Articles | Volume 11, issue 5
Research article 22 May 2018
Research article | 22 May 2018
Use of the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) as a pre-filter for ice nucleation measurements: effect of particle mixing state and determination of SP2 conditions to fully vaporize refractory black carbon
Gregory P. Schill et al.
No articles found.
Yun Lin, Jiwen Fan, Pengfei Li, L. Ruby Leung, Paul DeMott, Lexie Goldberger, Jennifer Comstock, Ying Liu, Jonghoon Jeong, and Jason Tomlinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
How sea spray aerosols may affect cloud and precipitation over the region by acting as ice-nucleating particles (INPs) is unknown. We explored the effects of INPs from marine aerosols on orographic cloud and precipitation for an AR event observed during the 2015 ACAPEX field campaign. The marine INPs enhance the formation of ice and snow, leading to less shallow warm clouds but more mixed-phase and deep clouds. This work suggests models need to consider the impacts of marine INPs.
Stefanie Kremser, Mike Harvey, Peter Kuma, Sean Hartery, Alexia Saint-Macary, John McGregor, Alex Schuddeboom, Marc von Hobe, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Alex Geddes, Richard Querel, Adrian McDonald, Maija Peltola, Karine Sellegri, Israel Silber, Cliff S. Law, Connor J. Flynn, Andrew Marriner, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Carson C. Hume, Graeme Plank, Geoffrey Graham, and Simon Parsons
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3115–3153,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions over the Southern Ocean are poorly understood and remain a major source of uncertainty in climate models. This study presents ship-borne measurements, collected during a 6-week voyage into the Southern Ocean in 2018, that are an important supplement to satellite-based measurements. For example, these measurements include data on low-level clouds and aerosol composition in the marine boundary layer, which can be used in climate model evaluation efforts.
Jessie M. Creamean, Julio E. Ceniceros, Lilyanna Newman, Allyson D. Pace, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Matthew E. Rhodes
Biogeosciences, 18, 3751–3762,Short summary
Microorganisms have the unique ability to form ice in clouds at relatively warm temperatures, especially specific types of plant bacteria. However, to date, members of the domain Archaea have not been evaluated for their cloud-forming capabilities. Here, we show the first results of Haloarchaea that have the ability to form cloud ice at moderate supercooled temperatures that are found in hypersaline environments on Earth.
Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Meredith A. Fish, Julie Dinasquet, Gavin C. Cornwell, M. Dale Stokes, Michael D. Burkart, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9031–9045,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) can influence multiple climate-relevant cloud properties by triggering droplet freezing at relative humidities below or temperatures above the freezing point of water. The ocean is a significant INP source; however, the specific identities of marine INPs remain largely unknown. Here, we identify 14 ice-nucleating microbes from aerosol and precipitation samples collected at a coastal site in southern California, two or more of which are likely marine.
Isabelle Steinke, Paul J. DeMott, Grant Deane, Thomas C. J. Hill, Mathew Maltrud, Aishwarya Raman, and Susannah M. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Over the oceans, sea spray aerosol is an important source of particles that may initiate the formation of cloud ice, which then has implications for the radiative properties of marine clouds. In our study, we focus on marine biogenic particles that are emitted episodically and develop a numerical framework to describe these emissions. We find that further cloud-resolving model studies and targeted observations are needed to fully understand the climate impacts from marine biogenic particles.
Anna L. Hodshire, Emily Ramnarine, Ali Akherati, Matthew L. Alvarado, Delphine K. Farmer, Shantanu H. Jathar, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Chantelle R. Lonsdale, Timothy B. Onasch, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Yang Wang, Lawrence I. Kleinman, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6839–6855,Short summary
Biomass burning emits particles and vapors that can impact both health and climate. Here, we investigate the role of dilution in the evolution of aerosol size and composition in observed US wildfire smoke plumes. Centers of plumes dilute more slowly than edges. We see differences in concentrations and composition between the centers and edges both in the first measurement and in subsequent measurements. Our findings support the hypothesis that plume dilution influences smoke aging.
Gourihar Kulkarni, Naruki Hiranuma, Ottmar Möhler, Kristina Höhler, Swarup China, Daniel J. Cziczo, and Paul J. DeMott
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6631–6643,Short summary
This study presents a new continuous-flow-diffusion-chamber-style operated ice chamber (Modified Compact Ice Chamber, MCIC) to measure the immersion-freezing efficiency of atmospheric particles. MCIC allowed us to obtain maximum droplet-freezing efficiency at higher time resolution without droplet breakthrough ambiguity. Its evaluation was performed by reproducing published data from the recent ice nucleation workshop and past laboratory data for standard and airborne ice-nucleating particles.
André Welti, E. Keith Bigg, Paul J. DeMott, Xianda Gong, Markus Hartmann, Mike Harvey, Silvia Henning, Paul Herenz, Thomas C. J. Hill, Blake Hornblow, Caroline Leck, Mareike Löffler, Christina S. McCluskey, Anne Marie Rauker, Julia Schmale, Christian Tatzelt, Manuela van Pinxteren, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15191–15206,Short summary
Ship-based measurements of maritime ice nuclei concentrations encompassing all oceans are compiled. From this overview it is found that maritime ice nuclei concentrations are typically 10–100 times lower than over continents, while concentrations are surprisingly similar in different oceanic regions. The analysis of the influence of ship emissions shows no effect on the data, making ship-based measurements an efficient strategy for the large-scale exploration of ice nuclei concentrations.
Charlotte M. Beall, Dolan Lucero, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, M. Dale Stokes, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6473–6486,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) can influence multiple climate-relevant cloud properties. Previous studies report INP observations from precipitation samples that were stored prior to analysis, yet storage protocols vary widely, and little is known about how storage impacts INPs. This study finds that storing samples at −20 °C best preserves INP concentrations and that significant losses of small INPs occur across all storage protocols.
Steven Albers, Stephen M. Saleeby, Sonia Kreidenweis, Qijing Bian, Peng Xian, Zoltan Toth, Ravan Ahmadov, Eric James, and Steven D. Miller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3235–3261,Short summary
A fast 3D visible-light forward operator is used to realistically visualize, validate, and potentially assimilate ground- and space-based camera and satellite imagery with NWP models. Three-dimensional fields of hydrometeors, aerosols, and 2D land surface variables are considered in the generation of radiance fields and RGB imagery from a variety of vantage points.
Peter J. Marinescu, Ezra J. T. Levin, Don Collins, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, and Susan C. van den Heever
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11985–12006,Short summary
We characterized and provided fits for the seasonal aerosol size distributions (7 nm–14 µm diameter) at a North American, long–term surface site (SGP), which can be applied to models. Key cycles on timescales of several hours to weeks were also assessed using power spectra for various aerosol size ranges. One key finding is the consistent presence of diurnal cycles in the smallest particles in each season, providing insights into the formation and roles of new particle formation at SGP.
Steven D. Miller, Louie D. Grasso, Qijing Bian, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Jack F. Dostalek, Jeremy E. Solbrig, Jennifer Bukowski, Susan C. van den Heever, Yi Wang, Xiaoguang Xu, Jun Wang, Annette L. Walker, Ting-Chi Wu, Milija Zupanski, Christine Chiu, and Jeffrey S. Reid
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5101–5118,Short summary
Satellite–based detection of lofted mineral via infrared–window channels, well established in the literature, faces significant challenges in the presence of atmospheric moisture. Here, we consider a case featuring the juxtaposition of two dust plumes embedded within dry and moist air masses. The case is considered from the vantage points of numerical modeling, multi–sensor observations, and radiative transfer theory arriving at a new method for mitigating the water vapor masking effect.
Stephen M. Saleeby, Susan C. van den Heever, Jennie Bukowski, Annette L. Walker, Jeremy E. Solbrig, Samuel A. Atwood, Qijing Bian, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Yi Wang, Jun Wang, and Steven D. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10279–10301,Short summary
This study seeks to understand how intense dust storms impact the heating and cooling of the land surface and atmosphere. Dust storms that are intense enough to substantially impact visibility can also alter how much sunlight reaches the surface during the day and how much heat is trapped in the atmosphere at night. These radiation changes can impact the temperature of the atmosphere and impact the weather in the vicinity.
Samuel A. Atwood, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Paul J. DeMott, Markus D. Petters, Gavin C. Cornwell, Andrew C. Martin, and Kathryn A. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6931–6947,Short summary
This paper presents measurements of aerosol particles at a coastal location. The particles were classified into distinct aerosol types using both microphysical measurements and meteorological information, allowing rapid changes between the aerosol types to be reliably identified. These particles can alter cloud and precipitation processes, and inclusion of the differences between types can improve atmospheric models and remote sensing retrievals in littoral zones.
Zamin A. Kanji, Ryan C. Sullivan, Monika Niemand, Paul J. DeMott, Anthony J. Prenni, Cédric Chou, Harald Saathoff, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5091–5110,Short summary
The ice nucleation ability of two natural desert dusts coated with a proxy of secondary organic aerosol is presented for temperatures and relative humidity conditions relevant for mixed-phase clouds. We find that at the tested conditions, there is no effect on the ice nucleation ability of the particles due to the organic coating. Furthermore, the two dust samples do not show variability within measurement uncertainty. Particle size and surface area may play a role in any difference observed.
Naruki Hiranuma, Kouji Adachi, David M. Bell, Franco Belosi, Hassan Beydoun, Bhaskar Bhaduri, Heinz Bingemer, Carsten Budke, Hans-Christian Clemen, Franz Conen, Kimberly M. Cory, Joachim Curtius, Paul J. DeMott, Oliver Eppers, Sarah Grawe, Susan Hartmann, Nadine Hoffmann, Kristina Höhler, Evelyn Jantsch, Alexei Kiselev, Thomas Koop, Gourihar Kulkarni, Amelie Mayer, Masataka Murakami, Benjamin J. Murray, Alessia Nicosia, Markus D. Petters, Matteo Piazza, Michael Polen, Naama Reicher, Yinon Rudich, Atsushi Saito, Gianni Santachiara, Thea Schiebel, Gregg P. Schill, Johannes Schneider, Lior Segev, Emiliano Stopelli, Ryan C. Sullivan, Kaitlyn Suski, Miklós Szakáll, Takuya Tajiri, Hans Taylor, Yutaka Tobo, Romy Ullrich, Daniel Weber, Heike Wex, Thomas F. Whale, Craig L. Whiteside, Katsuya Yamashita, Alla Zelenyuk, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4823–4849,Short summary
A total of 20 ice nucleation measurement techniques contributed to investigate the immersion freezing behavior of cellulose particles – natural polymers. Our data showed several types of cellulose are able to nucleate ice as efficiently as some mineral dust samples and cellulose has the potential to be an important atmospheric ice-nucleating particle. Continued investigation/collaboration is necessary to obtain further insight into consistency or diversity of ice nucleation measurements.
Paul J. DeMott, Ottmar Möhler, Daniel J. Cziczo, Naruki Hiranuma, Markus D. Petters, Sarah S. Petters, Franco Belosi, Heinz G. Bingemer, Sarah D. Brooks, Carsten Budke, Monika Burkert-Kohn, Kristen N. Collier, Anja Danielczok, Oliver Eppers, Laura Felgitsch, Sarvesh Garimella, Hinrich Grothe, Paul Herenz, Thomas C. J. Hill, Kristina Höhler, Zamin A. Kanji, Alexei Kiselev, Thomas Koop, Thomas B. Kristensen, Konstantin Krüger, Gourihar Kulkarni, Ezra J. T. Levin, Benjamin J. Murray, Alessia Nicosia, Daniel O'Sullivan, Andreas Peckhaus, Michael J. Polen, Hannah C. Price, Naama Reicher, Daniel A. Rothenberg, Yinon Rudich, Gianni Santachiara, Thea Schiebel, Jann Schrod, Teresa M. Seifried, Frank Stratmann, Ryan C. Sullivan, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Miklós Szakáll, Hans P. Taylor, Romy Ullrich, Jesus Vergara-Temprado, Robert Wagner, Thomas F. Whale, Daniel Weber, André Welti, Theodore W. Wilson, Martin J. Wolf, and Jake Zenker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6231–6257,Short summary
The ability to measure ice nucleating particles is vital to quantifying their role in affecting clouds and precipitation. Methods for measuring droplet freezing were compared while co-sampling relevant particle types. Measurement correspondence was very good for ice nucleating particles of bacterial and natural soil origin, and somewhat more disparate for those of mineral origin. Results reflect recently improved capabilities and provide direction toward addressing remaining measurement issues.
Kaitlyn J. Suski, Tom C. J. Hill, Ezra J. T. Levin, Anna Miller, Paul J. DeMott, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13755–13771,Short summary
The harvesting of crops emits large amounts of particles into the air. These particles can form and interact with clouds to alter cloud properties and precipitation, but the magnitude of these effects is unknown. This study looked at the ability of harvest particles to form ice in clouds by sampling with an ice nucleation chamber downwind of fields being harvested. Some crops emitted large amounts of ice-nucleating particles, and harvest emissions are mixtures of organics, soil, and minerals.
Qijing Bian, Badr Alharbi, Mohammed M. Shareef, Tahir Husain, Mohammad J. Pasha, Samuel A. Atwood, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3969–3985,Short summary
We report long-term and spatially resolved hourly measurements of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations in ambient particulate matter in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Our analysis suggests both local vehicular emissions and regional sources (e.g., oil extraction and refining) were strong influences. Our work informs the development of pollution control strategies for Riyadh.
Jake Zenker, Kristen N. Collier, Guanglang Xu, Ping Yang, Ezra J. T. Levin, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Paul J. DeMott, and Sarah D. Brooks
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4639–4657,Short summary
We have developed a new method which employs single particle depolarization to determine ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations and to differentiate between ice crystals, water droplets, and aerosols. The method is used to interpret measurements collected using the Texas A&M Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (TAMU CFDC) coupled to a Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarization (CASPOL). This new method extends the range of operating conditions for the CFDC to higher supersaturations.
Paul J. DeMott, Thomas C. J. Hill, Markus D. Petters, Allan K. Bertram, Yutaka Tobo, Ryan H. Mason, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Christina S. McCluskey, Ezra J. T. Levin, Gregory P. Schill, Yvonne Boose, Anne Marie Rauker, Anna J. Miller, Jake Zaragoza, Katherine Rocci, Nicholas E. Rothfuss, Hans P. Taylor, John D. Hader, Cedric Chou, J. Alex Huffman, Ulrich Pöschl, Anthony J. Prenni, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11227–11245,Short summary
The consistency and complementarity of different methods for measuring the numbers of particles capable of forming ice in clouds are examined in the atmosphere. Four methods for collecting particles for later (offline) freezing studies are compared to a common instantaneous method. Results support very good agreement in many cases but also biases that require further research. Present capabilities and uncertainties for obtaining global data on these climate-relevant aerosols are thus defined.
Charlotte M. Beall, M. Dale Stokes, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Jesse T. DeWald, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2613–2626,Short summary
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) influence cloud properties and can affect the overall precipitation efficiency. An existing technique for measuring INP concentrations is modified and automated, and heat transfer properties of the INP measurement technique are characterized for the first time using a finite-element-analysis-based heat transfer simulation to improve accuracy of INP freezing temperature measurement.
Qijing Bian, Shantanu H. Jathar, John K. Kodros, Kelley C. Barsanti, Lindsay E. Hatch, Andrew A. May, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5459–5475,Short summary
In this paper, we perform simulations of the evolution of biomass-burning organic aerosol in laboratory smog-chamber experiments and ambient plumes. We find that in smog-chamber experiments, vapor wall losses lead to a large reduction in the apparent secondary organic aerosol formation. In ambient plumes, fire size and meteorology regulate the plume dilution rate, primary organic aerosol evaporation rate, and secondary organic aerosol formation rate.
Jesús Vergara-Temprado, Benjamin J. Murray, Theodore W. Wilson, Daniel O'Sullivan, Jo Browse, Kirsty J. Pringle, Karin Ardon-Dryer, Allan K. Bertram, Susannah M. Burrows, Darius Ceburnis, Paul J. DeMott, Ryan H. Mason, Colin D. O'Dowd, Matteo Rinaldi, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3637–3658,Short summary
We quantify the importance in the atmosphere of different aerosol components to contribute to global ice-nucleating particles concentrations (INPs). The aim is to improve the way atmospheric cloud-ice processes are represented in climate models so they will be able to make better predictions in the future. We found that a kind of dust (K-feldspar), together with marine organic aerosols, can help to improve the representation of INPs and explain most of their observations.
Andrew C. Martin, Gavin C. Cornwell, Samuel A. Atwood, Kathryn A. Moore, Nicholas E. Rothfuss, Hans Taylor, Paul J. DeMott, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus D. Petters, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1491–1509,Short summary
Anthropogenic influence on air quality, aerosol properties, and cloud activity was observed at Bodega Bay, CA, during periods when air from California's interior was transported to the coast. The sudden change in aerosol properties can impact atmospheric radiative balance and cloud formation in ways that must be accounted for in regional climate simulations.
Samuel A. Atwood, Jeffrey S. Reid, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Donald R. Blake, Haflidi H. Jonsson, Nofel D. Lagrosas, Peng Xian, Elizabeth A. Reid, Walter R. Sessions, and James B. Simpas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1105–1123,Short summary
Aerosol particles were measured by ship in remote marine regions of the South China Sea as part of the 2012 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) experiments. As the particle populations changed throughout the experiment, the distribution of particle sizes and the amount of water that collected on them changed as well. These changes were associated with various impacts from smoke, sea salt, and pollution sources, and impact how clouds form and precipitation occurs in the region.
Jiwen Fan, L. Ruby Leung, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Paul J. DeMott
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1017–1035,Short summary
How orographic mixed-phase clouds respond to changes in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nucleating particles (INPs) is highly uncertain. We conducted this study to improve understanding of these processes. We found a new mechanism through which CCN can invigorate orographic mixed-phase clouds and drastically intensify snow precipitation when CCN concentrations are high. Our findings have very important implications for orographic precipitation in polluted regions.
Jeffrey S. Reid, Peng Xian, Brent N. Holben, Edward J. Hyer, Elizabeth A. Reid, Santo V. Salinas, Jianglong Zhang, James R. Campbell, Boon Ning Chew, Robert E. Holz, Arunas P. Kuciauskas, Nofel Lagrosas, Derek J. Posselt, Charles R. Sampson, Annette L. Walker, E. Judd Welton, and Chidong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14041–14056,Short summary
This paper describes aspects of the 2012 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) operations period, the largest within the Maritime Continent. Included were an enhanced deployment of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometers, multiple lidars, and a Singapore supersite. Simultaneously, a ship was dispatched to the Palawan Archipelago and Sulu Sea of the Philippines for September 2012 to observe transported smoke and pollution as it entered the southwest monsoon trough.
Jeffrey S. Reid, Nofel D. Lagrosas, Haflidi H. Jonsson, Elizabeth A. Reid, Samuel A. Atwood, Thomas J. Boyd, Virendra P. Ghate, Peng Xian, Derek J. Posselt, James B. Simpas, Sherdon N. Uy, Kimo Zaiger, Donald R. Blake, Anthony Bucholtz, James R. Campbell, Boon Ning Chew, Steven S. Cliff, Brent N. Holben, Robert E. Holz, Edward J. Hyer, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Arunas P. Kuciauskas, Simone Lolli, Min Oo, Kevin D. Perry, Santo V. Salinas, Walter R. Sessions, Alexander Smirnov, Annette L. Walker, Qing Wang, Liya Yu, Jianglong Zhang, and Yongjing Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14057–14078,Short summary
This paper describes aspects of the 2012 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) operations period, the largest within the Maritime Continent. Included were an enhanced deployment of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometers, multiple lidars, and a Singapore supersite. Simultaneously, a ship was dispatched to the Palawan Archipelago and Sulu Sea of the Philippines for September 2012 to observe transported smoke and pollution as it entered the southwest monsoon trough.
Tom C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Yutaka Tobo, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Bruce F. Moffett, Gary D. Franc, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7195–7211,Short summary
Even though aerosols that trigger the freezing of cloud droplets are rare, they can modify cloud properties and seed precipitation. While soil organic matter is a rich source of ice nucleating particles (INPs), we know little about them. The most active INPs (freeze supercooled water > −12 °C) in Wyoming and Colorado soils were organic, sensitive to heat (105 °C), and possibly fungal proteins in several soils, but they were not known species of ice nucleating bacteria. Many may also be carbohydrates.
M. D. Petters, S. M. Kreidenweis, and P. J. Ziemann
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 111–124,Short summary
Organic particles suspended in air serve as nucleation seeds for droplets in atmospheric clouds. Over time their chemical composition changes towards more functionalized compounds. This work presents a model that can predict an organic compounds' ability promote the nucleation of cloud drops from its functional group composition. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote droplet nucleation. Methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit droplet nucleation.
Q. Bian, A. A. May, S. M. Kreidenweis, and J. R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11027–11045,Short summary
Losses of semi-volatile vapors to Teflon walls may contribute to significant primary particle evaporation during wood-smoke aerosol experiments. These vapor losses may also affect secondary organic aerosol formation during these experiments.
G. Vali, P. J. DeMott, O. Möhler, and T. F. Whale
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10263–10270,Short summary
Clarification is needed in the terminology used to discuss ice nucleation in the literature. Conflicting interpretations coupled with uncertainties about the details of the processes have led to difficulties in the clear communication of results and ideas. This paper contains a proposal for future usage. This proposed terminology was arrived at as a result of a year-long exchange of suggestions by a number of scientists.
L. Zhou, R. Gierens, A. Sogachev, D. Mogensen, J. Ortega, J. N. Smith, P. C. Harley, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, A. Turnipseed, A. Rusanen, S. Smolander, A. B. Guenther, M. Kulmala, T. Karl, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8643–8656,
R. H. Mason, C. Chou, C. S. McCluskey, E. J. T. Levin, C. L. Schiller, T. C. J. Hill, J. A. Huffman, P. J. DeMott, and A. K. Bertram
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2449–2462,
A. A. May, T. Lee, G. R. McMeeking, S. Akagi, A. P. Sullivan, S. Urbanski, R. J. Yokelson, and S. M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6323–6335,Short summary
Smoke plumes from some prescribed fires in the southeastern United States were sampled via aircraft to observe changes in organic aerosol (OA) with atmospheric transport. These plumes underwent rapid mixing, and, hence, substantial dilution with background air occurred. Dilution-driven evaporation appears to be the primary driver of OA transformations within the sampled plumes rather than photochemistry.
N. Hiranuma, S. Augustin-Bauditz, H. Bingemer, C. Budke, J. Curtius, A. Danielczok, K. Diehl, K. Dreischmeier, M. Ebert, F. Frank, N. Hoffmann, K. Kandler, A. Kiselev, T. Koop, T. Leisner, O. Möhler, B. Nillius, A. Peckhaus, D. Rose, S. Weinbruch, H. Wex, Y. Boose, P. J. DeMott, J. D. Hader, T. C. J. Hill, Z. A. Kanji, G. Kulkarni, E. J. T. Levin, C. S. McCluskey, M. Murakami, B. J. Murray, D. Niedermeier, M. D. Petters, D. O'Sullivan, A. Saito, G. P. Schill, T. Tajiri, M. A. Tolbert, A. Welti, T. F. Whale, T. P. Wright, and K. Yamashita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2489–2518,Short summary
Seventeen ice nucleation measurement techniques contributed to investigate the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX. All data showed a similar temperature trend, but the measured ice nucleation activity was on average smaller for the wet suspended samples and higher for the dry-dispersed aerosol samples at high temperatures. A continued investigation and collaboration is necessary to obtain further insights into consistency or diversity of ice nucleation measurements.
M. I. Schurman, T. Lee, Y. Sun, B. A. Schichtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, and J. L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 737–752,Short summary
Atmospheric particles can contribute to environmental degradation. An aerosol mass spectrometer was used with positive matrix factorization to explore submicron particle sources in Rocky Mountain National Park, finding that ammonium (3.9%), nitrate (4.3%), sulfate (16.6%), and two types of oxidized organic aerosol (66.9% total) are transported on upslope winds from the urban Front Range, while local campfires contribute 8.4% of mass.
P. J. DeMott, A. J. Prenni, G. R. McMeeking, R. C. Sullivan, M. D. Petters, Y. Tobo, M. Niemand, O. Möhler, J. R. Snider, Z. Wang, and S. M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 393–409,Short summary
Laboratory and field data are used together to develop an empirical relation between the concentrations of mineral dust particles at sizes above 0.5 microns, approximated as a single compositional type, and ice nucleating particle concentrations measured versus temperature. This should be useful in global modeling of ice cloud formation. The utility of laboratory data for parameterization development is reinforced, and the need for careful interpretation of ice nucleation data is emphasized.
A. P. Sullivan, A. A. May, T. Lee, G. R. McMeeking, S. M. Kreidenweis, S. K. Akagi, R. J. Yokelson, S. P. Urbanski, and J. L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10535–10545,
C. E. Stockwell, R. J. Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. L. Robinson, P. J. DeMott, R. C. Sullivan, J. Reardon, K. C. Ryan, D. W. T. Griffith, and L. Stevens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9727–9754,
Y. Tobo, P. J. DeMott, T. C. J. Hill, A. J. Prenni, N. G. Swoboda-Colberg, G. D. Franc, and S. M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8521–8531,
S. Nakao, S. R. Suda, M. Camp, M. D. Petters, and S. M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2227–2241,
J. Ortega, A. Turnipseed, A. B. Guenther, T. G. Karl, D. A. Day, D. Gochis, J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, P. J. DeMott, Y. Tobo, E. G. Patton, A. Hodzic, Y. Y. Cui, P. C. Harley, R. S. Hornbrook, E. C. Apel, R. K. Monson, A. S. D. Eller, J. P. Greenberg, M. C. Barth, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, J. L. Jimenez, A. C. Aiken, M. K. Dubey, C. Geron, J. Offenberg, M. G. Ryan, P. J. Fornwalt, S. C. Pryor, F. N. Keutsch, J. P. DiGangi, A. W. H. Chan, A. H. Goldstein, G. M. Wolfe, S. Kim, L. Kaser, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Hansel, C. A. Cantrell, R. L. Mauldin, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6345–6367,
H. Wex, P. J. DeMott, Y. Tobo, S. Hartmann, M. Rösch, T. Clauss, L. Tomsche, D. Niedermeier, and F. Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5529–5546,
E. J. T. Levin, A. J. Prenni, B. B. Palm, D. A. Day, P. Campuzano-Jost, P. M. Winkler, S. M. Kreidenweis, P. J. DeMott, J. L. Jimenez, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2657–2667,
J. Fan, L. R. Leung, P. J. DeMott, J. M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, J. M. Tomlinson, A. White, K. A. Prather, P. Minnis, J. K. Ayers, and Q. Min
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 81–101,
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J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, P. J. DeMott, C. Pöhlker, R. H. Mason, N. H. Robinson, J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Y. Tobo, V. R. Després, E. Garcia, D. J. Gochis, E. Harris, I. Müller-Germann, C. Ruzene, B. Schmer, B. Sinha, D. A. Day, M. O. Andreae, J. L. Jimenez, M. Gallagher, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. K. Bertram, and U. Pöschl
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S. K. Akagi, R. J. Yokelson, I. R. Burling, S. Meinardi, I. Simpson, D. R. Blake, G. R. McMeeking, A. Sullivan, T. Lee, S. Kreidenweis, S. Urbanski, J. Reardon, D. W. T. Griffith, T. J. Johnson, and D. R. Weise
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1141–1165,
M. D. Petters and S. M. Kreidenweis
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Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsDevelopment of an in situ dual-channel thermal desorption gas chromatography instrument for consistent quantification of volatile, intermediate-volatility and semivolatile organic compoundsAssessment of online water-soluble brown carbon measuring systems for aircraft samplingCharacterizing the performance of a POPS miniaturized optical particle counter when operated on a quadcopter droneA low-cost monitor for simultaneous measurement of fine particulate matter and aerosol optical depth – Part 3: Automation and design improvementsSimulation-aided characterization of a versatile water condensation particle counter for atmospheric airborne researchRapid measurement of RH-dependent aerosol hygroscopic growth using a humidity-controlled fast integrated mobility spectrometer (HFIMS)Evaluation methods for low-cost particulate matter sensorsDetection of ship plumes from residual fuel operation in emission control areas using single-particle mass spectrometryHighly time-resolved characterization of carbonaceous aerosols using a two-wavelength Sunset thermal–optical carbon analyzerCaptive Aerosol Growth and Evolution (CAGE) chamber system to investigate particle growth due to secondary aerosol formationDesign and characterization of a new oxidation flow reactor for laboratory and long-term ambient studiesA reel-down instrument system for profile measurements of water vapor, temperature, clouds, and aerosol beneath constant-altitude scientific balloonsAirborne extractive electrospray mass spectrometry measurements of the chemical composition of organic aerosolA semicontinuous study on the ecotoxicity of atmospheric particles using a versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES): development and field characterizationA novel rocket-borne ion mass spectrometer with large mass range: instrument description and first-flight resultsDetailed characterization of the CAPS single-scattering albedo monitor (CAPS PMssa) as a field-deployable instrument for measuring aerosol light absorption with the extinction-minus-scattering methodNew in situ aerosol hyperspectral optical measurements over 300–700 nm – Part 1: Spectral Aerosol Extinction (SpEx) instrument field validation during the KORUS-OC cruiseNew in situ aerosol hyperspectral optical measurements over 300–700 nm – Part 2: Extinction, total absorption, water- and methanol-soluble absorption observed during the KORUS-OC cruiseContinuous online monitoring of ice-nucleating particles: development of the automated Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC-Auto)Evaluation of optical particulate matter sensors under realistic conditions of strong and mild urban pollutionOptimizing the detection, ablation, and ion extraction efficiency of a single-particle laser ablation mass spectrometer for application in environments with low aerosol particle concentrationsUndersizing of Aged African Biomass Burning Aerosol by an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol SpectrometerMeasurements of PM2.5 with PurpleAir under atmospheric conditionsDevelopment and application of a mass closure PM2.5 composition online monitoring systemImproved chloride quantification in quadrupole aerosol chemical speciation monitors (Q-ACSMs)Application of TXRF in monitoring trace metals in particulate matter and cloud waterA new optical-based technique for real-time measurements of mineral dust concentration in PM10 using a virtual impactorMIMiX: a Multipurpose In situ Microreactor system for X-ray microspectroscopy to mimic atmospheric aerosol processingApplication of an O-ring pinch device as a constant-pressure inlet (CPI) for airborne samplingResolving the size of ice-nucleating particles with a balloon deployable aerosol sampler: the SHARKSimultaneous measurements of the relative-humidity-dependent aerosol light extinction, scattering, absorption, and single-scattering albedo with a humidified cavity-enhanced albedometerFlow-induced errors in airborne in situ measurements of aerosols and cloudsDevelopment of a new nanoparticle sizer equipped with a 12-channel multi-port differential mobility analyzer and multi-condensation particle countersReal-time pollen monitoring using digital holographyEffect of aerosol composition on the performance of low-cost optical particle counter correction factorsIncrease of the particle hit rate in a laser single-particle mass spectrometer by pulse delayed extraction technologyAerosol measurement methods to quantify spore emissions from fungi and cryptogamic covers in the AmazonThe Universal Cloud and Aerosol Sounding System (UCASS): a low-cost miniature optical particle counter for use in dropsonde or balloon-borne sounding systemsA new method to quantify mineral dust and other aerosol species from aircraft platforms using single-particle mass spectrometryAirborne measurements of particulate organic matter by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS): a pilot studyA low-cost monitor for simultaneous measurement of fine particulate matter and aerosol optical depth – Part 1: Specifications and testingAn extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF) for online measurement of atmospheric aerosol particlesA study of the morphology and effective density of externally mixed black carbon aerosols in ambient air using a size-resolved single-particle soot photometer (SP2)A novel approach to calibrating a photoacoustic absorption spectrometer using polydisperse absorbing aerosolAerosol size distributions during the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom): methods, uncertainties, and data productsAn instrument for the rapid quantification of PM-bound ROS: the Particle Into Nitroxide Quencher (PINQ)A new multicopter-based unmanned aerial system for pollen and spores collection in the atmospheric boundary layerA method for extracting calibrated volatility information from the FIGAERO-HR-ToF-CIMS and its experimental applicationCharacterization of the particle emission from a ship operating at sea using an unmanned aerial vehicleDevelopment of an online-coupled MARGA upgrade for the 2 h interval quantification of low-molecular-weight organic acids in the gas and particle phases
Rebecca A. Wernis, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Robert J. Weber, Yutong Liang, John Jayne, Susanne Hering, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6533–6550,Short summary
cTAG is a new scientific instrument that measures concentrations of organic chemicals in the atmosphere. cTAG is the first instrument capable of measuring small, light chemicals as well as heavier chemicals and everything in between on a single detector, every hour. In this work we explain how cTAG works and some of the tests we performed to verify that it works properly and reliably. We also present measurements of alkanes that suggest they have three dominant sources in a Bay Area suburb.
Linghan Zeng, Amy P. Sullivan, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Teresa L. Campos, Joseph M. Katich, Ezra Levin, Michael A. Robinson, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6357–6378,Short summary
Three online systems for measuring water-soluble brown carbon are compared. A mist chamber and two different particle-into-liquid samplers were deployed on separate research aircraft targeting wildfires and followed a similar detection method using a long-path liquid waveguide with a spectrometer to measure the light absorption from 300 to 700 nm. Detection limits, signal hysteresis and other sampling issues are compared, and further improvements of these liquid-based systems are provided.
Zixia Liu, Martin Osborne, Karen Anderson, Jamie D. Shutler, Andy Wilson, Justin Langridge, Steve H. L. Yim, Hugh Coe, Suresh Babu, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Paquita Zuidema, Tao Huang, Jack C. H. Cheng, and James Haywood
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6101–6118,Short summary
This paper first validates the performance of an advanced aerosol observation instrument POPS against a reference instrument and examines any biases introduced by operating it on a quadcopter drone. The results show the POPS performs relatively well on the ground. The impact of the UAV rotors on the POPS is small at low wind speeds, but when operating under higher wind speeds, larger discrepancies occur. It appears that the POPS measures sub-micron aerosol particles more accurately on the UAV.
Eric A. Wendt, Casey Quinn, Christian L'Orange, Daniel D. Miller-Lionberg, Bonne Ford, Jeffrey R. Pierce, John Mehaffy, Michael Cheeseman, Shantanu H. Jathar, David H. Hagan, Zoey Rosen, Marilee Long, and John Volckens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6023–6038,Short summary
Fine particulate matter air pollution is one of the leading contributors to adverse health outcomes on the planet. Here, we describe the design and validation of a low-cost, compact, and autonomous instrument capable of measuring particulate matter levels directly, via mass sampling, and optically, via mass and sunlight extinction measurements. We demonstrate the instrument's accuracy relative to reference measurements and its potential for community-level sampling.
Fan Mei, Steven Spielman, Susanne Hering, Jian Wang, Mikhail Pekour, Gregory Lewis, Beat Schmid, Jason Tomlinson, and Maynard Havlicek
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
This study focuses on understanding a versatile water-based condensation particle counter (vWCPC) performance under low-pressure conditions (or high altitude). A vWCPC has the advantage of avoiding health and safety concerns. However, its performance characterization under a low-pressure is rare but crucial for ensuring successful airborne deployment. This paper provides advanced knowledge of operating a vWCPC to capture the spatial variations of atmospheric aerosols.
Jiaoshi Zhang, Steven Spielman, Yang Wang, Guangjie Zheng, Xianda Gong, Susanne Hering, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5625–5635,Short summary
In this study, we present a newly developed instrument, the humidity-controlled fast integrated mobility spectrometer (HFIMS), for fast measurements of aerosol hygroscopic growth. The HFIMS can measure the distributions of particle hygroscopic growth factors at six diameters from 35 to 265 nm under five RH levels from 20 to 85 % within 25 min. The HFIMS significantly advances our capability of characterizing the hygroscopic growth of atmospheric aerosols over a wide range of relative humidities.
Jeffrey K. Bean
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Understanding and improving the quality of data generated from low-cost sensors is a crucial step in using these sensors. We show how averaging time, choice of reference instrument, and the observation of higher pollutant concentrations can all impact the perceived performance of low-cost sensors in an evaluation. The influence of these factors should be considered when comparing one sensor to another or when determining whether a sensor can produce data that fits a specific need.
Johannes Passig, Julian Schade, Robert Irsig, Lei Li, Xue Li, Zhen Zhou, Thomas Adam, and Ralf Zimmermann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4171–4185,Short summary
Ships are major sources of air pollution; however, monitoring of ship emissions outside harbours is a challenging task. We optimized single-particle mass spectrometry (SPMS) for the detection of bunker fuel emissions and demonstrate the detection of individual ship plumes from more than 10 km in distance. The approach works independently of background air pollution and also when ships use exhaust-cleaning scrubbers. We discuss the potential and limits of SPMS-based monitoring of ship plumes.
Mengying Bao, Yan-Lin Zhang, Fang Cao, Yu-Chi Lin, Yuhang Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Wenqi Zhang, Meiyi Fan, Feng Xie, Robert Cary, Joshua Dixon, and Lihua Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4053–4068,Short summary
We introduce a two-wavelength method for brown C measurements with a modified Sunset carbon analyzer. We defined the enhanced concentrations and gave the possibility of providing an indicator of brown C. Compared with the strong local sources of organic and elemental C, we found that differences in EC mainly originated from regional transport. Biomass burning emissions significantly contributed to high differences in EC concentrations during the heavy biomass burning periods.
Candice L. Sirmollo, Don R. Collins, Jordan M. McCormick, Cassandra F. Milan, Matthew H. Erickson, James H. Flynn, Rebecca J. Sheesley, Sascha Usenko, Henry W. Wallace, Alexander A. T. Bui, Robert J. Griffin, Matthew Tezak, Sean M. Kinahan, and Joshua L. Santarpia
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3351–3370,Short summary
The newly developed portable 1 m3 CAGE chamber systems were characterized using data acquired during a 2-month field study in 2016 in a forested area north of Houston, TX, USA. Concentrations of several oxidant and organic compounds measured in the chamber were found to closely agree with those calculated with a zero-dimensional model. By tracking the modes of injected monodisperse particles, a pattern change was observed for hourly averaged growth rates between late summer and early fall.
Ningjin Xu and Don R. Collins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2891–2906,Short summary
Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) are frequently used to study atmospheric chemistry and aerosol formation by accelerating by up to 10 000 times the reactions that can take hours, days, or even weeks in the atmosphere. Here we present the design and evaluation of a new all-Teflon OFR. The computational, laboratory, and field use data we present demonstrate that the PFA OFR is suitable for a range of applications, including the study of rapidly changing ambient concentrations.
Lars E. Kalnajs, Sean M. Davis, J. Douglas Goetz, Terry Deshler, Sergey Khaykin, Alex St. Clair, Albert Hertzog, Jerome Bordereau, and Alexey Lykov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2635–2648,Short summary
This work introduces a novel instrument system for high-resolution atmospheric profiling, which lowers and retracts a suspended instrument package beneath drifting long-duration balloons. During a 100 d circumtropical flight, the instrument collected over a hundred 2 km profiles of temperature, water vapor, clouds, and aerosol at 1 m resolution, yielding unprecedented geographic sampling and vertical resolution measurements of the tropical tropopause layer.
Demetrios Pagonis, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Hongyu Guo, Douglas A. Day, Melinda K. Schueneman, Wyatt L. Brown, Benjamin A. Nault, Harald Stark, Kyla Siemens, Alex Laskin, Felix Piel, Laura Tomsche, Armin Wisthaler, Matthew M. Coggon, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Hannah S. Halliday, Jordan E. Krechmer, Richard H. Moore, David S. Thomson, Carsten Warneke, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1545–1559,Short summary
We describe the airborne deployment of an extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-MS). The instrument provides a quantitative 1 Hz measurement of the chemical composition of organic aerosol up to altitudes of 7 km, with single-compound detection limits as low as 50 ng per standard cubic meter.
Xiaona Shang, Ling Li, Xinlian Zhang, Huihui Kang, Guodong Sui, Gehui Wang, Xingnan Ye, Hang Xiao, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1037–1045,Short summary
Oxidative stress can be used to evaluate not only adverse health effects but also adverse ecological effects. However, little research uses eco-toxicological assay to assess the risks posed by particle matter to non-human biomes. One important reason might be that the concentration of toxic components of atmospheric particles is far below the high detection limit of eco-toxic measurement. To solve the rapid detection problem, we extended a VACES for ecotoxicity aerosol measurement.
Joan Stude, Heinfried Aufmhoff, Hans Schlager, Markus Rapp, Frank Arnold, and Boris Strelnikov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 983–993,Short summary
In this paper we describe the instrument ROMARA and show data from the first flight on a research rocket. On the way through the atmosphere, the instrument detects positive and negative, natural occurring ions before returning back to ground. ROMARA was successfully launched together with other instruments into a special radar echo. We detected typical, light ions of positive and negative charge and heavy negative ions, but no heavy positive ions.
Rob L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Benjamin T. Brem, Martin Irwin, Michele Bertò, Rosaria E. Pileci, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Bas Henzing, Marcel M. Moerman, Fengshan Liu, Thomas Müller, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 819–851,Short summary
Extinction-minus-scattering is an important method for measuring aerosol light absorption, but its application in the field presents a number of challenges. A recently developed instrument based on this method – the CAPS PMssa – has the potential to overcome some of these challenges. We present a compilation of theory, lab measurements, and field examples to characterize this instrument and show the conditions under which it can deliver reliable absorption measurements for atmospheric aerosols.
Carolyn E. Jordan, Ryan M. Stauffer, Brian T. Lamb, Charles H. Hudgins, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Gregory L. Schuster, Richard H. Moore, Ewan C. Crosbie, Edward L. Winstead, Bruce E. Anderson, Robert F. Martin, Michael A. Shook, Luke D. Ziemba, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Claire E. Robinson, Chelsea A. Corr, and Maria A. Tzortziou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 695–713,Short summary
First field data from a custom-built in situ instrument measuring hyperspectral (300–700 nm, 0.8 nm resolution) ambient atmospheric aerosol extinction are presented. The advantage of this capability is that it can be directly linked to other in situ techniques that measure physical and chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Second-order polynomials provided a better fit to the data than traditional power law fits, yielding greater discrimination among distinct ambient aerosol populations.
Carolyn E. Jordan, Ryan M. Stauffer, Brian T. Lamb, Michael Novak, Antonio Mannino, Ewan C. Crosbie, Gregory L. Schuster, Richard H. Moore, Charles H. Hudgins, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Edward L. Winstead, Bruce E. Anderson, Robert F. Martin, Michael A. Shook, Luke D. Ziemba, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Claire E. Robinson, Chelsea A. Corr, and Maria A. Tzortziou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 715–736,Short summary
In situ measurements of ambient atmospheric aerosol hyperspectral (300–700 nm) optical properties (extinction, total absorption, water- and methanol-soluble absorption) were observed around the Korean peninsula. Such in situ observations provide a direct link between ambient aerosol optical properties and their physicochemical properties. The benefit of hyperspectral measurements is evident as simple mathematical functions could not fully capture the observed spectral detail of ambient aerosols.
Cyril Brunner and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 269–293,Short summary
Subvisual microscopic particles in the atmosphere are needed to act as seeds for cloud droplets or ice crystals to form. The microscopic particles, called ice-nucleating particles (INPs), form ice crystals and are rare, and their properties are not well understood, in part because measuring them is challenging and time consuming, and to date has not been automated. Here, we present the first online instrument that can continuously and autonomously measure INP concentration at 243 K.
Adnan Masic, Dzevad Bibic, Boran Pikula, Almir Blazevic, Jasna Huremovic, and Sabina Zero
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6427–6443,Short summary
Optical-based particulate matter sensors offer some advantages: price (especially low-cost sensors), time and space resolution, but they are less accurate than reference instruments. Understanding their performance and limitations is crucial for wider adoption. This is a case study for strong and mild air pollution done in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina. Tested optical sensors were found to be generally acceptable in this study, but proper calibration is required for getting reliable data.
Hans-Christian Clemen, Johannes Schneider, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Franziska Köllner, Andreas Hünig, Florian Rubach, Stephan Mertes, Heike Wex, Frank Stratmann, André Welti, Rebecca Kohl, Fabian Frank, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5923–5953,Short summary
We improved the efficiency of a single-particle mass spectrometer with a newly developed aerodynamic lens system, delayed ion extraction, and better electric shielding. The new components result in significantly improved particle analysis and sample statistics. This is particularly important for measurements of low-number-density particles, such as ice-nucleating particles, and for aircraft-based measurements at high altitudes or where high temporal and spatial resolution is required.
Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Amie Dobracki, Nikolai Smirnow, and Arthur J. Sedlacek III
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Small particles in the air play have important effects on visibility, clouds, and human health. For the ORACLES project we got a new particle sizing instrument that is fast, works over the most important particle sizes, and avoids some of the issues that plague other optical particle sizers. Unfortunately it sees particles much smaller than they really are, probably because they heat up and evaporate. We show a crude correction and speculate why these particles heat so much more than expected.
Karin Ardon-Dryer, Yuval Dryer, Jake N. Williams, and Nastaran Moghimi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5441–5458,Short summary
The PurpleAir PA-II is a low-cost sensor for monitoring changes in the concentrations of particulate matter of various sizes. This study examined the behaviour of multiple PA-II units in four locations in the USA under atmospheric conditions when exposed to a variety of pollutants and different PM2.5 concentrations. The PA-II unit is a promising tool for measuring PM2.5 concentrations and identifying relative concentration changes, as long as the PA-II PM2.5 values can be corrected.
Cui-Ping Su, Xing Peng, Xiao-Feng Huang, Li-Wu Zeng, Li-Ming Cao, Meng-Xue Tang, Yao Chen, Bo Zhu, Yishi Wang, and Ling-Yan He
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5407–5422,Short summary
Online instruments have been widely applied for the measurement of PM2.5 and its chemical components; however, these instruments have a major shortcoming in terms of the limited number (or lack) of species in field measurements. To this end, a new mass closure PM2.5 online-integrated system was developed and applied in this work to achieve more comprehensive information on chemical species in PM2.5, thus providing a powerful tool for PM2.5 long-term daily measurement and source apportionment.
Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Dongyu S. Wang, Philip Croteau, Katarzyna Styszko, Jarosław Nęcki, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5293–5301,Short summary
Some quadrupole aerosol chemical speciation monitors (Q-ACSMs) have had issues with the quantification of particulate chloride, resulting in apparent negative chloride concentrations. We can show that this is due to the different behavior of Cl+ and HCl+, and we present a correction for the more accurate quantification of chloride. The correction can be applied to measurements in environments where the particulate chloride is dominated by NH4Cl.
Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nabil Deabji, Sayf El Islam Barcha, Ibrahim Ouchen, El Mehdi Elbaramoussi, Rajaa Cherkaoui El Moursli, Mimoun Harnafi, Souad El Hajjaji, Abdelwahid Mellouki, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4773–4790,Short summary
As air quality monitoring networks often sample aerosol particles on quartz filters, the development and applicability of analytical methods with quartz filters are becoming important. In this study different filter preparation methods (e.g., baking, acid digestion) were investigated for quantifying trace metals on quartz and polycarbonate filters, and cloud water using the total reflection X-Ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique, with low detection limits of about 0.3 ng cm−3 for some elements.
Luka Drinovec, Jean Sciare, Iasonas Stavroulas, Spiros Bezantakos, Michael Pikridas, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Bojana Višić, Maja Remškar, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3799–3813,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust influences Earth's radiative budget, has adverse health effects, and affects regulatory PM10 concentrations. We present a highly time resolved online technique for quantification of mineral dust concentration in ambient air. The technique uses a virtual impactor to concentrate coarse particles, where absorption is then measured using a filter photometer. The method was tested in the field at a regional background site on Cyprus.
Jan-David Förster, Christian Gurk, Mark Lamneck, Haijie Tong, Florian Ditas, Sarah S. Steimer, Peter A. Alpert, Markus Ammann, Jörg Raabe, Markus Weigand, Benjamin Watts, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3717–3729,Short summary
A gas flow system coupled with a microreactor for X-ray microspectroscopy is presented. Its core objective is to mimic the atmospheric processing of aerosol particles under laboratory conditions in a controlled gas-phase environment and allow in situ observations with high spatial and chemical resolution. We here emphasize its analytical capabilities and show initial results from hydration–dehydration experiments and the observation of water ice at low temperature and high relative humidity.
Sergej Molleker, Frank Helleis, Thomas Klimach, Oliver Appel, Hans-Christian Clemen, Antonis Dragoneas, Christian Gurk, Andreas Hünig, Franziska Köllner, Florian Rubach, Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3651–3660,Short summary
A novel constant-pressure-inlet design for use in airborne aerosol particle mass spectrometry – an aerodynamic lens focuses aerosol particles into a vacuum chamber – is presented. The pressure of a few hectopascals at the lens is precisely controlled over a large flight altitude range up to 21 km. The constant pressure is achieved by changing the inner diameter of a properly scaled flexible O-ring acting as a critical orifice. Particle transmission at various inlet pressures is characterized.
Grace C. E. Porter, Sebastien N. F. Sikora, Michael P. Adams, Ulrike Proske, Alexander D. Harrison, Mark D. Tarn, Ian M. Brooks, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2905–2921,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles affect cloud development, lifetime, and radiative properties. Hence it is important to know the abundance of INPs throughout the atmosphere. Here we present the development and application of a radio-controlled payload capable of collecting size-resolved aerosol from a tethered balloon for the primary purpose of offline INP analysis. Test data are presented from four locations: southern Finland, northern England, Svalbard, and southern England.
Jiacheng Zhou, Xuezhe Xu, Weixiong Zhao, Bo Fang, Qianqian Liu, Yuanqing Cai, Weijun Zhang, Dean S. Venables, and Weidong Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2623–2634,Short summary
We report the first demonstration of a humidified cavity-enhanced albedometer (H-CEA) that combines a broadband cavity-enhanced aerosol albedometer with a humidigraph system for simultaneous and accurate measurements of multiple optical hygroscopic parameters (f(RH)ext,scat,abs,ω) at λ = 532 nm. The instrument is suitable for operating under high RH-conditions and has sampling advantages over independent measurements of different parameters with different instruments.
Antonio Spanu, Maximilian Dollner, Josef Gasteiger, T. Paul Bui, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1963–1987,Short summary
This study investigates how the airflow around wing-mounted instruments on fast-flying aircraft affects aerosol and cloud measurements. It combines airborne data with numerical simulations and shows that particle speed, particle concentration, and shape of water droplets are modified by the airflow. The proposed correction strategy for optical particle counters and optical array probes considers airflow effects and significantly reduces errors of derived ambient aerosol and cloud properties.
Hong Ku Lee, Handol Lee, and Kang-Ho Ahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1551–1562,Short summary
We developed a nanoparticle sizer (NPS), consisting of a multi-port differential mobility analyzer (MP-DMA) with 12 sampling ports and multi-condensation particle counters (M-CPCs) for fast measurement of particle size distribution. The NPS can successfully capture the changes in particle size distribution under fast-changing particle concentration conditions. In this study, particle emissions from cooking activity are analyzed as an exemplary real-world application.
Eric Sauvageat, Yanick Zeder, Kevin Auderset, Bertrand Calpini, Bernard Clot, Benoît Crouzy, Thomas Konzelmann, Gian Lieberherr, Fiona Tummon, and Konstantina Vasilatou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1539–1550,Short summary
We present the first validation of the only operational automatic pollen monitoring system based on holography, the Swisens Poleno. The device produces real-time images of coarse aerosols, and by applying a machine learning algorithm we identify a range of pollen taxa with accuracy >90 %. The device was further validated in controlled chamber experiments to verify the counting ability and the performance of additional fluorescence measurements, which can further be used in pollen identification.
Leigh R. Crilley, Ajit Singh, Louisa J. Kramer, Marvin D. Shaw, Mohammed S. Alam, Joshua S. Apte, William J. Bloss, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, Pingqing Fu, Weiqi Fu, Shahzad Gani, Michael Gatari, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Alastair C. Lewis, David Ng'ang'a, Yele Sun, Rachel C. W. Whitty, Siyao Yue, Stuart Young, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1181–1193,Short summary
There is considerable interest in using low-cost optical particle counters (OPCs) for particle mass measurements; however, there is no agreed upon method with respect to calibration. Here we exploit a number of datasets globally to demonstrate that particle composition and relative humidity are the key factors affecting measured concentrations from a low-cost OPC, and we present a simple correction methodology that corrects for this influence.
Ying Chen, Viacheslav Kozlovskiy, Xubing Du, Jinnuo Lv, Sergei Nikiforov, Jiajun Yu, Alexander Kolosov, Wei Gao, Zhen Zhou, Zhengxu Huang, and Lei Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 941–949,Short summary
Ion delayed extraction technique in single particle mass spectrometry has been found to improve the mass resolution of instruments. Through further research, it was found that it can improve the aerosol particle detection efficiency because it can eliminate the influence of the electrical field on the charged aerosol trajectory so that more effective data can be obtained in a short time in laboratory or field atmospheric aerosol research, especially in low-concentration aerosol sample analysis.
Nina Löbs, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Sebastian Brill, David Walter, Florian Ditas, Marta de Oliveira Sá, Alessandro C. de Araújo, Leonardo R. de Oliveira, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Stefan Wolff, Meike Piepenbring, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, and Bettina Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 153–164,Short summary
Bioaerosols are considered to play a relevant role in atmospheric processes, but their sources, properties, and spatiotemporal distribution in the atmosphere are not yet well characterized. Measurement data on the release of fungal spores under natural conditions are also sparse. Here, we present an experimental approach to analyze and quantify the spore release from fungi and other spore-producing organisms under natural and laboratory conditions.
Helen R. Smith, Zbigniew Ulanowski, Paul H. Kaye, Edwin Hirst, Warren Stanley, Richard Kaye, Andreas Wieser, Chris Stopford, Maria Kezoudi, Joseph Girdwood, Richard Greenaway, and Robert Mackenzie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6579–6599,Short summary
The Universal Cloud and Aerosol Sounding System (UCASS) is a low-cost miniature optical particle counter (OPC) capable of sizing particles in the size range 0.4–40 μm. The open-geometry design makes the instrument suitable for deployment on balloon-borne sounding systems, dropsonde systems or as part of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Laboratory and field experiments show good agreement with reference instruments in a range of cloudy and dusty environments.
Karl D. Froyd, Daniel M. Murphy, Charles A. Brock, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack E. Dibb, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Agnieszka Kupc, Ann M. Middlebrook, Gregory P. Schill, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Christina J. Williamson, James C. Wilson, and Luke D. Ziemba
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6209–6239,Short summary
Single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) instruments characterize the composition of individual aerosol particles in real time. We present a new method that combines SPMS composition with independently measured particle size distributions to determine absolute number, surface area, volume, and mass concentrations of mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, and other climate-relevant atmospheric particle types, with a fast time response applicable to aircraft sampling.
Felix Piel, Markus Müller, Tomas Mikoviny, Sally E. Pusede, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5947–5958,Short summary
Herein we report on the first successful airborne deployment of a CHARON PTR–ToF–MS instrument aboard the NASA DC–8 research aircraft. The analyzer is capable of chemically characterizing submicrometer atmospheric particles in a quantitative manner, at the near–molecular level, in real time. This brings a new and unprecedented measurement capability to the airborne atmospheric science community.
Eric A. Wendt, Casey W. Quinn, Daniel D. Miller-Lionberg, Jessica Tryner, Christian L'Orange, Bonne Ford, Azer P. Yalin, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Shantanu Jathar, and John Volckens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5431–5441,Short summary
We introduce a low-cost, compact device (aerosol mass and optical depth (AMOD) sampler) that can be used by citizen scientists to measure air quality. Our paper discusses the development and different components for measuring aerosols. It also shows that measurements made by the AMOD next to reference-grade monitors agreed within 10 %. Coupled with the cost of these instruments, this agreement demonstrates that the AMOD can be widely deployed to monitor air quality by citizen scientists.
Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Veronika Pospisilova, Wei Huang, Markus Kalberer, Claudia Mohr, Giulia Stefenelli, Joel A. Thornton, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4867–4886,Short summary
We present a novel, field-deployable extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF), which provides real-time, near-molecular measurements of organic aerosol at atmospherically relevant concentrations, addressing a critical gap in existing measurement capabilities. Successful deployments of the EESI-TOF for laboratory measurements, ground-based ambient sampling, and aboard a research aircraft highlight the versatility and potential of the EESI-TOF system.
Yunfei Wu, Yunjie Xia, Rujin Huang, Zhaoze Deng, Ping Tian, Xiangao Xia, and Renjian Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4347–4359,Short summary
The morphology and effective density of externally mixed black carbon (extBC) aerosols were studied using a tandem technique coupling a DMA with a SP2. The study extended the mass–mobility relationship to large extBC with a mobility diameter larger than 350 nm, a size range seldom included in previous tandem measurements of BC aggregates. On this basis, quantities such as the mass–mobility scaling exponent were revealed for extBC in urban Beijing.
Katie Foster, Rudra Pokhrel, Matthew Burkhart, and Shane Murphy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3351–3363,Short summary
A new technique for calibrating photo-acoustic absorption spectrometers (PASs) has been developed utilizing polydisperse, highly-absorbing aerosol and a commercially available instrument that measures particle extinction and scattering. This is the first calibration technique for multi-pass PAS instruments that does not require particles with known refractive index or reactive gases. Three substances were tested: Aquadag, Regal Black, and Nigrosin. All calibrations were consistent to within 5 %.
Charles A. Brock, Christina Williamson, Agnieszka Kupc, Karl D. Froyd, Frank Erdesz, Nicholas Wagner, Matthews Richardson, Joshua P. Schwarz, Ru-Shan Gao, Joseph M. Katich, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Jose L. Jimenez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Maximilian Dollner, ThaoPaul Bui, and Daniel M. Murphy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3081–3099,Short summary
From 2016 to 2018 a NASA aircraft profiled the atmosphere from 180 m to ~12 km from the Arctic to the Antarctic over both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. This program, ATom, sought to sample atmospheric chemical composition to compare with global climate models. We describe the how measurements of particulate matter were made during ATom, and show that the instrument performance was excellent. Data from this project can be used with confidence to evaluate models and compare with satellites.
Reece A. Brown, Svetlana Stevanovic, Steven Bottle, and Zoran D. Ristovski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2387–2401,Short summary
The paper details the design and characterization of a novel instrument for the measurement of particle reactivity and potential bioactivity, the PINQ. It continuously collects particles, regardless of size or composition, directly into a very small amount of liquid with a collection efficiency of > 0.97 and a cut-off size of 20 nm. PINQ has the highest time resolution, of only 1 min, and is very sensitive to various reactive species from the air.
Claudio Crazzolara, Martin Ebner, Andreas Platis, Tatiana Miranda, Jens Bange, and Annett Junginger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1581–1598,Short summary
A newly developed in situ measurement method provides new insights into the propagation behaviour of aerosol particles such as pollen grains and spores, possibly improving the pollen prognosis for allergy sufferers and providing new discoveries in the propagation behaviour of fine dust particles of different origins. This publication describes the development of the remote-controlled multicopter-based system as well as initial tests and validations to overcome various technical challenges.
Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Le Breton, Michael Priestley, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Nicholas A. Marsden, Archit Mehra, Julia Hammes, Mattias Hallquist, M. Rami Alfarra, Ulrich K. Krieger, Jonathan P. Reid, John Jayne, Wade Robinson, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, and Dave Topping
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1429–1439,Short summary
The Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) is an inlet designed to be coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) and provides simultaneous molecular information relating to both the gas- and particle-phase samples. This method has been used to extract vapour pressures of compounds whilst giving quantitative concentrations in the particle phase. Here we detail an ideal set of benchmark compounds for characterization of the FIGAERO.
Tommaso F. Villa, Reece A. Brown, E. Rohan Jayaratne, L. Felipe Gonzalez, Lidia Morawska, and Zoran D. Ristovski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 691–702,Short summary
This research demonstrates the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to characterize the gaseous and diesel particle emissions of a ship at sea. The field study was part of the research voyage “The Great Barrier Reef as a significant source of climatically relevant aerosol particles” on board the RV Investigator around the Australian Great Barrier Reef. Measurements of the RV Investigator exhaust plume were carried out while the ship was operating at sea, at a steady engine load.
Bastian Stieger, Gerald Spindler, Dominik van Pinxteren, Achim Grüner, Markus Wallasch, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 281–298,Short summary
A MARGA was combined with an additional IC system specialized for the 2 h interval online quantification of 12 low-molecular-weight organic acids in the gas and particle phases. Low limits of detection and good precision were achieved. The suitability for field measurements was shown. This setup reduces laboratory work and filter sampling artifacts. Diurnal profiles, sources and phase distributions of these compounds will improve the knowledge of the tropospheric multiphase chemistry.
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Koehler, K. A., Kreidenweis, S. M., DeMott, P. J., Petters, M. D., Prenni, A. J., and Carrico, C. M.: Hygroscopicity and cloud droplet activation of mineral dust aerosol, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, 1–5, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037348, 2009.
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Few techniques can measure the contribution of refractory black carbon (rBC) to ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations. One technique uses the single particle soot photometer (SP2) as a pre-filter to an online INP counter to selectively remove rBC particles from an aerosol stream. In this work, we expand upon this technique by determining the effect of the SP2 laser on INP proxies mixed with rBC. We also bounded the SP2 conditions under which rBC is fully vaporized in the SP2 exhaust.
Few techniques can measure the contribution of refractory black carbon (rBC) to ice-nucleating...