Articles | Volume 15, issue 9
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Scan strategies for wind profiling with Doppler lidar – an large-eddy simulation (LES)-based evaluation
Institute of Meteorology and Climatology, Leibniz University Hannover, Hanover, Germany
Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg, Richard-Aßmann-Observatory, German Meteorological Service, Lindenberg, Germany
Institute of Meteorology and Climatology, Leibniz University Hannover, Hanover, Germany
No articles found.
Kevin Wolz, Christopher Holst, Frank Beyrich, Eileen Paeschke, and Matthias Mauder
We compared wind measurements using different lidar setups at various heights. The triple Doppler lidar, sonic anemometer, and two single Doppler lidars were tested. Overall, the lidar methods showed good agreement with the sonic anemometer. The triple Doppler lidar performed better than single Doppler lidars, especially at higher altitudes. We also developed a new filtering approach for virtual tower scanning strategies. Single Doppler lidars provide reliable wind data over flat terrain.
Julian Steinheuer, Carola Detring, Frank Beyrich, Ulrich Löhnert, Petra Friederichs, and Stephanie Fiedler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3243–3260,Short summary
Doppler wind lidars (DWLs) allow the determination of wind profiles with high vertical resolution and thus provide an alternative to meteorological towers. We address the question of whether wind gusts can be derived since they are short-lived phenomena. Therefore, we compare different DWL configurations and develop a new method applicable to all of them. A fast continuous scanning mode that completes a full observation cycle within 3.4 s is found to be the best-performing configuration.
Oliver Maas and Siegfried Raasch
Wind Energ. Sci., 7, 715–739,Short summary
In the future there will be very large wind farm clusters in the German Bight. This study investigates how the wind field is affected by these very large wind farms and how much energy can be extracted by the wind turbines. Very large wind farms do not only reduce the wind speed but can also cause a change in wind direction or temperature. The extractable energy per wind turbine is much smaller for large wind farms than for small wind farms due to the reduced wind speed inside the wind farms.
Eckhard Kadasch, Matthias Sühring, Tobias Gronemeier, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5435–5465,Short summary
In this paper, we provide a technical description of a newly developed interface for coupling the PALM model system 6.0 to the weather prediction model COSMO. The interface allows users of PALM to simulate the detailed atmospheric flow for relatively small regions of tens of kilometres under specific weather conditions, for instance, periods around observation campaigns or extreme weather situations. We demonstrate the interface using a benchmark simulation.
Tobias Gronemeier, Kerstin Surm, Frank Harms, Bernd Leitl, Björn Maronga, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3317–3333,Short summary
We demonstrate the capability of the PALM model system version 6.0 to simulate urban boundary layers. The studied situation includes a real-world building setup of the HafenCity area in Hamburg, Germany. We evaluate the simulation results against wind-tunnel measurements utilizing PALM's virtual measurement module. The comparison reveals an overall high agreement between simulation results and wind-tunnel measurements including mean wind speed and direction as well as turbulence statistics.
Antti Hellsten, Klaus Ketelsen, Matthias Sühring, Mikko Auvinen, Björn Maronga, Christoph Knigge, Fotios Barmpas, Georgios Tsegas, Nicolas Moussiopoulos, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3185–3214,Short summary
Large-eddy simulation (LES) of the urban atmospheric boundary layer involves a large separation of turbulent scales, leading to prohibitive computational costs. An online LES–LES nesting scheme is implemented into the PALM model system 6.0 to overcome this problem. Test results show that the accuracy within the high-resolution nest domains approach the non-nested high-resolution reference results. The nesting can reduce the CPU by time up to 80 % compared to the fine-resolution reference runs.
Tamino Wetz, Norman Wildmann, and Frank Beyrich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3795–3814,Short summary
A fleet of quadrotors is presented as a system to measure the spatial distribution of atmospheric boundary layer flow. The big advantage of this approach is that multiple and flexible measurement points in space can be sampled synchronously. The algorithm to calculate the horizontal wind is based on the principle of aerodynamic drag and the related quadrotor dynamics. The validation reveals that an average accuracy of < 0.3 m s−1 for the wind speed and < 8° for the wind direction was achieved.
Basit Khan, Sabine Banzhaf, Edward C. Chan, Renate Forkel, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Klaus Ketelsen, Mona Kurppa, Björn Maronga, Matthias Mauder, Siegfried Raasch, Emmanuele Russo, Martijn Schaap, and Matthias Sühring
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1171–1193,Short summary
An atmospheric chemistry model has been implemented in the microscale PALM model system 6.0. This article provides a detailed description of the model, its structure, input requirements, various features and limitations. Several pre-compiled ready-to-use chemical mechanisms are included in the chemistry model code; however, users can also easily implement other mechanisms. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the new chemistry model in the urban environment.
Björn Maronga, Sabine Banzhaf, Cornelia Burmeister, Thomas Esch, Renate Forkel, Dominik Fröhlich, Vladimir Fuka, Katrin Frieda Gehrke, Jan Geletič, Sebastian Giersch, Tobias Gronemeier, Günter Groß, Wieke Heldens, Antti Hellsten, Fabian Hoffmann, Atsushi Inagaki, Eckhard Kadasch, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Klaus Ketelsen, Basit Ali Khan, Christoph Knigge, Helge Knoop, Pavel Krč, Mona Kurppa, Halim Maamari, Andreas Matzarakis, Matthias Mauder, Matthias Pallasch, Dirk Pavlik, Jens Pfafferott, Jaroslav Resler, Sascha Rissmann, Emmanuele Russo, Mohamed Salim, Michael Schrempf, Johannes Schwenkel, Gunther Seckmeyer, Sebastian Schubert, Matthias Sühring, Robert von Tils, Lukas Vollmer, Simon Ward, Björn Witha, Hauke Wurps, Julian Zeidler, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1335–1372,Short summary
In this paper, we describe the PALM model system 6.0. PALM is a Fortran-based turbulence-resolving code and has been applied for studying a variety of atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers for about 20 years. The model is optimized for use on massively parallel computer architectures. During the last years, PALM has been significantly improved and now offers a variety of new components that are especially designed to simulate the urban atmosphere at building-resolving resolution.
Sadiq Huq, Frederik De Roo, Siegfried Raasch, and Matthias Mauder
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2523–2538,Short summary
To study turbulence in heterogeneous terrain, high-resolution LES is desired. However, the desired resolution is often restricted by computational constraints. We present a two-way interactive vertical grid nesting technique that enables high-resolution LES of the surface layer. By employing a finer grid only close to the surface layer, the total computational memory requirement is reduced. We demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the method for a convective boundary layer simulation.
Johannes Schwenkel, Fabian Hoffmann, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3929–3944,Short summary
Lagrangian cloud models are a powerful tool to understand cloud microphysics and are increasingly used in the cloud physics community. In this study we present a method designed to improve the warm cloud precipitation process in such models. Our results indicate that using this method is essential for a proper representation of the collisional process of warm clouds, while maintaining an appropriate computational demand.
Rieke Heinze, Christopher Moseley, Lennart Nils Böske, Shravan Kumar Muppa, Vera Maurer, Siegfried Raasch, and Bjorn Stevens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7083–7109,Short summary
High-resolution multi-week simulations of a measurement campaign are evaluated with respect to mean boundary layer quantities and turbulence statistics. Two models are used in a semi-idealized setup through forcing, with output from a coarser-scale model to account for the larger-scale conditions. The boundary layer depth is in principal agreement with observations. Turbulence statistics like variance profiles agree satisfactorily with measurements.
V. M. Stepanenko, A. Martynov, K. D. Jöhnk, Z. M. Subin, M. Perroud, X. Fang, F. Beyrich, D. Mironov, and S. Goyette
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1337–1352,
Related subject area
Subject: Others (Wind, Precipitation, Temperature, etc.) | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Validation and IntercomparisonsDaily satellite-based sunshine duration estimates over Brazil: validation and intercomparisonStatistical assessment of a Doppler radar model of TKE dissipation rate for low Richardson numbersExtended validation of Aeolus winds with wind-profiling radars in Antarctica and Arctic SwedenAssessing sampling and retrieval errors of GPROF precipitation estimates over The NetherlandsThe impact of Aeolus winds on near-surface wind forecasts over tropical ocean and high-latitude regionsLong-term validation of Aeolus L2B wind products at Punta Arenas, Chile, and Leipzig, GermanyTurbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate: assessment of radar models from comparisons between 1.3 GHz wind profiler radar (WPR) and DataHawk UAV measurementsGPROF V7 and beyond: Assessment of current and potential future versions of the GPROF passive microwave precipitation retrievals against ground radar measurements over the continental US and the Pacific OceanComparisons and quality control of wind observations in a mountainous city using wind profile radar and the Aeolus satelliteOn the Use of Routine Airborne Observations for Evaluation and Monitoring of Satellite Observations of Thermodynamic ProfilesGlobal evaluation of RTTOV coefficients for early satellites sensorsThe impacts of assimilating Aeolus horizontal line-of-sight winds on numerical predictions of Hurricane Ida (2021) and a mesoscale convective system over the Atlantic OceanEvaluation of tropospheric water vapour and temperature profiles retrieved from MetOp-A by the Infrared and Microwave Sounding schemeValidation of the Aeolus L2B wind product with airborne wind lidar measurements in the polar North Atlantic region and in the tropicsAn improved vertical correction method for the inter-comparison and inter-validation of integrated water vapour measurementsAn assessment of reprocessed GPS/MET observations spanning 1995–1997Turbulence parameters measured by the Beijing mesosphere–stratosphere–troposphere radar in the troposphere and lower stratosphere with three models: comparison and analysesComparison of planetary boundary layer height from ceilometer with ARM radiosonde dataBehavior and mechanisms of Doppler wind lidar error in varying stability regimesInter-comparison of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height estimates from different profiling sensors and models in the framework of HyMeX-SOP1Evaluation of Aeolus L2B wind product with wind profiling radar measurements and numerical weather prediction model equivalents over AustraliaComparison of global UV spectral irradiance measurements between a BTS CCD-array and a Brewer spectroradiometerExploiting Aeolus level-2b winds to better characterize atmospheric motion vector bias and uncertaintyModelling the spectral shape of continuous-wave lidar measurements in a turbulent wind tunnelThree-way calibration checks using ground-based, 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Maria Lívia L. M. Gava, Simone M. S. Costa, and Anthony C. S. Porfírio
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5429–5441,Short summary
This study assesses the effectiveness of two geostationary satellite-based sunshine duration datasets over Brazil. Statistical parameters were used to evaluate the performance of the products. The results showed generally good agreement between satellite and ground observations, with some regional discrepancies. Overall, both satellite products offer reliable data for various applications, which benefit from their high spatial resolution and low time latency.
Hubert Luce, Lakshmi Kantha, and Hiroyuki Hashiguchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5091–5101,Short summary
The potential ability of clear air radars to measure turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate ε in the atmosphere is a major asset of these instruments because of their continuous measurements. In the present work, we successfully tested the relevance of a model relating ε to the width of the Doppler spectrum peak and wind shear for shear-generated turbulence and we provide a physical interpretation of an empirical model in this context.
Sheila Kirkwood, Evgenia Belova, Peter Voelger, Sourav Chatterjee, and Karathazhiyath Satheesan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4215–4227,Short summary
We compared 2 years of wind measurements by the Aeolus satellite with winds from two wind-profiler radars in Arctic Sweden and coastal Antarctica. Biases are similar in magnitude to results from other locations. They are smaller than in earlier studies due to more comparison points and improved criteria for data rejection. On the other hand, the standard deviation is somewhat higher because of degradation of the Aeolus lidar.
Linda Bogerd, Hidde Leijnse, Aart Overeem, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Accurate and uniformly distributed precipitation estimates are crucial for applications like weather forecasts and flood early water systems. Ground-based observations are reliable but have limited spatial coverage and representation. Sensors aboard satellites are able to overcome this limitation, but are not as accurate as those derived from ground-based sensors. We studied the performance of space-based precipitation estimates to highlight in which situations improvements are needed.
Haichen Zuo and Charlotte Bay Hasager
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3901–3913,Short summary
Aeolus is a satellite equipped with a Doppler wind lidar to detect global wind profiles. This study evaluates the impact of Aeolus winds on surface wind forecasts over tropical oceans and high-latitude regions based on the ECMWF observing system experiments. We find that Aeolus can slightly improve surface wind forecasts for the region > 60° N, especially from day 5 onwards. For other study regions, the impact of Aeolus is nearly neutral or limited, which requires further investigation.
Holger Baars, Joshua Walchester, Elizaveta Basharova, Henriette Gebauer, Martin Radenz, Johannes Bühl, Boris Barja, Ulla Wandinger, and Patric Seifert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3809–3834,Short summary
In 2018, the Aeolus satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched to improve weather forecasts through global measurements of wind profiles. Given the novel lidar technique onboard, extensive validation efforts have been needed to verify the observations. For this reason, we performed long-term validation measurements in Germany and Chile. We found significant improvement in the data products due to a new algorithm version and can confirm the general validity of Aeolus observations.
Hubert Luce, Lakshmi Kantha, Hiroyuki Hashiguchi, Dale Lawrence, Abhiram Doddi, Tyler Mixa, and Masanori Yabuki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3561–3580,Short summary
Doppler radars can be used to estimate turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rates in the atmosphere. The performance of various models is evaluated from comparisons between UHF wind profiler and in situ measurements with UAVs. For the first time, we assess a model supposed to be valid for weak stratification or strong shear conditions. This model provides better agreements with in situ measurements than the classical model based on the hypothesis of a stable stratification.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Clément Guilloteau, Paula J. Brown, Christian D. Kummerow, and Patrick Eriksson
The latest version of the GPROF retrieval algorithm that produces global precipitation estimates from the Global Precipitation Measurement mission observations is validated against ground-based radars. The validation shows that the algorithm accurately estimates from continental to regional scales. In addition, we validate candidates for the next version of the algorithm and identify principal challenges for further improving space-borne rain measurements.
Hua Lu, Min Xie, Wei Zhao, Bojun Liu, Tijian Wang, and Bingliang Zhuang
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Observations of vertical wind in regions with complex terrain are essential, but always sparse and have poor representation. Data verification and quality control study are conducted on the wind profile radar and Aeolus wind products in this study, trying to compensate for the limitations of wind field observations. The results shed light on the comprehensive applications of multi-source wind profile data in complicated terrain regions with sparse ground-based wind observations.
Timothy J. Wagner, Thomas August, Tim Hultberg, and Ralph A. Petersen
Commercial passenger and freight aircraft need to know the temperature and pressure of the environments they fly through in order to safely operate. In this paper, we investigate how these observations can be used to evaluate and monitor the performance of satellite observations. Normally weather balloons are used for this, but in places like the United States there are many more airplane flights than weather balloon launches. This makes it much easier to compare to satellites.
Bruna Barbosa Silveira, Emma Catherine Turner, and Jérôme Vidot
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
A fast radiative transfer model, used to speed up the full spectral simulation of meteorological satellite channels in weather forecast models, is tested using 25,000 atmospheres modelled. The differences between calculations from the fast model and the high-resolution reference model are examined for 9 historic weather satellite instruments. The study confirms that a reduced set of 83 atmospheric profiles is robust enough to estimate the scale of the differences obtained from the larger sample.
Chengfeng Feng and Zhaoxia Pu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2691–2708,Short summary
This study demonstrates the positive impacts of assimilating Aeolus Mie-cloudy and Rayleigh-clear near-real-time horizontal line-of-sight winds on the analysis and forecasts of Hurricane Ida (2021) and a mesoscale convective system associated with an African easterly wave using the mesoscale community Weather Research and Forecasting model and the NCEP Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation-based three-dimensional ensemble-variational hybrid data assimilation system.
Tim Trent, Richard Siddans, Brian Kerridge, Marc Schröder, Noëlle A. Scott, and John Remedios
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1503–1526,Short summary
Modern weather satellites provide essential information on our lower atmosphere's moisture content and temperature structure. This measurement record will span over 40 years, making it a valuable resource for climate studies. This study characterizes atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles from a European Space Agency climate project. Using weather balloon measurements, we demonstrated the performance of this dataset was within the tolerances required for future climate studies.
Benjamin Witschas, Christian Lemmerz, Alexander Geiß, Oliver Lux, Uwe Marksteiner, Stephan Rahm, Oliver Reitebuch, Andreas Schäfler, and Fabian Weiler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7049–7070,Short summary
In August 2018, the first wind lidar Aeolus was launched into space and has since then been providing data of the global wind field. The primary goal of Aeolus was the improvement of numerical weather prediction. To verify the quality of Aeolus wind data, DLR performed four airborne validation campaigns with two wind lidar systems. In this paper, we report on results from the two later campaigns, performed in Iceland and the tropics.
Olivier Bock, Pierre Bosser, and Carl Mears
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5643–5665,Short summary
Integrated water vapour measurements are often compared for the calibration and validation of instruments or techniques. Measurements made at different altitudes must be corrected to account for the vertical variation of water vapour. This paper shows that the widely used empirical correction model has severe limitations that are overcome using the proposed model. The method is applied to the inter-comparison of GPS and satellite microwave radiometer data in a tropical mountainous area.
Anthony J. Mannucci, Chi O. Ao, Byron A. Iijima, Thomas K. Meehan, Panagiotis Vergados, E. Robert Kursinski, and William S. Schreiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4971–4987,Short summary
The Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) technique is a satellite-based method for producing highly accurate vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and pressure. RO profiles are used to monitor global climate trends, particularly in that region of the atmosphere that includes the lower stratosphere. Two data sets spanning 1995–1997 that were produced from the first RO satellite are highly accurate and can be used to assess global atmospheric models.
Ze Chen, Yufang Tian, Yinan Wang, Yongheng Bi, Xue Wu, Juan Huo, Linjun Pan, Yong Wang, and Daren Lü
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4785–4800,Short summary
Small-scale turbulence plays a vital role in the vertical exchange of heat, momentum and mass in the atmosphere. There are currently three models that can use spectrum width data of MST radar to calculate turbulence parameters. However, few studies have explored the applicability of the three calculation models. We compared and analysed the turbulence parameters calculated by three models. These results can provide a reference for the selection of models for calculating turbulence parameters.
Damao Zhang, Jennifer Comstock, and Victor Morris
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4735–4749,Short summary
The planetary boundary layer is the lowest part of the atmosphere. Its structure and depth (PBLHT) significantly impact air quality, global climate, land–atmosphere interactions, and a wide range of atmospheric processes. To test the robustness of the ceilometer-estimated PBLHT under different atmospheric conditions, we compared ceilometer- and radiosonde-estimated PBLHTs using multiple years of U.S. DOE ARM measurements at various ARM observatories located around the world.
Rachel Robey and Julie K. Lundquist
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4585–4622,Short summary
Our work investigates the behavior of errors in remote-sensing wind lidar measurements due to turbulence. Using a virtual instrument, we measured winds in simulated atmospheric flows and decomposed the resulting error. Dominant error mechanisms, particularly vertical velocity variations and interactions with shear, were identified in ensemble data over three test cases. By analyzing the underlying mechanisms, the response of the error behavior to further varying flow conditions may be projected.
Donato Summa, Fabio Madonna, Noemi Franco, Benedetto De Rosa, and Paolo Di Girolamo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4153–4170,Short summary
The evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH) has an important impact on meteorology. However, the complexity of the phenomena occurring within the ABL and the influence of advection and local accumulation processes often prevent an unambiguous determination of the ABLH. The paper reports results from an inter-comparison effort involving different sensors and techniques to measure the ABLH. Correlations between the ABLH and other atmospheric variables are also assessed.
Haichen Zuo, Charlotte Bay Hasager, Ioanna Karagali, Ad Stoffelen, Gert-Jan Marseille, and Jos de Kloe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4107–4124,Short summary
The Aeolus satellite was launched in 2018 for global wind profile measurement. After successful operation, the error characteristics of Aeolus wind products have not yet been studied over Australia. To complement earlier validation studies, we evaluated the Aeolus Level-2B11 wind product over Australia with ground-based wind profiling radar measurements and numerical weather prediction model equivalents. The results show that the Aeolus can detect winds with sufficient accuracy over Australia.
Carmen González, José M. Vilaplana, José A. Bogeat, and Antonio Serrano
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4125–4133,Short summary
Monitoring ultraviolet (UV) radiation is important since it can have harmful effects on the biosphere. Array spectroradiometers are increasingly used to measure UV as they are more versatile than scanning spectroradiometers. In this study, the long-term performance of the BTS-2048-UV-S-WP array spectroradiometer was assessed. The results show that the BTS can reliably measure both the UV index and UV radiation in the 300–360 nm range. Moreover, the BTS was stable and showed no seasonal behavior.
Katherine E. Lukens, Kayo Ide, Kevin Garrett, Hui Liu, David Santek, Brett Hoover, and Ross N. Hoffman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2719–2743,Short summary
Winds that are crucial to weather forecasting derived from two different techniques – tracking satellite images (AMVs) and direct measurement of molecular and aerosol motions by Doppler lidar (Aeolus satellite winds) – are compared. We find that AMVs and Aeolus winds are highly correlated. Aeolus Mie-cloudy winds have great potential value as a comparison standard for AMVs. Larger differences are found in the Southern Hemisphere related to higher wind speed and higher vertical variation in wind.
Marijn Floris van Dooren, Anantha Padmanabhan Kidambi Sekar, Lars Neuhaus, Torben Mikkelsen, Michael Hölling, and Martin Kühn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1355–1372,Short summary
The remote sensing technique lidar is widely used for wind speed measurements for both industrial and academic applications. Lidars can measure wind statistics accurately but cannot fully capture turbulent fluctuations in the high-frequency range, since they are partly filtered out. This paper therefore investigates the turbulence spectrum measured by a continuous-wave lidar and analytically models the lidar's measured spectrum with a Lorentzian filter function and a white noise term.
Alain Protat, Valentin Louf, Joshua Soderholm, Jordan Brook, and William Ponsonby
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 915–926,Short summary
This study uses collocated ship-based, ground-based, and spaceborne radar observations to validate the concept of using the GPM spaceborne radar observations to calibrate national weather radar networks to the accuracy required for operational severe weather applications such as rainfall and hail nowcasting.
Wagner Wolff, Aart Overeem, Hidde Leijnse, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 485–502,Short summary
The existing infrastructure for cellular communication is promising for ground-based rainfall remote sensing. Rain-induced signal attenuation is used in dedicated algorithms for retrieving rainfall depth along commercial microwave links (CMLs) between cell phone towers. This processing is a source of many uncertainties about input data, algorithm structures, parameters, CML network, and local climate. Application of a stochastic optimization method leads to improved CML rainfall estimates.
Songhua Wu, Kangwen Sun, Guangyao Dai, Xiaoye Wang, Xiaoying Liu, Bingyi Liu, Xiaoquan Song, Oliver Reitebuch, Rongzhong Li, Jiaping Yin, and Xitao Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 131–148,Short summary
During the VAL-OUC campaign, we established a coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) network over China to verify the Level 2B (L2B) products from Aeolus. By the simultaneous wind measurements with CDLs at 17 stations, the L2B products from Aeolus are compared with those from CDLs. To our knowledge, the VAL-OUC campaign is the most extensive so far between CDLs and Aeolus in the lower troposphere for different atmospheric scenes. The vertical velocity impact on the HLOS retrieval from Aeolus is evaluated.
Karina Wilgan, Galina Dick, Florian Zus, and Jens Wickert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 21–39,Short summary
The assimilation of GNSS data in weather models has a positive impact on the forecasts. The impact is still limited due to using only the GPS zenith direction parameters. We calculate and validate more advanced tropospheric products from three satellite systems: the US American GPS, Russian GLONASS and European Galileo. The quality of all the solutions is comparable; however, combining more GNSS systems enhances the observations' geometry and improves the quality of the weather forecasts.
Hironori Iwai, Makoto Aoki, Mitsuru Oshiro, and Shoken Ishii
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7255–7275,Short summary
The first space-based Doppler wind lidar on board the Aeolus satellite was launched on 22 August 2018 to obtain global horizontal wind profiles. In this study, wind profilers, ground-based coherent Doppler wind lidars, and GPS radiosondes were used to validate the quality of Aeolus Level 2B wind products over Japan during three different periods. The results show that Aeolus can measure the horizontal winds over Japan accurately.
Tim A. van Kempen, Filippo Oggionni, and Richard M. van Hees
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6711–6722,Short summary
Validation of the instrument stability of the TROPOMI-SWIR module is done by monitoring a group of very stable and remote locations in the Saharan and Arabian deserts. These results confirm the excellent stability and lack of degradation of the TROPOMI-SWIR module derived from the internal calibration sources. The method was done for the first time on a spectrometer in the short-wave infrared and ensures TROPOMI-SWIR can be used for atmospheric research for years to come.
Susanna Hagelin, Roohollah Azad, Magnus Lindskog, Harald Schyberg, and Heiner Körnich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5925–5938,Short summary
In this paper we study the impact of using wind observations from the Aeolus satellite, which provides wind speed profiles globally, in our numerical weather prediction system using a regional model covering the Nordic countries. The wind speed profiles from Aeolus are assimilated by the model, and we see that they have an impact on both the model analysis and forecast, though given the relatively few observations available the impact is often small.
Yuefei Zeng, Tijana Janjic, Yuxuan Feng, Ulrich Blahak, Alberto de Lozar, Elisabeth Bauernschubert, Klaus Stephan, and Jinzhong Min
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5735–5756,Short summary
Observation errors (OEs) of radar measurements are correlated. The Desroziers method has been often used to estimate statistics of OE in data assimilation. However, the resulting statistics consist of contributions from different sources and are difficult to interpret. Here, we use an approach based on samples for truncation error to approximate the representation error due to unresolved scales and processes (RE) and compare its statistics with OE statistics estimated by the Desroziers method.
Evgenia Belova, Sheila Kirkwood, Peter Voelger, Sourav Chatterjee, Karathazhiyath Satheesan, Susanna Hagelin, Magnus Lindskog, and Heiner Körnich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5415–5428,Short summary
Wind measurements from two radars (ESRAD in Arctic Sweden and MARA at the Indian Antarctic station Maitri) are compared with lidar winds from the ESA satellite Aeolus, for July–December 2019. The aim is to check if Aeolus data processing is adequate for the sunlit conditions of polar summer. Agreement is generally good with bias in Aeolus winds < 1 m/s in most circumstances. The exception is a large bias (7 m/s) when the satellite has crossed a sunlit Antarctic ice cap before passing MARA.
Ramashray Yadav, Ram Kumar Giri, and Virendra Singh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4857–4877,Short summary
We performed an intercomparison of seasonal and annual studies of retrievals of integrated precipitable water vapor (IPWV) carried out by INSAT-3DR satellite-borne infrared radiometer sounding and CAMS reanalysis data with ground-based Indian GNSS data. The magnitude and sign of the bias of INSAT-3DR and CAMS with respect to GNSS IPWV differs from station to station and season to season. A statistical evaluation of the collocated data sets was done to improve day-to-day weather forecasting.
Matic Šavli, Vivien Pourret, Christophe Payan, and Jean-François Mahfouf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4721–4736,Short summary
The ESA's Aeolus satellite wind retrieval is provided through a series of processors. It depends on the temperature and pressure specification, which, however, are not measured by the satellite. The numerical weather predicted values are used instead, but these are erroneous. This article studies the sensitivity of the wind retrieval by introducing errors in temperature and pressure. This has been found to be small for Aeolus but is expected to be more crucial for future missions.
Kristopher M. Bedka, Amin R. Nehrir, Michael Kavaya, Rory Barton-Grimley, Mark Beaubien, Brian Carroll, James Collins, John Cooney, G. David Emmitt, Steven Greco, Susan Kooi, Tsengdar Lee, Zhaoyan Liu, Sharon Rodier, and Gail Skofronick-Jackson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4305–4334,Short summary
This paper demonstrates the Doppler Aerosol WiNd (DAWN) lidar and High Altitude Lidar Observatory (HALO) measurement capabilities across a range of atmospheric conditions, compares DAWN and HALO measurements with Aeolus satellite Doppler wind lidar to gain an initial perspective of Aeolus performance, and discusses how atmospheric dynamic processes can be resolved and better understood through simultaneous observations of wind, water vapour, and aerosol profile observations.
Emranul Sarkar, Alexander Kozlovsky, Thomas Ulich, Ilkka Virtanen, Mark Lester, and Bernd Kaifler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4157–4169,Short summary
The biasing effect in meteor radar temperature has been a pressing issue for the last 2 decades. This paper has addressed the underlying reasons for such a biasing effect on both theoretical and experimental grounds. An improved statistical method has been developed which allows atmospheric temperatures at around 90 km to be measured with meteor radar in an independent way such that any subsequent bias correction or calibration is no longer required.
Wei Zhong, Xianghui Xue, Wen Yi, Iain M. Reid, Tingdi Chen, and Xiankang Dou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3973–3988,
Evgenia Belova, Peter Voelger, Sheila Kirkwood, Susanna Hagelin, Magnus Lindskog, Heiner Körnich, Sourav Chatterjee, and Karathazhiyath Satheesan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2813–2825,Short summary
We validate horizontal wind measurements at altitudes of 0.5–14 km made with atmospheric radars: ESRAD located near Kiruna in the Swedish Arctic and MARA at the Indian research station Maitri in Antarctica, by comparison with radiosondes, the regional model HARMONIE-AROME and the ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis. Good agreement was found in general, and radar bias and uncertainty were estimated. These radars are planned to be used for validation of winds measured by lidar by the ESA satellite Aeolus.
Gizachew Kabite Wedajo, Misgana Kebede Muleta, and Berhan Gessesse Awoke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2299–2316,Short summary
Satellite rainfall estimates (SREs) are alternative data sources for data-scarce basins. However, the accuracy of the products is plagued by multiple sources of errors. Therefore, SREs should be evaluated for particular basins before being used for other applications. The results of the study showed that CHIRPS2 and IMERG6 estimated rainfall and predicted hydrologic simulations well for Dhidhessa River Basin, which shows remote sensing technology could improve hydrologic studies.
Steven Knoop, Fred C. Bosveld, Marijn J. de Haij, and Arnoud Apituley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2219–2235,Short summary
Doppler wind lidars are laser-based remote sensing instruments that measure the wind up to a few hundred metres or even a few kilometres. Their data can improve weather models and help forecasters. To investigate their accuracy and required meteorological conditions, we have carried out a 2-year measurement campaign of a wind lidar at our Cabauw test site and made a comparison with cup anemometers and wind vanes at several levels in a 213 m tall meteorological mast.
Joaquim V. Teixeira, Hai Nguyen, Derek J. Posselt, Hui Su, and Longtao Wu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1941–1957,Short summary
Wind-tracking algorithms produce atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) by tracking satellite observations. Accurately characterizing the uncertainties in AMVs is essential in assimilating them into data assimilation models. We develop a machine-learning-based approach for error characterization which involves Gaussian mixture model clustering and random forest using a simulation dataset of water vapor, AMVs, and true winds. We show that our method improves on existing AMV error characterizations.
Giovanni Martucci, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Ludovic Renaud, Gonzague Romanens, S. Mahagammulla Gamage, Maxime Hervo, Pierre Jeannet, and Alexander Haefele
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1333–1353,Short summary
This article presents a validation of 1.5 years of pure rotational temperature data measured by the Raman lidar RALMO installed at the MeteoSwiss station of Payerne. The statistical results are in terms of bias and standard deviation with respect to two well-established radiosounding systems. The statistics are divided into daytime (bias = 0.28 K, SD = 0.62±0.03 K) and nighttime (bias = 0.29 K, SD = 0.66±0.06 K). The lidar temperature profiles are applied to cloud supersaturation studies.
Anders Tegtmeier Pedersen and Michael Courtney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 889–903,Short summary
This paper suggests and describes a method for calibrating wind lidars using a rotating flywheel. An uncertainty analysis shows that a standard uncertainty of 0.1 % can be achieved, with the main contributor being the width of the laser beam which is in agreement with experimental results. The method can potentially lower the calibration uncertainty of wind lidars, which today is often based on cup anemometers, and thus lead to better wind assessments and perhaps more widespread use.
Kaisa Lakkala, Jukka Kujanpää, Colette Brogniez, Nicolas Henriot, Antti Arola, Margit Aun, Frédérique Auriol, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Germar Bernhard, Veerle De Bock, Maxime Catalfamo, Christine Deroo, Henri Diémoz, Luca Egli, Jean-Baptiste Forestier, Ilias Fountoulakis, Katerina Garane, Rosa Delia Garcia, Julian Gröbner, Seppo Hassinen, Anu Heikkilä, Stuart Henderson, Gregor Hülsen, Bjørn Johnsen, Niilo Kalakoski, Angelos Karanikolas, Tomi Karppinen, Kevin Lamy, Sergio F. León-Luis, Anders V. Lindfors, Jean-Marc Metzger, Fanny Minvielle, Harel B. Muskatel, Thierry Portafaix, Alberto Redondas, Ricardo Sanchez, Anna Maria Siani, Tove Svendby, and Johanna Tamminen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6999–7024,Short summary
The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) satellite was launched on 13 October 2017 to provide the atmospheric composition for atmosphere and climate research. Ground-based data from 25 sites located in Arctic, subarctic, temperate, equatorial and Antarctic areas were used for the validation of the TROPOMI surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product. For most sites 60 %–80 % of TROPOMI data was within ± 20 % of ground-based data.
Pauline Martinet, Domenico Cimini, Frédéric Burnet, Benjamin Ménétrier, Yann Michel, and Vinciane Unger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6593–6611,Short summary
Each year large human and economical losses are due to fog episodes. However, fog forecasts remain quite inaccurate, partly due to a lack of observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. The benefit of ground-based microwave radiometers has been investigated and has demonstrated their capability of significantly improving the initial state of temperature and liquid water content profiles in current numerical weather prediction models, paving the way for improved fog forecasts in the future.
Holger Baars, Alina Herzog, Birgit Heese, Kevin Ohneiser, Karsten Hanbuch, Julian Hofer, Zhenping Yin, Ronny Engelmann, and Ulla Wandinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6007–6024,Short summary
A first validation for the European satellite Aeolus is presented. Aeolus is the first satellite that can actively measure horizontal wind profiles from space. Radiosonde launches on board the German research vessel Polarstern have been utilized to validate Aeolus observations over the Atlantic Ocean, a region where almost no other reference measurements are available. It is shown that Aeolus is able to measure accurately atmospheric winds and thus may significantly improve weather forecasts.
Giacomo Roversi, Pier Paolo Alberoni, Anna Fornasiero, and Federico Porcù
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5779–5797,Short summary
The microwave signal travelling between two antennas of the commercial mobile backhaul network is strongly attenuated by rainfall. The open-source RAINLINK algorithm extracts rainfall rate maps, processing the attenuation data recorded by the transmission system. In this work, we applied RAINLINK to 357 Vodafone links in northern Italy and compared the outputs with the operational rain products of the local weather service (Arpae), outlining pros and cons and discussing error structure.
Clark J. Weaver, Pawan K. Bhartia, Dong L. Wu, Gordon J. Labow, and David E. Haffner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5715–5723,Short summary
Currently, we do not know whether clouds will accelerate or moderate climate. We look to the past and ask whether cloudiness has changed over the last 4 decades. Using a suite of nine satellite instruments, we need to ensure that the first satellite, which was launched in 1980 and died in 1991, observed the same measurement as the eight other satellite instruments used in the record. If the instruments were measuring length and observing a 1.00 m long stick, they would all see 0.99 to 1.01 m.
Samuel Favrichon, Carlos Jimenez, and Catherine Prigent
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5481–5490,Short summary
Long-term monitoring of satellite-derived variables is necessary for a better understanding of the evolution of Earth parameters at global scale. However different instruments' observations used over the years need to be inter-calibrated with each other to provide meaningful information. This paper describes how a linear correction can improve the observations from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer over continental surfaces to be more consistent with more recent radiometers.
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Lidars can measure the wind profile in the lower part of the atmosphere, provided that the wind field is horizontally uniform and does not change during the time of the measurement. These requirements are mostly not fulfilled in reality, and the lidar wind measurement will thus hold a certain error. We investigate different strategies for lidar wind profiling using a lidar simulator implemented in a numerical simulation of the wind field. Our findings can help to improve wind measurements.
Lidars can measure the wind profile in the lower part of the atmosphere, provided that the wind...