Articles | Volume 15, issue 9
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2667–2684, 2022
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-15-2667-2022
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2667–2684, 2022
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-15-2667-2022
Research article
03 May 2022
Research article | 03 May 2022

Inter-comparison of online and offline methods for measuring ambient heavy and trace elements and water-soluble inorganic ions (NO3, SO42−, NH4+, and Cl) in PM2.5 over a heavily polluted megacity, Delhi

Himadri Sekhar Bhowmik et al.

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Cited articles

Bhowmik, H. S., Naresh, S., Bhattu, D., Rastogi, N., Prévôt, A. S. H., and Tripathi, S. N.: Temporal and spatial variability of carbonaceous species (EC; OC; WSOC and SOA) in PM2.5 aerosol over five sites of Indo-Gangetic Plain, Atmos. Pollut. Res., 12, 375–390, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2020.09.019, 2021. 
Canagaratna, M. R., Jayne, J. T., Jimenez, J. L., Allan, J. D., Alfarra, M. R., Zhang, Q., Onasch, T. B., Drewnick, F., Coe, H., Middlebrook, A., Delia, A., Williams, L. R., Trimborn, A. M., Northway, M. J., DeCarlo, P. F., Kolb, C. E., Davidovits, P., and Worsnop, D. R.: Chemical and microphysical characterization of ambient aerosols with the aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer, Mass Spectrom. Rev., 26, 185–222, https://doi.org//10.1002/mas.20115, 2007. 
CEN: Ambient air – Standard gravimetric measurement method for the determination of the PM10 or PM2.5 mass concentration of suspended particulate matter (EN 12341:2014), European Committee for Standardization (CEN), Brussels, https://www.en-standard.eu/csn-en-12341-ambient-air-standard-gravimetric-measurement (last access: 2 May 2022), 2014. 
Chen, Y., Xu, L., Humphry, T., Hettiyadura, A. P. S., Ovadnevaite, J., Huang, S., Poulain, L., Schroder, J. C., Campuzano-Jost, P., Jimenez, J. L., Herrmann, H., O’Dowd, C., Stone, E. A., and Ng, N. L.: Response of the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer to Inorganic Sulfates and Organosulfur Compounds: Applications in Field and Laboratory Measurements, Environ. Sci. Technol., 53, 5176–5186, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b00884, 2019. 
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Short summary
This study presents comparisons between online and offline measurements of both refractory and non-refractory aerosol. This study shows differences between the measurements, related to either the limitations of the instrument (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometer only observing non-refractory aerosol) or known interferences with the technique (e.g., volatilization or reactions). The findings highlight the measurement methods' accuracy and imply the particular type of measurements needed.