Articles | Volume 7, issue 1
Research article 23 Jan 2014
Research article | 23 Jan 2014
A new experimental approach to study the hygroscopic and optical properties of aerosols: application to ammonium sulfate particles
C. Denjean et al.
No articles found.
Cyrille Flamant, Marco Gaetani, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Patrick Chazette, Juan Cuesta, Stuart J. Piketh, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Rivers of smoke extends from tropical southern Africa towards the Indian Ocean during the winter fire season, controlled by the interaction of tropical easterly waves, and westerly waves in mid-latitudes. During the AEROCLO-sA field campaign in 2017, a river of smoke was directly observed over Namibia. In this paper, the evolution and atmospheric drivers of the river of smoke are described, and the role of a mid-latitude cut-off low in lifting the smoke to the upper troposphere is highlighted.
Marco Gaetani, Benjamin Pohl, Maria del Carmen Alvarez Castro, Cyrille Flamant, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16575–16591,Short summary
During the dry austral winter, biomass fires in tropical Africa emit large amounts of smoke in the atmosphere, with large impacts on climate and air quality. The study of the relationship between atmospheric circulation and smoke transport shows that midlatitude atmospheric disturbances may deflect the smoke from tropical Africa towards southern Africa. Understanding the distribution of the smoke in the region is crucial for climate modelling and air quality monitoring.
Enza Di Tomaso, Jerónimo Escribano, Sara Basart, Paul Ginoux, Francesca Macchia, Francesca Barnaba, Francesco Benincasa, Pierre-Antoine Bretonnière, Arnau Buñuel, Miguel Castrillo, Emilio Cuevas, Paola Formenti, María Gonçalves, Oriol Jorba, Martina Klose, Lucia Mona, Gilbert Montané, Michail Mytilinaios, Vincenzo Obiso, Miriam Olid, Nick Schutgens, Athanasios Votsis, Ernest Werner, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
MONARCH reanalysis of desert dust aerosols extends the existing observational-based information for mineral dust monitoring by providing 3-hourly upper air, surface and total column key geophysical variables of the dust cycle over Northern Africa, the Middle East and Europe, at a 0.1° horizontal resolution, from 2007 to 2016. This work provides evidence of the high accuracy of this data set and its suitability for air quality/health and climate service applications.
Caroline Dang, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Haochi Che, Lu Zhang, Paola Formenti, Jonathan Taylor, Amie Dobracki, Sara Purdue, Pui-Shan Wong, Athanios Nenes, Arthur Sedlacek, Hugh Coe, Jens Redemann, Paquita Zuidema, and James Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We used TEM to analyze aged biomass burning aerosol from Africa. We found that the volatility of organic aerosol increases with biomass burning plume age, that black carbon is often mixed with potassium salts, and that the marine atmosphere can change biomass burning aerosol through incorporation of sodium into particles. We found regions dominated by chloride particles without the presence of Na, and that marine salts are more processed when mixed with biomass burning plumes.
Isabelle Chiapello, Paola Formenti, Lydie Mbemba Kabuiku, Fabrice Ducos, Didier Tanré, and François Dulac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12715–12737,Short summary
The Mediterranean atmosphere is impacted by a variety of particle pollution, which exerts a complex pressure on climate and air quality. We analyze the 2005–2013 POLDER-3 satellite advanced aerosol data set over the Western Mediterranean Sea. Aerosols' spatial distribution and temporal evolution suggests a large-scale improvement of air quality related to the fine aerosol component, most probably resulting from reduction of anthropogenic particle emissions in the surrounding European countries.
Hongming Yi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Aline Gratien, Vincent Michoud, Edouard Pangui, Jean-Francois Doussin, and Weidong Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5701–5715,Short summary
HONO and NO2 play a crucial role in the atmospheric oxidation capacity that affects the regional air quality and global climate. Accurate measurements of HONO are challenging due to the drawback of existing detection methods. Calibration-free high-sensitivity direct, simultaneous measurements of NO2, HONO and CH2O with UV-IBBCEAS provide accurate and fast quantitative analysis of their concentration variation within their lifetime by intercomparison with NOx, FTIR and NitroMAC sensors.
Danitza Klopper, Stuart J. Piketh, Roelof Burger, Simon Dirkse, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The western coast of southern Africa is a key region of the Earth, with persistent clouds and particles also transported from distant forest fires. The atmosphere is stratified as a result of the different temperatures of the cold Atlantic ocean and the warm semi-arid land, and that affects how the particles will be distributed whilst in the atmosphere and how long they will persist. We used long term satellite and in situ observations to describe, for the first time, those main features.
Aurélien Chauvigné, Fabien Waquet, Frédérique Auriol, Luc Blarel, Cyril Delegove, Oleg Dubovik, Cyrille Flamant, Marco Gaetani, Philippe Goloub, Rodrigue Loisil, Marc Mallet, Jean-Marc Nicolas, Frédéric Parol, Fanny Peers, Benjamin Torres, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8233–8253,Short summary
This work presents aerosol above-cloud properties close to the Namibian coast from a combination of airborne passive remote sensing. The complete analysis of aerosol and cloud optical properties and their microphysical and radiative properties allows us to better identify the impacts of biomass burning emissions. This work also gives a complete overview of the key parameters for constraining climate models in case aerosol and cloud coexist in the troposphere.
Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Sarah J. Doherty, Bernadette Luna, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michael S. Diamond, Yohei Shinozuka, Ian Y. Chang, Rei Ueyama, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Amie N. Dobracki, Arlindo M. da Silva, Karla M. Longo, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Connor J. Flynn, Kristina Pistone, Nichola M. Knox, Stuart J. Piketh, James M. Haywood, Paola Formenti, Marc Mallet, Philip Stier, Andrew S. Ackerman, Susanne E. Bauer, Ann M. Fridlind, Gregory R. Carmichael, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Brian Cairns, Brent N. Holben, Kirk D. Knobelspiesse, Simone Tanelli, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Andrew M. Dzambo, Ousmane O. Sy, Greg M. McFarquhar, Michael R. Poellot, Siddhant Gupta, Joseph R. O'Brien, Athanasios Nenes, Mary Kacarab, Jenny P. S. Wong, Jennifer D. Small-Griswold, Kenneth L. Thornhill, David Noone, James R. Podolske, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Peter Pilewskie, Hong Chen, Sabrina P. Cochrane, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Timothy J. Lang, Eric Stith, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Richard A. Ferrare, Sharon P. Burton, Chris A. Hostetler, David J. Diner, Felix C. Seidel, Steven E. Platnick, Jeffrey S. Myers, Kerry G. Meyer, Douglas A. Spangenberg, Hal Maring, and Lan Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1507–1563,Short summary
Southern Africa produces significant biomass burning emissions whose impacts on regional and global climate are poorly understood. ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) is a 5-year NASA investigation designed to study the key processes that determine these climate impacts. The main purpose of this paper is to familiarize the broader scientific community with the ORACLES project, the dataset it produced, and the most important initial findings.
Jim M. Haywood, Steven J. Abel, Paul A. Barrett, Nicolas Bellouin, Alan Blyth, Keith N. Bower, Melissa Brooks, Ken Carslaw, Haochi Che, Hugh Coe, Michael I. Cotterell, Ian Crawford, Zhiqiang Cui, Nicholas Davies, Beth Dingley, Paul Field, Paola Formenti, Hamish Gordon, Martin de Graaf, Ross Herbert, Ben Johnson, Anthony C. Jones, Justin M. Langridge, Florent Malavelle, Daniel G. Partridge, Fanny Peers, Jens Redemann, Philip Stier, Kate Szpek, Jonathan W. Taylor, Duncan Watson-Parris, Robert Wood, Huihui Wu, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1049–1084,Short summary
Every year, the seasonal cycle of biomass burning from agricultural practices in Africa creates a huge plume of smoke that travels many thousands of kilometres over the Atlantic Ocean. This study provides an overview of a measurement campaign called the cloud–aerosol–radiation interaction and forcing for year 2017 (CLARIFY-2017) and documents the rationale, deployment strategy, observations, and key results from the campaign which utilized the heavily equipped FAAM atmospheric research aircraft.
Danitza Klopper, Paola Formenti, Andreas Namwoonde, Mathieu Cazaunau, Servanne Chevaillier, Anaïs Feron, Cécile Gaimoz, Patrick Hease, Fadi Lahmidi, Cécile Mirande-Bret, Sylvain Triquet, Zirui Zeng, and Stuart J. Piketh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15811–15833,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosol particles is very important as it determines to which extent they can affect the Earth's climate by acting with solar light and modifying the properties of clouds. The South Atlantic region is a remote and under-explored region to date where these effects could be important. The measurements presented in this paper consist in the analysis of samples collected at a coastal site in Namibia. The first long-term source apportionment is presented and discussed.
Axel Fouqueau, Manuela Cirtog, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Jean-François Doussin, and Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15167–15189,
Clarissa Baldo, Paola Formenti, Sophie Nowak, Servanne Chevaillier, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Claudia Di Biagio, Jean-Francois Doussin, Konstantin Ignatyev, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, A. Robert MacKenzie, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13521–13539,Short summary
We showed that Icelandic dust has a fundamentally different chemical and mineralogical composition from low-latitude dust. In particular, magnetite is as high as 1 %–2 % of the total dust mass. Our results suggest that Icelandic dust may have an important impact on the radiation balance in the subpolar and polar regions.
Marc Mallet, Fabien Solmon, Pierre Nabat, Nellie Elguindi, Fabien Waquet, Dominique Bouniol, Andrew Mark Sayer, Kerry Meyer, Romain Roehrig, Martine Michou, Paquita Zuidema, Cyrille Flamant, Jens Redemann, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13191–13216,Short summary
This paper presents numerical simulations using two regional climate models to study the impact of biomass fire plumes from central Africa on the radiative balance of this region. The results indicate that biomass fires can either warm the regional climate when they are located above low clouds or cool it when they are located above land. They can also alter sea and land surface temperatures by decreasing solar radiation at the surface. Finally, they can also modify the atmospheric dynamics.
David O. De Haan, Lelia N. Hawkins, Kevin Jansen, Hannah G. Welsh, Raunak Pednekar, Alexia de Loera, Natalie G. Jimenez, Margaret A. Tolbert, Mathieu Cazaunau, Aline Gratien, Antonin Bergé, Edouard Pangui, Paola Formenti, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9581–9590,Short summary
When exposed to glyoxal in chamber experiments, dry ammonium or methylammonium sulfate particles turn brown immediately and reversibly without increasing in size. Much less browning was observed on wet aerosol particles, and no browning was observed with sodium sulfate aerosol. While estimated dry aerosol light absorption caused by background glyoxal (70 ppt) is insignificant compared to that of secondary brown carbon overall, in polluted regions this process could be a source of brown carbon.
Nelson Bègue, Lerato Shikwambana, Hassan Bencherif, Juan Pallotta, Venkataraman Sivakumar, Elian Wolfram, Nkanyiso Mbatha, Facundo Orte, David Jean Du Preez, Marion Ranaivombola, Stuart Piketh, and Paola Formenti
Ann. Geophys., 38, 395–420,Short summary
This study investigates the influence of the 2015 Calbuco eruption (41.2°S, 72.4°W; Chile) on the total columnar aerosol optical properties in the Southern Hemisphere. The well-known technique of sun photometry was applied to the investigation of the transport and the spatio-temporal evolution of the optical properties of the volcanic plume. The CIMEL sun photometer measurements performed over six South American and three African sites were statistically analyzed.
Samuel E. LeBlanc, Jens Redemann, Connor Flynn, Kristina Pistone, Meloë Kacenelenbogen, Michal Segal-Rosenheimer, Yohei Shinozuka, Stephen Dunagan, Robert P. Dahlgren, Kerry Meyer, James Podolske, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Jennifer Small-Griswold, Brent Holben, Michael Diamond, Robert Wood, Paola Formenti, Stuart Piketh, Gillian Maggs-Kölling, Monja Gerber, and Andreas Namwoonde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1565–1590,Short summary
The southeast Atlantic during August–October experiences layers of smoke from biomass burning over marine stratocumulus clouds. Here we present the light attenuation of the smoke and its dependence in the spatial, vertical, and spectral domain through direct measurements from an airborne platform during September 2016. From our observations of this climatically important smoke, we found an average aerosol optical depth of 0.32 at 500 nm, slightly lower than comparative satellite measurements.
Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault, Ricardo Suarez-Bertoa, Marius Duncianu, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Marc David, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 487–498,Short summary
Multifunctional organic nitrates are important atmospheric species that are known to play a key role in the transport of reactive nitrogen and in aerosol composition. However, very little is known about their atmospheric reactivity. Here we provide an experimental study on the photolysis and reaction of two carbonyl nitrates with OH radicals. Atmospheric implications and the influence of the chemical structure on the reactivity are discussed.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Yves Balkanski, Lorenzo Caponi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Emilie Journet, Sophie Nowak, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Thuraya Saeed, Stuart Piketh, David Seibert, Earle Williams, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15503–15531,Short summary
This paper presents a new dataset of laboratory measurements of the shortwave (SW) spectral complex refractive index and single-scattering albedo (SSA) for global mineral dust aerosols of varying origin and composition. Our results show that the dust refractive index and SSA vary strongly from source to source, mostly due to particle iron content changes. We recommend that source-dependent values of the SW spectral refractive index and SSA be used in models and remote sensing applications.
Patrick Chazette, Cyrille Flamant, Julien Totems, Marco Gaetani, Gwendoline Smith, Alexandre Baron, Xavier Landsheere, Karine Desboeufs, Jean-François Doussin, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14979–15005,Short summary
Evolution of the vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols in the free troposphere is analysed for the first time over the Namibian coast, a region where uncertainties on aerosol–cloud coupling in climate simulations are significant. The high variability of atmospheric aerosol composition is highlighted using a combination of ground-based, airborne and space-borne lidar. Aerosols are mainly transported from Angola, but part of the highest aerosol layer may come from South America.
Marc D. Mallet, Barbara D'Anna, Aurélie Même, Maria Chiara Bove, Federico Cassola, Giandomenico Pace, Karine Desboeufs, Claudia Di Biagio, Jean-Francois Doussin, Michel Maille, Dario Massabò, Jean Sciare, Pascal Zapf, Alcide Giorgio di Sarra, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11123–11142,Short summary
We present findings from a summertime field campaign at the remote island of Lampedusa in the central Mediterranean Sea. We show that the aerosol loading is similar to coastal sites around the Mediterranean. We observe higher loadings of sulfate and aged organic aerosol from air masses transported over the central and eastern Mediterranean in comparison to those from the western Mediterranean. These results highlight the rarity of pristine air masses, even in remote marine environments.
Marc Mallet, Pierre Nabat, Paquita Zuidema, Jens Redemann, Andrew Mark Sayer, Martin Stengel, Sebastian Schmidt, Sabrina Cochrane, Sharon Burton, Richard Ferrare, Kerry Meyer, Pablo Saide, Hiren Jethva, Omar Torres, Robert Wood, David Saint Martin, Romain Roehrig, Christina Hsu, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4963–4990,Short summary
The model is able to represent LWP but not the LCF. AOD is consistent over the continent but also over ocean (ACAOD). Differences are observed in SSA due to the absence of internal mixing in ALADIN-Climate. A significant regional gradient of the forcing at TOA is observed. An intense positive forcing is simulated over Gabon. Results highlight the significant effect of enhanced moisture on BBA extinction. The surface dimming modifies the energy budget.
María José Granados-Muñoz, Michael Sicard, Roberto Román, Jose Antonio Benavent-Oltra, Rubén Barragán, Gerard Brogniez, Cyrielle Denjean, Marc Mallet, Paola Formenti, Benjamín Torres, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 523–542,Short summary
The influence of mineral dust in the direct radiative effect is affected by a large uncertainty. This study investigates mineral dust radiative properties during an episode affecting southern Spain in June 2013 by using remote sensors and data collected on board an aircraft to feed a radiative transfer model. The study reveals the complexity of parameterizing these models, as characterizing mineral dust is still quite challenging, and the need for accurate mineral dust measurements.
Paola Formenti, Lydie Mbemba Kabuiku, Isabelle Chiapello, Fabrice Ducos, François Dulac, and Didier Tanré
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6761–6784,Short summary
Aerosol particles from natural and anthropogenic sources are climate regulators as they can counteract or amplify the warming effect of greenhouse gases, but are difficult to observe due to their temporal and spatial variability. Satellite sensors can provide the needed global coverage but need validation. In this paper we explore the capability of the POLDER-3 advanced space-borne sensor to observe aerosols over the western Mediterranean region.
Claire L. Ryder, Franco Marenco, Jennifer K. Brooke, Victor Estelles, Richard Cotton, Paola Formenti, James B. McQuaid, Hannah C. Price, Dantong Liu, Patrick Ausset, Phil D. Rosenberg, Jonathan W. Taylor, Tom Choularton, Keith Bower, Hugh Coe, Martin Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Gary Lloyd, Eleanor J. Highwood, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17225–17257,Short summary
Every year, millions of tons of Saharan dust particles are carried across the Atlantic by the wind, where they can affect weather patterns and climate. Their sizes span orders of magnitude, but the largest (over 10 microns – around the width of a human hair) are difficult to measure and few observations exist. Here we show new aircraft observations of large dust particles, finding more than we would expect, and we quantify their properties which allow them to interact with atmospheric radiation.
Paola Formenti, Stuart John Piketh, Andreas Namwoonde, Danitza Klopper, Roelof Burger, Mathieu Cazaunau, Anaïs Feron, Cécile Gaimoz, Stephen Broccardo, Nicola Walton, Karine Desboeufs, Guillaume Siour, Mattheus Hanghome, Samuel Mafwila, Edosa Omoregie, Wolfgang Junkermann, and Willy Maenhaut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17003–17016,Short summary
Three-years of continuous measurements at the Henties Bay Aerosol Observatory (HBAO; 22°S, 14°05’E), Namibia, show that during the austral wintertime, long- and medium-range transport of pollution from biomass and fossil fuel burning give rise to peaks of light-absorbing black carbon aerosols into the marine boundary layer ahead of the main biomass burning season. This could affect the cloud properties.
Dario Massabò, Silvia Giulia Danelli, Paolo Brotto, Antonio Comite, Camilla Costa, Andrea Di Cesare, Jean François Doussin, Federico Ferraro, Paola Formenti, Elena Gatta, Laura Negretti, Maddalena Oliva, Franco Parodi, Luigi Vezzulli, and Paolo Prati
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5885–5900,
Daniela Meloni, Alcide di Sarra, Gérard Brogniez, Cyrielle Denjean, Lorenzo De Silvestri, Tatiana Di Iorio, Paola Formenti, José L. Gómez-Amo, Julian Gröbner, Natalia Kouremeti, Giuliano Liuzzi, Marc Mallet, Giandomenico Pace, and Damiano M. Sferlazzo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4377–4401,Short summary
This study examines how different aerosol optical properties determine the dust longwave radiative effects at the surface, in the atmosphere and at the top of the atmosphere, based on the combination of remote sensing and in situ observations from the ground, from airborne sensors, and from space, by means of radiative transfer modelling. The closure experiment is based on longwave irradiances and spectral brightness temperatures measured during the 2013 ChArMEx–ADRIMED campaign at Lampedusa.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Nicolas Marchand, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2923–2939,Short summary
Mineral dust is one of the most abundant aerosol species at the global scale and an accurate estimation of its absorption at solar wavelengths is crucial to assess its impact on climate. In this work we provide an estimate of the Aethalometer multiple scattering correction for mineral dust aerosols at 450 and 660 nm. Our results suggest that the use of an optimized correction factor can lead to up to 11 % higher absorption coefficient and to 3 % higher single scattering albedo for mineral dust.
Lorenzo Caponi, Paola Formenti, Dario Massabó, Claudia Di Biagio, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Servanne Chevaillier, Gautier Landrot, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Stuart Piketh, Thuraya Saeed, Dave Seibert, Earle Williams, Yves Balkanski, Paolo Prati, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7175–7191,Short summary
This paper presents new laboratory measurements of the shortwave mass absorption efficiency (MAE) used by climate models for mineral dust of different origin and at different sizes. We found that small particles are more efficient, by given mass, in absorbing radiation, particularly at shorter wavelength. Because dust has high concentrations in the atmosphere, light absorption by mineral dust can be competitive to other absorbing atmospheric aerosols such as black and brown carbon.
Marius Duncianu, Marc David, Sakthivel Kartigueyane, Manuela Cirtog, Jean-François Doussin, and Benedicte Picquet-Varrault
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1445–1463,Short summary
A commercial PTR-ToF-MS has been optimized in order to allow the measurement of individual organic nitrates in the atmosphere. This has been accomplished by shifting the distribution between different ionizing analytes. The proposed approach has been proved to be appropriate for the online detection of individual alkyl nitrates and functionalized nitrates.
Igor B. Konovalov, Matthias Beekmann, Evgeny V. Berezin, Paola Formenti, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4513–4537,Short summary
A shortage of consistent observational evidence on biomass burning (BB) aerosol aging processes hinders the development of their adequate representations in atmospheric models. Here we show that useful insights into the BB aerosol dynamics can be obtained from analysis of satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth and carbon dioxide. Our results indicate that aging processes strongly affect the evolution of BB aerosol in smoke plumes from wildfires in Siberia.
Giuliano Liuzzi, Guido Masiello, Carmine Serio, Daniela Meloni, Claudia Di Biagio, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 599–615,Short summary
In this work we have given a contribution to better understand some of the properties of the desert dust plumes in the western Mediterranean, using both direct measurements and satellite observations. This study has mainly evidenced that satellite observations can provide information about the geographical provenance of dust. This is important because such variability is reflected in the way in which dust interacts with atmosphere and impacts over the observed infrared radiation from satellites.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Yves Balkanski, Lorenzo Caponi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Emilie Journet, Sophie Nowak, Sandrine Caquineau, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Thuraya Saeed, Stuart Piketh, David Seibert, Earle Williams, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1901–1929,Short summary
Modeling the interaction of dust with long-wave (LW) radiation is still a challenge due to the scarcity of information on their refractive index. In this paper, we present a unique dataset of dust refractive indices obtained from in situ measurements in a large smog chamber. Our results show that the dust LW refractive index varies strongly from source to source due to particle composition changes. We recommend taking this variability into account in climate and remote sensing applications.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Lionel Doppler, Cécile Gaimoz, Noel Grand, Gerard Ancellet, Jean-Luc Attié, Silvia Bucci, Philippe Dubuisson, Federico Fierli, Marc Mallet, and François Ravetta
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10591–10607,Short summary
Pollution aerosols strongly influence the composition of the Western Mediterranean, but at present little is known on their optical properties. Here, we report observations of pollution aerosols measured during the TRAQA airborne campaign in summer 2012. Data from this study indicate a large variability of the absorption for pollution particles. This variability strongly influences their direct radiative effect, with possible consequences on the hydrological cycle in this part of the basin.
L. Brégonzio-Rozier, C. Giorio, F. Siekmann, E. Pangui, S. B. Morales, B. Temime-Roussel, A. Gratien, V. Michoud, M. Cazaunau, H. L. DeWitt, A. Tapparo, A. Monod, and J.-F. Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1747–1760,Short summary
The impact of cloud events on isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has been studied from an isoprene/ NOx/light system in an atmospheric simulation chamber. aqSOA formation can be linked to water soluble volatile organic compounds' dissolution in the aqueous phase and to further aqueous phase reactions. Cloud-induced SOA formation is experimentally demonstrated in this study, thus highlighting the importance of aqueous multiphase systems in atmospheric SOA formation estimations.
S. Mailler, L. Menut, A. G. di Sarra, S. Becagli, T. Di Iorio, B. Bessagnet, R. Briant, P. Formenti, J.-F. Doussin, J. L. Gómez-Amo, M. Mallet, G. Rea, G. Siour, D. M. Sferlazzo, R. Traversi, R. Udisti, and S. Turquety
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1219–1244,Short summary
We studied the impact of aerosols on tropospheric photolysis rates at Lampedusa during the CharMEx/ADRIMED campaign in June 2013. It is shown by using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model (CTM) as well as in situ and remote-sensing measurements that taking into account the radiative effect of the tropospheric aerosols improves the ability of the model to reproduce the observed photolysis rates. It is hence important for CTMs to include the radiative effect of aerosols on photochemistry.
C. Denjean, F. Cassola, A. Mazzino, S. Triquet, S. Chevaillier, N. Grand, T. Bourrianne, G. Momboisse, K. Sellegri, A. Schwarzenbock, E. Freney, M. Mallet, and P. Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1081–1104,Short summary
This study investigates the size distribution, chemical composition, and optical properties of Saharan mineral dust transported over the western Mediterranean using in situ measurements collected from aircraft. Their variability due to altitude, time of transport, and mixing rate with pollution particles are discussed. We found moderate light absorption of the dust plumes even in the presence of pollution particles and the persistence of large dust particles after transport in the Mediterranean.
M. Mallet, F. Dulac, P. Formenti, P. Nabat, J. Sciare, G. Roberts, J. Pelon, G. Ancellet, D. Tanré, F. Parol, C. Denjean, G. Brogniez, A. di Sarra, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. Arndt, F. Auriol, L. Blarel, T. Bourrianne, P. Chazette, S. Chevaillier, M. Claeys, B. D'Anna, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, T. Di Iorio, J.-F. Doussin, P. Durand, A. Féron, E. Freney, C. Gaimoz, P. Goloub, J. L. Gómez-Amo, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, N. Grand, E. Hamonou, I. Jankowiak, M. Jeannot, J.-F. Léon, M. Maillé, S. Mailler, D. Meloni, L. Menut, G. Momboisse, J. Nicolas, T. Podvin, V. Pont, G. Rea, J.-B. Renard, L. Roblou, K. Schepanski, A. Schwarzenboeck, K. Sellegri, M. Sicard, F. Solmon, S. Somot, B Torres, J. Totems, S. Triquet, N. Verdier, C. Verwaerde, F. Waquet, J. Wenger, and P. Zapf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 455–504,Short summary
The aim of this article is to present an experimental campaign over the Mediterranean focused on aerosol-radiation measurements and modeling. Results indicate an important atmospheric loading associated with a moderate absorbing ability of mineral dust. Observations suggest a complex vertical structure and size distributions characterized by large aerosols within dust plumes. The radiative effect is highly variable, with negative forcing over the Mediterranean and positive over northern Africa.
C. Di Biagio, L. Doppler, C. Gaimoz, N. Grand, G. Ancellet, J.-C. Raut, M. Beekmann, A. Borbon, K. Sartelet, J.-L. Attié, F. Ravetta, and P. Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9611–9630,Short summary
Observations from this study indicate that continental pollution largely affects the atmospheric composition and structure of the western Mediterranean basin. Pollution plumes reach 3000-4000 m in altitude and present a very complex and highly stratified structure, characterized by fresh and aged layers both in the boundary layer and in the free troposphere. Also we report the observations of high levels of ultrafine particles over the basin, possibly linked to new particle formation events.
C. L. Ryder, J. B. McQuaid, C. Flamant, P. D. Rosenberg, R. Washington, H. E. Brindley, E. J. Highwood, J. H. Marsham, D. J. Parker, M. C. Todd, J. R. Banks, J. K. Brooke, S. Engelstaedter, V. Estelles, P. Formenti, L. Garcia-Carreras, C. Kocha, F. Marenco, H. Sodemann, C. J. T. Allen, A. Bourdon, M. Bart, C. Cavazos-Guerra, S. Chevaillier, J. Crosier, E. Darbyshire, A. R. Dean, J. R. Dorsey, J. Kent, D. O'Sullivan, K. Schepanski, K. Szpek, J. Trembath, and A. Woolley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8479–8520,Short summary
Measurements of the Saharan atmosphere and of atmospheric mineral dust are lacking but are vital to our understanding of the climate of this region and their impacts further afield. Novel observations were made by the Fennec climate programme during June 2011 and 2012 using ground-based, remote sensing and airborne platforms. Here we describe the airborne observations and the contributions they have made to furthering our understanding of the Saharan climate system.
L. Menut, S. Mailler, G. Siour, B. Bessagnet, S. Turquety, G. Rea, R. Briant, M. Mallet, J. Sciare, P. Formenti, and F. Meleux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6159–6182,Short summary
The ozone and aerosol concentration variability is studied over the Euro-Mediterranean area during the months of June and July 2013 and in the framework of the ADRIMED project. A first analysis is performed using meteorological variables, ozone and aerosol concentrations using routine network station, satellite and specific ADRIMED project airborne measurements. This analysis is complemented by modeling using the WRF and CHIMERE regional models.
I. Kourtchev, J.-F. Doussin, C. Giorio, B. Mahon, E. M. Wilson, N. Maurin, E. Pangui, D. S. Venables, J. C. Wenger, and M. Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5683–5695,
C. Denjean, P. Formenti, B. Picquet-Varrault, E. Pangui, P. Zapf, Y. Katrib, C. Giorio, A. Tapparo, A. Monod, B. Temime-Roussel, P. Decorse, C. Mangeney, and J. F. Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3339–3358,
P. Nabat, S. Somot, M. Mallet, M. Michou, F. Sevault, F. Driouech, D. Meloni, A. di Sarra, C. Di Biagio, P. Formenti, M. Sicard, J.-F. Léon, and M.-N. Bouin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3303–3326,Short summary
This paper uses an original approach based on a coupled regional aerosol--atmosphere--ocean model to study the dust radiative effects over the Mediterranean in summer 2012. After an evaluation of the prognostic aerosol scheme, the dust aerosol daily variability is shown to improve the simulated surface radiation and temperature at the daily scale. It has also a significant impact on the summer average, thus highlighting the importance of a relevant representation of aerosols in climate models.
L. Brégonzio-Rozier, F. Siekmann, C. Giorio, E. Pangui, S. B. Morales, B. Temime-Roussel, A. Gratien, V. Michoud, S. Ravier, M. Cazaunau, A. Tapparo, A. Monod, and J.-F. Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2953–2968,Short summary
First- and higher order -generation products formed from the oxidation of isoprene and methacrolein with OH radicals in the presence of NOx have been studied in a simulation chamber. Differences in light source are proposed to partially explain the discrepancies observed between different studies in the literature for both isoprene- and methacrolein-SOA mass yields. According to our results, these SOA yields in the atmosphere could be lower than suggested by most of the current chamber studies.
C. Denjean, P. Formenti, B. Picquet-Varrault, M. Camredon, E. Pangui, P. Zapf, Y. Katrib, C. Giorio, A. Tapparo, B. Temime-Roussel, A. Monod, B. Aumont, and J. F. Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 883–897,
C. Di Biagio, H. Boucher, S. Caquineau, S. Chevaillier, J. Cuesta, and P. Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11093–11116,
P. Formenti, S. Caquineau, K. Desboeufs, A. Klaver, S. Chevaillier, E. Journet, and J. L. Rajot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10663–10686,
W. Ait-Helal, A. Borbon, S. Sauvage, J. A. de Gouw, A. Colomb, V. Gros, F. Freutel, M. Crippa, C. Afif, U. Baltensperger, M. Beekmann, J.-F. Doussin, R. Durand-Jolibois, I. Fronval, N. Grand, T. Leonardis, M. Lopez, V. Michoud, K. Miet, S. Perrier, A. S. H. Prévôt, J. Schneider, G. Siour, P. Zapf, and N. Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10439–10464,
L. Menut, S. Mailler, G. Siour, B. Bessagnet, S. Turquety, G. Rea, R. Briant, M. Mallet, J. Sciare, and P. Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
J.-F. Doussin and A. Monod
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11625–11641,
A. Waked, C. Seigneur, F. Couvidat, Y. Kim, K. Sartelet, C. Afif, A. Borbon, P. Formenti, and S. Sauvage
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5873–5886,
Q. J. Zhang, M. Beekmann, F. Drewnick, F. Freutel, J. Schneider, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prevot, U. Baltensperger, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, J. Sciare, V. Gros, A. Borbon, A. Colomb, V. Michoud, J.-F. Doussin, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Haeffelin, J.-C. Dupont, G. Siour, H. Petetin, B. Bessagnet, S. N. Pandis, A. Hodzic, O. Sanchez, C. Honoré, and O. Perrussel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5767–5790,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Technique: Laboratory Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsCalibration and evaluation of a broad supersaturation scanning (BS2) cloud condensation nuclei counter for rapid measurement of particle hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activityCorrecting bias in log-linear instrument calibrations in the context of chemical ionization mass spectrometryEffects of aerosol size and coating thickness on the molecular detection using extractive electrospray ionizationThe nano-scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (nSEMS) and its application to size distribution measurements of 1.5–25 nm particlesA Semi-automated Instrument for Cellular Oxidative Potential Evaluation (SCOPE) of Water-soluble Extracts of Ambient Particulate MatterA dual-droplet approach for measuring the hygroscopicity of aqueous aerosolA study on the fragmentation of sulfuric acid and dimethylamine clusters inside an Atmospheric Pressure interface Time Of Flight Mass SpectrometerA method for liquid spectrophotometric measurement of total and water-soluble iron and copper in ambient aerosolsEfficacy of a portable, moderate-resolution, fast-scanning differential mobility analyzer for ambient aerosol size distribution measurementsComparative characterization of the performance of bio-aerosol nebulizers in connection with atmospheric simulation chambersCharacterisation of the Manchester Aerosol Chamber facilityCoupling a gas chromatograph simultaneously to a flame ionization detector and chemical ionization mass spectrometer for isomer-resolved measurements of particle-phase organic compoundsInvestigation of structural changes of atmospheric aerosol samples during two thermal–optical measurement procedures (EUSAAR2, NIOSH870)Development of the drop Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), intercomparison of droplet freezing techniques, and use of soluble lignin as an atmospheric ice nucleation standardElemental analysis of oxygenated organic coating on black carbon particles using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometerUtilizing an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor to Indirectly Probe Water Uptake via Particle Bounce MeasurementsOn the calibration of FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS: importance and impact of calibrant delivery for the particle-phase calibrationA single-beam photothermal interferometer for in situ measurements of aerosol light absorptionAqueous particle generation with a 3D printed nebulizerA new method for operating a continuous-flow diffusion chamber to investigate immersion freezing: assessment and performance studyCharacterization of a non-thermal plasma source for use as a mass specrometric calibration tool and non-radioactive aerosol chargerApplication of time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry for the real-time measurement of particle-phase organic peroxides: an online redox derivatization–aerosol mass spectrometer (ORD-AMS)Nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) for investigating hygroscopic properties of sub-10 nm aerosol nanoparticlesQuantification of toxic metals using machine learning techniques and spark emission spectroscopyA new approach for measuring the carbon and oxygen content of atmospherically relevant compounds and mixturesAn experimental study on light scattering matrices for Chinese loess dust with different particle size distributionsCounting on chemistry: laboratory evaluation of seed-material-dependent detection efficiencies of ultrafine condensation particle countersPhotophoretic spectroscopy in atmospheric chemistry – high-sensitivity measurements of light absorption by a single particleLaboratory evaluation of particle-size selectivity of optical low-cost particulate matter sensorsMapping ice formation to mineral-surface topography using a micro mixing chamber with video and atomic-force microscopyHigh-humidity tandem differential mobility analyzer for accurate determination of aerosol hygroscopic growth, microstructure, and activity coefficients over a wide range of relative humidityDevelopment of an improved two-sphere integration technique for quantifying black carbon concentrations in the atmosphere and seasonal snowDevelopment of the DRoplet Ice Nuclei Counter Zurich (DRINCZ): validation and application to field-collected snow samplesMultiple-scattering correction factor of quartz filters and the effect of filtering particles mixed in water: implications for analyses of light absorption in snow samplesThe effect of rapid relative humidity changes on fast filter-based aerosol-particle light-absorption measurements: uncertainties and correction schemesCharacterisation of the filter inlet system on the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft and its use for size-resolved aerosol composition measurementsMolecular characterization of alkyl nitrates in atmospheric aerosols by ion mobility mass spectrometryChanges in PM2.5 peat combustion source profiles with atmospheric aging in an oxidation flow reactorQuantifying organic matter and functional groups in particulate matter filter samples from the southeastern United States – Part 1: MethodsMicroelectromechanical-system-based condensation particle counter for real-time monitoring of airborne ultrafine particlesMeasurement techniques for identifying and quantifying hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) in an aqueous matrix and particulate matter using aerosol mass spectrometry and ion chromatographyVersatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES) operating as a cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrator: development and laboratory characterizationA new aerosol flow reactor to study secondary organic aerosolMorphology and Raman spectra of aerodynamically classified soot samplesSeparation and detection of aqueous atmospheric aerosol mimics using supercritical fluid chromatography–mass spectrometryHumidity effects on the detection of soluble and insoluble nanoparticles in butanol operated condensation particle countersStructural changes of CAST soot during a thermal–optical measurement protocolConcept for an electrostatic focusing device for continuous ambient pressure aerosol concentrationTwo-wavelength thermal–optical determination of light-absorbing carbon in atmospheric aerosolsA portable dual-smog-chamber system for atmospheric aerosol field studies
Najin Kim, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Mira L. Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Thomas F. Mentel, Ovid O. Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6991–7005,Short summary
A broad supersaturation scanning CCN (BS2-CCN) system, in which particles are exposed to a range of supersaturation simultaneously, can measure a broad range of CCN activity distribution with a high time resolution. We describe how the BS2-CCN system can be effectively calibrated and which factors can affect the calibration curve. Intercomparison experiments between typical DMA-CCN and BS2-CCN measurements to evaluate the BS2-CCN system showed high correlation and good agreement.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6551–6560,Short summary
Calibration techniques have been recently developed to log-linearly correlate analyte sensitivity with CIMS operating conditions particularly for compounds without authentic standards. In this work, we examine the previously ignored bias in the log-linear-based calibration method and estimate an average bias of 30 %, with 1 order of magnitude for less sensitive compounds in some circumstances. A step-by-step guide was provided to reduce and even remove the bias.
Chuan Ping Lee, Mihnea Surdu, David M. Bell, Houssni Lamkaddam, Mingyi Wang, Farnoush Ataei, Victoria Hofbauer, Brandon Lopez, Neil M. Donahue, Josef Dommen, Andre S. H. Prevot, Jay G. Slowik, Dongyu Wang, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5913–5923,Short summary
Extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been deployed for high throughput online detection of particles with minimal fragmentation. Our study elucidates the extraction mechanism between the particles and electrospray (ES) droplets of different properties. The results show that the extraction rate is likely affected by the coagulation rate between the particles and ES droplets. Once coagulated, the particles undergo complete extraction within the ES droplet.
Weimeng Kong, Stavros Amanatidis, Huajun Mai, Changhyuk Kim, Benjamin C. Schulze, Yuanlong Huang, Gregory S. Lewis, Susanne V. Hering, John H. Seinfeld, and Richard C. Flagan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5429–5445,Short summary
We present the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of the nano-scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (nSEMS), a recently developed instrument that probes particle physical properties in the 1.5–25 nm range. The nSEMS has proven to be extremely powerful in examining atmospheric nucleation and the subsequent growth of nanoparticles in the CERN CLOUD experiment, which provides a valuable asset to study atmospheric nanoparticles and to evaluate their impact on climate.
Sudheer Salana, Yixiang Wang, Joseph Puthussery, and Vishal Verma
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Oxidative Potential (OP) of particulate matter (PM) is an important indicator of PM toxicity. However, no automated instrument has ever been developed to provide a rapid high-throughput analysis of the cell-based OP measurements. Here, we developed a first-of-its kind semi-automated instrument for measuring oxidative potential using rat alveolar cells. We also developed a dataset on the intrinsic cellular OP of several compounds commonly known to be present in the ambient PM.
Jack M. Choczynski, Ravleen Kaur Kohli, Craig S. Sheldon, Chelsea L. Price, and James F. Davies
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5001–5013,Short summary
Relative humidity (RH) and hygroscopicity play an important role in regulating the physical, chemical, and optical properties of aerosol. In this work, we develop a new method to characterize hygroscopicity using particle levitation. We levitate two droplets with an electrodynamic balance and measure their size with light-scattering methods using one droplet as a probe of the RH. We demonstrate highly accurate and precise measurements of the RH and hygroscopic growth of a range of samples.
Dina Alfaouri, Monica Passananti, Tommaso Zanca, Lauri Ahonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Jakub Kubečka, Nanna Myllys, and Hanna Vehkamäki
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
To study what is happening in the atmosphere, it is important to be able to measure the molecules and clusters present in it. In our work, we studied an artifact that happens inside a mass spectrometer, in particular, the fragmentation of clusters. We were able to quantify the fragmentation and retrieve the correct concentration and composition of the clusters using our dual (experimental and theoretical) approach.
Yuhan Yang, Dong Gao, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4707–4719,Short summary
Iron and copper are commonly found in ambient aerosols and have been linked to adverse health effects. We describe a relatively simple benchtop instrument that can be used to quantify these metals in aqueous solutions and verify the method by comparison with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The approach is based on forming light-absorbing metal–ligand complexes that can be measured with high sensitivity utilizing a long-path liquid waveguide capillary cell.
Stavros Amanatidis, Yuanlong Huang, Buddhi Pushpawela, Benjamin C. Schulze, Christopher M. Kenseth, Ryan X. Ward, John H. Seinfeld, Susanne V. Hering, and Richard C. Flagan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4507–4516,Short summary
We assess the performance of a highly portable mobility analyzer, the Spider DMA, in measuring ambient aerosol particle size distributions, with specific attention to its moderate sizing resolution (R=3). Long-term field testing showed excellent correlation with a conventional mobility analyzer (R=10) over the 17–500 nm range, suggesting that moderate resolution may be sufficient to obtain key properties of ambient size distributions, enabling smaller instruments and better counting statistics.
Silvia G. Danelli, Marco Brunoldi, Dario Massabò, Franco Parodi, Virginia Vernocchi, and Paolo Prati
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4461–4470,Short summary
Experiments conducted inside confined artificial environments, such as atmospheric simulation chambers (ASCs), where atmospheric conditions and composition are controlled, can provide valuable information on bio-aerosol viability, dispersion, and impact. We focus here on the reproducible aerosolization and injection of viable microorganisms into an ASC, the first and crucial step of any experimental protocol to expose bio-aerosols to different atmospheric conditions.
Yunqi Shao, Yu Wang, Mao Du, Aristeidis Voliotis, M. Rami Alfarra, S. Fiona Turner, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
This study describes the design and characterization of the Manchester Aerosol Chamber (MAC). MAC has good temperature and RH homogeneity, fast mixing times and comparable losses of gases and particles with other chambers. We also investigate the effect of contamination on chamber performance and we explore the SOA mass changes after applying various wall-loss correction methods. Our results highlight the need for tracking chamber performance by conducting regular characterization experiments.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Graham O. Frazier, Wen Xu, Andrew T. Lambe, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3895–3907,Short summary
Measurement techniques that can achieve molecular characterizations are necessary to understand the differences of fate and transport within isomers produced in the atmospheric oxidation process. In this work, we develop an instrument to conduct isomer-resolved measurements of particle-phase organics. We assess the number of isomers per chemical formula in atmospherically relevant samples and examine the feasibility of extending the use of an existing instrument to a broader range of analytes.
Theresa Haller, Eva Sommer, Thomas Steinkogler, Christian Rentenberger, Anna Wonaschuetz, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Hinrich Grothe, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3721–3735,Short summary
Structural changes of carbonaceous aerosol samples during thermal–optical measurement techniques cause a darkening of the sample during the heating procedure which can influence the attribution of the carbonaceous material to organic and elemental carbon. We analyzed structural changes of atmospheric aerosol samples occurring during the EUSAAR2 and NIOSH870 measurement protocols with Raman spectroscopy. We found that the darkening of the sample is not necessarily caused by graphitization.
Anna J. Miller, Killian P. Brennan, Claudia Mignani, Jörg Wieder, Robert O. David, and Nadine Borduas-Dedekind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3131–3151,Short summary
To characterize atmospheric ice nuclei, we present (1) the development of our home-built droplet freezing technique (DFT), which involves the Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), (2) an intercomparison campaign using NX-illite and an ambient sample with two other DFTs, and (3) the application of lignin as a soluble and commercial ice nuclei standard with three DFTs. We further compiled the growing number of DFTs in use for atmospheric ice nucleation since 2000 and add FINC.
Mutian Ma, Laura-Hélèna Rivellini, YuXi Cui, Megan D. Willis, Rio Wilkie, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Junfeng Wang, Xinlei Ge, and Alex K. Y. Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2799–2812,Short summary
Chemical characterization of organic coatings is important to advance our understanding of the physio-chemical properties and atmospheric processing of black carbon (BC) particles. This work develops two approaches to improve the elemental analysis of oxygenated organic coatings using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer. Analyzing ambient data with the new approaches indicated that secondary organics that coated on BC were likely less oxygenated compared to those externally mixed with BC.
Kevin B. Fischer and Giuseppe A. Petrucci
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The viscosity of organic particles in atmospheric aerosol is sometimes correlated to bounce factor. It is generally accepted that more viscous particles will be more likely to bounce following acceleration toward and impaction on a surface. We demonstrate that use of multi-stage low-pressure impactors for this purpose may result in measurement artifacts that depend on chemical composition, particle size and changing relative humidity. A hypothesis for the observed effect is presented.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Luis M. F. Barreira, Iida Pullinen, Angela Buchholz, John Jayne, Jordan E. Krechmer, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 355–367,Short summary
FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS enables online volatility measurements of chemical compounds in ambient aerosols. Previously published volatility calibration results however differ from each other significantly. In this study we investigate the reason for this discrepancy. We found a major source of error in the widely used syringe deposition method and propose a new method for volatility calibration by using atomized calibration compounds.
Bradley Visser, Jannis Röhrbein, Peter Steigmeier, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, and Ernest Weingartner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 7097–7111,Short summary
Here we report on the development of a novel single-beam photothermal interferometer and its use in the measurement of aerosol light absorption. We demonstrate how light-absorbing gases can be used to calibrate the instrument and how this absorption is automatically subtracted during normal operation. The performance of the instrument is compared to a standard filter-based instrument using a black carbon test aerosol. The 60 s detection limit is found to be less than 10 Mm-1.
Michael Rösch and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6807–6812,Short summary
The need for a simple atomizer with a high-output stability combined with the capabilities of CAD software and high-resolution 3D printing has allowed for the design, production and testing of the PRinted drOpleT Generator (PROTeGE) to generate liquid particles from solutions. The size and number concentrations of the generated particles have been characterized with different ammonium sulfate and PSL solutions. PROTeGE is easy to operate, requires minimal maintenance and is cost-effective.
Gourihar Kulkarni, Naruki Hiranuma, Ottmar Möhler, Kristina Höhler, Swarup China, Daniel J. Cziczo, and Paul J. DeMott
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6631–6643,Short summary
This study presents a new continuous-flow-diffusion-chamber-style operated ice chamber (Modified Compact Ice Chamber, MCIC) to measure the immersion-freezing efficiency of atmospheric particles. MCIC allowed us to obtain maximum droplet-freezing efficiency at higher time resolution without droplet breakthrough ambiguity. Its evaluation was performed by reproducing published data from the recent ice nucleation workshop and past laboratory data for standard and airborne ice-nucleating particles.
Christian Tauber, David Schmoll, Johannes Gruenwald, Sophia Brilke, Peter Josef Wlasits, Paul Martin Winkler, and Daniela Wimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5993–6006,Short summary
In this paper we show that a commercially available plasma charger with nitrogen as the working gas can enhance the charging probability for sub-12 nm particles. In addition, the charger ion mobilities and the chemical composition have been examined using an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (APi-TOF MS), and comparison of the experimental results revealed that the generated neutralizer ions are not dependent on the charging mechanism.
Marcel Weloe and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5725–5738,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometers (AMSs) are frequently applied in atmospheric aerosol research in connection with climate, environmental or health-related projects. The paper describes a new real-time technique for the measurement of organic peroxides, which play an important role in new particle formation and as
reactive oxygen speciesin aerosol–health-related aspects of atmospheric aerosols.
Ting Lei, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Thomas Tuch, Xin Wang, Zhibin Wang, Mira Pöhlker, Maofa Ge, Weigang Wang, Eugene Mikhailov, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5551–5567,Short summary
We present the design of a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) apparatus that enables high accuracy and precision in hygroscopic growth measurements of aerosol nanoparticles with diameters less than 10 nm. We further introduce comprehensive methods for system calibration and validation of the performance of the system. We then study the size dependence of the deliquescence and the efflorescence of aerosol nanoparticles for sizes down to 6 nm.
Seyyed Ali Davari and Anthony S. Wexler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5369–5377,Short summary
Traditional instruments for detection and quantification of toxic metals in the atmosphere are expensive. In this study, we have designed, fabricated, and tested a low-cost instrument, which employs cheap components to detect and quantify toxic metals. Advanced machine learning (ML) techniques have been used to improve the instrument's performance. This study demonstrates how the combination of low-cost sensors with ML can address problems that traditionally have been too expensive to be solved.
James F. Hurley, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Braden Stump, Chenyang Bi, Purushottam Kumar, Susanne V. Hering, Pat Keady, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4911–4925,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosols has implications for human and ecosystem health. Current methods for determining chemical composition are expensive and require highly trained personnel. Our method is promising for moderate-cost, low-maintenance measurements of oxygen / carbon ratios, a key chemical parameter, and other elements may also be studied. In this work, we coupled two commonly used detectors to assess O / C ratios in a variety of compounds and mixtures within an acceptable error.
Jia Liu, Qixing Zhang, Yinuo Huo, Jinjun Wang, and Yongming Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4097–4109,Short summary
Angular behaviors of light scattering properties for loess dust sampled from the Chinese Loess Plateau were investigated using a self-developed apparatus. Two samples with different size distributions were used to represent dust that can or cannot be transported over long ranges. Analyses of optical simulation results showed that differences of measurements are mainly caused by different sizes. This study is useful for the development of optical models of loess dust during transportation.
Peter Josef Wlasits, Dominik Stolzenburg, Christian Tauber, Sophia Brilke, Sebastian Harald Schmitt, Paul Martin Winkler, and Daniela Wimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3787–3798,Short summary
In this paper we show that chemical similarities between the seed particle material and the working fluid have an impact on the detection efficiency of commonly used CPCs. A remarkable set of CPCs, including the newly developed V-WCPC 3789, was tested. Among others, reproducibly generated organic seeds based on beta-caryophyllene were used. Theoretical simulations of supersaturation profiles were successfully linked to measured data.
Nir Bluvshtein, Ulrich K. Krieger, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3191–3203,Short summary
Light-absorbing organic particles undergo transformations during their exposure in the atmosphere. The role these particles play in the global radiative balance is uncertain. This study describes high-sensitivity and high-precision measurements of light absorption by a single particle levitated in an electrodynamic balance. This high level of sensitivity enables future studies to explore the major processes responsible for changes to the particle's light absorptivity.
Joel Kuula, Timo Mäkelä, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Samu Varjonen, Óscar González, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2413–2423,Short summary
Particle-size-dependent detection ranges of low-cost particulate matter sensors were evaluated in a laboratory experiment. Six different sensor models were evaluated altogether. The results showed that none of the sensor models adhered to the technical specifications provided by the manufacturers, and thus a high risk of sensor misuse is posed. It is paramount that the limitations regarding the particle size discrimination of low-cost sensors are acknowledged properly.
Raymond W. Friddle and Konrad Thürmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2209–2218,Short summary
An obstacle to predicting ice content in mixed-phase clouds is the inability to directly view atmospheric ice nucleation at the nanoscale, where this process occurs. Here we show how a cloud-like environment can be created in a small atomic-force microscopy (AFM) sample cell. By colocating video microscopy of ice formation with high-resolution AFM images, we quantitatively show how the surface topography, down to nanometer-length scales, can determine the preferential locations of ice formation.
Eugene F. Mikhailov and Sergey S. Vlasenko
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2035–2056,Short summary
Here we present the high-humidity tandem differential hygroscopicity analyzer (HHTDMA) and a new method to measure the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles with in situ restructuring to minimize the influence of particle shape. Our results demonstrate that the HHTDMA system described in this work allows us to determine the thermodynamic characteristics of aqueous solutions with an accuracy close to that obtained by bulk methods.
Xin Wang, Xueying Zhang, and Wenjing Di
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 39–52,Short summary
We developed an improved two-sphere integration (TSI) technique to quantify black carbon (BC) concentrations in the atmosphere and seasonal snow. The major advantage of this system is that it combines two distinct integrated spheres to reduce the scattering effect due to light-absorbing particles and thus provides accurate determinations of total light absorption from BC collected on Nuclepore filters.
Robert O. David, Maria Cascajo-Castresana, Killian P. Brennan, Michael Rösch, Nora Els, Julia Werz, Vera Weichlinger, Lin S. Boynton, Sophie Bogler, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, Claudia Marcolli, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6865–6888,Short summary
Here we present the development and applicability of the DRoplet Ice Nuclei Counter Zurich (DRINCZ). DRINCZ allows for ice nuclei in the immersion mode to be quantified between 0 and -25 °C with an uncertainty of ±0.9 °C. Furthermore, we present a new method for assessing biases in drop-freezing apparatuses and cumulative ice-nucleating-particle concentrations from snow samples collected in the Austrian Alps at the Sonnblick Observatory.
Jonas Svensson, Johan Ström, and Aki Virkkula
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5913–5925,Short summary
Collection of particles onto filters can be a valuable tool in several research disciplines. Here we experiment with quartz filters and their response to soot particles in an airborne and liquid state in order to better understand the sampling procedure. Soot particles in a liquid phase showed absorption of light nearly double that of airborne sampled particles.
Sebastian Düsing, Birgit Wehner, Thomas Müller, Almond Stöcker, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5879–5895,Short summary
This study examines the effect of changes in relative humidity on measurements made by two different filter-based absorption photometers. Different filter loads, loading materials, and filter types are considered. It was found that both instruments react opposingly and with different magnitudes. One of the devices showed a variation in the dependence on the loading material. For each of the two devices, a correction approach is provided. Recommendations based on the findings are given.
Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Duncan H. P. Hedges, Matthew Hiscock, Simon T. Parker, Philip D. Rosenberg, Jamie Trembath, Richard Walshaw, Ian T. Burke, James B. McQuaid, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5741–5763,Short summary
Sampling coarse-mode aerosol from a fast-moving research aircraft is challenging and can be subject to substantial losses and enhancements. We characterise these losses and enhancements for an inlet system designed to collect aerosol onto filters. We go on to present an application of this inlet system where we use electron microscopy to study the size and composition of the collected aerosol particles.
Xuan Zhang, Haofei Zhang, Wen Xu, Xiaokang Wu, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, John J. Orlando, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Manjula R. Canagaratna
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5535–5545,Short summary
We develop a new technique to characterize organic nitrates as intact molecules in atmospheric aerosols, and we apply this technique to identify hydroxy nitrates in secondary organic aerosols produced from the photochemical oxidation of isoprene.
Judith C. Chow, Junji Cao, L.-W. Antony Chen, Xiaoliang Wang, Qiyuan Wang, Jie Tian, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Adam C. Watts, Tessa B. Carlson, Steven D. Kohl, and John G. Watson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5475–5501,Short summary
Source profiles that allow peat fire contributions to be distinguished from other source contributions using receptor models are lacking for a wide variety of peat fuels and burning conditions. These profiles change with photochemical aging during transport. Fresh and aged profiles for a variety of peat fuels are measured with an oxidation flow reactor to improve source attributions at distant receptors.
Alexandra J. Boris, Satoshi Takahama, Andrew T. Weakley, Bruno M. Debus, Carley D. Fredrickson, Martin Esparza-Sanchez, Charlotte Burki, Matteo Reggente, Stephanie L. Shaw, Eric S. Edgerton, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5391–5415,Short summary
Organic species are abundant in atmospheric particle-phase (aerosol) pollution and originate from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Infrared spectrometry of filter-based atmospheric particle samples can afford a direct measurement of the particulate organic matter concentration and a characterization of its composition. This work discusses recent method improvements and compositions measured in samples from the SouthEastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network.
Seong-Jae Yoo, Hong-Beom Kwon, Ui-Seon Hong, Dong-Hyun Kang, Sang-Myun Lee, Jangseop Han, Jungho Hwang, and Yong-Jun Kim
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5335–5345,Short summary
We present a portable, inexpensive, and accurate microelectromechanical-system-based (MEMS-based) condensation particle counter (CPC) for the sensitive and precise monitoring of airborne ultrafine particles (UFPs). The CPC is miniaturized by utilizing MEMS technology and 3-D printing. Thus, the proposed system can potentially be used for UFP monitoring in various environments.
Eleni Dovrou, Christopher Y. Lim, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Jesse H. Kroll, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5303–5315,Short summary
Measurement techniques commonly used to analyze particulate matter composition can result in the possible misidentification of sulfur-containing species, especially for the case of sulfate and hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS). The efficiency and limitations of these techniques, along with a method that enables further studies of the contribution of sulfur-containing species, S(IV) versus S(VI), to particulate matter under low-light atmospheric conditions, are described in this work.
Carmen Dameto de España, Gerhard Steiner, Harald Schuh, Constantinos Sioutas, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4733–4744,
Kelly L. Pereira, Grazia Rovelli, Young C. Song, Alfred W. Mayhew, Jonathan P. Reid, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4519–4541,Short summary
We present the design and operation of a newly built continuous-flow reactor (CFR), which can be used as a tool to gain considerable insights into the composition and physical state of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The CFR was used to generate large quantities of SOA mass, allowing the use of highly accurate techniques that are not usually accessible. We demonstrate how this unique approach can be used to investigate the relationship between SOA formation and physiochemical properties.
Alberto Baldelli and Steven Nicholas Rogak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4339–4346,Short summary
Raman spectra and soot primary particle size change with the impactor sampling stage even though the soot source is a steady laboratory flame. This is of potential interest to atmospheric researchers because past work on aerodynamically separated samples was interpreted in terms of distinct particle sources producing particles of different sizes and chemical structures.
Daisy N. Grace, Melissa B. Sebold, and Melissa M. Galloway
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3841–3851,Short summary
The identification and quantification of compounds within an atmospheric particle can be difficult to achieve. We present a supercritical fluid chromatography method to separate these compounds prior to mass spectrometry analysis. The aqueous methylglyoxal–ammonium sulfate system was used as a proxy for atmospheric aerosol; polar columns combined with a carbon dioxide and methanol mobile phase provided the most efficient separation. This method can be extended to other atmospheric systems.
Christian Tauber, Sophia Brilke, Peter Josef Wlasits, Paulus Salomon Bauer, Gerald Köberl, Gerhard Steiner, and Paul Martin Winkler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3659–3671,Short summary
In this paper we show that sodium chloride particles with a mobility diameter below 10 nm indicate different activation regimes. The results of our studies reveal that with increasing humidity the activation of NaCl particles with a standard butanol-based CPC can be enhanced. For Ag this humidity dependence could not be observed – an indicator for the importance of molecular interactions between seed and vapor molecules.
Theresa Haller, Christian Rentenberger, Jannik C. Meyer, Laura Felgitsch, Hinrich Grothe, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3503–3519,Short summary
In thermal–optical measurement techniques – widely used techniques to separate organic and elemental carbon – a filter sample is heated stepwise first in He and then in He+O2. Pyrolysis of organic material occurring during heating in He influences the results but is not fully understood. In this study, structural changes of carbonaceous material during a thermal–optical heating procedure are analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, TEM, UV–VIS and the integrating-sphere method.
Joseph L. Woo, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier, and V. Faye McNeill
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3395–3402,Short summary
We present a proof-of-concept method of concentrating aerosols in a continuous stream using an applied electric field. Potential enrichment was estimated using a trajectory model, predicting values of up to 65 % for 75–200 nm aerosol, using voltages of up to 30 kV. Experimental results using similar geometry yielded up to 15 % observed enrichment for the same conditions. These results imply that aerosol enrichment using an applied electric field can be achieved in continuous-flow applications.
Dario Massabò, Alessandro Altomari, Virginia Vernocchi, and Paolo Prati
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3173–3182,
Christos Kaltsonoudis, Spiro D. Jorga, Evangelos Louvaris, Kalliopi Florou, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2733–2743,Short summary
A portable dual-smog-chamber system was developed using two identical pillow-shaped smog chambers surrounded by UV lamps. The system has been designed to use ambient air as the starting point of the experiments. It can be easily disassembled and transported, enabling the study of various atmospheric environments and it can be used with natural sunlight. The results of test experiments using ambient air are discussed as examples of applications of this system.
Albrecht, B. A.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, 1989.
Arnott, W. P., Hamasha, K., Moosmuller, H., Sheridan, P. J., and Ogren, J. A.: Towards aerosol light-absorption measurements with a 7-wavelength aethalometer: evaluation with a photoacoustic instrument and 3-wavelength nephelometer, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 39, 17–29, 2005.
Beaver, M. R., Garland, R. M., Hasenkopf, C. A., Baynard, T., Ravishankara, A. R., and Tolbert, M. A.: A laboratory investigation of the relative humidity dependence of light extinction by organic compounds from lignin combustion, Environ. Res. Lett., 3, 045003, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/3/4/045003, 2008.
Biskos, G., Paulsen, D., Russell, L. M., Buseck, P. R., and Martin, S. T.: Prompt deliquescence and efflorescence of aerosol nanoparticles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4633–4642, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-4633-2006, 2006.
Bodhaine, B. A.: Aerosol absorption measurements at Barrow, Mauna Loa and the south pole, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 100, 8967–8975, https://doi.org/10.1029/95jd00513, 1995.
Bohren, C. F. and Huffman, D. R.: Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, Wiley, New York, 1983.
Bond, T. C. and Bergstrom, R. W.: Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 40, 27–67, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786820500421521, 2006.
Bond, T. C., Anderson, T. L., and Campbell, D.: Calibration and intercomparison of filter-based measurements of visible light absorption by aerosols, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 30, 582–600, https://doi.org/10.1080/027868299304435, 1999.
Cappa, C. D., Lack, D. A., Burkholder, J. B., and Ravishankara, A. R.: Bias in filter-based aerosol light absorption measurements due to organic aerosol loading: evidence from laboratory measurements, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 42, 1022–1032, 2008.
Chan, M. N. and Chan, C. K.: Mass transfer effects in hygroscopic measurements of aerosol particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2703–2712, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-2703-2005, 2005.
Charlson, R. J., Schwartz, S. E., Hales, J. M., Cess, R. D., Coakley, J. A., Hansen, J. E., and Hofmann, D. J.: Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols, Science, 255, 423–430, 1992.
Collaud Coen, M., Weingartner, E., Apituley, A., Ceburnis, D., Fierz-Schmidhauser, R., Flentje, H., Henzing, J. S., Jennings, S. G., Moerman, M., Petzold, A., Schmid, O., and Baltensperger, U.: Minimizing light absorption measurement artifacts of the Aethalometer: evaluation of five correction algorithms, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 457–474, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-3-457-2010, 2010.
Covert, D. S., Charlson, R. J., and Ahlquist, N. C.: A study of the relationship of chemical composition and humidity to light scattering by aerosols, J. Appl. Meteorol., 11, 968–976, 1972.
Covert, D. S., Heintzenberg, J., and Hansson, H.-C.: "Electro-optical Detection of External Mixtures in Aerosols", Aerosol Sci. Tech, 12, 446-456, 1990.
Cruz, C. N. and Pandis, S. N.: Deliquescence and hygroscopic growth of mixed inorganic30 organic atmospheric aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 34, 4313–4319, 2000.
Déandreis, C., Balkanski, Y., Dufresne, J. L., and Cozic, A.: Radiative forcing estimates of sulfate aerosol in coupled climate-chemistry models with emphasis on the role of the temporal variability, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5583–5602, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-5583-2012, 2012.
Dinar, E., Riziq, A. A., Spindler, C., Erlick, C., Kiss, G., and Rudich, Y.: The complex refractive index of atmospheric and model humiclike substances (HULIS) retrieved by a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS), Faraday Discuss., 137, 279–295, 2008.
Dougle, P. G., Veefkind, J. P., and ten Brink, H. M.: Crystallisation of mixtures of ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and soot, J. Aerosol Sci., 29, 375–386, 1998.
Duplissy, J., Gysel, M., Sjogren, S., Meyer, N., Good, N., Kammermann, L., Michaud, V., Weigel, R., Martins dos Santos, S., Gruening, C., Villani, P., Laj, P., Sellegri, K., Metzger, A., McFiggans, G. B., Wehrle, G., Richter, R., Dommen, J., Ristovski, Z., Baltensperger, U., and Weingartner, E.: Intercomparison study of six HTDMAs: results and recommendations, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 2, 363–378, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2-363-2009, 2009.
Flores, J. M., Trainic, M., Borrmann, S., and Rudich, Y.: Effective broadband refractive index retrieval by a white light optical particle counter, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 11, 7943–7950, 2009.
Forster, P., Ramaswamy, V., Artaxo, P., Berntsen, T., Betts, R., Fahey, D. W., Haywood, J., Lean, J., Lowe, D. C., Myhre, G., Nganga, J., Prinn, R., Raga, G., Schulz, M., and Van Dorland, R.: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change, in: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K. B., Tignor, M., and Miller, H. L., 2007.
Garland, R. M., Ravishankara, A. R., Lovejoy, E. R., Tolbert, M. A., and Baynard, T.: Parameterization for the relative humidity dependence of light extinction: organic-ammonium sulfate aerosol, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D19303, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD008179, 2007.
Gysel, M., Weingartner, E., and Baltensperger, U.: Hygroscopicity of aerosol particles at low temperatures, 2. theoretical and experimental hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated aerosols, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 63–68, 2001.
Hämeri, K., Väkevä, M., Hansson, H.-C., and Laaksonen, A.: Hygroscopic growth of ultrafine ammonium sulphate aerosol measured using an ultrafine tandem differential mobility analyzer, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 22231–22242, 2000.
Hand, J. L. and Kreidenweis, S. M.: A new method for retrieving particle refractive index and effective density from aerosol size distribution data, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 36, 1012–1026, 2002.
Hansen, J., Sato, M., and Ruedy, R.: Radiative forcing and climate response, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 102, 6831–6864, 1997.
Haywood, J. M. and Ramaswamy, V.: Global sensitivity studies of the direct radiative forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate and black carbon aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 6043–6058, 1998.
Haywood, J. M., Schwarzkopf, M. D., and Ramaswamy, V.: Estimates of radiative forcing due to modeled increases in tropospheric ozone, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 16999–17007, 1998.
Hegg, D., Larson, T., and Yuen, P. F.: A theoretical-study of the effect of relative-humidity on light scattering by tropospheric aerosols, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 98, 18435–18439, 1993.
Heim, M., Mullins, B. J., Umhauer, H., and Kasper, G.: Performance evaluation of three optical particle counters with an efficient multimodal calibration method, J. Aerosol Sci., 39, 1019–1031, 2008.
Henry, K. M. and Donahue, N. M.: Photochemical aging of alpha-pinene secondary organic aerosol: effects of oh radical sources and photolysis, J. Phys. Chem. A, 116, 5932–5940, 2012.
Hinds, W. C.: Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behaviour, and Measurement of Airborne Particles, Book, 1999.
Hu, J. H. and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Reaction probabilities for N2O5 hydrolysis on sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate aerosols at room temperature, J. Phys. Chem. A, 101, 871–878, 1997.
Huff Hartz, K. E., Rosenorn, T., Ferchak, S. R., Raymond, T. M., Bilde, M., Donahue, N. M., and Pandis, S. N.: Cloud condensation nuclei activation of monoterpene and sesquiterpene secondary organic aerosol, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D14208, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005754, 2005.
Kanakidou, M., Seinfeld, J. H., Pandis, S. N., Barnes, I., Dentener, F. J., Facchini, M. C., Van Dingenen, R., Ervens, B., Nenes, A., Nielsen, C. J., Swietlicki, E., Putaud, J. P., Balkanski, Y., Fuzzi, S., Horth, J., Moortgat, G. K., Winterhalter, R., Myhre, C. E. L., Tsigaridis, K., Vignati, E., Stephanou, E. G., and Wilson, J.: Organic aerosol and global climate modelling: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1053–1123, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-1053-2005, 2005.
Knipping, E. M., Lakin, M. J., Foster, K. L., Jungwirth, P., Tobias, D. J., Gerber, R. B., Dabdub, D., and Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.: Experiments and simulations of ion-enhanced interfacial chemistry on aqueous NaCl aerosols, Science, 288, 301–306, 2000.
Kroll, J. H., Ng, N. L., Murphy, S. M., Varutbangkul, V., Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Chamber studies of secondary organic aerosol growth by reactive uptake of simple carbonyl,compounds, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 110, D23207, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006004, 2005.
Krueger, B. J., Grassian, V. H., Iedema, M. J., Cowin, J. P., and Laskin, A.: Probing heterogeneous chemistry of individual atmospheric particles using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-Ray analysis, Anal. Chem., 75, 5170–5179, 2003.
Kus, P., Carrico, C., Rood, M., and Williams, A.: Measured and modeled light scattering values for dry and hydrated laboratory aerosols, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 21, 981–994, 2004.
Liu, B. Y. H., Pui, D. Y. H., Whitby, K. T., and Kittelson, D. B.: The aerosol mobility chromatograph: a new detector for sulfuric acid aerosols, Atmos. Environ., 12, 99–104, 1978.
Liu, X., Cheng, Y., Zhang, Y., Jung, J., Sugimoto, N., Chang, S.-Y., Kim, Y. J., Fan, S., and Zeng, L.: Influences of relative humidity and particle chemical composition on aerosol scattering properties during the 2006 PRD campaign, Atmos. Environ., 42, 1525–1536, 2008.
Lohmann, U. and Feichter, J.: Global indirect aerosol effects: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 715–737, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-715-2005, 2005.
Malm, W. C., Day, D. E., Kreidenweis, S. M., Collett, J., Jeffrey, L., Carrico, C., McMeeking, G., and Lee, T.: Hygroscopic properties of an organic-laden aerosol, Atmos. Environ., 39, 4969–4982, 2005.
Martin, S. T.: Phase transitions of aqueous atmospheric particles, Chem. Rev., 100, 3403–3453, 2000.
Martin, S. T., Hung, H.-M., Park, R. J., Jacob, D. J., Spurr, R. J. D., Chance, K. V., and Chin, M.: Effects of the physical state of tropospheric ammonium-sulfate-nitrate particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 183–214, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-4-183-2004, 2004.
Meyer, N. K., Duplissy, J., Gysel, M., Metzger, A., Dommen, J., Weingartner, E., Alfarra, M. R., Prevot, A. S. H., Fletcher, C., Good, N., McFiggans, G., Jonsson, Å. M., Hallquist, M., Baltensperger, U., and Ristovski, Z. D.: Analysis of the hygroscopic and volatile properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded SOA particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 721–732, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-721-2009, 2009.
Mozurkewich, M. and Calvert, J. G.: Reaction probability of N2O5 on aqueous aerosols, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 93, 15889–15896, 1988.
Nakayama, T., Matsumi, Y., Sato, K., Imamura, T., Yamazaki, A., and Uchiyama, A.: Laboratory studies on optical properties of secondary organic aerosols generated during the photooxidation of toluene and the ozonolysis of alphapinene, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D24204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014387, 2010.
Nemesure, S., Wagener, R., and Schwartz, S. E.: Direct shortwave forcing of climate by the anthropogenic sulfate aerosol: sensitivity to particle size, composition, and relative humidity, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 100, 26105–26116, 1995.
Orr Jr., C., Hurd, F. K., and Corbett, W. J.: Aerosol size and relative humidity, J. Coll. Sci., 13, 472–482, 1958.
Petters, M. D., Wex, H., Carrico, C. M., Hallbauer, E., Massling, A., McMeeking, G. R., Poulain, L., Wu, Z., Kreidenweis, S. M., and Stratmann, F.: Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and activation for secondary organic aerosol – Part 2: Theoretical approaches, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3999–4009, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-3999-2009, 2009.
Petzold, A., Kopp, C., and Niessner, R.: The dependence of the specific attenuation cross-section on black carbon mass fraction and particle size, Atmos. Environ., 31, 661–672, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(96)00245-2, 1997.
Prenni, A. J., DeMott, P. J., and Kreidenweis, S. M.: Water uptake of internally mixed particles containing ammonium sulfate and dicarboxylic acids, Atmos. Environ., 37, 4243–4251, 2003.
Pruppacher, H. and Klett, J. D.: Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation, Book, 1996.
Riziq, A. A., Trainic, M., Erlick, C., Segre, E., and Rudich, Y.: Extinction efficiencies of coated absorbing aerosols measured by cavity ring down aerosol spectrometry, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 7, 18113–18144, https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-7-18113-2007, 2007.
Saathoff, H., Naumann, K.-H., Schnaiter, M., Schöck, W., Mähler, O., Schurath, U., Weingartner, E., Gysel, M., and Baltensperger, U.: Coating of soot and (NH4)2SO4 particles by ozonolysis products of α-pinene, J. Aerosol Sci., 34, 1297–1321, 2003.
Saxena, P., Hildemann, L. M., McMurry, P. H., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Organics alter hygroscopic behaviour of atmospheric particles, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 18755–18770, 1995.
Schuttlefield, J., Al-Hosney, H., Zachariah, A., and Grassian, V. H.: Attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate water uptake and phase transitions in atmospherically relevant particles, Appl. Spectrosc., 61, 283–292, 2007.
Sjogren, S., Gysel, M., Weingartner, E., Baltensperger, U., Cubison, M. J., Coe, H., Zardini, A., Marcolli, C., Krieger, U. K., and Peter, T.: Hygroscopic growth and water uptake kinetics of two-phase aerosol particles consisting of ammonium sulfate, adipic and humic acid mixtures, J. Aerosol Sci., 38, 157–171, 2007.
Sorooshian, A., Hersey, S., Brechtel, F. J., Corless, A., Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Rapid, Size-Resolved Aerosol Hygroscopic Growth Measurements: Differential Aerosol Sizing and Hygroscopicity Spectrometer Probe (DASH-SP), Aerosol Sci. Tech., 42, 445–464, 2008.
Svenningsson, I. B., Hansson, H. C., Wiedensohler, A., Ogren, J. A., Noone, K. J., and Hallberg, A.: Hygroscopic growth of aerosol-particles in the Po Valley, Tellus B, 44, 556–569, 1992.
Swietlicki, E. and Hansson, H.-C.: Hygroscopic properties of submicrometer atmospheric aerosol particles measured with H-TDMA instruments in various environments – a review, Tellus B, 60, 432–469, 2008.
Tang, I. N.: Chemical and size effects of hygroscopic aerosols on light scattering coefficients, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 19245–19250, 1996.
ten Brink, H. M., Khlystov, A., Kos, G. P. A., Tuch, T., Roth, C., and Kreyling, W.: A high-flow humidograph for testing the water uptake by ambient aerosol, Atmos. Environ., 34, 4291–4300, 2000.
Toon, O. B., Pollack, J. B., and Khare, B. N.: The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species: ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 5733–5748, 1976.
Trainic, M., Riziq, A. A., Lavi, A., and Rudich, Y.: Role of interfacial water in the heterogeneous uptake of glyoxal by mixed glycine and ammonium sulfate aerosols, J. Phys. Chem. A, 116, 5948–5957, 2012.
Tritscher, T., Dommen, J., DeCarlo, P. F., Gysel, M., Barmet, P. B., Praplan, A. P., Weingartner, E., Prévôt, A. S. H., Riipinen, I., Donahue, N. M., and Baltensperger, U.: Volatility and hygroscopicity of aging secondary organic aerosol in a smog chamber, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11477–11496, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-11477-2011, 2011.
Varutbangkul, V., Brechtel, F. J., Bahreini, R., Ng, N. L., Keywood, M. D., Kroll, J. H., Flagan, R. C., Seinfeld, J. H., Lee, A., and Goldstein, A. H.: Hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosols formed by oxidation of cycloalkenes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and related compounds, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 2367–2388, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-2367-2006, 2006.
Volkamer, R., Ziemann, P. J., and Molina, M. J.: Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Acetylene (C2H2): seed effect on SOA yields due to organic photochemistry in the aerosol aqueous phase, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 1907–1928, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-1907-2009, 2009.
Wang, J., Doussin, J. F., Perrier, S., Perraudin, E., Katrib, Y., Pangui, E., and Picquet-Varrault, B.: Design of a new multi-phase experimental simulation chamber for atmospheric photosmog, aerosol and cloud chemistry research, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2465–2494, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-2465-2011, 2011.
Weingartner, E., Saathoff, H., Schnaiter, M., Streit, N., Bitnar, B., and Baltensperger, U.: Absorption of light by soot particles: determination of the absorption coefficient by means of aethalometers, J. Aerosol Sci., 34, 1445–1463, 2003.
Wex, H., Kiselev, A., Stratmann, F., Zoboki, J., and Brechtel, F.: Measured and modeled equilibrium sizes of NaCl and (NH4)2SO4 particles at relative humidities up to 99.1 %, J. Geophys. Res., 110, 955–989, 2005.
Wex, H., Petters, M. D., Carrico, C. M., Hallbauer, E., Massling, A., McMeeking, G. R., Poulain, L., Wu, Z., Kreidenweis, S. M., and Stratmann, F.: Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and activation for secondary organic aerosol: Part 1 – Evidence from measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3987–3997, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-3987-2009, 2009.
Yasmeen, F., Vermeylen, R., Maurin, N., Perraudin, E., Doussin, J. F., and Claeys, M.: Characterisation of tracers for aging of alpha-pinene secondary organic aerosol using liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry, Environ. Chem., 9, 236–246, https://doi.org/10.1071/en11148, 2012.
Yoon, S.-C. and Kim, J.: Influences of relative humidity on aerosol optical properties and aerosol radiative forcing during ACE-Asia, Atmos. Environ., 40, 4328–4338, 2006.