Articles | Volume 15, issue 9
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Infrasound measurement system for real-time in situ tornado measurements
Brandon C. White
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA
Brian R. Elbing
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA
Imraan A. Faruque
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA
Related subject area
Subject: Others (Wind, Precipitation, Temperature, etc.) | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsToward quantifying turbulent vertical airflow and sensible heat flux in tall forest canopies using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensingA fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor for continuous in situ profiling up to 2 km beneath constant-altitude scientific balloonsNew Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer equation by application of Kirchhoff's law and adding a convection termThe DataHawk2 uncrewed aircraft system for atmospheric researchThe measurement of mean wind, variances, and covariances from an instrumented mobile car in a rural environmentICE-CAMERA: a flatbed scanner to study inland Antarctic polar precipitation3D trajectories and velocities of rainfall drops in a multifractal turbulent wind fieldTowards vertical wind and turbulent flux estimation with multicopter uncrewed aircraft systemsInstabilities, Dynamics, and Energetics accompanying Atmospheric Layering (IDEAL): high-resolution in situ observations and modeling in and above the nocturnal boundary layerQuantifying the coastal urban surface layer structure using distributed temperature sensing in Helsinki, FinlandOn the quality of RS41 radiosonde descent dataIdealized simulation study of the relationship of disdrometer sampling statistics with the precision of precipitation rate measurementUse of thermal signal for the investigation of near-surface turbulenceDrone measurements of surface-based winter temperature inversions in the High Arctic at EurekaGround mobile observation system for measuring multisurface microwave emissivityA differential emissivity imaging technique for measuring hydrometeor mass and typeEffect of snow-covered ground albedo on the accuracy of air temperature measurementsDistributed wind measurements with multiple quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles in the atmospheric boundary layerThe INFRA-EAR: a low-cost mobile multidisciplinary measurement platform for monitoring geophysical parametersA dedicated robust instrument for water vapor generation at low humidity for use with a laser water isotope analyzer in cold and dry polar regionsArctic observations and numerical simulations of surface wind effects on Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera measurementsThe development of the “Storm Tracker” and its applications for atmospheric high-resolution upper-air observationsUse of automatic radiosonde launchers to measure temperature and humidity profiles from the GRUAN perspectiveUsing global reanalysis data to quantify and correct airflow distortion bias in shipborne wind speed measurementsThe CopterSonde: an insight into the development of a smart unmanned aircraft system for atmospheric boundary layer researchMicrophysical properties and fall speed measurements of snow ice crystals using the Dual Ice Crystal Imager (D-ICI)The Disdrometer Verification Network (DiVeN): a UK network of laser precipitation instrumentsThe new BELUGA setup for collocated turbulence and radiation measurements using a tethered balloon: first applications in the cloudy Arctic boundary layerIdentification of platform exhaust on the RV InvestigatorEvaluation of Windsond S1H2 performance in Kumasi during the 2016 DACCIWA field campaignRecovery of the three-dimensional wind and sonic temperature data from a physically deformed sonic anemometerConsiderations for temperature sensor placement on rotary-wing unmanned aircraft systemsNew calibration procedures for airborne turbulence measurements and accuracy of the methane fluxes during the AirMeth campaignsIs it feasible to estimate radiosonde biases from interlaced measurements?Vertical wind velocity measurements using a five-hole probe with remotely piloted aircraft to study aerosol–cloud interactionsCalibration and evaluation of CCD spectroradiometers for ground-based and airborne measurements of spectral actinic flux densitiesRevising shortwave and longwave radiation archives in view of possible revisions of the WSG and WISG reference scales: methods and implicationsOverview of and first observations from the TILDAE High-Altitude Balloon MissionHigh-resolution urban observation network for user-specific meteorological information service in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South KoreaPyranometer offsets triggered by ambient meteorology: insights from laboratory and field experimentsIdentification of tower-wake distortions using sonic anemometer and lidar measurementsA Bayesian model to correct underestimated 3-D wind speeds from sonic anemometers increases turbulent components of the surface energy balanceProof of concept for turbulence measurements with the RPAS SUMO during the BLLAST campaignTurbulence fluxes and variances measured with a sonic anemometer mounted on a tethered balloonEstimates of Mode-S EHS aircraft-derived wind observation errors using triple collocationCharacterisation and improvement of j(O1D) filter radiometersExploring the potential of the RPA system SUMO for multipurpose boundary-layer missions during the BLLAST campaignReturn glider radiosonde for in situ upper-air research measurementsThe Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric researchMeasuring droplet fall speed with a high-speed camera: indoor accuracy and potential outdoor applications
Mohammad Abdoli, Karl Lapo, Johann Schneider, Johannes Olesch, and Christoph K. Thomas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 809–824,Short summary
In this study, we compute the distributed sensible heat flux using a distributed temperature sensing technique, whose magnitude, sign, and temporal dynamics compare reasonably well to estimates from classical eddy covariance measurements from sonic anemometry. Despite the remaining uncertainty in computed fluxes, the results demonstrate the potential of the novel method to compute spatially resolving sensible heat flux measurement and encourage further research.
J. Douglas Goetz, Lars E. Kalnajs, Terry Deshler, Sean M. Davis, Martina Bramberger, and M. Joan Alexander
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 791–807,Short summary
An instrument for in situ continuous 2 km vertical profiles of temperature below high-altitude balloons was developed for high-temporal-resolution measurements within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing. The mechanical, electrical, and temperature calibration systems were validated from a short mid-latitude constant-altitude balloon flight within the lower stratosphere. The instrument observed small-scale and inertial gravity waves.
Bruce W. Forgan, Julian Gröbner, and Ibrahim Reda
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 727–743,Short summary
This paper investigates the Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and its use in measuring atmospheric terrestrial irradiances traceable to the standard system of units (SI). This work fits into the objective of the Expert Team on Radiation References, established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), to develop and validate instrumentation that can be used as reference instruments for terrestrial radiation measurements.
Jonathan Hamilton, Gijs de Boer, Abhiram Doddi, and Dale A. Lawrence
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6789–6806,Short summary
The DataHawk2 is a small, low-cost, rugged, uncrewed aircraft system (UAS) used to observe the thermodynamic and turbulence structures of the lower atmosphere, supporting an advanced understanding of the physical processes that regulate weather and climate. This paper discusses the development, performance, and sensing capabilities of the DataHawk2 using data collected during several recent field deployments.
Stefan J. Miller and Mark Gordon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6563–6584,Short summary
This research investigates the measurement of atmospheric turbulence using a low-cost instrumented car that travels at near-highway speeds and is impacted by upwind obstructions and other on-road traffic. We show that our car design can successfully measure the mean flow and atmospheric turbulence near the surface. We outline a technique to isolate and remove the effects of sporadic passing traffic from car-measured velocity variances and discuss potential measurement uncertainties.
Massimo Del Guasta
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6521–6544,Short summary
Any instrument on the Antarctic plateau must cope with a harsh environment. Concordia station is a special place for testing new instruments. With low temperatures and weak winds, precipitation can be studied by simply collecting it on horizontal surfaces. This is typically done manually. ICE-CAMERA is intended as an automatic alternative. The combined construction of rugged equipment for taking photographs of particles and the adoption of machine learning techniques have served this purpose.
Auguste Gires, Ioulia Tchiguirinskaia, and Daniel Schertzer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5861–5875,Short summary
Weather radars measure rainfall in altitude whereas hydro-meteorologists are mainly interested in rainfall at ground level. During their fall, drops are advected by the wind which affects the location of the measured field. Governing equation linking acceleration, gravity, buoyancy, and drag force is updated to account for oblateness of drops. Then multifractal wind is used as input to explore velocities and trajectories of drops. Finally consequence on radar rainfall estimation is discussed.
Norman Wildmann and Tamino Wetz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5465–5477,Short summary
Multicopter uncrewed aerial systems (UAS, also known as drones) are very easy to use systems for collecting data in the lowest part of the atmosphere. Wind and turbulence are parameters that are particularly important for understanding the dynamics in the atmosphere. Only with three-dimensional measurements of the wind can a full understanding can be achieved. In this study, we show how even the vertical wind through the UAS can be measured with good accuracy.
Abhiram Doddi, Dale Lawrence, David Fritts, Ling Wang, Thomas Lund, William Brown, Dragan Zajic, and Lakshmi Kantha
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4023–4045,Short summary
Small-scale turbulent structures are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, yet our understanding of their structure and dynamics is vastly incomplete. IDEAL aimed to improve our understanding of small-scale turbulent flow features in the lower atmosphere. A small, unmanned, fixed-wing aircraft was employed to make targeted observations of atmospheric columns. Measured data were used to guide atmospheric model simulations designed to describe the structure and dynamics of small-scale turbulence.
Sasu Karttunen, Ewan O'Connor, Olli Peltola, and Leena Järvi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2417–2432,Short summary
To study the complex structure of the lowest tens of metres of atmosphere in urban areas, measurement methods with great spatial and temporal coverage are needed. In our study, we analyse measurements with a promising and relatively new method, distributed temperature sensing, capable of providing detailed information on the near-surface atmosphere. We present multiple ways to utilise these kinds of measurements, as well as important considerations for planning new studies using the method.
Bruce Ingleby, Martin Motl, Graeme Marlton, David Edwards, Michael Sommer, Christoph von Rohden, Holger Vömel, and Hannu Jauhiainen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 165–183,Short summary
Radiosonde descent data could provide extra profiles of the atmosphere for forecasting and other uses. Descent data from Vaisala RS41 radiosondes have been compared with the ascent profiles and with ECMWF short-range forecasts. The agreement is mostly good. The descent rate is very variable and high descent rates cause temperature biases, especially at upper levels. Ascent winds are affected by pendulum motion; on average, the descent winds are smoother.
Karlie N. Rees and Timothy J. Garrett
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7681–7691,Short summary
Monte Carlo simulations are used to establish baseline precipitation measurement uncertainties according to World Meteorological Organization standards. Measurement accuracy depends on instrument sampling area, time interval, and precipitation rate. Simulations are compared with field measurements taken by an emerging hotplate precipitation sensor. We find that the current collection area is sufficient for light rain, but a larger collection area is required to detect moderate to heavy rain.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7475–7493,Short summary
Understanding turbulence near the surface is important for many applications. In this work, methods for observing and analysing temperature structures in a near-surface volume were explored. Experiments were conducted to identify modes of organised motion. These help explain interactions between the vegetation and the atmosphere that are not currently well understood. Techniques used include fibre-optic sensing, thermal infrared imaging, signal decomposition, and machine learning.
Alexey B. Tikhomirov, Glen Lesins, and James R. Drummond
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7123–7145,Short summary
Two commercial quadcopters (DJI Matrice 100 and M210 RTK) were equipped with an air temperature measurement system. They were flown at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, at 80° N latitude to study surface-based temperature inversion during February–March field campaigns in 2017 and 2020. It was demonstrated that the drones can be effectively used in the High Arctic to measure vertical temperature profiles up to 75 m off the ground.
Wenying He, Hongbin Chen, Yuejian Xuan, Jun Li, Minzheng Duan, and Weidong Nan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7069–7078,Short summary
Large microwave surface emissivities (ε) cause difficulties in widely using satellite microwave data over land. Usually, ground-based radiometers are fixed to a scan field to obtain the temporal evolution of ε over a single land-cover area. To obtain the long-term temporal evolution of ε over different land-cover surfaces simultaneously, we developed a ground mobile observation system to enhance in situ ε observations and presented some preliminary results.
Dhiraj K. Singh, Spencer Donovan, Eric R. Pardyjak, and Timothy J. Garrett
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6973–6990,Short summary
This paper describes a new instrument for quantifying the physical characteristics of hydrometeors such as snow and rain. The device can measure the mass, size, density and type of individual hydrometeors as well as their bulk properties. The instrument is called the Differential Emissivity Imaging Disdrometer (DEID) and is composed of a thermal camera and hotplate. The DEID measures hydrometeors at sampling frequencies up to 1 Hz with masses and effective diameters greater than 1 µg and 200 µm.
Chiara Musacchio, Graziano Coppa, Gaber Begeš, Christina Hofstätter-Mohler, Laura Massano, Guido Nigrelli, Francesca Sanna, and Andrea Merlone
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6195–6212,Short summary
In the context of the overhaul of the WMO/CIMO guide (no. 8) on instruments and methods of observation, we performed an experiment to quantify uncertainties in air temperature measurements due to reflected solar radiation from a snow-covered surface. Coupled sensors with different radiation shields were put under different ground conditions (grass vs. snow) for a whole winter. Results show that different shields may reduce the influence of backward radiation, which can produce errors up to 3 °C.
Tamino Wetz, Norman Wildmann, and Frank Beyrich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3795–3814,Short summary
A fleet of quadrotors is presented as a system to measure the spatial distribution of atmospheric boundary layer flow. The big advantage of this approach is that multiple and flexible measurement points in space can be sampled synchronously. The algorithm to calculate the horizontal wind is based on the principle of aerodynamic drag and the related quadrotor dynamics. The validation reveals that an average accuracy of < 0.3 m s−1 for the wind speed and < 8° for the wind direction was achieved.
Olivier F. C. den Ouden, Jelle D. Assink, Cornelis D. Oudshoorn, Dominique Filippi, and Läslo G. Evers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3301–3317,
Christophe Leroy-Dos Santos, Mathieu Casado, Frédéric Prié, Olivier Jossoud, Erik Kerstel, Morgane Farradèche, Samir Kassi, Elise Fourré, and Amaëlle Landais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2907–2918,Short summary
We developed an instrument that can generate water vapor at low humidity at a very stable level. This instrument was conceived to calibrate water vapor isotopic records obtained in very dry places such as central Antarctica. Here, we provide details on the instrument as well as results obtained for correcting water isotopic records for diurnal variability during a long field season at the Concordia station in East Antarctica.
Kyle E. Fitch, Chaoxun Hang, Ahmad Talaei, and Timothy J. Garrett
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1127–1142,Short summary
Snow measurements are very sensitive to wind. Here, we compare airflow and snowfall simulations to Arctic observations for a Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera to show that measurements of fall speed, orientation, and size are accurate only with a double wind fence and winds below 5 m s−1. In this case, snowflakes tend to fall with a nearly horizontal orientation; the largest flakes are as much as 5 times more likely to be observed. Adjustments are needed for snow falling in naturally turbulent air.
Wei-Chun Hwang, Po-Hsiung Lin, and Hungjui Yu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5395–5406,Short summary
We have developed a small, light-weight (radiosonde of 20 g with battery), low-cost, and easy-to-use upper-air radiosonde system: the Storm Tracker. With the ability to receive multiple radiosondes simultaneously, the system enables high temporal and spatial resolution atmospheric observations. In the 2018 field campaign, the accuracy of the Storm tracker was tested using co-launched data with Vaisala RS41-SGP radiosondes, and the measurements show an overall good agreement.
Fabio Madonna, Rigel Kivi, Jean-Charles Dupont, Bruce Ingleby, Masatomo Fujiwara, Gonzague Romanens, Miguel Hernandez, Xavier Calbet, Marco Rosoldi, Aldo Giunta, Tomi Karppinen, Masami Iwabuchi, Shunsuke Hoshino, Christoph von Rohden, and Peter William Thorne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3621–3649,Short summary
Radiosondes are one of the primary sources of upper-air data for weather and climate monitoring. In the last two decades, technological progress made available automated radiosonde launchers (ARLs), which are able to replace measurements typically performed manually. This work presents a comparative analysis of the technical performance of the ARLs currently available on the market and contribute to define a strategy to achieve the full traceability of the ARL products.
Sebastian Landwehr, Iris Thurnherr, Nicolas Cassar, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Julia Schmale
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3487–3506,Short summary
Shipborne wind speed measurements are relevant for field studies of air–sea interaction processes. Distortion of the airflow by the ship’s structure can, however, lead to errors. We estimate the flow distortion bias by comparing the observations to ERA-5 reanalysis data. The underlying assumptions are that the bias depends only on the relative orientation of the ship to the wind direction and that the ERA-5 wind speeds are (on average) representative of the true wind speed.
Antonio R. Segales, Brian R. Greene, Tyler M. Bell, William Doyle, Joshua J. Martin, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, and Phillip B. Chilson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2833–2848,Short summary
The CopterSonde is an unmanned aircraft system designed with the purpose of sampling thermodynamic and kinematic parameters of the lower Earth's atmosphere, with a focus on vertical profiles in the planetary boundary layer. By incorporating adaptive sampling techniques and optimizing the sensor placement, our study shows that CopterSonde can provide similar information as a radiosonde, but with more control of its sampling location at much higher temporal and spatial resolution.
Thomas Kuhn and Sandra Vázquez-Martín
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1273–1285,Short summary
Directly measured shape and fall speed are two important parameters needed for models and remote sensing. This can be done by the new Dual Ice Crystal Imager (D-ICI) instrument, which takes two high-resolution pictures of falling snow crystals from two different angles. Fall speed is measured by doubly exposing the side-view picture. Size and shape are determined from the second picture providing the top view of the snow crystal. D-ICI has been tested on the ground in Kiruna, northern Sweden.
Ben S. Pickering, Ryan R. Neely III, and Dawn Harrison
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5845–5861,Short summary
A new network of precipitation instruments has been established for the UK. The instruments are capable of detecting the fall velocity and diameter of each particle that falls through a laser beam. The particle characteristics are derived from the duration and amount of decrease in beam brightness as perceived by a receiving diode. A total of 14 instruments make up the network and all instruments upload 60 s frequency data in near-real time to a publicly available website with plots.
Ulrike Egerer, Matthias Gottschalk, Holger Siebert, André Ehrlich, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4019–4038,Short summary
In this study, we introduce the new tethered balloon system BELUGA, which includes different modular instrument packages for measuring turbulence and radiation in the atmospheric boundary layer. BELUGA was deployed in an Arctic field campaign in 2017, providing details of boundary layer processes in combination with low-level clouds. Those processes are still not fully understood and in situ measurements in the Arctic improve our understanding of the Arctic response in terms of global warming.
Ruhi S. Humphries, Ian M. McRobert, Will A. Ponsonby, Jason P. Ward, Melita D. Keywood, Zoe M. Loh, Paul B. Krummel, and James Harnwell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3019–3038,Short summary
Undertaking atmospheric observations from ships provides important data in regions where measurements are impossible by other means. However, making measurements so close to a diesel exhaust plume is difficult. In this paper, we describe an algorithm that utilises ongoing measurements of aerosol number concentrations, black carbon mass concentrations, and mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide to accurately distinguish between exhaust and background data periods.
Geoffrey Elie Quentin Bessardon, Kwabena Fosu-Amankwah, Anders Petersson, and Barbara Jane Brooks
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1311–1324,Short summary
This paper presents the first performance assessment during a field campaign of a new reusable radiosonde: the Windsond S1H2. The reuse feature of the S1H2 requires evaluation of the data alteration due to sonde reuse in addition to performance and reproducibility assessments. A comparison with the Vaisala RS41-SG, a well-proven system, shows the potential of the S1H2, with no major performance degradation arising from S1H2 sonde reuse but shows the need for improving the S1H2 GPS system.
Xinhua Zhou, Qinghua Yang, Xiaojie Zhen, Yubin Li, Guanghua Hao, Hui Shen, Tian Gao, Yirong Sun, and Ning Zheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5981–6002,Short summary
The three-dimensional wind and sonic temperature data from a physically deformed sonic anemometer was successfully recovered by developing equations, algorithms, and related software. Using two sets of geometry data from production calibration and return re-calibration, this algorithm can recover wind with/without transducer shadow correction and sonic temperature with crosswind correction, and then obtain fluxes at quality as expected. This study is applicable as a reference for related topics.
Brian R. Greene, Antonio R. Segales, Sean Waugh, Simon Duthoit, and Phillip B. Chilson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5519–5530,Short summary
With the recent commercial availability of rotary-wing unmanned aircraft systems (rwUAS), their ability to collect observations in the lower atmosphere is quickly being realized. However, integrating sensors with an rwUAS can introduce errors if not sited properly. This study discusses an objective method of determining some of these error sources in temperature, including improper airflow and rotary motor heating. Errors can be mitigated by mounting thermistors under propellers near the tips.
Jörg Hartmann, Martin Gehrmann, Katrin Kohnert, Stefan Metzger, and Torsten Sachs
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4567–4581,Short summary
We present new in-flight calibration procedures for airborne turbulence measurements that exploit suitable regular flight legs without the need for dedicated calibration patterns. Furthermore we estimate the accuracy of the airborne wind measurement and of the turbulent fluxes of the traces gases methane and carbon dioxide.
Stefanie Kremser, Jordis S. Tradowsky, Henning W. Rust, and Greg E. Bodeker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3021–3029,Short summary
We investigate the feasibility of quantifying the difference in biases of two instrument types (i.e. radiosondes) by flying the old and new instruments on alternating days, so-called interlacing, to statistically derive the systematic biases between the instruments. While it is in principle possible to estimate the difference between two instrument biases from interlaced measurements, the number of required interlaced flights is very large for reasonable autocorrelation coefficient values.
Radiance Calmer, Gregory C. Roberts, Jana Preissler, Kevin J. Sanchez, Solène Derrien, and Colin O'Dowd
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2583–2599,Short summary
Remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS), commonly called UAVs, are used in atmospheric science for in situ measurements. The presented work shows wind measurements from a five-hole probe on an RPAS. Comparisons with other instruments (sonic anemometer and cloud radar) show good agreement, validating the RPAS measurements. In situ vertical wind measurements at cloud base are highlighted because they are a major parameter needed for simulating aerosol–cloud interactions, though rarely collected.
Birger Bohn and Insa Lohse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3151–3174,Short summary
CCD spectroradiometers are widely used for measurements of atmospheric photolysis frequencies. Their fast response makes them suitable for airborne applications despite the well-known stray-light problem. In this work we describe simple and reliable procedures to minimize the stray-light influence on calibrations and field measurements. Comparisons with a reference instrument confirm high accuracies and low detection limits of important photolysis frequencies.
Stephan Nyeki, Stefan Wacker, Julian Gröbner, Wolfgang Finsterle, and Martin Wild
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3057–3071,Short summary
A large number of radiometers used to measure solar and terrestrial broadband radiation are traceable to World Standard Groups at PMOD/WRC in Davos, Switzerland. A small correction of each group may be required in the future, and this study examines the methods and implications of this on data sets collected at four remote baseline stations since the 1990s. The goal is to develop a better estimate of the solar and terrestrial radiation budget at the Earth's surface.
Bennett A. Maruca, Raffaele Marino, David Sundkvist, Niharika H. Godbole, Stephane Constantin, Vincenzo Carbone, and Herb Zimmerman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1595–1607,Short summary
The Turbulence and Intermittency Long-Duration Atmospheric Experiment (TILDAE) was developed to characterize small-scale fluctuations in the troposphere and stratosphere. The mission's key instrument, a customized sonic anemometer, made high-speed calibrated measurements of the 3-D wind velocity and air temperature. TILDAE was incorporated as an "add-on" experiment to the payload of a NASA long-duration balloon mission that launched in January 2016 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica.
Moon-Soo Park, Sung-Hwa Park, Jung-Hoon Chae, Min-Hyeok Choi, Yunyoung Song, Minsoo Kang, and Joon-Woo Roh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1575–1594,Short summary
The philosophy, background, and details of high-resolution urban observation network to meet the need of reducing damages caused by extreme weather phenomena such as heavy rain/snow fall, strong wind, heat/cold waves, or road ice in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea (UMS-Seoul), is introduced. Two case studies demonstrate that the observed data have a great potential to help to understand the boundary-layer structures more deepl and provide useful meteorological information in the SMA.
Sandro M. Oswald, Helga Pietsch, Dietmar J. Baumgartner, Philipp Weihs, and Harald E. Rieder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1169–1179,Short summary
This study investigates effects of precipitation events on the accuracy of solar radiation measurements. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation, a series of controlled laboratory experiments and two field campaigns were performed. The results indicate that precipitation significantly affects the thermal environment of the instruments and thus their stability. A high accuracy of solar radiation measurements is important to improve the prediction of Earth's climate change.
Katherine McCaffrey, Paul T. Quelet, Aditya Choukulkar, James M. Wilczak, Daniel E. Wolfe, Steven P. Oncley, W. Alan Brewer, Mithu Debnath, Ryan Ashton, G. Valerio Iungo, and Julie K. Lundquist
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 393–407,Short summary
During the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) field campaign, the wake and flow distortion from a 300-meter meteorological tower was identified using pairs of sonic anemometers mounted on opposite sides of the tower, as well as profiling and scanning lidars. Wind speed deficits up to 50% and TKE increases of 2 orders of magnitude were observed at wind directions in the wake, along with wind direction differences (flow deflection) outside of the wake.
John M. Frank, William J. Massman, and Brent E. Ewers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5933–5953,Short summary
Ecosystem flux networks measure carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange and are integral to global studies of the biosphere and climate change. Yet recent evidence suggests a measurement error in sonic anemometry, the principal instrument for eddy-covariance research. A novel Bayesian analysis estimates the three-dimensional correction in these instruments and demonstrates that 60 % of the sites within the AmeriFlux network and numerous others globally underestimate all ecosystem fluxes by 8–12 %.
Line Båserud, Joachim Reuder, Marius O. Jonassen, Stephan T. Kral, Mostafa B. Paskyabi, and Marie Lothon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4901–4913,Short summary
The micro-RPAS SUMO (Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer) equipped with a five-hole-probe (5HP) system for turbulent flow measurements was operated in 49 flight missions during the BLLAST (Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) field campaign in 2011. Based on data sets from these flights, we investigate the potential and limitations of airborne velocity variance and TKE (turbulent kinetic energy) estimations by an RPAS with a take-off weight below 1 kg.
Guylaine Canut, Fleur Couvreux, Marie Lothon, Dominique Legain, Bruno Piguet, Astrid Lampert, William Maurel, and Eric Moulin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4375–4386,Short summary
Turbulent processes of the atmospheric boundary layer contribute the most to transfers between the surface and the atmosphere. Typically, turbulent boundary layer parameters are measured by sonic anemometers on masts and by research aircraft. This is to measure in situ turbulent parameters in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) at altitudes above 50 m. For this purpose, our team have developed a system under a tethered balloon which has been in use since 2010.
Siebren de Haan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4141–4150,Short summary
The paper presents estimates of aircraft-derived wind observations obtained using Mode-S EHS method by applying the triple-collocation technique. Triple-collocated data sets were constructed using sodar (at Schiphol airport) and Doppler radar wind observation (from two radars in the Netherlands) in combination with numerical weather model data. It was found that the wind error near the surface is around 1.4 m s−1, while at 500 hPa the error is estimated to be around 1.1 m s−1.
Birger Bohn, Dwayne E. Heard, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Rainer Schmitt, and Lisa K. Whalley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3455–3466,Short summary
Filter radiometers are instruments that quantify the rate of formation of excited oxygen atoms from photolysis of ozone in the atmosphere. The excited oxygen atoms are important for the atmospheric self-cleaning ability. The radiometers were characterised by measurements of their spectral response. Together with field comparisons with a reference instrument, the characterisations improved the performance. That will help to better understand atmospheric photochemistry in future research.
Joachim Reuder, Line Båserud, Marius O. Jonassen, Stephan T. Kral, and Martin Müller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2675–2688,Short summary
Extensive operations of the Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer, a small (80 cm) and lightweight (700 g) unmanned research aircraft, have been performed during the BLLAST (Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) campaign in southern France in summer 2011. With a total of 300 flights, the SUMO system has provided a unique data set consisting of temperature, humidity and wind profiles, surface-temperature surveys and profiles of turbulence parameters.
Andreas Kräuchi and Rolf Philipona
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2535–2544,Short summary
New radiosonde instruments for humidity-, radiation- and gas-profile measurements were introduced in recent years for atmospheric research and climate monitoring. Such instruments are intended to be reused on multiple flights. Here we introduce the return glider radiosonde (RGR), which enables flying and retrieving valuable in situ upper-air instruments. The RGR is lifted with weather balloons to a preset altitude, and a built-in autopilot flies the glider autonomously back to the launch site.
Gijs de Boer, Scott Palo, Brian Argrow, Gabriel LoDolce, James Mack, Ru-Shan Gao, Hagen Telg, Cameron Trussel, Joshua Fromm, Charles N. Long, Geoff Bland, James Maslanik, Beat Schmid, and Terry Hock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1845–1857,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of a recently developed unmanned aerial system (UAS) for study of the lower atmosphere. This platform, the University of Colorado Pilatus UAS, is capable of providing measurements of atmospheric thermodynamics (temperature, pressure, humidity), atmospheric aerosol size distributions, and broadband radiation. These quantities are critical for understanding a variety of atmospheric processes relevant for characterization of the surface energy budget.
Cheng-Ku Yu, Pei-Rong Hsieh, Sandra E. Yuter, Lin-Wen Cheng, Chia-Lun Tsai, Che-Yu Lin, and Ying Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1755–1766,Short summary
How to accurately measure droplet fall speed in natural outdoor conditions has been a long-standing and highly challenging issue in the meteorological community. Results from this article are not only to demonstrate the great potential for high-speed imaging to provide a reliable measurement of droplet fall speed without suffering from sampling uncertainties but also to share a new approach and different thoughts about the retrieval of the droplet fall speed information.
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Tornadic storms have been hypothesized to emit sound at frequencies below human hearing which animals and certain microphones can detect. This study covers the design, fabrication, and deployment of a specialized microphone that can be carried by first responders and storm chasers. The study also presents real-time processing methods, analyzes several recorded severe weather events including a tornado, and introduces a real-time web interface to allow for live monitoring of the mobile sensor.
Tornadic storms have been hypothesized to emit sound at frequencies below human hearing which...