, S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, J. E. Johnson, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, B. Lefer, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, R. J. Weber, R. Zamora, B. Ervens, D. B. Millet, B. Rappenglück, and J. A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1975–1993,Short summary
In this work, secondary formation of formic acid at an urban site and a site in an oil and gas production region is studied. We investigated various gas phase formation pathways of formic acid, including those recently proposed, using a box model. The contributions from aerosol-related processes, fog events and air-snow exchange to formic acid are also quantified.
T. Fang, V. Verma, H. Guo, L. E. King, E. S. Edgerton, and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 471–482,Short summary
This work summarizes a newly developed semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of aerosol aqueous extracts using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. 500 sample analyses indicate that DTT activity in the southeast US is likely not dominated by a unique local source, and sources change with season. The unique large data set generated with the technique described in this paper allows new studies on DTT sources and investigating linkages between reactive oxygen species and health.
V. Verma, T. Fang, H. Guo, L. King, J. T. Bates, R. E. Peltier, E. Edgerton, A. G. Russell, and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12915–12930,Short summary
The major emission sources of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with ambient particulate matter in the southeastern United States were identified. The study shows biomass burning and secondary aerosol formation as the major sources contributing to the ROS-generating capability of ambient particles. The ubiquitous nature of these two sources suggests widespread population exposures to the toxic aerosol components.
Y. You, V. P. Kanawade, J. A. de Gouw, A. B. Guenther, S. Madronich, M. R. Sierra-Hernández, M. Lawler, J. N. Smith, S. Takahama, G. Ruggeri, A. Koss, K. Olson, K. Baumann, R. J. Weber, A. Nenes, H. Guo, E. S. Edgerton, L. Porcelli, W. H. Brune, A. H. Goldstein, and S.-H. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12181–12194,Short summary
Amiens play important roles in atmospheric secondary aerosol formation and human health, but the fast response measurements of amines are lacking. Here we show measurements in a southeastern US forest and a moderately polluted midwestern site. Our results show that gas to particle conversion is an important process that controls ambient amine concentrations and that biomass burning is an important source of amines.
T. K. V. Nguyen, M. D. Petters, S. R. Suda, H. Guo, R. J. Weber, and A. G. Carlton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10911–10930,
S. H. Budisulistiorini, M. R. Canagaratna, P. L. Croteau, K. Baumann, E. S. Edgerton, M. S. Kollman, N. L. Ng, V. Verma, S. L. Shaw, E. M. Knipping, D. R. Worsnop, J. T. Jayne, R.J. Weber, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1929–1941,
Y. Cheng, G. Engling, K.-B. He, F.-K. Duan, Y.-L. Ma, Z.-Y. Du, J.-M. Liu, M. Zheng, and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7765–7781,
L. E. King and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1647–1658,
T. L. Lathem, A. J. Beyersdorf, K. L. Thornhill, E. L. Winstead, M. J. Cubison, A. Hecobian, J. L. Jimenez, R. J. Weber, B. E. Anderson, and A. Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2735–2756,
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spectrometer (ORD-AMS)Nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) for investigating hygroscopic properties of sub-10 nm aerosol nanoparticlesQuantification of toxic metals using machine learning techniques and spark emission spectroscopyA new approach for measuring the carbon and oxygen content of atmospherically relevant compounds and mixturesAn experimental study on light scattering matrices for Chinese loess dust with different particle size distributionsCounting on chemistry: laboratory evaluation of seed-material-dependent detection efficiencies of ultrafine condensation particle countersPhotophoretic spectroscopy in atmospheric chemistry – high-sensitivity measurements of light absorption by a single particleLaboratory evaluation of particle-size selectivity of optical low-cost particulate matter sensorsMapping ice formation to mineral-surface topography using a micro mixing chamber with video and atomic-force microscopyHigh-humidity tandem differential mobility analyzer for accurate determination of aerosol hygroscopic growth, microstructure, and activity coefficients over a wide range of relative humidityDevelopment of an improved two-sphere integration technique for quantifying black carbon concentrations in the atmosphere and seasonal snowDevelopment of the DRoplet Ice Nuclei Counter Zurich (DRINCZ): validation and application to field-collected snow samplesMultiple-scattering correction factor of quartz filters and the effect of filtering particles mixed in water: implications for analyses of light absorption in snow samplesThe effect of rapid relative humidity changes on fast filter-based aerosol-particle light-absorption measurements: uncertainties and correction schemesCharacterisation of the filter inlet system on the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft and its use for size-resolved aerosol composition measurementsMolecular characterization of alkyl nitrates in atmospheric aerosols by ion mobility mass spectrometryChanges in PM2.5 peat combustion source profiles with atmospheric aging in an oxidation flow reactorQuantifying organic matter and functional groups in particulate matter filter samples from the southeastern United States – Part 1: MethodsMicroelectromechanical-system-based condensation particle counter for real-time monitoring of airborne ultrafine particlesMeasurement techniques for identifying and quantifying hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) in an aqueous matrix and particulate matter using aerosol mass spectrometry and ion chromatographyVersatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES) operating as a cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrator: development and laboratory characterizationA new aerosol flow reactor to study secondary organic aerosolMorphology and Raman spectra of aerodynamically classified soot samplesSeparation and detection of aqueous atmospheric aerosol mimics using supercritical fluid chromatography–mass spectrometryHumidity effects on the detection of soluble and insoluble nanoparticles in butanol operated condensation particle countersStructural changes of CAST soot during a thermal–optical measurement protocolConcept for an electrostatic focusing device for continuous ambient pressure aerosol concentrationTwo-wavelength thermal–optical determination of light-absorbing carbon in atmospheric aerosolsA portable dual-smog-chamber system for atmospheric aerosol field studiesAging aerosol in a well-mixed continuous-flow tank reactor: an introduction of the activation time distributionThe impact of bath gas composition on the calibration of photoacoustic spectrometers with ozone at discrete visible wavelengths spanning the Chappuis bandUltrasonic nebulization for the elemental analysis of microgram-level samples with offline aerosol mass spectrometryInstrument artifacts lead to uncertainties in parameterizations of cloud condensation nucleationTwin-plate Ice Nucleation Assay (TINA) with infrared detection for high-throughput droplet freezing experiments with biological ice nuclei in laboratory and field samplesChAMBRe: a new atmospheric simulation chamber for aerosol modelling and bio-aerosol researchAn instrument for quantifying heterogeneous ice nucleation in multiwell plates using infrared emissions to detect freezing
Chuan Ping Lee, Mihnea Surdu, David M. Bell, Houssni Lamkaddam, Mingyi Wang, Farnoush Ataei, Victoria Hofbauer, Brandon Lopez, Neil M. Donahue, Josef Dommen, Andre S. H. Prevot, Jay G. Slowik, Dongyu Wang, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5913–5923,Short summary
Extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been deployed for high throughput online detection of particles with minimal fragmentation. Our study elucidates the extraction mechanism between the particles and electrospray (ES) droplets of different properties. The results show that the extraction rate is likely affected by the coagulation rate between the particles and ES droplets. Once coagulated, the particles undergo complete extraction within the ES droplet.
Weimeng Kong, Stavros Amanatidis, Huajun Mai, Changhyuk Kim, Benjamin C. Schulze, Yuanlong Huang, Gregory S. Lewis, Susanne V. Hering, John H. Seinfeld, and Richard C. Flagan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5429–5445,Short summary
We present the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of the nano-scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (nSEMS), a recently developed instrument that probes particle physical properties in the 1.5–25 nm range. The nSEMS has proven to be extremely powerful in examining atmospheric nucleation and the subsequent growth of nanoparticles in the CERN CLOUD experiment, which provides a valuable asset to study atmospheric nanoparticles and to evaluate their impact on climate.
Jack M. Choczynski, Ravleen Kaur Kohli, Craig S. Sheldon, Chelsea L. Price, and James F. Davies
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5001–5013,Short summary
Relative humidity (RH) and hygroscopicity play an important role in regulating the physical, chemical, and optical properties of aerosol. In this work, we develop a new method to characterize hygroscopicity using particle levitation. We levitate two droplets with an electrodynamic balance and measure their size with light-scattering methods using one droplet as a probe of the RH. We demonstrate highly accurate and precise measurements of the RH and hygroscopic growth of a range of samples.
Stavros Amanatidis, Yuanlong Huang, Buddhi Pushpawela, Benjamin C. Schulze, Christopher M. Kenseth, Ryan X. Ward, John H. Seinfeld, Susanne V. Hering, and Richard C. Flagan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4507–4516,Short summary
We assess the performance of a highly portable mobility analyzer, the Spider DMA, in measuring ambient aerosol particle size distributions, with specific attention to its moderate sizing resolution (R=3). Long-term field testing showed excellent correlation with a conventional mobility analyzer (R=10) over the 17–500 nm range, suggesting that moderate resolution may be sufficient to obtain key properties of ambient size distributions, enabling smaller instruments and better counting statistics.
Silvia G. Danelli, Marco Brunoldi, Dario Massabò, Franco Parodi, Virginia Vernocchi, and Paolo Prati
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4461–4470,Short summary
Experiments conducted inside confined artificial environments, such as atmospheric simulation chambers (ASCs), where atmospheric conditions and composition are controlled, can provide valuable information on bio-aerosol viability, dispersion, and impact. We focus here on the reproducible aerosolization and injection of viable microorganisms into an ASC, the first and crucial step of any experimental protocol to expose bio-aerosols to different atmospheric conditions.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Graham O. Frazier, Wen Xu, Andrew T. Lambe, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3895–3907,Short summary
Measurement techniques that can achieve molecular characterizations are necessary to understand the differences of fate and transport within isomers produced in the atmospheric oxidation process. In this work, we develop an instrument to conduct isomer-resolved measurements of particle-phase organics. We assess the number of isomers per chemical formula in atmospherically relevant samples and examine the feasibility of extending the use of an existing instrument to a broader range of analytes.
Theresa Haller, Eva Sommer, Thomas Steinkogler, Christian Rentenberger, Anna Wonaschuetz, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Hinrich Grothe, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3721–3735,Short summary
Structural changes of carbonaceous aerosol samples during thermal–optical measurement techniques cause a darkening of the sample during the heating procedure which can influence the attribution of the carbonaceous material to organic and elemental carbon. We analyzed structural changes of atmospheric aerosol samples occurring during the EUSAAR2 and NIOSH870 measurement protocols with Raman spectroscopy. We found that the darkening of the sample is not necessarily caused by graphitization.
Anna J. Miller, Killian P. Brennan, Claudia Mignani, Jörg Wieder, Robert O. David, and Nadine Borduas-Dedekind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3131–3151,Short summary
To characterize atmospheric ice nuclei, we present (1) the development of our home-built droplet freezing technique (DFT), which involves the Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), (2) an intercomparison campaign using NX-illite and an ambient sample with two other DFTs, and (3) the application of lignin as a soluble and commercial ice nuclei standard with three DFTs. We further compiled the growing number of DFTs in use for atmospheric ice nucleation since 2000 and add FINC.
Mutian Ma, Laura-Hélèna Rivellini, YuXi Cui, Megan D. Willis, Rio Wilkie, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Junfeng Wang, Xinlei Ge, and Alex K. Y. Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2799–2812,Short summary
Chemical characterization of organic coatings is important to advance our understanding of the physio-chemical properties and atmospheric processing of black carbon (BC) particles. This work develops two approaches to improve the elemental analysis of oxygenated organic coatings using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer. Analyzing ambient data with the new approaches indicated that secondary organics that coated on BC were likely less oxygenated compared to those externally mixed with BC.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Luis M. F. Barreira, Iida Pullinen, Angela Buchholz, John Jayne, Jordan E. Krechmer, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 355–367,Short summary
FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS enables online volatility measurements of chemical compounds in ambient aerosols. Previously published volatility calibration results however differ from each other significantly. In this study we investigate the reason for this discrepancy. We found a major source of error in the widely used syringe deposition method and propose a new method for volatility calibration by using atomized calibration compounds.
Bradley Visser, Jannis Röhrbein, Peter Steigmeier, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, and Ernest Weingartner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 7097–7111,Short summary
Here we report on the development of a novel single-beam photothermal interferometer and its use in the measurement of aerosol light absorption. We demonstrate how light-absorbing gases can be used to calibrate the instrument and how this absorption is automatically subtracted during normal operation. The performance of the instrument is compared to a standard filter-based instrument using a black carbon test aerosol. The 60 s detection limit is found to be less than 10 Mm-1.
Michael Rösch and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6807–6812,Short summary
The need for a simple atomizer with a high-output stability combined with the capabilities of CAD software and high-resolution 3D printing has allowed for the design, production and testing of the PRinted drOpleT Generator (PROTeGE) to generate liquid particles from solutions. The size and number concentrations of the generated particles have been characterized with different ammonium sulfate and PSL solutions. PROTeGE is easy to operate, requires minimal maintenance and is cost-effective.
Gourihar Kulkarni, Naruki Hiranuma, Ottmar Möhler, Kristina Höhler, Swarup China, Daniel J. Cziczo, and Paul J. DeMott
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6631–6643,Short summary
This study presents a new continuous-flow-diffusion-chamber-style operated ice chamber (Modified Compact Ice Chamber, MCIC) to measure the immersion-freezing efficiency of atmospheric particles. MCIC allowed us to obtain maximum droplet-freezing efficiency at higher time resolution without droplet breakthrough ambiguity. Its evaluation was performed by reproducing published data from the recent ice nucleation workshop and past laboratory data for standard and airborne ice-nucleating particles.
Christian Tauber, David Schmoll, Johannes Gruenwald, Sophia Brilke, Peter Josef Wlasits, Paul Martin Winkler, and Daniela Wimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5993–6006,Short summary
In this paper we show that a commercially available plasma charger with nitrogen as the working gas can enhance the charging probability for sub-12 nm particles. In addition, the charger ion mobilities and the chemical composition have been examined using an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (APi-TOF MS), and comparison of the experimental results revealed that the generated neutralizer ions are not dependent on the charging mechanism.
Marcel Weloe and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5725–5738,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometers (AMSs) are frequently applied in atmospheric aerosol research in connection with climate, environmental or health-related projects. The paper describes a new real-time technique for the measurement of organic peroxides, which play an important role in new particle formation and as
reactive oxygen speciesin aerosol–health-related aspects of atmospheric aerosols.
Ting Lei, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Thomas Tuch, Xin Wang, Zhibin Wang, Mira Pöhlker, Maofa Ge, Weigang Wang, Eugene Mikhailov, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5551–5567,Short summary
We present the design of a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) apparatus that enables high accuracy and precision in hygroscopic growth measurements of aerosol nanoparticles with diameters less than 10 nm. We further introduce comprehensive methods for system calibration and validation of the performance of the system. We then study the size dependence of the deliquescence and the efflorescence of aerosol nanoparticles for sizes down to 6 nm.
Seyyed Ali Davari and Anthony S. Wexler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5369–5377,Short summary
Traditional instruments for detection and quantification of toxic metals in the atmosphere are expensive. In this study, we have designed, fabricated, and tested a low-cost instrument, which employs cheap components to detect and quantify toxic metals. Advanced machine learning (ML) techniques have been used to improve the instrument's performance. This study demonstrates how the combination of low-cost sensors with ML can address problems that traditionally have been too expensive to be solved.
James F. Hurley, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Braden Stump, Chenyang Bi, Purushottam Kumar, Susanne V. Hering, Pat Keady, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4911–4925,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosols has implications for human and ecosystem health. Current methods for determining chemical composition are expensive and require highly trained personnel. Our method is promising for moderate-cost, low-maintenance measurements of oxygen / carbon ratios, a key chemical parameter, and other elements may also be studied. In this work, we coupled two commonly used detectors to assess O / C ratios in a variety of compounds and mixtures within an acceptable error.
Jia Liu, Qixing Zhang, Yinuo Huo, Jinjun Wang, and Yongming Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4097–4109,Short summary
Angular behaviors of light scattering properties for loess dust sampled from the Chinese Loess Plateau were investigated using a self-developed apparatus. Two samples with different size distributions were used to represent dust that can or cannot be transported over long ranges. Analyses of optical simulation results showed that differences of measurements are mainly caused by different sizes. This study is useful for the development of optical models of loess dust during transportation.
Peter Josef Wlasits, Dominik Stolzenburg, Christian Tauber, Sophia Brilke, Sebastian Harald Schmitt, Paul Martin Winkler, and Daniela Wimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3787–3798,Short summary
In this paper we show that chemical similarities between the seed particle material and the working fluid have an impact on the detection efficiency of commonly used CPCs. A remarkable set of CPCs, including the newly developed V-WCPC 3789, was tested. Among others, reproducibly generated organic seeds based on beta-caryophyllene were used. Theoretical simulations of supersaturation profiles were successfully linked to measured data.
Nir Bluvshtein, Ulrich K. Krieger, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3191–3203,Short summary
Light-absorbing organic particles undergo transformations during their exposure in the atmosphere. The role these particles play in the global radiative balance is uncertain. This study describes high-sensitivity and high-precision measurements of light absorption by a single particle levitated in an electrodynamic balance. This high level of sensitivity enables future studies to explore the major processes responsible for changes to the particle's light absorptivity.
Joel Kuula, Timo Mäkelä, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Samu Varjonen, Óscar González, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2413–2423,Short summary
Particle-size-dependent detection ranges of low-cost particulate matter sensors were evaluated in a laboratory experiment. Six different sensor models were evaluated altogether. The results showed that none of the sensor models adhered to the technical specifications provided by the manufacturers, and thus a high risk of sensor misuse is posed. It is paramount that the limitations regarding the particle size discrimination of low-cost sensors are acknowledged properly.
Raymond W. Friddle and Konrad Thürmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2209–2218,Short summary
An obstacle to predicting ice content in mixed-phase clouds is the inability to directly view atmospheric ice nucleation at the nanoscale, where this process occurs. Here we show how a cloud-like environment can be created in a small atomic-force microscopy (AFM) sample cell. By colocating video microscopy of ice formation with high-resolution AFM images, we quantitatively show how the surface topography, down to nanometer-length scales, can determine the preferential locations of ice formation.
Eugene F. Mikhailov and Sergey S. Vlasenko
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2035–2056,Short summary
Here we present the high-humidity tandem differential hygroscopicity analyzer (HHTDMA) and a new method to measure the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles with in situ restructuring to minimize the influence of particle shape. Our results demonstrate that the HHTDMA system described in this work allows us to determine the thermodynamic characteristics of aqueous solutions with an accuracy close to that obtained by bulk methods.
Xin Wang, Xueying Zhang, and Wenjing Di
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 39–52,Short summary
We developed an improved two-sphere integration (TSI) technique to quantify black carbon (BC) concentrations in the atmosphere and seasonal snow. The major advantage of this system is that it combines two distinct integrated spheres to reduce the scattering effect due to light-absorbing particles and thus provides accurate determinations of total light absorption from BC collected on Nuclepore filters.
Robert O. David, Maria Cascajo-Castresana, Killian P. Brennan, Michael Rösch, Nora Els, Julia Werz, Vera Weichlinger, Lin S. Boynton, Sophie Bogler, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, Claudia Marcolli, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6865–6888,Short summary
Here we present the development and applicability of the DRoplet Ice Nuclei Counter Zurich (DRINCZ). DRINCZ allows for ice nuclei in the immersion mode to be quantified between 0 and -25 °C with an uncertainty of ±0.9 °C. Furthermore, we present a new method for assessing biases in drop-freezing apparatuses and cumulative ice-nucleating-particle concentrations from snow samples collected in the Austrian Alps at the Sonnblick Observatory.
Jonas Svensson, Johan Ström, and Aki Virkkula
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5913–5925,Short summary
Collection of particles onto filters can be a valuable tool in several research disciplines. Here we experiment with quartz filters and their response to soot particles in an airborne and liquid state in order to better understand the sampling procedure. Soot particles in a liquid phase showed absorption of light nearly double that of airborne sampled particles.
Sebastian Düsing, Birgit Wehner, Thomas Müller, Almond Stöcker, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5879–5895,Short summary
This study examines the effect of changes in relative humidity on measurements made by two different filter-based absorption photometers. Different filter loads, loading materials, and filter types are considered. It was found that both instruments react opposingly and with different magnitudes. One of the devices showed a variation in the dependence on the loading material. For each of the two devices, a correction approach is provided. Recommendations based on the findings are given.
Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Duncan H. P. Hedges, Matthew Hiscock, Simon T. Parker, Philip D. Rosenberg, Jamie Trembath, Richard Walshaw, Ian T. Burke, James B. McQuaid, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5741–5763,Short summary
Sampling coarse-mode aerosol from a fast-moving research aircraft is challenging and can be subject to substantial losses and enhancements. We characterise these losses and enhancements for an inlet system designed to collect aerosol onto filters. We go on to present an application of this inlet system where we use electron microscopy to study the size and composition of the collected aerosol particles.
Xuan Zhang, Haofei Zhang, Wen Xu, Xiaokang Wu, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, John J. Orlando, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Manjula R. Canagaratna
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5535–5545,Short summary
We develop a new technique to characterize organic nitrates as intact molecules in atmospheric aerosols, and we apply this technique to identify hydroxy nitrates in secondary organic aerosols produced from the photochemical oxidation of isoprene.
Judith C. Chow, Junji Cao, L.-W. Antony Chen, Xiaoliang Wang, Qiyuan Wang, Jie Tian, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Adam C. Watts, Tessa B. Carlson, Steven D. Kohl, and John G. Watson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5475–5501,Short summary
Source profiles that allow peat fire contributions to be distinguished from other source contributions using receptor models are lacking for a wide variety of peat fuels and burning conditions. These profiles change with photochemical aging during transport. Fresh and aged profiles for a variety of peat fuels are measured with an oxidation flow reactor to improve source attributions at distant receptors.
Alexandra J. Boris, Satoshi Takahama, Andrew T. Weakley, Bruno M. Debus, Carley D. Fredrickson, Martin Esparza-Sanchez, Charlotte Burki, Matteo Reggente, Stephanie L. Shaw, Eric S. Edgerton, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5391–5415,Short summary
Organic species are abundant in atmospheric particle-phase (aerosol) pollution and originate from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Infrared spectrometry of filter-based atmospheric particle samples can afford a direct measurement of the particulate organic matter concentration and a characterization of its composition. This work discusses recent method improvements and compositions measured in samples from the SouthEastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network.
Seong-Jae Yoo, Hong-Beom Kwon, Ui-Seon Hong, Dong-Hyun Kang, Sang-Myun Lee, Jangseop Han, Jungho Hwang, and Yong-Jun Kim
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5335–5345,Short summary
We present a portable, inexpensive, and accurate microelectromechanical-system-based (MEMS-based) condensation particle counter (CPC) for the sensitive and precise monitoring of airborne ultrafine particles (UFPs). The CPC is miniaturized by utilizing MEMS technology and 3-D printing. Thus, the proposed system can potentially be used for UFP monitoring in various environments.
Eleni Dovrou, Christopher Y. Lim, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Jesse H. Kroll, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5303–5315,Short summary
Measurement techniques commonly used to analyze particulate matter composition can result in the possible misidentification of sulfur-containing species, especially for the case of sulfate and hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS). The efficiency and limitations of these techniques, along with a method that enables further studies of the contribution of sulfur-containing species, S(IV) versus S(VI), to particulate matter under low-light atmospheric conditions, are described in this work.
Carmen Dameto de España, Gerhard Steiner, Harald Schuh, Constantinos Sioutas, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4733–4744,
Kelly L. Pereira, Grazia Rovelli, Young C. Song, Alfred W. Mayhew, Jonathan P. Reid, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4519–4541,Short summary
We present the design and operation of a newly built continuous-flow reactor (CFR), which can be used as a tool to gain considerable insights into the composition and physical state of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The CFR was used to generate large quantities of SOA mass, allowing the use of highly accurate techniques that are not usually accessible. We demonstrate how this unique approach can be used to investigate the relationship between SOA formation and physiochemical properties.
Alberto Baldelli and Steven Nicholas Rogak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4339–4346,Short summary
Raman spectra and soot primary particle size change with the impactor sampling stage even though the soot source is a steady laboratory flame. This is of potential interest to atmospheric researchers because past work on aerodynamically separated samples was interpreted in terms of distinct particle sources producing particles of different sizes and chemical structures.
Daisy N. Grace, Melissa B. Sebold, and Melissa M. Galloway
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3841–3851,Short summary
The identification and quantification of compounds within an atmospheric particle can be difficult to achieve. We present a supercritical fluid chromatography method to separate these compounds prior to mass spectrometry analysis. The aqueous methylglyoxal–ammonium sulfate system was used as a proxy for atmospheric aerosol; polar columns combined with a carbon dioxide and methanol mobile phase provided the most efficient separation. This method can be extended to other atmospheric systems.
Christian Tauber, Sophia Brilke, Peter Josef Wlasits, Paulus Salomon Bauer, Gerald Köberl, Gerhard Steiner, and Paul Martin Winkler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3659–3671,Short summary
In this paper we show that sodium chloride particles with a mobility diameter below 10 nm indicate different activation regimes. The results of our studies reveal that with increasing humidity the activation of NaCl particles with a standard butanol-based CPC can be enhanced. For Ag this humidity dependence could not be observed – an indicator for the importance of molecular interactions between seed and vapor molecules.
Theresa Haller, Christian Rentenberger, Jannik C. Meyer, Laura Felgitsch, Hinrich Grothe, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3503–3519,Short summary
In thermal–optical measurement techniques – widely used techniques to separate organic and elemental carbon – a filter sample is heated stepwise first in He and then in He+O2. Pyrolysis of organic material occurring during heating in He influences the results but is not fully understood. In this study, structural changes of carbonaceous material during a thermal–optical heating procedure are analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, TEM, UV–VIS and the integrating-sphere method.
Joseph L. Woo, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier, and V. Faye McNeill
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3395–3402,Short summary
We present a proof-of-concept method of concentrating aerosols in a continuous stream using an applied electric field. Potential enrichment was estimated using a trajectory model, predicting values of up to 65 % for 75–200 nm aerosol, using voltages of up to 30 kV. Experimental results using similar geometry yielded up to 15 % observed enrichment for the same conditions. These results imply that aerosol enrichment using an applied electric field can be achieved in continuous-flow applications.
Dario Massabò, Alessandro Altomari, Virginia Vernocchi, and Paolo Prati
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3173–3182,
Christos Kaltsonoudis, Spiro D. Jorga, Evangelos Louvaris, Kalliopi Florou, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2733–2743,Short summary
A portable dual-smog-chamber system was developed using two identical pillow-shaped smog chambers surrounded by UV lamps. The system has been designed to use ambient air as the starting point of the experiments. It can be easily disassembled and transported, enabling the study of various atmospheric environments and it can be used with natural sunlight. The results of test experiments using ambient air are discussed as examples of applications of this system.
Franz Friebel and Amewu A. Mensah
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2647–2663,Short summary
Simulating atmospheric aging processes in the laboratory under atmospheric conditions is a challenging task. The main obstacle is achieving long observation times with a reasonable amount of technical and financial input. We adapted the concept of the continuous-flow stirred tank reactor in order to achieve long observation times (up to 16 h) in small chamber volumes (3m3). We successfully tested this concept by oxidation of soot particles with ozone.
Michael I. Cotterell, Andrew J. Orr-Ewing, Kate Szpek, Jim M. Haywood, and Justin M. Langridge
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2371–2385,Short summary
Photoacoustic spectroscopy provides measurements of absorption coefficient for aerosol and gas samples but requires careful calibration, and researchers often use concentrations of ozone. Recent work has shown that the bath gas composition impacts the accuracy of this calibration at visible wavelengths. We explore further the role of bath gas, demonstrating that the calibration accuracy is optimal for a bath gas composed of 20 % oxygen and 80 % nitrogen at wavelengths of 405, 514 and 658 nm.
Rachel E. O'Brien, Kelsey J. Ridley, Manjula R. Canagaratna, John T. Jayne, Philip L. Croteau, Douglas R. Worsnop, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Jason D. Surratt, Christopher L. Follett, Daniel J. Repeta, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1659–1671,Short summary
Analysis of the elemental composition of organic mixtures can provide insights into the sources and aging of environmental samples. Here we describe a method that allows characterization of this type of material using micrograms of material by a combination of a small-volume ultrasonic nebulizer and an aerosol mass spectrometer. This technique enables rapid analysis of complex organic mixtures using approximately an order of magnitude less sample than standard analyses.
Jessica A. Mirrielees and Sarah D. Brooks
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6389–6407,Short summary
Particles in the air, called aerosols, can participate in cloud formation and affect cloud properties. One way to study these particles is by determining their ability to uptake water, called hygroscopicity. Apparent hygroscopicity is one such measurement. This study evaluates how errors can arise in determining apparent hygroscopicity and how to avoid or minimize them when collecting data.
Anna T. Kunert, Mark Lamneck, Frank Helleis, Ulrich Pöschl, Mira L. Pöhlker, and Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6327–6337,Short summary
The new Twin-plate Ice Nucleation Assay with infrared detection for high-throughput droplet freezing experiments in microliter-sized droplets is introduced, which was tested and characterized with bacterial and fungal ice nuclei. It was applied to investigate the influence of chemical processing on the activity of biological ice nuclei, and aqueous extracts of atmospheric aerosols were studied for ice nuclei activity.
Dario Massabò, Silvia Giulia Danelli, Paolo Brotto, Antonio Comite, Camilla Costa, Andrea Di Cesare, Jean François Doussin, Federico Ferraro, Paola Formenti, Elena Gatta, Laura Negretti, Maddalena Oliva, Franco Parodi, Luigi Vezzulli, and Paolo Prati
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5885–5900,
Alexander D. Harrison, Thomas F. Whale, Rupert Rutledge, Stephen Lamb, Mark D. Tarn, Grace C. E. Porter, Michael P. Adams, James B. McQuaid, George J. Morris, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5629–5641,Short summary
The detection of low concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) is challenging. Here we present a new technique (IR-NIPI) that is sensitive to low concentrations of INPs (> 0.01 L−1) and uses an infrared camera with a novel calibration to detect the freezing of experimental suspensions. IR-NIPI temperature measurements prove to be robust with a series of comparisons to thermocouple measurements. Experimental comparisons to other freezing assay instruments are also in agreement.
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Iron and copper are commonly found in ambient aerosols and have been linked to adverse health effects. We describe a relatively simple benchtop instrument that can be used to quantify these metals in aqueous solutions and verify the method by comparison with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The approach is based on forming light-absorbing metal–ligand complexes that can be measured with high sensitivity utilizing a long-path liquid waveguide capillary cell.
Iron and copper are commonly found in ambient aerosols and have been linked to adverse health...