Articles | Volume 15, issue 11
03 Jun 2022
Research article | 03 Jun 2022
Development and evaluation of correction models for a low-cost fine particulate matter monitor
Brayden Nilson et al.
No articles found.
R. H. Mason, M. Si, C. Chou, V. E. Irish, R. Dickie, P. Elizondo, R. Wong, M. Brintnell, M. Elsasser, W. M. Lassar, K. M. Pierce, W. R. Leaitch, A. M. MacDonald, A. Platt, D. Toom-Sauntry, R. Sarda-Estève, C. L. Schiller, K. J. Suski, T. C. J. Hill, J. P. D. Abbatt, J. A. Huffman, P. J. DeMott, and A. K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1637–1651,
R. H. Mason, M. Si, J. Li, C. Chou, R. Dickie, D. Toom-Sauntry, C. Pöhlker, J. D. Yakobi-Hancock, L. A. Ladino, K. Jones, W. R. Leaitch, C. L. Schiller, J. P. D. Abbatt, J. A. Huffman, and A. K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12547–12566,
R. H. Mason, C. Chou, C. S. McCluskey, E. J. T. Levin, C. L. Schiller, T. C. J. Hill, J. A. Huffman, P. J. DeMott, and A. K. Bertram
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2449–2462,
J. D. Yakobi-Hancock, L. A. Ladino, A. K. Bertram, J. A. Huffman, K. Jones, W. R. Leaitch, R. H. Mason, C. L. Schiller, D. Toom-Sauntry, J. P. S. Wong, and J. P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12307–12317,Short summary
As one aspect of the NETwork on Climate and Aerosols: addressing key uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environments, measurements of the cloud condensation nucleation properties of 50 nm and 100 nm aerosol particles were conducted at Ucluelet on the west coast of Vancouver Island in August 2013. The most efficient cloud condensation nuclei arose when the organic to sulfate ratio of the aerosol was lowest and when winds arrived from the west after transport through the marine boundary layer.
H. Bozem, H. Fischer, C. Gurk, C. L. Schiller, U. Parchatka, R. Koenigstedt, A. Stickler, M. Martinez, H. Harder, D. Kubistin, J. Williams, G. Eerdekens, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8917–8931,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Validation and IntercomparisonsRelative errors in derived multi-wavelength intensive aerosol optical properties using cavity attenuated phase shift single-scattering albedo monitors, a nephelometer, and tricolour absorption photometer measurementsAircraft-engine particulate matter emissions from conventional and sustainable aviation fuel combustion: comparison of measurement techniques for mass, number, and sizeInter-comparison of online and offline methods for measuring ambient heavy and trace elements and water-soluble inorganic ions (NO3−, SO42−, NH4+, and Cl−) in PM2.5 over a heavily polluted megacity, DelhiMeasurement of black carbon emissions from multiple engine and source types using laser-induced incandescence: sensitivity to laser fluenceCompositional data analysis (CoDA) as a tool to evaluate a new low-cost settling-based PM10 sampling head in a desert dust source regionOn the use of reference mass spectra for reducing uncertainty in source apportionment of solid-fuel burning in ambient organic aerosolEstimates of mass absorption cross sections of black carbon for filter-based absorption photometers in the ArcticEffects of different correction algorithms on absorption coefficient – a comparison of three optical absorption photometers at a boreal forest siteDetermination of the multiple-scattering correction factor and its cross-sensitivity to scattering and wavelength dependence for different AE33 Aethalometer filter tapes: a multi-instrumental approachEvaluation of retrieval methods for planetary boundary layer height based on radiosonde dataAbsorption instruments inter-comparison campaign at the Arctic Pallas stationDevelopment and application of a United States-wide correction for PM2.5 data collected with the PurpleAir sensorSizing response of the Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS) and Laser Aerosol Spectrometer (LAS) to changes in submicron aerosol composition and refractive indexQuantifying organic matter and functional groups in particulate matter filter samples from the southeastern United States – Part 2: Spatiotemporal trendsThe importance of size ranges in aerosol instrument intercomparisons: a case study for the Atmospheric Tomography MissionIntercomparison of thermal–optical carbon measurements by Sunset and Desert Research Institute (DRI) analyzers using the IMPROVE_A protocolÅngström exponent errors prevent accurate visibility measurementComparison of co-located refractory black carbon (rBC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass concentration measurements during field campaigns at several European sitesReal-time measurement of radionuclide concentrations and its impact on inverse modeling of 106Ru release in the fall of 2017Effects of the prewhitening method, the time granularity, and the time segmentation on the Mann–Kendall trend detection and the associated Sen's slopeBest practices for precipitation sample storage for offline studies of ice nucleation in marine and coastal environmentsInterferences with aerosol acidity quantification due to gas-phase ammonia uptake onto acidic sulfate filter samplesMulti-year ACSM measurements at the central European research station Melpitz (Germany) – Part 1: Instrument robustness, quality assurance, and impact of upper size cutoff diameterThe new instrument using a TC–BC (total carbon–black carbon) method for the online measurement of carbonaceous aerosolsAerosol retrievals from the EKO MS-711 spectral direct irradiance measurements and corrections of the circumsolar radiationCharacterization of anthropogenic organic aerosols by TOF-ACSM with the new capture vaporizerEvaluation and calibration of a low-cost particle sensor in ambient conditions using machine-learning methodsIntercomparison between the aerosol optical properties retrieved by different inversion methods from SKYNET sky radiometer observations over Qionghai and Yucheng in ChinaA comparison of lognormal and gamma size distributions for characterizing the stratospheric aerosol phase function from optical particle counter measurementsComparison of aircraft measurements during GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVAField comparison of dry deposition samplers for collection of atmospheric mineral dust: results from single-particle characterizationOn-flight intercomparison of three miniature aerosol absorption sensors using unmanned aerial systems (UASs)A low-cost monitor for measurement of fine particulate matter and aerosol optical depth – Part 2: Citizen-science pilot campaign in northern ColoradoMethodology for high-quality mobile measurement with focus on black carbon and particle mass concentrationsLaboratory and field evaluation of the Aerosol Dynamics Inc. concentrator (ADIc) for aerosol mass spectrometryEvaluating biases in filter-based aerosol absorption measurements using photoacoustic spectroscopyStrategies of method selection for fine-scale PM2.5 mapping in an intra-urban area using crowdsourced monitoringAnalysis of functional groups in atmospheric aerosols by infrared spectroscopy: systematic intercomparison of calibration methods for US measurement network samplesAerosol light absorption from optical measurements of PTFE membrane filter samples: sensitivity analysis of optical depth measuresThe influence of humidity on the performance of a low-cost air particle mass sensor and the effect of atmospheric fogField and laboratory evaluation of a high time resolution x-ray fluorescence instrument for determining the elemental composition of ambient aerosolsExploring the applicability and limitations of selected optical scattering instruments for PM mass measurementComparisons of spectral aerosol single scattering albedo in Seoul, South KoreaComparison of three aerosol chemical characterization techniques utilizing PTR-ToF-MS: a study on freshly formed and aged biogenic SOAEstimating chemical composition of atmospheric deposition fluxes from mineral insoluble particles deposition collected in the western Mediterranean regionElemental composition of ambient aerosols measured with high temporal resolution using an online XRF spectrometerHow to reliably detect molecular clusters and nucleation mode particles with Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS)Intercomparison of 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS 3321): uncertainties in particle sizing and number size distributionEvaluation of the Sequential Spot Sampler (S3) for time-resolved measurement of PM2.5 sulfate and nitrate through lab and field measurementsAerosol optical depth retrievals at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory from 1941 to 2013 by using artificial neural networks
Patrick Weber, Andreas Petzold, Oliver F. Bischof, Benedikt Fischer, Marcel Berg, Andrew Freedman, Timothy B. Onasch, and Ulrich Bundke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3279–3296,Short summary
In our laboratory closure study, we measured the full set of aerosol optical properties for different light-absorbing aerosols using a set of instruments. Our key finding is that the extensive and intensive aerosol optical properties obtained agree with data from reference instruments, except the absorption Ångström exponent of externally mixed aerosols. The reported uncertainty in the single-scattering albedo fulfils the defined goals for Global Climate Observing System applications of 10 %.
Joel C. Corbin, Tobias Schripp, Bruce E. Anderson, Greg J. Smallwood, Patrick LeClercq, Ewan C. Crosbie, Steven Achterberg, Philip D. Whitefield, Richard C. Miake-Lye, Zhenhong Yu, Andrew Freedman, Max Trueblood, David Satterfield, Wenyan Liu, Patrick Oßwald, Claire Robinson, Michael A. Shook, Richard H. Moore, and Prem Lobo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3223–3242,Short summary
The combustion of sustainable aviation fuels in aircraft engines produces particulate matter (PM) emissions with different properties than conventional fuels due to changes in fuel composition. Consequently, the response of various diagnostic instruments to PM emissions may be impacted. We found no significant instrument biases in terms of particle mass, number, and size measurements for conventional and sustainable aviation fuel blends despite large differences in the magnitude of emissions.
Himadri Sekhar Bhowmik, Ashutosh Shukla, Vipul Lalchandani, Jay Dave, Neeraj Rastogi, Mayank Kumar, Vikram Singh, and Sachchida Nand Tripathi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2667–2684,Short summary
This study presents comparisons between online and offline measurements of both refractory and non-refractory aerosol. This study shows differences between the measurements, related to either the limitations of the instrument (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometer only observing non-refractory aerosol) or known interferences with the technique (e.g., volatilization or reactions). The findings highlight the measurement methods' accuracy and imply the particular type of measurements needed.
Ruoyang Yuan, Prem Lobo, Greg J. Smallwood, Mark P. Johnson, Matthew C. Parker, Daniel Butcher, and Adrian Spencer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 241–259,Short summary
The relationship between the non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) mass emissions produced by different engine sources and the response of the LII 300 instrument, used for regulatory measurements of nvPM mass emissions in aircraft engine certification tests, was investigated for different sources and operating conditions. Laser fluence optimisation was required for real-time nvPM mass concentration measurements. These results will inform the development of updated calibration protocols.
Yangjunjie Xu-Yang, Rémi Losno, Fabrice Monna, Jean-Louis Rajot, Mohamed Labiadh, Gilles Bergametti, and Béatrice Marticorena
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7657–7680,Short summary
Suspended particles in air (aerosols) are sampled with a pump drawing ambient air through a filter. The air inlet must be carefully designed to control the size of sampled particles and to reject the largest ones (> 10 µm). A low-cost sampling head for determination of the finest fraction of aerosol (> 10 µm in diameter) is presented. Compositional data analysis (CoDA) tools are extensively used here to demonstrate similarity between the low-cost sampling head and other existing systems.
Chunshui Lin, Darius Ceburnis, Anna Trubetskaya, Wei Xu, William Smith, Stig Hellebust, John Wenger, Colin O'Dowd, and Jurgita Ovadnevaite
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6905–6916,Short summary
Source apportionment of solid-fuel-burning emissions can be complicated by the use of different fuels, stoves, and burning conditions. Here, the organic aerosol mass spectra produced from burning a range of solid fuels in several stoves were compared. This study accounts for the source variability and provides better constraints on the primary factor contributions to the ambient organic aerosol estimations, holding significant implications for public health and policymakers.
Sho Ohata, Tatsuhiro Mori, Yutaka Kondo, Sangeeta Sharma, Antti Hyvärinen, Elisabeth Andrews, Peter Tunved, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Henri Servomaa, Daniel Veber, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Stergios Vratolis, Radovan Krejci, Paul Zieger, Makoto Koike, Yugo Kanaya, Atsushi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Moteki, Yongjing Zhao, Yutaka Tobo, Junji Matsushita, and Naga Oshima
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6723–6748,Short summary
Reliable values of mass absorption cross sections (MACs) of black carbon (BC) are required to determine mass concentrations of BC at Arctic sites using different types of filter-based absorption photometers. We successfully estimated MAC values for these instruments through comparison with independent measurements of BC by a continuous soot monitoring system called COSMOS. These MAC values are consistent with each other and applicable to study spatial and temporal variation in BC in the Arctic.
Krista Luoma, Aki Virkkula, Pasi Aalto, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6419–6441,Short summary
The study presents a comparison of three absorption photometers that measured ambient aerosol particles at a boreal forest site. The study aims to better understand problems related to filter-based measurements. Results show how different correction algorithms, which are used to produce the data, affect the derived optical properties of aerosol particles.
Jesús Yus-Díez, Vera Bernardoni, Griša Močnik, Andrés Alastuey, Davide Ciniglia, Matic Ivančič, Xavier Querol, Noemí Perez, Cristina Reche, Martin Rigler, Roberta Vecchi, Sara Valentini, and Marco Pandolfi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6335–6355,Short summary
Here we characterize the multiple-scattering factor, C, of the dual-spot Aethalometer AE33 and its cross-sensitivity to scattering and wavelength dependence for three background stations: urban, regional and mountaintop. C was obtained for two sets of filter tapes: M8020 and M8060. The cross-sensitivity to scattering and wavelength dependence of C were determined by inter-comparing with other absorption and scattering measurements including multi-angle off-line absorption measurements.
Hui Li, Boming Liu, Xin Ma, Shikuan Jin, Yingying Ma, Yuefeng Zhao, and Wei Gong
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5977–5986,Short summary
Radiosonde (RS) is widely used to detect the vertical structures of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and numerous methods have been proposed for retrieving PBL height (PBLH) from RS data. However, an algorithm that is suitable under all atmospheric conditions does not exist. This study evaluates the performance of four common PBLH algorithms under different thermodynamic stability conditions based on RS data.
Eija Asmi, John Backman, Henri Servomaa, Aki Virkkula, Maria I. Gini, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Thomas Müller, Sho Ohata, Yutaka Kondo, and Antti Hyvärinen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5397–5413,Short summary
Absorbing aerosols are warming the planet and accurate measurements of their concentrations in pristine environments are needed. We applied eight different absorbing-aerosol measurement methods in a field campaign at the Arctic Pallas station. The filter-based techniques were found to be the most sensitive to detect the minuscule amounts of black carbon present, showing a 40 % agreement between them. Our results help to reduce uncertainties in absorbing aerosol measurements.
Karoline K. Barkjohn, Brett Gantt, and Andrea L. Clements
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4617–4637,Short summary
Although widely used, air sensor measurements are often biased. In this work we develop a correction with a relative humidity term that reduces the bias and improves consistency between different United States regions. This correction equation, along with proposed data cleaning criteria, has been applied to PurpleAir PM2.5 measurements across the US on the AirNow Fire and Smoke Map and has the potential to be successfully used in other air quality and public health applications.
Richard H. Moore, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Adam T. Ahern, Stephen Zimmerman, Lauren Montgomery, Pedro Campuzano Jost, Claire E. Robinson, Luke D. Ziemba, Edward L. Winstead, Bruce E. Anderson, Charles A. Brock, Matthew D. Brown, Gao Chen, Ewan C. Crosbie, Hongyu Guo, Jose L. Jimenez, Carolyn E. Jordan, Ming Lyu, Benjamin A. Nault, Nicholas E. Rothfuss, Kevin J. Sanchez, Melinda Schueneman, Taylor J. Shingler, Michael A. Shook, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Nicholas L. Wagner, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4517–4542,Short summary
Atmospheric particles are everywhere and exist in a range of sizes, from a few nanometers to hundreds of microns. Because particle size determines the behavior of chemical and physical processes, accurately measuring particle sizes is an important and integral part of atmospheric field measurements! Here, we discuss the performance of two commonly used particle sizers and how changes in particle composition and optical properties may result in sizing uncertainties, which we quantify.
Alexandra J. Boris, Satoshi Takahama, Andrew T. Weakley, Bruno M. Debus, Stephanie L. Shaw, Eric S. Edgerton, Taekyu Joo, Nga L. Ng, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4355–4374,Short summary
Infrared spectrometry can be applied in routine monitoring of atmospheric particles to give comprehensive characterization of the organic material by bond rather than species. Using this technique, the concentrations of particle organic material were found to decrease 2011–2016 in the southeastern US, driven by a decline in highly aged material, concurrent with declining anthropogenic emissions. However, an increase was observed in the fraction of more moderately aged organic matter.
Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Dongwook Kim, Jack E. Dibb, Maximilian Dollner, Bernadett Weinzierl, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3631–3655,Short summary
We utilize a set of high-quality datasets collected during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography Mission to investigate the impact of differences in observable particle sizes across aerosol instruments in aerosol measurement comparisons. Very good agreement was found between chemically and physically derived submicron aerosol volume. Results support a lack of significant unknown biases in the response of an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) when sampling remote aerosols across the globe.
Xiaolu Zhang, Krystyna Trzepla, Warren White, Sean Raffuse, and Nicole Pauly Hyslop
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3217–3231,Short summary
Three models of carbon analyzer were used in the past decade to measure carbonaceous particles from samples collected within the Chemical Speciation Network. This study compares results from these analyzer models to investigate the impact on long-term data from instrument differences. Good agreement was found among the three models for total carbon, organic carbon, and elemental carbon, while the reasons for and implications of some notable differences in their subtractions are investigated.
Hengnan Guo, Zefeng Zhang, Lin Jiang, Junlin An, Bin Zhu, Hanqing Kang, and Jing Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2441–2450,Short summary
Visibility is an indicator of atmospheric transparency and is widely used in many research fields. Although efforts have been made to improve the performance of visibility meters, a significant error exists in measured visibility data. This is because current methods of visibility measurement include a false assumption, which leads to the long-term neglect of an important source of visibility errors. Without major adjustments to current methods, it is not possible to obtain reliable data.
Rosaria E. Pileci, Robin L. Modini, Michele Bertò, Jinfeng Yuan, Joel C. Corbin, Angela Marinoni, Bas Henzing, Marcel M. Moerman, Jean P. Putaud, Gerald Spindler, Birgit Wehner, Thomas Müller, Thomas Tuch, Arianna Trentini, Marco Zanatta, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1379–1403,Short summary
Black carbon (BC), which is an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols, remains difficult to quantify due to various limitations of available methods. This study provides an extensive comparison of co-located field measurements, applying two methods based on different principles. It was shown that both methods indeed quantify the same aerosol property – BC mass concentration. The level of agreement that can be expected was quantified, and some reasons for discrepancy were identified.
Ondřej Tichý, Miroslav Hýža, Nikolaos Evangeliou, and Václav Šmídl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 803–818,Short summary
We present an investigation of the usability of newly developed real-time concentration monitoring systems, which are based on the gamma-ray counting of aerosol filters. These high-resolution data were used for inverse modeling of the 106Ru release in 2017. Our inverse modeling results agree with previously published estimates and provide better temporal resolution of the estimates.
Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Alessandro Bigi, Giovanni Martucci, Gonzague Romanens, Frédéric P. A. Vogt, and Laurent Vuilleumier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6945–6964,Short summary
The Mann–Kendall trend test requires prewhitening in the presence of serially correlated data. The effects of five prewhitening methods and time granularity, autocorrelation, temporal segmentation and length of the time series on the statistical significance and the slope are studies for seven atmospheric datasets. Finally, a new algorithm using three prewhitening methods is proposed in order to optimize the power of the test, the amount of erroneous false positive trends and the slope estimate.
Charlotte M. Beall, Dolan Lucero, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, M. Dale Stokes, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6473–6486,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) can influence multiple climate-relevant cloud properties. Previous studies report INP observations from precipitation samples that were stored prior to analysis, yet storage protocols vary widely, and little is known about how storage impacts INPs. This study finds that storing samples at −20 °C best preserves INP concentrations and that significant losses of small INPs occur across all storage protocols.
Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Hongyu Guo, Duseong S. Jo, Anne V. Handschy, Demetrios Pagonis, Jason C. Schroder, Melinda K. Schueneman, Michael J. Cubison, Jack E. Dibb, Alma Hodzic, Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6193–6213,Short summary
Collecting particulate matter, or aerosols, onto filters to be analyzed offline is a widely used method to investigate the mass concentration and chemical composition of the aerosol, especially the inorganic portion. Here, we show that acidic aerosol (sulfuric acid) collected onto filters and then exposed to high ammonia mixing ratios (from human emissions) will lead to biases in the ammonium collected onto filters, and the uptake of ammonia is rapid (< 10 s), which impacts the filter data.
Laurent Poulain, Gerald Spindler, Achim Grüner, Thomas Tuch, Bastian Stieger, Dominik van Pinxteren, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4973–4994,Short summary
The stability and the comparability between ACSM and collocated filter sampling and MPSS measurements was investigated in order to examine the instruments robustness for year-long measurements. Specific attention was paid to the influence of the upper size cutoff diameter to better understand how it might affect the data validation. Recommendations are provided for better on-site quality assurance and quality control of the ACSM, which would be useful for either long-term or intensive campaigns.
Martin Rigler, Luka Drinovec, Gašper Lavrič, Athanasia Vlachou, André S. H. Prévôt, Jean Luc Jaffrezo, Iasonas Stavroulas, Jean Sciare, Judita Burger, Irena Kranjc, Janja Turšič, Anthony D. A. Hansen, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4333–4351,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosols are a large fraction of fine particulate matter. They are extremely diverse, and they directly impact air quality, visibility, cloud formation and public health. In this paper we present a new instrument and new method to measure carbon content in particulate matter in real time and at a high time resolution. The new method was validated in a 1-month winter field campaign in Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Rosa Delia García-Cabrera, Emilio Cuevas-Agulló, África Barreto, Victoria Eugenia Cachorro, Mario Pó, Ramón Ramos, and Kees Hoogendijk
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2601–2621,Short summary
Spectral direct UV–visible normal solar irradiance, measured with an EKO MS-711 grating spectroradiometer at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (Spain), has been used to determine aerosol optical depth (AOD) at several wavelengths, and has been compared to synchronous AOD measurements from a reference AERONET (Aerosol RObotic NETwork) Cimel sun photometer.
Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Keren Liao, Yaowei Li, Yong Jie Li, Ru-Jin Huang, Weiwei Hu, Ying Liu, Tong Zhu, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Qi Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2457–2472,Short summary
This paper provides important information to help researchers to understand the mass quantification and source apportionment by Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers.
Minxing Si, Ying Xiong, Shan Du, and Ke Du
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1693–1707,Short summary
The study evaluated the performance of a low-cost PM sensor in ambient conditions and calibrated its readings using simple linear regression (SLR), multiple linear regression (MLR), and two more powerful machine-learning algorithms with random search techniques for the best model architectures. The two machine-learning algorithms are XGBoost and a feedforward neural network (NN).
Zhe Jiang, Minzheng Duan, Huizheng Che, Wenxing Zhang, Teruyuki Nakajima, Makiko Hashimoto, Bin Chen, and Akihiro Yamazaki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1195–1212,Short summary
This study analyzed the aerosol optical properties derived by SKYRAD.pack versions 5.0 and 4.2 using the radiometer measurements over Qionghai and Yucheng in China, which are two new sites of SKYNET. The seasonal variability of the aerosol properties over the two sites were investigated based on SKYRAD.pack V5.0. The validation results provide valuable references for continued improvement of the retrieval algorithms of SKYNET and other aerosol observational networks.
Ernest Nyaku, Robert Loughman, Pawan K. Bhartia, Terry Deshler, Zhong Chen, and Peter R. Colarco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1071–1087,Short summary
This paper shows the importance of the nature of the aerosol phase function used in the retrieval of the stratospheric aerosol extinction from limb scattering measurements. The aerosol phase function is derived from the parameters using either a unimodal lognormal or gamma aerosol size distribution. These two distributions were fitted to the same aerosol concentration measurements at two altitudes, and depending on the nature of the measurements, each distribution shows its strengths.
Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Jennifer M. Comstock, Ralf Weigel, Martina Krämer, Christoph Mahnke, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Charles N. Long, Manfred Wendisch, Luiz A. T. Machado, Beat Schmid, Trismono Krisna, Mikhail Pekour, John Hubbe, Andreas Giez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Martin Zoeger, Mira L. Pöhlker, Hans Schlager, Micael A. Cecchini, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Suzane S. de Sá, Jiwen Fan, Jason Tomlinson, Stephen Springston, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, Christopher Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Andreas Minikin, Armin Afchine, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 661–684,Short summary
In 2014, the US DOE G1 aircraft and the German HALO aircraft overflew the Amazon basin to study how aerosols influence cloud cycles under a clean condition and around a tropical megacity. This paper describes how to meaningfully compare similar measurements from two research aircraft and identify the potential measurement issue. We also discuss the uncertainty range for each measurement for further usage in model evaluation and satellite data validation.
Andebo Waza, Kilian Schneiders, Jan May, Sergio Rodríguez, Bernd Epple, and Konrad Kandler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6647–6665,Short summary
Deposition or other passive measurement techniques are used to sample mineral dust from the atmosphere. However, there exist a multitude of different collection instruments with different, usually not well-characterized sampling efficiencies, so the resulting data might be considerably biased with respect to their size representatively. In the paper, we report on collection properties of different deposition and other passive samplers based on single-particle measurements.
Michael Pikridas, Spiros Bezantakos, Griša Močnik, Christos Keleshis, Fred Brechtel, Iasonas Stavroulas, Gregoris Demetriades, Panayiota Antoniou, Panagiotis Vouterakos, Marios Argyrides, Eleni Liakakou, Luka Drinovec, Eleni Marinou, Vassilis Amiridis, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6425–6447,Short summary
This work evaluates the performance of three sensors that monitor black carbon (soot). These sensors exhibit similar behavior to their rack-mounted counterparts and are therefore promising for more extended use. A reconstruction of the black carbon mass vertical distribution above Athens, Greece, is shown using drones, similar to those acquired by remote-sensing techniques. The potential of combining miniature sensors with drones for at least the lower part of the atmosphere is exhibited.
Bonne Ford, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Eric Wendt, Marilee Long, Shantanu Jathar, John Mehaffy, Jessica Tryner, Casey Quinn, Lizette van Zyl, Christian L'Orange, Daniel Miller-Lionberg, and John Volckens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6385–6399,Short summary
This study demonstrates the use of a low-cost sensor in a citizen-science network, Citizen-Enabled Aerosol Measurements for Satellites (CEAMS), to measure air quality in participants’ backyards. The pilot network was conducted in the fall and winter of 2017 in northern Colorado. Measurements of aerosols taken by the citizens are also compared to standard air quality instruments.
Honey Dawn C. Alas, Kay Weinhold, Francesca Costabile, Antonio Di Ianni, Thomas Müller, Sascha Pfeifer, Luca Di Liberto, Jay R. Turner, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4697–4712,Short summary
Traffic-related air pollutants are highly variable in space. To determine their spatial distribution in relation to human exposure, portable black carbon and PM2.5 mass concentration sensors aboard mobile platforms can be used. High-spatial-resolution data can help improve exposure estimates. The quality of these data becomes increasingly important. This study provides a detailed methodology on how to achieve highly quality assured data from the abovementioned mobile measurements.
Sanna Saarikoski, Leah R. Williams, Steven R. Spielman, Gregory S. Lewis, Arantzazu Eiguren-Fernandez, Minna Aurela, Susanne V. Hering, Kimmo Teinilä, Philip Croteau, John T. Jayne, Thorsten Hohaus, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3907–3920,Short summary
An air-to-air ultrafine particle concentrator (Aerosol Dynamics Inc. concentrator; ADIc) has been tailored for the low (~ 0.08 L min−1) inlet flow of aerosol mass spectrometers, and it provides a factor of 8–21 enrichment in the concentration of particles. The ADIc was evaluated in laboratory and field measurements. The results showed that the concentration factor depends primarily on the ratio between the sample flow and the output flow and is independent of particle size above about 10 nm.
Nicholas W. Davies, Cathryn Fox, Kate Szpek, Michael I. Cotterell, Jonathan W. Taylor, James D. Allan, Paul I. Williams, Jamie Trembath, Jim M. Haywood, and Justin M. Langridge
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3417–3434,Short summary
This research project assesses biases in traditional, filter-based, aerosol absorption measurements by comparison to state-of-the-art, non-filter-based, or in situ, measurements. We assess biases in traditional absorption measurements for three main aerosol types, including dust and fresh and aged biomass burning aerosols. The main results of this study are that the traditional and state-of-the-art absorption measurements are well correlated and that biases in the former are up to 45 %.
Shan Xu, Bin Zou, Yan Lin, Xiuge Zhao, Shenxin Li, and Chenxia Hu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2933–2948,Short summary
This study presents strategies of method selection for 100 m scale PM2.5 mapping using a crowdsourced sampling campaign. Interestingly, PM2.5 concentrations in micro-environments varied significantly in intra-urban areas. These local PM2.5 variations can be effectively revealed by crowdsourcing sampling rather than national air quality monitoring sites. The selection of models for fine-scale PM2.5 mapping should be adjusted with the changing sampling and pollution circumstances.
Matteo Reggente, Ann M. Dillner, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2287–2312,Short summary
We compare state-of-the-art models for predicting functional group composition in atmospheric particulate matter across urban and rural samples collected in a US monitoring network. While trends across models are consistent, absolute abundances can be sensitive to selection of calibration standards, spectral processing procedures, and calibration algorithms. Recommendations for further method development for reducing uncertainties are outlined.
Apoorva Pandey, Nishit J. Shetty, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1365–1373,Short summary
This study quantitatively establishes simple-to-use correction factors for accurately estimating particle-phase light absorption properties from bulk-phase attenuation measurements of Teflon filter samples. Using contact-free optical instrumentation with a two-stream radiative transfer model, we developed a wavelength-independent empirical correction formulation by comparing filter attenuation of aerosol-laden Teflon filter samples with in situ light absorption for a range of real-world fuels.
Rohan Jayaratne, Xiaoting Liu, Phong Thai, Matthew Dunbabin, and Lidia Morawska
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4883–4890,Short summary
It is important to correctly interpret the readings reported by low cost airborne particle sensors at high humidity. We demonstrate that deliquescent growth of particles and the formation of fog droplets in the atmosphere can lead to significant increases in particle number and mass concentrations reported by such sensors, unless they are fitted with dryers at the inlet. This is important as air quality standards for particles are specifically limited to solid particles.
Anja H. Tremper, Anna Font, Max Priestman, Samera H. Hamad, Tsai-Chia Chung, Ari Pribadi, Richard J. C. Brown, Sharon L. Goddard, Nathalie Grassineau, Krag Petterson, Frank J. Kelly, and David C. Green
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3541–3557,Short summary
Measuring the chemical composition of airborne particulates can provide valuable information on the concentration of regulated toxic metals and their sources and assist in the identification and validation of abatement techniques. Undertaking these measurements at a high time resolution enables computer modelling techniques to be more robustly linked to emission processes. This study describes a comprehensive laboratory and field evaluation of a high time resolution metal monitoring instrument.
Jie Zhang, Joseph P. Marto, and James J. Schwab
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2995–3005,Short summary
The performance of two kinds of optical instruments for aerosol mass measurements was explained by a Mie scattering theory. At the same time, the response of optical instruments for ambient aerosol with different size, chemical composition, and refractive index were also studied. These would help evaluate the applicability and limitations of these optical scattering instruments.
Jungbin Mok, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Omar Torres, Hiren Jethva, Zhanqing Li, Jhoon Kim, Ja-Ho Koo, Sujung Go, Hitoshi Irie, Gordon Labow, Thomas F. Eck, Brent N. Holben, Jay Herman, Robert P. Loughman, Elena Spinei, Seoung Soo Lee, Pradeep Khatri, and Monica Campanelli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2295–2311,Short summary
Measuring aerosol absorption from the shortest ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths is important for studies of climate, tropospheric photochemistry, human health, and agricultural productivity. We estimate the accuracy and demonstrate consistency of aerosol absorption retrievals from different instruments, after accounting for spectrally varying surface albedo and gaseous absorption.
Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Ralf Tillmann, Thorsten Hohaus, Markus Müller, Philipp Eichler, Kang-Ming Xu, Patrick Schlag, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Robert Wegener, Martin Kaminski, Rupert Holzinger, Armin Wisthaler, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1481–1500,Short summary
This manuscript presents an intercomparison of state-of-the-art online and in situ particle sampling techniques connected to proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). Collection and vaporization of aerosol combined with soft ionization mass spectrometry offers the advantage of detailed chemical characterization of SOA species. The benefits of these techniques are highlighted through their consistency in providing the chemical composition of biogenic SOA.
Yinghe Fu, Karine Desboeufs, Julie Vincent, Elisabeth Bon Nguyen, Benoit Laurent, Remi Losno, and François Dulac
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4389–4401,
Markus Furger, María Cruz Minguillón, Varun Yadav, Jay G. Slowik, Christoph Hüglin, Roman Fröhlich, Krag Petterson, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2061–2076,Short summary
An Xact 625 Ambient Metals Monitor was tested during a 3-week summer field campaign at a rural, traffic-influenced site in Switzerland. The objective was to characterize the operation of the instrument, evaluate the data quality by intercomparison with other independent measurements, and test its applicability for aerosol source quantification. The results demonstrate significant advantages compared to traditional elemental analysis methods, with some desirable improvements.
Hanna E. Manninen, Sander Mirme, Aadu Mirme, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3577–3605,Short summary
This paper reports a standard operation procedure (SOP) for a Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) to detect small clusters and nucleation mode particles. The NAIS measures number size distributions of charged and neutral aerosol particles. The SOP is needed to provide comparable results measured by NAIS users around the world. The work is based on discussions between the NAIS users (lead by University of Helsinki, Finland) and the NAIS manufacturer (Airel Ltd., Estonia).
Sascha Pfeifer, Thomas Müller, Kay Weinhold, Nadezda Zikova, Sebastiao Martins dos Santos, Angela Marinoni, Oliver F. Bischof, Carsten Kykal, Ludwig Ries, Frank Meinhardt, Pasi Aalto, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1545–1551,Short summary
15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS model 3321, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) were compared with a focus on flow rates accuracy, particle sizing, and unit-to-unit variability of the particle number size distribution. Flow rate deviations were relatively small, while the sizing accuracy was found to be within 10 % compared to polystyrene latex reference particles. The unit-to-unit variability in terms of the particle number size distribution during this study was between 10 % and 60 %.
A. Hecobian, A. Evanoski-Cole, A. Eiguren-Fernandez, A. P. Sullivan, G. S. Lewis, S. V. Hering, and J. L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 525–533,Short summary
A newly developed instrument, the Sequential Spot Sampler (S3) was evaluated in the laboratory and field for the hourly measurement of ambient PM2.5 nitrate and sulfate concentrations. The results from the comparison of two S3s and the S3s with other well-established methods show that this instrument is suitable for deployment; provides high-resolution aerosol nitrate and sulfate concentrations while requiring minimal operator involvement and low power input; and has a small footprint.
R. D. García, O. E. García, E. Cuevas, V. E. Cachorro, A. Barreto, C. Guirado-Fuentes, N. Kouremeti, J. J. Bustos, P. M. Romero-Campos, and A. M. de Frutos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 53–62,Short summary
This paper presents the reconstruction of a 73-year time series of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm at the subtropical high-mountain Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (IZO) located in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). For this purpose, we have combined AOD estimates from artificial neural networks (ANNs) from 1941 to 2001 and AOD measurements directly obtained with a precision filter radiometer (PFR) between 2003 and 2013.
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Correction models were developed using PurpleAir–Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) hourly fine particulate matter (PM2.5) observation colocation sites across North America (NA). These were evaluated in comparison with four existing models at an additional 15 NA colocation sites. This study provides a robust framework for the evaluation of low-cost PM2.5 sensor correction models using the Canadian AQHI+ system and presents an optimized general correction model for North American PA sensors.
Correction models were developed using PurpleAir–Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) hourly fine...