Articles | Volume 14, issue 4
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3131–3151, 2021
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3131–3151, 2021
Research article
28 Apr 2021
Research article | 28 Apr 2021

Development of the drop Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), intercomparison of droplet freezing techniques, and use of soluble lignin as an atmospheric ice nucleation standard

Anna J. Miller et al.

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Development of the drop Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), intercomparison of droplet freezing techniques, and use of soluble lignin as an atmospheric ice nucleation standard
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Cited articles

Ardon-Dryer, K., Levin, Z., and Lawson, R. P.: Characteristics of immersion freezing nuclei at the South Pole station in Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4015–4024,, 2011. a
Atkins, P. and de Paula, J.: Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences, OUP Oxford, 619 pp., 2011. a
Atkinson, J. D., Murray, B. J., Woodhouse, M. T., Whale, T. F., Baustian, K. J., Carslaw, K. S., Dobbie, S., O'Sullivan, D., and Malkin, T. L.: The Importance of Feldspar for Ice Nucleation by Mineral Dust in Mixed-Phase Clouds, Nature, 498, 355–358,, 2013. a
Barry, K. R., Hill, T. C., Jentzsch, C., Moffett, B. F., Stratmann, F., and DeMott, P. J.: Pragmatic Protocols for Working Cleanly When Measuring Ice Nucleating Particles, Atmos. Res., 250, 105419,, 2021. a, b
Beall, C. M., Stokes, M. D., Hill, T. C., DeMott, P. J., DeWald, J. T., and Prather, K. A.: Automation and heat transfer characterization of immersion mode spectroscopy for analysis of ice nucleating particles, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2613–2626,, 2017. a, b, c
Short summary
To characterize atmospheric ice nuclei, we present (1) the development of our home-built droplet freezing technique (DFT), which involves the Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), (2) an intercomparison campaign using NX-illite and an ambient sample with two other DFTs, and (3) the application of lignin as a soluble and commercial ice nuclei standard with three DFTs. We further compiled the growing number of DFTs in use for atmospheric ice nucleation since 2000 and add FINC.