Articles | Volume 14, issue 10
Research article
08 Oct 2021
Research article |  | 08 Oct 2021

Impact of 3D radiative transfer on airborne NO2 imaging remote sensing over cities with buildings

Marc Schwaerzel, Dominik Brunner, Fabian Jakub, Claudia Emde, Brigitte Buchmann, Alexis Berne, and Gerrit Kuhlmann

Related authors

Mapping the spatial distribution of NO2 with in situ and remote sensing instruments during the Munich NO2 imaging campaign
Gerrit Kuhlmann, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Ying Zhu, Marc Schwaerzel, Steffen Dörner, Jia Chen, Andreas Hueni, Duc Hai Nguyen, Alexander Damm, Annette Schütt, Florian Dietrich, Dominik Brunner, Cheng Liu, Brigitte Buchmann, Thomas Wagner, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1609–1629,,, 2022
Short summary
Three-dimensional radiative transfer effects on airborne and ground-based trace gas remote sensing
Marc Schwaerzel, Claudia Emde, Dominik Brunner, Randulph Morales, Thomas Wagner, Alexis Berne, Brigitte Buchmann, and Gerrit Kuhlmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4277–4293,,, 2020
Short summary

Related subject area

Subject: Gases | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Data Processing and Information Retrieval
A nonlinear data-driven approach to bias correction of XCO2 for NASA's OCO-2 ACOS version 10
William R. Keely, Steffen Mauceri, Sean Crowell, and Christopher W. O'Dell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5725–5748,,, 2023
Short summary
MIPAS ozone retrieval version 8: middle-atmosphere measurements
Manuel López-Puertas, Maya García-Comas, Bernd Funke, Thomas von Clarmann, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Sylvia Kellmann, Michael Kiefer, Alexandra Laeng, Andrea Linden, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5609–5645,,, 2023
Short summary
Atmospheric N2O and CH4 total columns retrieved from low-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra (Bruker VERTEX 70) in the mid-infrared region
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Christof Petri, Justus Notholt, Huilin Chen, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5593–5608,,, 2023
Short summary
A new accurate retrieval algorithm of bromine monoxide columns inside minor volcanic plumes from Sentinel-5P TROPOMI observations
Simon Warnach, Holger Sihler, Christian Borger, Nicole Bobrowski, Steffen Beirle, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5537–5573,,, 2023
Short summary
Estimation of anthropogenic and volcanic SO2 emissions from satellite data in the presence of snow/ice on the ground
Vitali E. Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Nicolas Theys, and Simon Carn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5575–5592,,, 2023
Short summary

Cited articles

Berchet, A., Zink, K., Muller, C., Oettl, D., Brunner, J., Emmenegger, L., and Brunner, D.: A cost-effective method for simulating city-wide air flow and pollutant dispersion at building resolving scale, Atmos. Environ., 158, 181–196,, 2017. a, b, c
Bär, P.: Luftbilanz 2016: Resultate der flächendeckenden Messkampagne, available at: (last access: 5 October 2021), 2016. a, b
Cracknell, A. P. and Varotsos, C.: Remote sensing and atmospheric ozone: Human activities versus natural variability, Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany,, 2012. a
de Goeij, B. T. G., Otter, G. C. J., van Wakeren, J. M. O., Veefkind, J. P., Vlemmix, T., Ge, X., Levelt, P. F., Dirks, B. P. F., Toet, P. M., van der Wal, L. F., and Jansen, R.: First aircraft test results of a compact, low cost hyperspectral imager for earth observation from space, in: International Conference on Space Optics – ICSO 2016, edited by: Cugny, B., Karafolas, N., and Sodnik, Z., Vol. 10562, International Society for Optics and Photonics, SPIE, Biarritz, France, 465–475,, 2017. a
de Graaf, M., Sihler, H., Tilstra, L. G., and Stammes, P.: How big is an OMI pixel?, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3607–3618,, 2016. a
Short summary
NO2 maps from airborne imaging remote sensing often appear much smoother than one would expect from high-resolution model simulations of NO2 over cities, despite the small ground-pixel size of the sensors. Our case study over Zurich, using the newly implemented building module of the MYSTIC radiative transfer solver, shows that the 3D effect can explain part of the smearing and that building shadows cause a noticeable underestimation and noise in the measured NO2 columns.