Articles | Volume 7, issue 8
Research article 21 Aug 2014
Research article | 21 Aug 2014
Optimized method for black carbon analysis in ice and snow using the Single Particle Soot Photometer
I. A. Wendl et al.
I. A. Wendl, A. Eichler, E. Isaksson, T. Martma, and M. Schwikowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7287–7300,Short summary
Nitrate and ammonium ice core records from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, indicated anthropogenic pollution from Eurasia as major source during the 20th century. In pre-industrial times nitrate is correlated with methane sulfonate, which we explain with a fertilising effect, presumably triggered by enhanced atmospheric nitrogen input to the ocean. Eurasia was likely the main source area also of pre-industrial nitrate, but for ammonium, biogenic emissions from Siberian boreal forests were dominant.
Shugui Hou, Wangbin Zhang, Ling Fang, Theo M. Jenk, Shuangye Wu, Hongxi Pang, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 15, 2109–2114,Short summary
We present ages for two new ice cores reaching bedrock, from the Zangser Kangri (ZK) glacier in the northwestern Tibetan Plateau and the Shulenanshan (SLNS) glacier in the western Qilian Mountains. We estimated bottom ages of 8.90±0.57/0.56 ka and 7.46±1.46/1.79 ka for the ZK and SLNS ice core respectively, constraining the time range accessible by Tibetan ice cores to the Holocene.
Joel D. Barker, Susan Kaspari, Paolo Gabrielli, Anna Wegner, Emilie Beaudon, M. Roxana Sierra-Hernández, and Lonnie Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5615–5633,Short summary
Black carbon (BC), an aerosol that contributes to glacier melt, is important for central Himalayan hydrology because glaciers are a water source to rivers that affect 25 % of the global population in Southeast Asia. Using the Dasuopu ice core (1781–1992 CE), we find that drought-associated biomass burning is an important source of BC to the central Himalaya over a period of months to years and that hemispheric changes in atmospheric circulation influence BC deposition over longer periods.
Dalrin Ampritta Amaladhasan, Claudia Heyn, Christopher R. Hoyle, Imad El Haddad, Miriam Elser, Simone M. Pieber, Jay G. Slowik, Antonio Amorim, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Vladimir Makhmutov, Ugo Molteni, Matti Rissanen, Yuri Stozhkov, Robert Wagner, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Rainer Volkamer, Urs Baltensperger, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We employ a combination of models for gas-phase chemical reactions and equilibrium gas-particle partitioning of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) informed by dark ozonolysis experiments conducted in the CLOUD chamber. Our predictions cover high to low relative humidities (RH) and quantify how SOA mass yields are enhanced at high RH as well as the impact of inorganic seeds of distinct hygroscopicities and acidities on the coupled partitioning of water and semivolatile organics.
Ling Fang, Theo M. Jenk, Thomas Singer, Shugui Hou, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 15, 1537–1550,Short summary
The interpretation of the ice-core-preserved signal requires a precise chronology. Radiocarbon (14C) dating of the water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC) fraction has become an important dating tool. However, this method is restricted by the low concentration in the ice. In this work, we report first 14C dating results using the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fraction. The resulting ages are comparable in both fractions, but by using the DOC fraction the required ice mass can be reduced.
Sebastian Düsing, Albert Ansmann, Holger Baars, Joel C. Corbin, Cyrielle Denjean, Martin Gysel-Beer, Thomas Müller, Laurent Poulain, Holger Siebert, Gerald Spindler, Thomas Tuch, Birgit Wehner, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The work deals with optical properties of aerosol particles in dried and atmospheric state. Based on two measurement campaigns in the rural background of Central Europe different measurement approaches were compared with each other, such as modeling based on Mie theory and direct in-situ or remote sensing measurements. Among others, it was shown that the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio is relative humidity dependent, and refinement with respect to the model input parameters is needed.
Rosaria E. Pileci, Robin L. Modini, Michele Bertò, Jinfeng Yuan, Joel C. Corbin, Angela Marinoni, Bas Henzing, Marcel M. Moerman, Jean P. Putaud, Gerald Spindler, Birgit Wehner, Thomas Müller, Thomas Tuch, Arianna Trentini, Marco Zanatta, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1379–1403,Short summary
Black carbon (BC), which is an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols, remains difficult to quantify due to various limitations of available methods. This study provides an extensive comparison of co-located field measurements, applying two methods based on different principles. It was shown that both methods indeed quantify the same aerosol property – BC mass concentration. The level of agreement that can be expected was quantified, and some reasons for discrepancy were identified.
Sebastian Hellmann, Johanna Kerch, Ilka Weikusat, Andreas Bauder, Melchior Grab, Guillaume Jouvet, Margit Schwikowski, and Hansruedi Maurer
The Cryosphere, 15, 677–694,Short summary
We analyse the orientation of ice crystals in an Alpine glacier and compare this orientation with the ice flow direction. We found that the crystals orient in the direction of the largest stress which is in the flow direction in the upper parts of the glacier and in the vertical direction for deeper zones of the glacier. The grains cluster around this maximum stress direction, in particular four-point maxima, most likely as a result of recrystallisation under relatively warm conditions.
Rob L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Benjamin T. Brem, Martin Irwin, Michele Bertò, Rosaria E. Pileci, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Bas Henzing, Marcel M. Moerman, Fengshan Liu, Thomas Müller, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 819–851,Short summary
Extinction-minus-scattering is an important method for measuring aerosol light absorption, but its application in the field presents a number of challenges. A recently developed instrument based on this method – the CAPS PMssa – has the potential to overcome some of these challenges. We present a compilation of theory, lab measurements, and field examples to characterize this instrument and show the conditions under which it can deliver reliable absorption measurements for atmospheric aerosols.
Jinfeng Yuan, Robin Lewis Modini, Marco Zanatta, Andreas B. Herber, Thomas Müller, Birgit Wehner, Laurent Poulain, Thomas Tuch, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 635–655,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) aerosols contribute substantially to climate warming due to their unique light absorption capabilities. We performed field measurements at a central European background site in winter and found that variability in the absorption efficiency of BC particles is driven mainly by their internal mixing state. Our results suggest that, at this site, knowing the BC mixing state is sufficient to describe BC light absorption enhancements due to the lensing effect in good approximation.
Clémence Rose, Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Yong Lin, Isaline Bossert, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markus Fiebig, Pasi Aalto, Andrés Alastuey, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Todor Arsov, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Sébastien Conil, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Francisco Javier Gómez-Moreno, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Jakub Ondracek, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Pérez, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Junying Sun, Pierre Tulet, Ville Vakkari, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Villani, Stergios Vratolis, Zdenek Wagner, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Vladimir Zdimal, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system which effects are among the most uncertain in climate change projections. Using data collected at 62 stations, this study provides the most up-to-date picture of the spatial distribution of particle number concentration and size distribution worldwide, with the aim of contributing to better representation of aerosols and their interactions with clouds in models and, therefore, better evaluation of their impact on climate.
Vaios Moschos, Martin Gysel-Beer, Robin L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Dario Massabò, Camilla Costa, Silvia G. Danelli, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Sönke Szidat, Paolo Prati, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
This study provides a holistic approach to study the spectrally-resolved light absorption by atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) and black carbon, using long time series of biomass burning-influenced daily samples from filter-based measurements. The obtained results provide (1) a better understanding of the aerosol absorption profile and its dependence on BrC and on lensing from less-absorbing coatings, and (2) an estimation of the most important absorbers at typical European locations.
Guillaume Jouvet, Stefan Röllin, Hans Sahli, José Corcho, Lars Gnägi, Loris Compagno, Dominik Sidler, Margit Schwikowski, Andreas Bauder, and Martin Funk
The Cryosphere, 14, 4233–4251,Short summary
We show that plutonium is an effective tracer to identify ice originating from the early 1960s at the surface of a mountain glacier after a long time within the ice flow, giving unique information on the long-term former ice motion. Combined with ice flow modelling, the dating can be extended to the entire glacier, and we show that an airplane which crash-landed on the Gauligletscher in 1946 will likely soon be released from the ice close to the place where pieces have emerged in recent years.
Daniela Festi, Margit Schwikowski, Valter Maggi, Klaus Oeggl, and Theo Manuel Jenk
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TC
Dimitri Osmont, Sandra Brugger, Anina Gilgen, Helga Weber, Michael Sigl, Robin L. Modini, Christoph Schwörer, Willy Tinner, Stefan Wunderle, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 14, 3731–3745,Short summary
In this interdisciplinary case study, we were able to link biomass burning emissions from the June 2017 wildfires in Portugal to their deposition in the snowpack at Jungfraujoch, Swiss Alps. We analysed black carbon and charcoal in the snowpack, calculated backward trajectories, and monitored the fire evolution by remote sensing. Such case studies help to understand the representativity of biomass burning records in ice cores and how biomass burning tracers are archived in the snowpack.
Leighton A. Regayre, Julia Schmale, Jill S. Johnson, Christian Tatzelt, Andrea Baccarini, Silvia Henning, Masaru Yoshioka, Frank Stratmann, Martin Gysel-Beer, Daniel P. Grosvenor, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10063–10072,Short summary
The amount of energy reflected back into space because of man-made particles is highly uncertain. Processes related to naturally occurring particles cause most of the uncertainty, but these processes are poorly constrained by present-day measurements. We show that measurements over the Southern Ocean, far from pollution sources, efficiently reduce climate model uncertainties. Our results pave the way to designing experiments and measurement campaigns that reduce this uncertainty even further.
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Andrés Alastuey, Todor Petkov Arsov, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Cédric Couret, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Harald Flentje, Markus Fiebig, Martin Gysel-Beer, Jenny L. Hand, András Hoffer, Rakesh Hooda, Christoph Hueglin, Warren Joubert, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Casper Labuschagne, Neng-Huei Lin, Yong Lin, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marco Pandolfi, Natalia Prats, Anthony J. Prenni, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Ludwig Ries, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Elvis Torres, Thomas Tuch, Rolf Weller, Alfred Wiedensohler, Paul Zieger, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8867–8908,Short summary
Long-term trends of aerosol radiative properties (52 stations) prove that aerosol load has significantly decreased over the last 20 years. Scattering trends are negative in Europe (EU) and North America (NA), not ss in Asia, and show a mix of positive and negative trends at polar stations. Absorption has mainly negative trends. The single scattering albedo has positive trends in Asia and eastern EU and negative in western EU and NA, leading to a global positive median trend of 0.02 % per year.
Sebastian Landwehr, Iris Thurnherr, Nicolas Cassar, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Julia Schmale
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3487–3506,Short summary
Shipborne wind speed measurements are relevant for field studies of air–sea interaction processes. Distortion of the airflow by the ship’s structure can, however, lead to errors. We estimate the flow distortion bias by comparing the observations to ERA-5 reanalysis data. The underlying assumptions are that the bias depends only on the relative orientation of the ship to the wind direction and that the ERA-5 wind speeds are (on average) representative of the true wind speed.
Luciano Marquetto, Susan Kaspari, and Jefferson Cardia Simões
The Cryosphere, 14, 1537–1554,Short summary
Black carbon, commonly known as soot, is a particle originating from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning that plays an important role in the climatic system. In this work, we analyzed black carbon from an Antarctic ice core spanning 1968–2015 and observed very low concentrations of this particle in the snow, lower than previous works in West Antarctica. We suggest that black carbon transport to East Antarctica is different from its transport to West Antarctica.
Joel C. Corbin and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15673–15690,Short summary
We review the literature to refine the definition of "tar balls" (or tar particles). Then, using a marine-engine data set, we show that a standard SP2 can identify tar particles in two ways, as evaporating and non-incandescing (30 % of tar particles by number) or incandescing particles which scatter more light than soot at incandescence (70 % of tar particles by number). To our knowledge, no other technique can provide in situ, real-time evidence for the presence of tar particles in an aerosol.
George S. Fanourgakis, Maria Kanakidou, Athanasios Nenes, Susanne E. Bauer, Tommi Bergman, Ken S. Carslaw, Alf Grini, Douglas S. Hamilton, Jill S. Johnson, Vlassis A. Karydis, Alf Kirkevåg, John K. Kodros, Ulrike Lohmann, Gan Luo, Risto Makkonen, Hitoshi Matsui, David Neubauer, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Julia Schmale, Philip Stier, Kostas Tsigaridis, Twan van Noije, Hailong Wang, Duncan Watson-Parris, Daniel M. Westervelt, Yang Yang, Masaru Yoshioka, Nikos Daskalakis, Stefano Decesari, Martin Gysel-Beer, Nikos Kalivitis, Xiaohong Liu, Natalie M. Mahowald, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Roland Schrödner, Maria Sfakianaki, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Mingxuan Wu, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8591–8617,Short summary
Effects of aerosols on clouds are important for climate studies but are among the largest uncertainties in climate projections. This study evaluates the skill of global models to simulate aerosol, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNCs). Model results show reduced spread in CDNC compared to CCN due to the negative correlation between the sensitivities of CDNC to aerosol number concentration (air pollution) and updraft velocity (atmospheric dynamics).
Shugui Hou, Wangbin Zhang, Hongxi Pang, Shuang-Ye Wu, Theo M. Jenk, Margit Schwikowski, and Yetang Wang
The Cryosphere, 13, 1743–1752,Short summary
The apparent discrepancy between the Holocene δ18O records of the Guliya and the Chongce ice cores may be attributed to a possible misinterpretation of the Guliya ice core chronology.
Dimitri Osmont, Michael Sigl, Anja Eichler, Theo M. Jenk, and Margit Schwikowski
Clim. Past, 15, 579–592,Short summary
We present the first black carbon (BC) ice-core record from the Andes (Illimani, Bolivia). It spans the entire Holocene and reflects biomass burning emissions from the Amazon Basin, with high (low) concentrations during warm–dry (wet–cold) periods. The highest fire activity occurred during the Holocene Climatic Optimum (7000–3000 BCE). Recent BC levels, increasing since 1730 CE, do not exceed those of the Medieval Warm Period. The contribution from industrial and traffic emissions remains minor.
Ghislain Motos, Julia Schmale, Joel C. Corbin, Rob. L. Modini, Nadine Karlen, Michele Bertò, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3833–3855,Short summary
Atmospheric black carbon (BC) particles are strong light absorbers that contribute to global warming. In situ cloud measurements performed at a high-altitude site showed that cloud supersaturation mainly drives the activation of BC to cloud droplets. It was further shown how BC particle size and mixing state modulate this nucleation scavenging in agreement with simplified theoretical predictions. These findings can inform model simulations towards a better representation of the BC life cycle.
Ghislain Motos, Julia Schmale, Joel C. Corbin, Marco Zanatta, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2183–2207,Short summary
Clouds form by condensation of water vapour on aerosol particles. We showed that black carbon, a subset of particles responsible for a climate warming due to their strong light absorption and known to be insoluble in water, were able to form droplets when the humidity of the air is very slightly over 100 %. This is made possible by their acquisition of a
coatingmade of hydrophilic material during atmospheric aging. The predictability of this process using theory was successfully tested.
Nivedita K. Kumar, Joel C. Corbin, Emily A. Bruns, Dario Massabó, Jay G. Slowik, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, Paolo Prati, Athanasia Vlachou, Urs Baltensperger, Martin Gysel, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17843–17861,Short summary
It is clear that considerable uncertainties still exist in understanding the magnitude of aerosol absorption on a global scale and its contribution to global warming. This manuscript provides a comprehensive assessment of the optical absorption by organic aerosols (brown carbon) from residential wood combustion as a function of atmospheric aging.
Michael Sigl, Nerilie J. Abram, Jacopo Gabrieli, Theo M. Jenk, Dimitri Osmont, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 12, 3311–3331,Short summary
The fast retreat of Alpine glaciers since the mid-19th century documented in photographs is used as a symbol for the human impact on global climate, yet the key driving forces remain elusive. Here we argue that not industrial soot but volcanic eruptions were responsible for an apparently accelerated deglaciation starting in the 1850s. Our findings support a negligible role of human activity in forcing glacier recession at the end of the Little Ice Age, highlighting the role of natural drivers.
Marco Zanatta, Paolo Laj, Martin Gysel, Urs Baltensperger, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Yutaka Kondo, Philippe Dubuisson, Victor Winiarek, Stelios Kazadzis, Peter Tunved, and Hans-Werner Jacobi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14037–14057,Short summary
The research community aims to quantify the actual contribution of soot particles to the recent Arctic warming. We discovered that mixing of soot with other components might enhance its light absorption power by 50 %. The neglection of such amplification might lead to the underestimation of radiative forcing by 0.12 W m−2. Thus a better understanding of the optical properties of soot is a crucial step for an accurate quantification of the radiative impact of soot in the Arctic atmosphere.
Dimitri Osmont, Isabel A. Wendl, Loïc Schmidely, Michael Sigl, Carmen P. Vega, Elisabeth Isaksson, and Margit Schwikowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12777–12795,Short summary
This study presents the first long-term and high-resolution refractory black carbon (rBC) ice core record from Svalbard, spanning the last 800 years. Our results show that rBC has had a predominant anthropogenic origin since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Europe and that rBC concentrations have been declining in the last 40 years. We discuss the impact of 20th century snowmelt on our record. We reconstruct biomass burning trends prior to 1800 by using a multi-proxy approach.
Anina Gilgen, Carole Adolf, Sandra O. Brugger, Luisa Ickes, Margit Schwikowski, Jacqueline F. N. van Leeuwen, Willy Tinner, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11813–11829,Short summary
Microscopic charcoal particles are fire-specific tracers, which are presently the primary source for reconstructing past fire activity. In this study, we implement microscopic charcoal particles into a global aerosol–climate model to better understand the transport of charcoal on a large scale. We find that the model captures a significant portion of the spatial variability but fails to reproduce the extreme variability observed in the charcoal data.
Shugui Hou, Theo M. Jenk, Wangbin Zhang, Chaomin Wang, Shuangye Wu, Yetang Wang, Hongxi Pang, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 12, 2341–2348,Short summary
We present multiple lines of evidence indicating that the Chongce ice cores drilled from the northwestern Tibetan Plateau reaches back only to the early Holocene. This result is at least, 1 order of magnitude younger than the nearby Guliya ice core (~30 km away from the Chongce ice core drilling site) but similar to other Tibetan ice cores. Thus it is necessary to explore multiple dating techniques to confirm the age ranges of the Tibetan ice cores.
Marco Pandolfi, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Christo Angelov, Begoña Artiñano, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Paolo Bonasoni, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martine Collaud Coen, Sébastien Conil, Esther Coz, Vincent Crenn, Vadimas Dudoitis, Marina Ealo, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Patrick Ginot, Martin Gysel, Bas Henzing, Andras Hoffer, Adela Holubova Smejkalova, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Chris Lunder, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marcel Moerman, José Nicolas, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean Marc Pichon, Nina Prokopciuk, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Sergio Rodríguez, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Erik Swietlicki, Gloria Titos, Thomas Tuch, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Aditya Vaishya, Milan Vana, Aki Virkkula, Stergios Vratolis, Ernest Weingartner, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7877–7911,Short summary
This investigation presents the variability in near-surface in situ aerosol particle light-scattering measurements obtained over the past decade at 28 measuring atmospheric observatories which are part of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure, and most of them belong to the GAW network. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol particles optical properties in Europe.
Mackenzie M. Grieman, Murat Aydin, Elisabeth Isaksson, Margit Schwikowski, and Eric S. Saltzman
Clim. Past, 14, 637–651,Short summary
This study presents organic acid levels in an ice core from Svalbard over the past 800 years. These acids are produced from wildfire emissions and transported as aerosol. Organic acid levels are high early in the record and decline until the 20th century. Siberia and Europe are likely the primary source regions of the fire emissions. The data are similar to those from a Siberian ice core prior to 1400 CE. The timing of the divergence after 1400 CE is similar to a shift in North Atlantic climate.
Carmen Paulina Vega, Elisabeth Isaksson, Elisabeth Schlosser, Dmitry Divine, Tõnu Martma, Robert Mulvaney, Anja Eichler, and Margit Schwikowski-Gigar
The Cryosphere, 12, 1681–1697,Short summary
Ions were measured in firn and ice cores from Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica, to evaluate sea-salt loads. A significant sixfold increase in sea salts was found in the S100 core after 1950s which suggests that it contains a more local sea-salt signal, dominated by processes during sea-ice formation in the neighbouring waters. In contrast, firn cores from three ice rises register the larger-scale signal of atmospheric flow conditions and transport of sea-salt aerosols produced over open water.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Peter Zotter, Hanna Herich, Martin Gysel, Imad El-Haddad, Yanlin Zhang, Griša Močnik, Christoph Hüglin, Urs Baltensperger, Sönke Szidat, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4229–4249,Short summary
Most studies use a single Ångström exponent for wood burning (αWB) and traffic (αTR) emissions in the Aethalometer model, used for source apportionment of black carbon, derived from previous work. However, accurate determination of the α values is currently lacking. Comparing radiocarbon measurements (14C) with the Aehtalometer model, good agreement was found, indicating that the Aethalometer model reproduces reasonably well the 14C results using our best estimate of a single αWB and αTR.
Pascal Bohleber, Leo Sold, Douglas R. Hardy, Margit Schwikowski, Patrick Klenk, Andrea Fischer, Pascal Sirguey, Nicolas J. Cullen, Mariusz Potocki, Helene Hoffmann, and Paul Mayewski
The Cryosphere, 11, 469–482,Short summary
Our study is the first to use ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to investigate ice thickness and internal layering at Kilimanjaro’s largest ice body, the Northern Ice Field (NIF). For monitoring the ongoing ice loss, our ice thickness soundings allowed us to estimate the total ice volume remaining at NIF's southern portion. Englacial GPR reflections indicate undisturbed layers within NIF's center and provide a first link between age information obtained from ice coring and vertical wall sampling.
Rune Strand Ødegård, Atle Nesje, Ketil Isaksen, Liss Marie Andreassen, Trond Eiken, Margit Schwikowski, and Chiara Uglietti
The Cryosphere, 11, 17–32,Short summary
Despite numerous spectacular archaeological discoveries worldwide related to melting ice, governing processes related to ice patch development are still largely unexplored. We present new results from Jotunheimen in central southern Norway showing that the Juvfonne ice patch has existed continuously since ca. 7600 cal years BP. This is the oldest dating of ice in mainland Norway. Moss mats along the margin of Juvfonne in 2014 were covered by the expanding ice patch about 2000 years ago.
Chiara Uglietti, Alexander Zapf, Theo Manuel Jenk, Michael Sigl, Sönke Szidat, Gary Salazar, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 10, 3091–3105,Short summary
A meaningful interpretation of the climatic history contained in ice cores requires a precise chronology. For dating the older and deeper part of the glaciers, radiocarbon analysis can be used when organic matter such as plant or insect fragments are found in the ice. Since this happens rarely, a complementary dating tool, based on radiocarbon dating of the insoluble fraction of carbonaceous aerosols entrapped in the ice, allows for ice dating between 200 and more than 10 000 years.
Carmen P. Vega, Elisabeth Schlosser, Dmitry V. Divine, Jack Kohler, Tõnu Martma, Anja Eichler, Margit Schwikowski, and Elisabeth Isaksson
The Cryosphere, 10, 2763–2777,Short summary
Surface mass balance and water stable isotopes from firn cores on three ice rises at Fimbul Ice Shelf are reported. The results suggest that the ice rises are suitable sites for the retrieval of longer firn and ice cores. The first deuterium excess data for the area suggests a possible role of seasonal moisture transport changes on the annual isotopic signal. Large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns most likely provide the dominant influence on water stable isotope ratios at the sites.
Paolo Gabrielli, Carlo Barbante, Giuliano Bertagna, Michele Bertó, Daniel Binder, Alberto Carton, Luca Carturan, Federico Cazorzi, Giulio Cozzi, Giancarlo Dalla Fontana, Mary Davis, Fabrizio De Blasi, Roberto Dinale, Gianfranco Dragà, Giuliano Dreossi, Daniela Festi, Massimo Frezzotti, Jacopo Gabrieli, Stephan P. Galos, Patrick Ginot, Petra Heidenwolf, Theo M. Jenk, Natalie Kehrwald, Donald Kenny, Olivier Magand, Volkmar Mair, Vladimir Mikhalenko, Ping Nan Lin, Klaus Oeggl, Gianni Piffer, Mirko Rinaldi, Ulrich Schotterer, Margit Schwikowski, Roberto Seppi, Andrea Spolaor, Barbara Stenni, David Tonidandel, Chiara Uglietti, Victor Zagorodnov, Thomas Zanoner, and Piero Zennaro
The Cryosphere, 10, 2779–2797,Short summary
New ice cores were extracted from Alto dell'Ortles, the highest glacier of South Tyrol in the Italian Alps, to check whether prehistoric ice, which is coeval to the famous 5300-yr-old Tyrolean Iceman, is still preserved in this region. Dating of the ice cores confirms the hypothesis and indicates the drilling site has been glaciated since the end of the Northern Hemisphere Climatic Optimum (7000 yrs BP). We also infer that an unprecedented acceleration of the glacier flow has recently begun.
Bernadette Rosati, Martin Gysel, Florian Rubach, Thomas F. Mentel, Brigitta Goger, Laurent Poulain, Patrick Schlag, Pasi Miettinen, Aki Pajunoja, Annele Virtanen, Henk Klein Baltink, J. S. Bas Henzing, Johannes Größ, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Alfred Wiedensohler, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Ernest Weingartner, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7295–7315,Short summary
This study presents PEGASOS project data from field campaigns in the Po Valley, Italy and the Netherlands. Vertical profiles of aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition were investigated with airborne measurements on board a Zeppelin NT airship. A special focus was on the evolution of different mixing layers within the PBL as a function of daytime. A closure study showed that variations in aerosol hygroscopicity can well be explained by the variations in chemical composition.
Carmen P. Vega, Veijo A. Pohjola, Emilie Beaudon, Björn Claremar, Ward J. J. van Pelt, Rickard Pettersson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Tõnu Martma, Margit Schwikowski, and Carl E. Bøggild
The Cryosphere, 10, 961–976,Short summary
To quantify post-depositional relocation of major ions by meltwater in snow and firn at Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, consecutive ice cores drilled at this site were used to construct a synthetic core. The relocation length of most of the ions was on the order of 1 m between 2007 and 2010. Considering the ionic relocation lengths and annual melt percentages, we estimate that the atmospheric ionic signal remains preserved in recently drilled Lomonosovfonna ice cores at an annual or bi-annual resolution.
Bernadette Rosati, Erik Herrmann, Silvia Bucci, Federico Fierli, Francesco Cairo, Martin Gysel, Ralf Tillmann, Johannes Größ, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Luca Di Liberto, Guido Di Donfrancesco, Alfred Wiedensohler, Ernest Weingartner, Annele Virtanen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4539–4554,Short summary
We present vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties, which were explored within the planetary boundary layer in a case study in 2012 in the Po Valley region. A comparison of in situ measurements recorded aboard a Zeppelin NT and ground-based remote-sensing data was performed yielding good agreement. Additionally, the role of ambient relative humidity for the aerosol particles' optical properties was investigated.
Christopher R. Hoyle, Clare S. Webster, Harald E. Rieder, Athanasios Nenes, Emanuel Hammer, Erik Herrmann, Martin Gysel, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Ernest Weingartner, Martin Steinbacher, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4043–4061,Short summary
A simple statistical model to predict the number of aerosols which activate to form cloud droplets in warm clouds has been established, based on regression analysis of data from the high-altitude site Jungfraujoch. It is found that cloud droplet formation at the Jungfraujoch is predominantly controlled by the number concentration of aerosol particles. A statistical model based on only the number of particles larger than 80nm can explain 79 % of the observed variance in droplet numbers.
C. R. Hoyle, C. Fuchs, E. Järvinen, H. Saathoff, A. Dias, I. El Haddad, M. Gysel, S. C. Coburn, J. Tröstl, A.-K. Bernhammer, F. Bianchi, M. Breitenlechner, J. C. Corbin, J. Craven, N. M. Donahue, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, C. Frege, H. Gordon, N. Höppel, M. Heinritzi, T. B. Kristensen, U. Molteni, L. Nichman, T. Pinterich, A. S. H. Prévôt, M. Simon, J. G. Slowik, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, A. L. Vogel, R. Volkamer, A. C. Wagner, R. Wagner, A. S. Wexler, C. Williamson, P. M. Winkler, C. Yan, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Curtius, M. W. Gallagher, R. C. Flagan, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, M. Kulmala, O. Möhler, F. Stratmann, D. R. Worsnop, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1693–1712,Short summary
A significant portion of sulphate, an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols, is formed via the aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone. The rate of this reaction has previously only been measured over a relatively small temperature range. Here, we use the state of the art CLOUD chamber at CERN to perform the first measurements of this reaction rate in super-cooled droplets, confirming that the existing extrapolation of the reaction rate to sub-zero temperatures is accurate.
C. Müller-Tautges, A. Eichler, M. Schwikowski, G. B. Pezzatti, M. Conedera, and T. Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1029–1043,Short summary
The paper focuses on the determination and interpretation of historic records of organic compounds in an ice core from Grenzgletscher in the southern Swiss Alps, covering the time period from 1942 to 1993. The resulting long-term records of organic species were found to be influenced by the forest fire history in southern Switzerland, anthropogenic emissions, as well as changing mineral dust transport to the drilling site.
M. Paramonov, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Gysel, P. P. Aalto, M. O. Andreae, E. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, A. Bougiatioti, D. Brus, G. P. Frank, N. Good, S. S. Gunthe, L. Hao, M. Irwin, A. Jaatinen, Z. Jurányi, S. M. King, A. Kortelainen, A. Kristensson, H. Lihavainen, M. Kulmala, U. Lohmann, S. T. Martin, G. McFiggans, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Nenes, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, T. Petäjä, U. Pöschl, G. C. Roberts, D. Rose, B. Svenningsson, E. Swietlicki, E. Weingartner, J. Whitehead, A. Wiedensohler, C. Wittbom, and B. Sierau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12211–12229,Short summary
The research paper presents the first comprehensive overview of field measurements with the CCN Counter performed at a large number of locations around the world within the EUCAARI framework. The paper sheds light on the CCN number concentrations and activated fractions around the world and their dependence on the water vapour supersaturation ratio, the dependence of aerosol hygroscopicity on particle size, and seasonal and diurnal variation of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties.
R. Fröhlich, M. J. Cubison, J. G. Slowik, N. Bukowiecki, F. Canonaco, P. L. Croteau, M. Gysel, S. Henne, E. Herrmann, J. T. Jayne, M. Steinbacher, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11373–11398,Short summary
This manuscript presents the first long-term (14-month) and highly time-resolved (10 min) measurements of NR-PM1 aerosol chemical composition at a high-altitude site (JFJ, Switzerland, 3580m a.s.l.). The elevated location allowed the investigation of free tropospheric aerosol year round. Total and relative mass loadings, diurnal variations as well as seasonal variations are discussed together with geographical origin, organic aerosol sources and the influence of the planetary boundary layer.
P. Kupiszewski, E. Weingartner, P. Vochezer, M. Schnaiter, A. Bigi, M. Gysel, B. Rosati, E. Toprak, S. Mertes, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3087–3106,
J. Gabbi, M. Huss, A. Bauder, F. Cao, and M. Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 9, 1385–1400,Short summary
Light-absorbing impurities in snow and ice increase the absorption of solar radiation and thus enhance melting. We investigated the effect of Saharan dust and black carbon on the mass balance of an Alpine glacier over 1914-2014. Snow impurities increased melt by 15-19% depending on the location on the glacier. From the accumulation area towards the equilibrium line, the effect of impurities increased as more frequent years with negative mass balance led to a re-exposure of dust-enriched layers.
I. A. Wendl, A. Eichler, E. Isaksson, T. Martma, and M. Schwikowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7287–7300,Short summary
Nitrate and ammonium ice core records from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, indicated anthropogenic pollution from Eurasia as major source during the 20th century. In pre-industrial times nitrate is correlated with methane sulfonate, which we explain with a fertilising effect, presumably triggered by enhanced atmospheric nitrogen input to the ocean. Eurasia was likely the main source area also of pre-industrial nitrate, but for ammonium, biogenic emissions from Siberian boreal forests were dominant.
S. Kang, F. Wang, U. Morgenstern, Y. Zhang, B. Grigholm, S. Kaspari, M. Schwikowski, J. Ren, T. Yao, D. Qin, and P. A. Mayewski
The Cryosphere, 9, 1213–1222,
L. Sold, M. Huss, A. Eichler, M. Schwikowski, and M. Hoelzle
The Cryosphere, 9, 1075–1087,Short summary
This study presents a method for estimating annual accumulation rates on a temperate Alpine glacier based on the interpretation of internal reflection horizons in helicopter-borne ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. In combination with a simple model for firn densification and refreezing of meltwater, GPR can be used not only to complement existing mass balance monitoring programmes but also to retrospectively extend newly initiated time series.
B. Rosati, G. Wehrle, M. Gysel, P. Zieger, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 921–939,Short summary
Only few measurements focused on vertical profiles of aerosol hygroscopic and optical properties in airborne studies. For this purpose the white-light optical particle spectrometer (WHOPS) was developed. It allows a relatively fast measurement of the particles hygroscopicity, mixing state and index of refraction of particles in the optically relevant size range. This paper presents a detailed technical description and characterization of the WHOPS and first results from the field.
Y.-L. Zhang, R.-J. Huang, I. El Haddad, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, P. Zotter, C. Bozzetti, K. R. Daellenbach, F. Canonaco, J. G. Slowik, G. Salazar, M. Schwikowski, J. Schnelle-Kreis, G. Abbaszade, R. Zimmermann, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, and S. Szidat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1299–1312,Short summary
Source apportionment of fine carbonaceous aerosols using radiocarbon and other organic markers measurements during 2013 winter haze episodes was conducted at four megacities in China. Our results demonstrate that fossil emissions predominate EC with a mean contribution of 75±8%, whereas non-fossil sources account for 55±10% of OC; and the increment of TC on heavily polluted days was mainly driven by the increase of secondary OC from both fossil-fuel and non-fossil emissions.
P. Zotter, V. G. Ciobanu, Y. L. Zhang, I. El-Haddad, M. Macchia, K. R. Daellenbach, G. A. Salazar, R.-J. Huang, L. Wacker, C. Hueglin, A. Piazzalunga, P. Fermo, M. Schwikowski, U. Baltensperger, S. Szidat, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13551–13570,
E. Hammer, M. Gysel, G. C. Roberts, T. Elias, J. Hofer, C. R. Hoyle, N. Bukowiecki, J.-C. Dupont, F. Burnet, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10517–10533,
S. Kaspari, T. H. Painter, M. Gysel, S. M. Skiles, and M. Schwikowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8089–8103,
F. Dahlkötter, M. Gysel, D. Sauer, A. Minikin, R. Baumann, P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, M. Fromm, C. Voigt, and B. Weinzierl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6111–6137,
I. Mariani, A. Eichler, T. M. Jenk, S. Brönnimann, R. Auchmann, M. C. Leuenberger, and M. Schwikowski
Clim. Past, 10, 1093–1108,
J. C. Corbin, B. Sierau, M. Gysel, M. Laborde, A. Keller, J. Kim, A. Petzold, T. B. Onasch, U. Lohmann, and A. A. Mensah
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2591–2603,
H. Pang, S. Hou, S. Kaspari, and P. A. Mayewski
The Cryosphere, 8, 289–301,
E. Hammer, N. Bukowiecki, M. Gysel, Z. Jurányi, C. R. Hoyle, R. Vogt, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1123–1139,
D. Rose, S. S. Gunthe, Z. Jurányi, M. Gysel, G. P. Frank, J. Schneider, J. Curtius, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
T. Papina, T. Blyakharchuk, A. Eichler, N. Malygina, E. Mitrofanova, and M. Schwikowski
Clim. Past, 9, 2399–2411,
M. Schwikowski, M. Schläppi, P. Santibañez, A. Rivera, and G. Casassa
The Cryosphere, 7, 1635–1644,
M. Jenkins, S. Kaspari, S. Kang, B. Grigholm, and P. A. Mayewski
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
S. Brönnimann, I. Mariani, M. Schwikowski, R. Auchmann, and A. Eichler
Clim. Past, 9, 2013–2022,
Z. Jurányi, T. Tritscher, M. Gysel, M. Laborde, L. Gomes, G. Roberts, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6431–6446,
M. Laborde, M. Crippa, T. Tritscher, Z. Jurányi, P. F. Decarlo, B. Temime-Roussel, N. Marchand, S. Eckhardt, A. Stohl, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, and M. Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5831–5856,
H. Keskinen, A. Virtanen, J. Joutsensaari, G. Tsagkogeorgas, J. Duplissy, S. Schobesberger, M. Gysel, F. Riccobono, J. G. Slowik, F. Bianchi, T. Yli-Juuti, K. Lehtipalo, L. Rondo, M. Breitenlechner, A. Kupc, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, E. M. Dunne, A. J. Downard, S. Ehrhart, A. Franchin, M.K. Kajos, J. Kirkby, A. Kürten, T. Nieminen, V. Makhmutov, S. Mathot, P. Miettinen, A. Onnela, T. Petäjä, A. Praplan, F. D. Santos, S. Schallhart, M. Sipilä, Y. Stozhkov, A. Tomé, P. Vaattovaara, D. Wimmer, A. Prevot, J. Dommen, N. M. Donahue, R.C. Flagan, E. Weingartner, Y. Viisanen, I. Riipinen, A. Hansel, J. Curtius, M. Kulmala, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, H. Wex, F. Stratmann, and A. Laaksonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5587–5600,
M. Frosch, M. Bilde, A. Nenes, A. P. Praplan, Z. Jurányi, J. Dommen, M. Gysel, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2283–2297,
M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K.-H. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. W. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 3077–3097,
M. Gysel, M. Laborde, A. A. Mensah, J. C. Corbin, A. Keller, J. Kim, A. Petzold, and B. Sierau
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 3099–3107,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Technique: Laboratory Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsDevelopment of the drop Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), intercomparison of droplet freezing techniques, and use of soluble lignin as an atmospheric ice nucleation standardElemental analysis of oxygenated organic coating on black carbon particles using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometerOn the calibration of FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS: importance and impact of calibrant delivery for the particle-phase calibrationA single-beam photothermal interferometer for in situ measurements of aerosol light absorptionAqueous particle generation with a 3D printed nebulizerA new method for operating a continuous-flow diffusion chamber to investigate immersion freezing: assessment and performance studyCharacterization of a non-thermal plasma source for use as a mass specrometric calibration tool and non-radioactive aerosol chargerInvestigation of structural changes of atmospheric aerosol samples during two thermal-optical measurement procedures (EUSAAR2, NIOSH870)Application of time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry for the real-time measurement of particle-phase organic peroxides: an online redox derivatization–aerosol mass spectrometer (ORD-AMS)Nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) for investigating hygroscopic properties of sub-10 nm aerosol nanoparticlesQuantification of toxic metals using machine learning techniques and spark emission spectroscopyA new approach for measuring the carbon and oxygen content of atmospherically relevant compounds and mixturesCoupling a gas chromatograph simultaneously to a flame ionization detector and chemical ionization mass spectrometer for isomer-resolved measurements of particle-phase organic compoundsAn experimental study on light scattering matrices for Chinese loess dust with different particle size distributionsCounting on chemistry: laboratory evaluation of seed-material-dependent detection efficiencies of ultrafine condensation particle countersPhotophoretic spectroscopy in atmospheric chemistry – high-sensitivity measurements of light absorption by a single particleLaboratory evaluation of particle-size selectivity of optical low-cost particulate matter sensorsMapping ice formation to mineral-surface topography using a micro mixing chamber with video and atomic-force microscopyHigh-humidity tandem differential mobility analyzer for accurate determination of aerosol hygroscopic growth, microstructure, and activity coefficients over a wide range of relative humidityDevelopment of an improved two-sphere integration technique for quantifying black carbon concentrations in the atmosphere and seasonal snowDevelopment of the DRoplet Ice Nuclei Counter Zurich (DRINCZ): validation and application to field-collected snow samplesMultiple-scattering correction factor of quartz filters and the effect of filtering particles mixed in water: implications for analyses of light absorption in snow samplesThe effect of rapid relative humidity changes on fast filter-based aerosol-particle light-absorption measurements: uncertainties and correction schemesCharacterisation of the filter inlet system on the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft and its use for size-resolved aerosol composition measurementsMolecular characterization of alkyl nitrates in atmospheric aerosols by ion mobility mass spectrometryChanges in PM2.5 peat combustion source profiles with atmospheric aging in an oxidation flow reactorQuantifying organic matter and functional groups in particulate matter filter samples from the southeastern United States – Part 1: MethodsMicroelectromechanical-system-based condensation particle counter for real-time monitoring of airborne ultrafine particlesMeasurement techniques for identifying and quantifying hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) in an aqueous matrix and particulate matter using aerosol mass spectrometry and ion chromatographyVersatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES) operating as a cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrator: development and laboratory characterizationA new aerosol flow reactor to study secondary organic aerosolMorphology and Raman spectra of aerodynamically classified soot samplesSeparation and detection of aqueous atmospheric aerosol mimics using supercritical fluid chromatography–mass spectrometryHumidity effects on the detection of soluble and insoluble nanoparticles in butanol operated condensation particle countersStructural changes of CAST soot during a thermal–optical measurement protocolConcept for an electrostatic focusing device for continuous ambient pressure aerosol concentrationTwo-wavelength thermal–optical determination of light-absorbing carbon in atmospheric aerosolsA portable dual-smog-chamber system for atmospheric aerosol field studiesAging aerosol in a well-mixed continuous-flow tank reactor: an introduction of the activation time distributionThe impact of bath gas composition on the calibration of photoacoustic spectrometers with ozone at discrete visible wavelengths spanning the Chappuis bandUltrasonic nebulization for the elemental analysis of microgram-level samples with offline aerosol mass spectrometryInstrument artifacts lead to uncertainties in parameterizations of cloud condensation nucleationTwin-plate Ice Nucleation Assay (TINA) with infrared detection for high-throughput droplet freezing experiments with biological ice nuclei in laboratory and field samplesChAMBRe: a new atmospheric simulation chamber for aerosol modelling and bio-aerosol researchAn instrument for quantifying heterogeneous ice nucleation in multiwell plates using infrared emissions to detect freezingSize-resolved online chemical analysis of nanoaerosol particles: a thermal desorption differential mobility analyzer coupled to a chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometerCleaning up our water: reducing interferences from nonhomogeneous freezing of “pure” water in droplet freezing assays of ice-nucleating particlesEffects of temperature, pressure, and carrier gases on the performance of an aerosol particle mass analyserExploring femtosecond laser ablation in single-particle aerosol mass spectrometryKinetically controlled glass transition measurement of organic aerosol thin films using broadband dielectric spectroscopy
Anna J. Miller, Killian P. Brennan, Claudia Mignani, Jörg Wieder, Robert O. David, and Nadine Borduas-Dedekind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3131–3151,Short summary
To characterize atmospheric ice nuclei, we present (1) the development of our home-built droplet freezing technique (DFT), which involves the Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), (2) an intercomparison campaign using NX-illite and an ambient sample with two other DFTs, and (3) the application of lignin as a soluble and commercial ice nuclei standard with three DFTs. We further compiled the growing number of DFTs in use for atmospheric ice nucleation since 2000 and add FINC.
Mutian Ma, Laura-Hélèna Rivellini, YuXi Cui, Megan D. Willis, Rio Wilkie, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Junfeng Wang, Xinlei Ge, and Alex K. Y. Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2799–2812,Short summary
Chemical characterization of organic coatings is important to advance our understanding of the physio-chemical properties and atmospheric processing of black carbon (BC) particles. This work develops two approaches to improve the elemental analysis of oxygenated organic coatings using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer. Analyzing ambient data with the new approaches indicated that secondary organics that coated on BC were likely less oxygenated compared to those externally mixed with BC.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Luis M. F. Barreira, Iida Pullinen, Angela Buchholz, John Jayne, Jordan E. Krechmer, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 355–367,Short summary
FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS enables online volatility measurements of chemical compounds in ambient aerosols. Previously published volatility calibration results however differ from each other significantly. In this study we investigate the reason for this discrepancy. We found a major source of error in the widely used syringe deposition method and propose a new method for volatility calibration by using atomized calibration compounds.
Bradley Visser, Jannis Röhrbein, Peter Steigmeier, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, and Ernest Weingartner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 7097–7111,Short summary
Here we report on the development of a novel single-beam photothermal interferometer and its use in the measurement of aerosol light absorption. We demonstrate how light-absorbing gases can be used to calibrate the instrument and how this absorption is automatically subtracted during normal operation. The performance of the instrument is compared to a standard filter-based instrument using a black carbon test aerosol. The 60 s detection limit is found to be less than 10 Mm-1.
Michael Rösch and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6807–6812,Short summary
The need for a simple atomizer with a high-output stability combined with the capabilities of CAD software and high-resolution 3D printing has allowed for the design, production and testing of the PRinted drOpleT Generator (PROTeGE) to generate liquid particles from solutions. The size and number concentrations of the generated particles have been characterized with different ammonium sulfate and PSL solutions. PROTeGE is easy to operate, requires minimal maintenance and is cost-effective.
Gourihar Kulkarni, Naruki Hiranuma, Ottmar Möhler, Kristina Höhler, Swarup China, Daniel J. Cziczo, and Paul J. DeMott
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6631–6643,Short summary
This study presents a new continuous-flow-diffusion-chamber-style operated ice chamber (Modified Compact Ice Chamber, MCIC) to measure the immersion-freezing efficiency of atmospheric particles. MCIC allowed us to obtain maximum droplet-freezing efficiency at higher time resolution without droplet breakthrough ambiguity. Its evaluation was performed by reproducing published data from the recent ice nucleation workshop and past laboratory data for standard and airborne ice-nucleating particles.
Christian Tauber, David Schmoll, Johannes Gruenwald, Sophia Brilke, Peter Josef Wlasits, Paul Martin Winkler, and Daniela Wimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5993–6006,Short summary
In this paper we show that a commercially available plasma charger with nitrogen as the working gas can enhance the charging probability for sub-12 nm particles. In addition, the charger ion mobilities and the chemical composition have been examined using an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (APi-TOF MS), and comparison of the experimental results revealed that the generated neutralizer ions are not dependent on the charging mechanism.
Theresa Haller, Eva Sommer, Thomas Steinkogler, Christian Rentenberger, Anna Wonaschuetz, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Hinrich Grothe, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Structural changes of carbonaceous aerosol samples during thermal optical measurement techniques cause a darkening of the sample during the heating procedure which can influence the attribution of the carbonaceous material to organic and elemental carbon. We analyzed structural changes of atmospheric aerosol samples occurring during the EUSAAR2 and NIOSH870 measurement protocols with Raman spectroscopy. We found that the darkening of the sample is not necessarily caused by graphitization.
Marcel Weloe and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5725–5738,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometers (AMSs) are frequently applied in atmospheric aerosol research in connection with climate, environmental or health-related projects. The paper describes a new real-time technique for the measurement of organic peroxides, which play an important role in new particle formation and as
reactive oxygen speciesin aerosol–health-related aspects of atmospheric aerosols.
Ting Lei, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Thomas Tuch, Xin Wang, Zhibin Wang, Mira Pöhlker, Maofa Ge, Weigang Wang, Eugene Mikhailov, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5551–5567,Short summary
We present the design of a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) apparatus that enables high accuracy and precision in hygroscopic growth measurements of aerosol nanoparticles with diameters less than 10 nm. We further introduce comprehensive methods for system calibration and validation of the performance of the system. We then study the size dependence of the deliquescence and the efflorescence of aerosol nanoparticles for sizes down to 6 nm.
Seyyed Ali Davari and Anthony S. Wexler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5369–5377,Short summary
Traditional instruments for detection and quantification of toxic metals in the atmosphere are expensive. In this study, we have designed, fabricated, and tested a low-cost instrument, which employs cheap components to detect and quantify toxic metals. Advanced machine learning (ML) techniques have been used to improve the instrument's performance. This study demonstrates how the combination of low-cost sensors with ML can address problems that traditionally have been too expensive to be solved.
James F. Hurley, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Braden Stump, Chenyang Bi, Purushottam Kumar, Susanne V. Hering, Pat Keady, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4911–4925,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosols has implications for human and ecosystem health. Current methods for determining chemical composition are expensive and require highly trained personnel. Our method is promising for moderate-cost, low-maintenance measurements of oxygen / carbon ratios, a key chemical parameter, and other elements may also be studied. In this work, we coupled two commonly used detectors to assess O / C ratios in a variety of compounds and mixtures within an acceptable error.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Graham O. Frazier, Wen Xu, Andrew T. Lambe, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Measurement techniques that can achieve molecular characterizations are necessary to understand the differences of fate and transport within isomers produced in the atmospheric oxidation process. In this work, we develop an instrument to conduct isomer-resolved measurements of particle-phase organics. We assess the number of isomers per chemical formula in atmospherically-relevant samples and examine the feasibility of extending the use of an existing instrument to a broader range of analytes.
Jia Liu, Qixing Zhang, Yinuo Huo, Jinjun Wang, and Yongming Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4097–4109,Short summary
Angular behaviors of light scattering properties for loess dust sampled from the Chinese Loess Plateau were investigated using a self-developed apparatus. Two samples with different size distributions were used to represent dust that can or cannot be transported over long ranges. Analyses of optical simulation results showed that differences of measurements are mainly caused by different sizes. This study is useful for the development of optical models of loess dust during transportation.
Peter Josef Wlasits, Dominik Stolzenburg, Christian Tauber, Sophia Brilke, Sebastian Harald Schmitt, Paul Martin Winkler, and Daniela Wimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3787–3798,Short summary
In this paper we show that chemical similarities between the seed particle material and the working fluid have an impact on the detection efficiency of commonly used CPCs. A remarkable set of CPCs, including the newly developed V-WCPC 3789, was tested. Among others, reproducibly generated organic seeds based on beta-caryophyllene were used. Theoretical simulations of supersaturation profiles were successfully linked to measured data.
Nir Bluvshtein, Ulrich K. Krieger, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3191–3203,Short summary
Light-absorbing organic particles undergo transformations during their exposure in the atmosphere. The role these particles play in the global radiative balance is uncertain. This study describes high-sensitivity and high-precision measurements of light absorption by a single particle levitated in an electrodynamic balance. This high level of sensitivity enables future studies to explore the major processes responsible for changes to the particle's light absorptivity.
Joel Kuula, Timo Mäkelä, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Samu Varjonen, Óscar González, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2413–2423,Short summary
Particle-size-dependent detection ranges of low-cost particulate matter sensors were evaluated in a laboratory experiment. Six different sensor models were evaluated altogether. The results showed that none of the sensor models adhered to the technical specifications provided by the manufacturers, and thus a high risk of sensor misuse is posed. It is paramount that the limitations regarding the particle size discrimination of low-cost sensors are acknowledged properly.
Raymond W. Friddle and Konrad Thürmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2209–2218,Short summary
An obstacle to predicting ice content in mixed-phase clouds is the inability to directly view atmospheric ice nucleation at the nanoscale, where this process occurs. Here we show how a cloud-like environment can be created in a small atomic-force microscopy (AFM) sample cell. By colocating video microscopy of ice formation with high-resolution AFM images, we quantitatively show how the surface topography, down to nanometer-length scales, can determine the preferential locations of ice formation.
Eugene F. Mikhailov and Sergey S. Vlasenko
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2035–2056,Short summary
Here we present the high-humidity tandem differential hygroscopicity analyzer (HHTDMA) and a new method to measure the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles with in situ restructuring to minimize the influence of particle shape. Our results demonstrate that the HHTDMA system described in this work allows us to determine the thermodynamic characteristics of aqueous solutions with an accuracy close to that obtained by bulk methods.
Xin Wang, Xueying Zhang, and Wenjing Di
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 39–52,Short summary
We developed an improved two-sphere integration (TSI) technique to quantify black carbon (BC) concentrations in the atmosphere and seasonal snow. The major advantage of this system is that it combines two distinct integrated spheres to reduce the scattering effect due to light-absorbing particles and thus provides accurate determinations of total light absorption from BC collected on Nuclepore filters.
Robert O. David, Maria Cascajo-Castresana, Killian P. Brennan, Michael Rösch, Nora Els, Julia Werz, Vera Weichlinger, Lin S. Boynton, Sophie Bogler, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, Claudia Marcolli, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6865–6888,Short summary
Here we present the development and applicability of the DRoplet Ice Nuclei Counter Zurich (DRINCZ). DRINCZ allows for ice nuclei in the immersion mode to be quantified between 0 and -25 °C with an uncertainty of ±0.9 °C. Furthermore, we present a new method for assessing biases in drop-freezing apparatuses and cumulative ice-nucleating-particle concentrations from snow samples collected in the Austrian Alps at the Sonnblick Observatory.
Jonas Svensson, Johan Ström, and Aki Virkkula
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5913–5925,Short summary
Collection of particles onto filters can be a valuable tool in several research disciplines. Here we experiment with quartz filters and their response to soot particles in an airborne and liquid state in order to better understand the sampling procedure. Soot particles in a liquid phase showed absorption of light nearly double that of airborne sampled particles.
Sebastian Düsing, Birgit Wehner, Thomas Müller, Almond Stöcker, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5879–5895,Short summary
This study examines the effect of changes in relative humidity on measurements made by two different filter-based absorption photometers. Different filter loads, loading materials, and filter types are considered. It was found that both instruments react opposingly and with different magnitudes. One of the devices showed a variation in the dependence on the loading material. For each of the two devices, a correction approach is provided. Recommendations based on the findings are given.
Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Duncan H. P. Hedges, Matthew Hiscock, Simon T. Parker, Philip D. Rosenberg, Jamie Trembath, Richard Walshaw, Ian T. Burke, James B. McQuaid, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5741–5763,Short summary
Sampling coarse-mode aerosol from a fast-moving research aircraft is challenging and can be subject to substantial losses and enhancements. We characterise these losses and enhancements for an inlet system designed to collect aerosol onto filters. We go on to present an application of this inlet system where we use electron microscopy to study the size and composition of the collected aerosol particles.
Xuan Zhang, Haofei Zhang, Wen Xu, Xiaokang Wu, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, John J. Orlando, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Manjula R. Canagaratna
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5535–5545,Short summary
We develop a new technique to characterize organic nitrates as intact molecules in atmospheric aerosols, and we apply this technique to identify hydroxy nitrates in secondary organic aerosols produced from the photochemical oxidation of isoprene.
Judith C. Chow, Junji Cao, L.-W. Antony Chen, Xiaoliang Wang, Qiyuan Wang, Jie Tian, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Adam C. Watts, Tessa B. Carlson, Steven D. Kohl, and John G. Watson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5475–5501,Short summary
Source profiles that allow peat fire contributions to be distinguished from other source contributions using receptor models are lacking for a wide variety of peat fuels and burning conditions. These profiles change with photochemical aging during transport. Fresh and aged profiles for a variety of peat fuels are measured with an oxidation flow reactor to improve source attributions at distant receptors.
Alexandra J. Boris, Satoshi Takahama, Andrew T. Weakley, Bruno M. Debus, Carley D. Fredrickson, Martin Esparza-Sanchez, Charlotte Burki, Matteo Reggente, Stephanie L. Shaw, Eric S. Edgerton, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5391–5415,Short summary
Organic species are abundant in atmospheric particle-phase (aerosol) pollution and originate from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Infrared spectrometry of filter-based atmospheric particle samples can afford a direct measurement of the particulate organic matter concentration and a characterization of its composition. This work discusses recent method improvements and compositions measured in samples from the SouthEastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network.
Seong-Jae Yoo, Hong-Beom Kwon, Ui-Seon Hong, Dong-Hyun Kang, Sang-Myun Lee, Jangseop Han, Jungho Hwang, and Yong-Jun Kim
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5335–5345,Short summary
We present a portable, inexpensive, and accurate microelectromechanical-system-based (MEMS-based) condensation particle counter (CPC) for the sensitive and precise monitoring of airborne ultrafine particles (UFPs). The CPC is miniaturized by utilizing MEMS technology and 3-D printing. Thus, the proposed system can potentially be used for UFP monitoring in various environments.
Eleni Dovrou, Christopher Y. Lim, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Jesse H. Kroll, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5303–5315,Short summary
Measurement techniques commonly used to analyze particulate matter composition can result in the possible misidentification of sulfur-containing species, especially for the case of sulfate and hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS). The efficiency and limitations of these techniques, along with a method that enables further studies of the contribution of sulfur-containing species, S(IV) versus S(VI), to particulate matter under low-light atmospheric conditions, are described in this work.
Carmen Dameto de España, Gerhard Steiner, Harald Schuh, Constantinos Sioutas, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4733–4744,
Kelly L. Pereira, Grazia Rovelli, Young C. Song, Alfred W. Mayhew, Jonathan P. Reid, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4519–4541,Short summary
We present the design and operation of a newly built continuous-flow reactor (CFR), which can be used as a tool to gain considerable insights into the composition and physical state of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The CFR was used to generate large quantities of SOA mass, allowing the use of highly accurate techniques that are not usually accessible. We demonstrate how this unique approach can be used to investigate the relationship between SOA formation and physiochemical properties.
Alberto Baldelli and Steven Nicholas Rogak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4339–4346,Short summary
Raman spectra and soot primary particle size change with the impactor sampling stage even though the soot source is a steady laboratory flame. This is of potential interest to atmospheric researchers because past work on aerodynamically separated samples was interpreted in terms of distinct particle sources producing particles of different sizes and chemical structures.
Daisy N. Grace, Melissa B. Sebold, and Melissa M. Galloway
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3841–3851,Short summary
The identification and quantification of compounds within an atmospheric particle can be difficult to achieve. We present a supercritical fluid chromatography method to separate these compounds prior to mass spectrometry analysis. The aqueous methylglyoxal–ammonium sulfate system was used as a proxy for atmospheric aerosol; polar columns combined with a carbon dioxide and methanol mobile phase provided the most efficient separation. This method can be extended to other atmospheric systems.
Christian Tauber, Sophia Brilke, Peter Josef Wlasits, Paulus Salomon Bauer, Gerald Köberl, Gerhard Steiner, and Paul Martin Winkler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3659–3671,Short summary
In this paper we show that sodium chloride particles with a mobility diameter below 10 nm indicate different activation regimes. The results of our studies reveal that with increasing humidity the activation of NaCl particles with a standard butanol-based CPC can be enhanced. For Ag this humidity dependence could not be observed – an indicator for the importance of molecular interactions between seed and vapor molecules.
Theresa Haller, Christian Rentenberger, Jannik C. Meyer, Laura Felgitsch, Hinrich Grothe, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3503–3519,Short summary
In thermal–optical measurement techniques – widely used techniques to separate organic and elemental carbon – a filter sample is heated stepwise first in He and then in He+O2. Pyrolysis of organic material occurring during heating in He influences the results but is not fully understood. In this study, structural changes of carbonaceous material during a thermal–optical heating procedure are analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, TEM, UV–VIS and the integrating-sphere method.
Joseph L. Woo, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier, and V. Faye McNeill
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3395–3402,Short summary
We present a proof-of-concept method of concentrating aerosols in a continuous stream using an applied electric field. Potential enrichment was estimated using a trajectory model, predicting values of up to 65 % for 75–200 nm aerosol, using voltages of up to 30 kV. Experimental results using similar geometry yielded up to 15 % observed enrichment for the same conditions. These results imply that aerosol enrichment using an applied electric field can be achieved in continuous-flow applications.
Dario Massabò, Alessandro Altomari, Virginia Vernocchi, and Paolo Prati
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3173–3182,
Christos Kaltsonoudis, Spiro D. Jorga, Evangelos Louvaris, Kalliopi Florou, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2733–2743,Short summary
A portable dual-smog-chamber system was developed using two identical pillow-shaped smog chambers surrounded by UV lamps. The system has been designed to use ambient air as the starting point of the experiments. It can be easily disassembled and transported, enabling the study of various atmospheric environments and it can be used with natural sunlight. The results of test experiments using ambient air are discussed as examples of applications of this system.
Franz Friebel and Amewu A. Mensah
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2647–2663,Short summary
Simulating atmospheric aging processes in the laboratory under atmospheric conditions is a challenging task. The main obstacle is achieving long observation times with a reasonable amount of technical and financial input. We adapted the concept of the continuous-flow stirred tank reactor in order to achieve long observation times (up to 16 h) in small chamber volumes (3m3). We successfully tested this concept by oxidation of soot particles with ozone.
Michael I. Cotterell, Andrew J. Orr-Ewing, Kate Szpek, Jim M. Haywood, and Justin M. Langridge
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2371–2385,Short summary
Photoacoustic spectroscopy provides measurements of absorption coefficient for aerosol and gas samples but requires careful calibration, and researchers often use concentrations of ozone. Recent work has shown that the bath gas composition impacts the accuracy of this calibration at visible wavelengths. We explore further the role of bath gas, demonstrating that the calibration accuracy is optimal for a bath gas composed of 20 % oxygen and 80 % nitrogen at wavelengths of 405, 514 and 658 nm.
Rachel E. O'Brien, Kelsey J. Ridley, Manjula R. Canagaratna, John T. Jayne, Philip L. Croteau, Douglas R. Worsnop, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Jason D. Surratt, Christopher L. Follett, Daniel J. Repeta, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1659–1671,Short summary
Analysis of the elemental composition of organic mixtures can provide insights into the sources and aging of environmental samples. Here we describe a method that allows characterization of this type of material using micrograms of material by a combination of a small-volume ultrasonic nebulizer and an aerosol mass spectrometer. This technique enables rapid analysis of complex organic mixtures using approximately an order of magnitude less sample than standard analyses.
Jessica A. Mirrielees and Sarah D. Brooks
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6389–6407,Short summary
Particles in the air, called aerosols, can participate in cloud formation and affect cloud properties. One way to study these particles is by determining their ability to uptake water, called hygroscopicity. Apparent hygroscopicity is one such measurement. This study evaluates how errors can arise in determining apparent hygroscopicity and how to avoid or minimize them when collecting data.
Anna T. Kunert, Mark Lamneck, Frank Helleis, Ulrich Pöschl, Mira L. Pöhlker, and Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6327–6337,Short summary
The new Twin-plate Ice Nucleation Assay with infrared detection for high-throughput droplet freezing experiments in microliter-sized droplets is introduced, which was tested and characterized with bacterial and fungal ice nuclei. It was applied to investigate the influence of chemical processing on the activity of biological ice nuclei, and aqueous extracts of atmospheric aerosols were studied for ice nuclei activity.
Dario Massabò, Silvia Giulia Danelli, Paolo Brotto, Antonio Comite, Camilla Costa, Andrea Di Cesare, Jean François Doussin, Federico Ferraro, Paola Formenti, Elena Gatta, Laura Negretti, Maddalena Oliva, Franco Parodi, Luigi Vezzulli, and Paolo Prati
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5885–5900,
Alexander D. Harrison, Thomas F. Whale, Rupert Rutledge, Stephen Lamb, Mark D. Tarn, Grace C. E. Porter, Michael P. Adams, James B. McQuaid, George J. Morris, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5629–5641,Short summary
The detection of low concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) is challenging. Here we present a new technique (IR-NIPI) that is sensitive to low concentrations of INPs (> 0.01 L−1) and uses an infrared camera with a novel calibration to detect the freezing of experimental suspensions. IR-NIPI temperature measurements prove to be robust with a series of comparisons to thermocouple measurements. Experimental comparisons to other freezing assay instruments are also in agreement.
Andrea C. Wagner, Anton Bergen, Sophia Brilke, Claudia Fuchs, Markus Ernst, Jesica Hoker, Martin Heinritzi, Mario Simon, Bertram Bühner, Joachim Curtius, and Andreas Kürten
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5489–5506,Short summary
Chemical analysis of sub-30 nm aerosol particles is important for understanding aerosol nucleation and early growth, yet it is still an experimental challenge. In this study, we present a novel device for size resolved chemical analysis of nucleation and Aitken mode particles (from ~10 to ~30 nm) while allowing gas phase measurements with the same detector. Particles are charged, size selected, electrostatically collected and then thermally desorbed in a carrier gas.
Michael Polen, Thomas Brubaker, Joshua Somers, and Ryan C. Sullivan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5315–5334,Short summary
Ice nucleation commonly studied using droplet freezing measurements suffers from artifacts caused by water impurities or substrate effects. We evaluate a series of substrates and water sources to find methods that reduce the background freezing temperature limit. The best performance was obtained from our new microfluidic device and hydrophobic glass surfaces, using filtered HPLC bottled water. We conclude with recommendations for best practices in droplet freezing experiments and data analysis.
Ta-Chih Hsiao, Li-Hao Young, Yu-Chun Tai, and Po-Kai Chang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4617–4626,Short summary
Ambient pressure and temperature can vary with location, which implies that classifying aerosol particle mass using APM might be influenced at high-altitude sites. On the other hand, when using the APM as a particle classifier coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, argon would be required as the carrier gas. Therefore, air, oxygen and carbon dioxide were selected as carrier gases to evaluate the effect of gas viscosity and the mean free path on the performance of APM.
Ramakrishna Ramisetty, Ahmed Abdelmonem, Xiaoli Shen, Harald Saathoff, Thomas Leisner, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4345–4360,Short summary
In this study we coupled a laser ablation aerosol time-of-flight (LAAPTOF) single-particle mass spectrometer, originally equipped with an excimer laser, to a femtosecond laser. The objective was to assess the influence of the higher laser power density of the femtosecond laser on ablation–ionization of atmospheric particles, ion signal, and ultimately quantitative abilities of the single-particle mass spectrometer.
Yue Zhang, Shachi Katira, Andrew Lee, Andrew T. Lambe, Timothy B. Onasch, Wen Xu, William A. Brooks, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Andrew Freedman, John T. Jayne, Doug R. Worsnop, Paul Davidovits, David Chandler, and Charles E. Kolb
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3479–3490,Short summary
We have adopted a new technique for measuring glass-forming properties of atmospherically relevant organic aerosols at submicron sizes and relatively low mass concentrations. Aerosol particles are deposited in the form of a thin film with interdigitated electrodes using electrostatic precipitation. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is used to measure the kinetically controlled glass transition temperatures of glycerol and citric acid aerosols with three atmospheric relevant cooling rates.
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Bisiaux, M. M., Edwards, R., McConnell, J. R., Albert, M. R., Anschütz, H., Neumann, T. A., Isaksson, E., and Penner, J. E.: Variability of black carbon deposition to the East Antarctic Plateau, 1800–2000 AD, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3799–3808, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-3799-2012, 2012a.
Bisiaux, M. M., Edwards, R., McConnell, J. R., Curran, M. A. J., Van Ommen, T. D., Smith, A. M., Neumann, T. A., Pasteris, D. R., Penner, J. E., and Taylor, K.: Changes in black carbon deposition to Antarctica from two high-resolution ice core records, 1850–2000 AD, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4107–4115, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-4107-2012, 2012b.
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Dou, T., Xiao, C., Shindell, D. T., Liu, J., Eleftheriadis, K., Ming, J., and Qin, D.: The distribution of snow black carbon observed in the Arctic and compared to the GISS-PUCCINI model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 7995–8007, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-7995-2012, 2012.
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Gysel, M., Laborde, M., Olfert, J. S., Subramanian, R., and Gröhn, A. J.: Effective density of Aquadag and fullerene soot black carbon reference materials used for SP2 calibration, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2851–2858, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-2851-2011, 2011.
Kaspari, S. D., Schwikowski, M., Gysel, M., Flanner, M. G., Kang, S., Hou, S., and Mayewski, P. A.: Recent increase in black carbon concentrations from a Mt. Everest ice core spanning 1860–2000 AD, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L04703, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL046096, 2011.
Kirchstetter, T. W. and Novakov, T.: Controlled generation of black carbon particles from a diffusion flame and applications in evaluating black carbon measurement methods, Atmos. Environ., 41, 1874–1888, 2007.
Laborde, M., Mertes, P., Zieger, P., Dommen, J., Baltensperger, U., and Gysel, M.: Sensitivity of the Single Particle Soot Photometer to different black carbon types, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1031–1043, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-5-1031-2012, 2012.
Lavanchy, V. M. H., Gäggeler, H. W., Schotterer, U., Schwikowski, M., and Baltensperger, U.: Historical record of carbonaceous particle concentrations from a European high-alpine glacier (Colle Gnifetti, Switzerland), J. Geophys. Res., 104, 21227–21236, 1999.
McConnell, J. R., Edwards, R., Kok, G. L., Flanner, M. G., Zender, C. S., Saltzman, E. S., Banta, J. R., Pasteris, D. R., Carter, M. M., and Kahl, J. D. W.: 20th-Century Industrial Black Carbon Emissions Altered Arctic Climate Forcing, Science, 317, 1381–1384, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1144856, 2007.
Moteki, N. and Kondo, Y.: Effects of mixing state on black carbon measurements by laser-induced incandescence, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 41, 398–417, 2007.
Moteki, N. and Kondo, Y.: Dependence of laser-induced incandescence on physical properties of black carbon aerosols: Measurements and theoretical interpretation, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 44, 663–675, 2010.
Ohata, S., Moteki, N., and Kondo, Y.: Evaluation of a method for measurement of the concentration and size distribution of black carbon particles suspended in rainwater, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 45, 1326–1336, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786826.2011.593590, 2011.
Ohata, S., Moteki, N., Schwarz, J., Fahey, D., and Kondo, Y.: Evaluation of a Method to Measure Black Carbon Particles Suspended in Rainwater and Snow Samples, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 47, 1073–1082, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786826.2013.824067, 2013.
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