Articles | Volume 15, issue 4
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Detection of nitrous acid in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR using open-path incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and extractive long-path absorption photometry
Department of Physics and Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
current address: Bioaster Technology Research Institute – Bioassays, Microsystems and Optics Engineering Unit, 40 Avenue Tony Garnier, 69007 Lyon, France
Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung, IEK-8: Troposphäre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany
deceased, Rolf Häseler on 25 July 2017 and Theodor Brauers on 21 February 2014
Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung, IEK-8: Troposphäre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany
deceased, Rolf Häseler on 25 July 2017 and Theodor Brauers on 21 February 2014
Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung, IEK-8: Troposphäre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany
No articles found.
Marc von Hobe, Domenico Taraborrelli, Sascha Alber, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Hendrik Fuchs, Yun Li, Chenxi Qiu, Franz Rohrer, Roberto Sommariva, Fred Stroh, Zhaofeng Tan, Sergej Wedel, and Anna Novelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10609–10623,Short summary
The trace gas carbonyl sulfide (OCS) transports sulfur from the troposphere to the stratosphere, where sulfate aerosols are formed that influence climate and stratospheric chemistry. An uncertain OCS source in the troposphere is chemical production form dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a gas released in large quantities from the oceans. We carried out experiments in a large atmospheric simulation chamber to further elucidate the chemical mechanism of OCS production from DMS.
Jacky Y. S. Pang, Florian Berg, Anna Novelli, Birger Bohn, Michelle Färber, Philip T. M. Carlsson, René Dubus, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Franz Rohrer, Sergej Wedel, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
In this study, the oxidations of sabinene by OH radicals and ozone were investigated with an atmospheric simulation chamber. Reaction rate constants of the OH-oxidation reaction at temperature between 284 to 340 K were determined for the first time in laboratory by measuring the OH reactivity. Product yields determined in chamber experiments had good agreement with literature values, but discrepancies were found between experimental yields and expected yields from oxidation mechanisms.
Philip T. M. Carlsson, Luc Vereecken, Anna Novelli, François Bernard, Steven S. Brown, Bellamy Brownwood, Changmin Cho, John N. Crowley, Patrick Dewald, Peter M. Edwards, Nils Friedrich, Juliane L. Fry, Mattias Hallquist, Luisa Hantschke, Thorsten Hohaus, Sungah Kang, Jonathan Liebmann, Alfred W. Mayhew, Thomas Mentel, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Justin Shenolikar, Ralf Tillmann, Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Rongrong Wu, Andreas Wahner, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3147–3180,Short summary
The investigation of the night-time oxidation of the most abundant hydrocarbon, isoprene, in chamber experiments shows the importance of reaction pathways leading to epoxy products, which could enhance particle formation, that have so far not been accounted for. The chemical lifetime of organic nitrates from isoprene is long enough for the majority to be further oxidized the next day by daytime oxidants.
Changmin Cho, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, William J. Bloss, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Marvin Glowania, Thorsten Hohaus, Lu Liu, Paul S. Monks, Doreen Niether, Franz Rohrer, Roberto Sommariva, Zhaofeng Tan, Ralf Tillmann, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Anna Novelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2003–2033,Short summary
With this study, we investigated the processes leading to the formation, destruction, and recycling of radicals for four seasons in a rural environment. Complete knowledge of their chemistry is needed if we are to predict the formation of secondary pollutants from primary emissions. The results highlight a still incomplete understanding of the paths leading to the formation of the OH radical, which has been observed in several other environments as well and needs to be further investigated.
Tobias Schuldt, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Christian Wesolek, Franz Rohrer, Benjamin Winter, Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Ralf Tillmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 373–386,Short summary
We report in situ measurements of air pollutant concentrations within the planetary boundary layer on board a Zeppelin NT in Germany. We highlight the in-flight evaluation of electrochemical sensors that were installed inside a hatch box located on the bottom of the Zeppelin. Results from this work emphasize the potential of these sensors for other in situ airborne applications, e.g., on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Hofzumahaus, William J. Bloss, Birger Bohn, Changmin Cho, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Chandrakiran Lakshmisha, Lu Liu, Paul S. Monks, Anna Novelli, Doreen Niether, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Thalassa S. E. Valkenburg, Vaishali Vardhan, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Roberto Sommariva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13137–13152,Short summary
During the 2019 JULIAC campaign, ClNO2 was measured at a rural site in Germany in different seasons. The highest ClNO2 level was 1.6 ppbv in September. ClNO2 production was more sensitive to the availability of NO2 than O3. The average ClNO2 production efficiency was up to 18 % in February and September and down to 3 % in December. These numbers are at the high end of the values reported in the literature, indicating the importance of ClNO2 chemistry in rural environments in midwestern Europe.
Yindong Guo, Hongru Shen, Iida Pullinen, Hao Luo, Sungah Kang, Luc Vereecken, Hendrik Fuchs, Mattias Hallquist, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Ralf Tillmann, Franz Rohrer, Jürgen Wildt, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, Defeng Zhao, and Thomas F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11323–11346,Short summary
The oxidation of limonene, a common volatile emitted by trees and chemical products, by NO3, a nighttime oxidant, forms many highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM), including C10-30 compounds. Most of the HOM are second-generation organic nitrates, in which carbonyl-substituted C10 nitrates accounted for a major fraction. Their formation can be explained by chemistry of peroxy radicals. HOM, especially low-volatile ones, play an important role in nighttime new particle formation and growth.
Jacky Yat Sing Pang, Anna Novelli, Martin Kaminski, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Philip T. M. Carlsson, Changmin Cho, Hans-Peter Dorn, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Xin Li, Anna Lutz, Sascha Nehr, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8497–8527,Short summary
This study investigates the radical chemical budget during the limonene oxidation at different atmospheric-relevant NO concentrations in chamber experiments under atmospheric conditions. It is found that the model–measurement discrepancies of HO2 and RO2 are very large at low NO concentrations that are typical for forested environments. Possible additional processes impacting HO2 and RO2 concentrations are discussed.
Ralf Tillmann, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Franz Rohrer, Benjamin Winter, Christian Wesolek, Tobias Schuldt, Anne C. Lange, Philipp Franke, Elmar Friese, Michael Decker, Robert Wegener, Morten Hundt, Oleg Aseev, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3827–3842,Short summary
We report in situ measurements of air pollutant concentrations within the planetary boundary layer on board a Zeppelin in Germany. The low costs of commercial flights provide an affordable and efficient method to improve our understanding of changes in emissions in space and time. The experimental setup expands the capabilities of this platform and provides insights into primary and secondary pollution observations and planetary boundary layer dynamics which determine air quality significantly.
Zhaofeng Tan, Luisa Hantschke, Martin Kaminski, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Changmin Cho, Hans-Peter Dorn, Xin Li, Anna Novelli, Sascha Nehr, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16067–16091,Short summary
The photo-oxidation of myrcene, a monoterpene species emitted by plants, was investigated at atmospheric conditions in the outdoor simulation chamber SAPHIR. The chemical structure of myrcene is partly similar to isoprene. Therefore, it can be expected that hydrogen shift reactions could play a role as observed for isoprene. In this work, their potential impact on the regeneration efficiency of hydroxyl radicals is investigated.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Sander Mirme, Mikael Ehn, Iida Pullinen, Katri Leino, Siegfried Schobesberger, Juha Kangasluoma, Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Riikka Väänänen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Radovan Krejci, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Janne Levula, Aadu Mirme, Stefano Decesari, Ralf Tillmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12649–12663,Short summary
We studied aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different locations (Po Valley, Italy, and Hyytiälä, Finland). The observations consist of airborne measurements on board an instrumented Zeppelin and a small airplane combined with comprehensive ground-based measurements.
Luisa Hantschke, Anna Novelli, Birger Bohn, Changmin Cho, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Marvin Glowania, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12665–12685,Short summary
The reactions of Δ3-carene with ozone and the hydroxyl radical (OH) and the photolysis and OH reaction of caronaldehyde were investigated in the simulation chamber SAPHIR. Reaction rate constants of these reactions were determined. Caronaldehyde yields of the ozonolysis and OH reaction were determined. The organic nitrate yield of the reaction of Δ3-carene and caronaldehyde-derived peroxy radicals with NO was determined. The ROx budget (ROx = OH+HO2+RO2) was also investigated.
Defeng Zhao, Iida Pullinen, Hendrik Fuchs, Stephanie Schrade, Rongrong Wu, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Ralf Tillmann, Franz Rohrer, Jürgen Wildt, Yindong Guo, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, Sungah Kang, Luc Vereecken, and Thomas F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9681–9704,Short summary
The reaction of isoprene, a biogenic volatile organic compound with the globally largest emission rates, with NO3, an nighttime oxidant influenced heavily by anthropogenic emissions, forms a large number of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM). These HOM are formed via one or multiple oxidation steps, followed by autoxidation. Their total yield is much higher than that in the daytime oxidation of isoprene. They may play an important role in nighttime organic aerosol formation and growth.
Marvin Glowania, Franz Rohrer, Hans-Peter Dorn, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4239–4253,Short summary
Three instruments that use different techniques to measure gaseous formaldehyde concentrations were compared in experiments in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR at Forschungszentrum Jülich. The results demonstrated the need to correct the baseline in measurements by instruments that use the Hantzsch reaction or make use of cavity ring-down spectroscopy. After applying corrections, all three methods gave accurate and precise measurements within their specifications.
Changmin Cho, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Hendrik Fuchs, Hans-Peter Dorn, Marvin Glowania, Frank Holland, Franz Rohrer, Vaishali Vardhan, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Anna Novelli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1851–1877,Short summary
This study describes the implementation and characterization of the chemical modulation reactor (CMR) used in the laser-induced fluorescence instrument of the Forschungszentrum Jülich. The CMR allows for interference-free OH radical measurement in ambient air. During a field campaign in a rural environment, the observed interference was mostly below the detection limit of the instrument and fully explained by the known ozone interference.
Michael Rolletter, Marion Blocquet, Martin Kaminski, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13701–13719,Short summary
The photooxidation of pinonaldehyde is investigated in a chamber study under natural sunlight and low NO conditions with and without an added hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger. The experimentally determined pinonaldehyde photolysis frequency is faster by a factor of 3.5 than currently used parameterizations in atmospheric models. Yields of degradation products are measured in the presence and absence of OH. Measurements are compared to current atmospheric models and a theory-based mechanism.
Patrick Dewald, Jonathan M. Liebmann, Nils Friedrich, Justin Shenolikar, Jan Schuladen, Franz Rohrer, David Reimer, Ralf Tillmann, Anna Novelli, Changmin Cho, Kangming Xu, Rupert Holzinger, François Bernard, Li Zhou, Wahid Mellouki, Steven S. Brown, Hendrik Fuchs, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10459–10475,Short summary
We present direct measurements of NO3 reactivity resulting from the oxidation of isoprene by NO3 during an intensive simulation chamber study. Measurements were in excellent agreement with values calculated from measured isoprene amounts and the rate coefficient for the reaction of NO3 with isoprene. Comparison of the measurement with NO3 reactivities from non-steady-state and model calculations suggests that isoprene-derived RO2 and HO2 radicals account to ~ 50 % of overall NO3 losses.
Iida Pullinen, Sebastian Schmitt, Sungah Kang, Mehrnaz Sarrafzadeh, Patrick Schlag, Stefanie Andres, Einhard Kleist, Thomas F. Mentel, Franz Rohrer, Monika Springer, Ralf Tillmann, Jürgen Wildt, Cheng Wu, Defeng Zhao, Andreas Wahner, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10125–10147,Short summary
Biogenic and anthropogenic air masses mix in the atmosphere, bringing plant-emitted monoterpenes and traffic-related nitrogen oxides together. There is debate whether the presence of nitrogen oxides reduces or increases secondary aerosol formation. This is important as secondary aerosols have cooling effects in the climate system but also constitute a health risk in populated areas. We show that the presence of NOx alone should not much affect the mass yields of secondary organic aerosols.
Anna Novelli, Luc Vereecken, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Simon Rosanka, Domenico Taraborrelli, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3333–3355,Short summary
Experimental evidence from a simulation chamber study shows that the regeneration efficiency of the hydroxyl radical is maintained globally at values higher than 0.5 for a wide range of nitrogen oxide concentrations as a result of isomerizations of peroxy radicals originating from the OH oxidation of isoprene. The available models were tested, and suggestions on how to improve their ability to reproduce the measured radical and oxygenated volatile organic compound concentrations are provided.
Holger Baars, Albert Ansmann, Kevin Ohneiser, Moritz Haarig, Ronny Engelmann, Dietrich Althausen, Ingrid Hanssen, Michael Gausa, Aleksander Pietruczuk, Artur Szkop, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Dongxiang Wang, Jens Reichardt, Annett Skupin, Ina Mattis, Thomas Trickl, Hannes Vogelmann, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Alexander Haefele, Karen Acheson, Albert A. Ruth, Boyan Tatarov, Detlef Müller, Qiaoyun Hu, Thierry Podvin, Philippe Goloub, Igor Veselovskii, Christophe Pietras, Martial Haeffelin, Patrick Fréville, Michaël Sicard, Adolfo Comerón, Alfonso Javier Fernández García, Francisco Molero Menéndez, Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Daniele Bortoli, Maria João Costa, Davide Dionisi, Gian Luigi Liberti, Xuan Wang, Alessia Sannino, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Antonella Boselli, Lucia Mona, Giuseppe D'Amico, Salvatore Romano, Maria Rita Perrone, Livio Belegante, Doina Nicolae, Ivan Grigorov, Anna Gialitaki, Vassilis Amiridis, Ourania Soupiona, Alexandros Papayannis, Rodanthi-Elisaveth Mamouri, Argyro Nisantzi, Birgit Heese, Julian Hofer, Yoav Y. Schechner, Ulla Wandinger, and Gelsomina Pappalardo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15183–15198,
Michael Rolletter, Martin Kaminski, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Xin Li, Anna Lutz, Sascha Nehr, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11635–11649,Short summary
Here we present a study of the photooxidation of alpha-pinene, the most abundant monoterpene, by hydroxyl radicals (OH) conducted in the simulation chamber SAPHIR under low NOx and atmospheric alpha-pinene concentrations. Yields of the main degradation products acetone, formaldehyde, and pinonaldehyde were determined and the HOx (OH + HO2) radical budget was investigated. Measurements were used to test current atmospheric models and a theory-based mechanism.
Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Hendrik Fuchs, Birger Bohn, Frank Holland, Yuhan Liu, Franz Rohrer, Min Shao, Kang Sun, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Yinsong Zhang, Qi Zou, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7129–7150,Short summary
Atmospheric OH, HO2, and RO2 radicals; OH reactivity; and trace gases measured in the Pearl River Delta in autumn 2014 are used for radical budget analyses. The RO2 budget suggests that unexplained OH reactivity is due to unmeasured volatile organic compounds. The OH budget points to a missing OH source and that of RO2 to a missing RO2 sink at low NO. This could indicate a common, unknown process that converts RO2 to OH without the involvement of NO, which would reduce ozone production by 30 %.
Ralph Dlugi, Martina Berger, Chinmay Mallik, Anywhere Tsokankunku, Michael Zelger, Otávio C. Acevedo, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Gerhard Kramm, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Anke C. Nölscher, Huug Ouwersloot, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Franz Rohrer, Sebastian Tauer, Jonathan Williams, Ana-Maria Yáñez-Serrano, Meinrat O. Andreae, Hartwig Harder, and Matthias Sörgel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
Incomplete mixing (segregation) results in reduced chemical reaction rates compared to those expected from mean values and rate constants. Segregation has been suggested to cause discrepancies between modelled and measured OH radical concentrations. In this work, we summarize the intensities of segregation for the reaction of OH and isoprene for different field and modelling studies and compare those to our results from measurements in a pristine environment.
Zhaofeng Tan, Franz Rohrer, Keding Lu, Xuefei Ma, Birger Bohn, Sebastian Broch, Huabin Dong, Hendrik Fuchs, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Ying Liu, Yuhan Liu, Anna Novelli, Min Shao, Haichao Wang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Min Hu, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12391–12411,Short summary
We present the first wintertime OH, HO2, and RO2 measurements in Beijing, China. OH concentrations are nearly 2-fold larger than those observed in foreign cities during wintertime. The high OH and large OH reactivities indicate photochemical processes can be effective even during wintertime. A box model largely underestimated HO2 and RO2 concentrations during pollution episodes correlated with high NOx, indicating a deficit current chemistry in the high NOx regime.
Anna Novelli, Martin Kaminski, Michael Rolletter, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Xin Li, Anna Lutz, Sascha Nehr, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Frank Holland, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11409–11422,Short summary
The impact of photooxidation of 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO) on the concentration of radical species was studied in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR. MBO is a volatile organic compound mainly emitted by ponderosa and lodgepole pines which are very abundant in forests in the central-west USA. A very good agreement between measured and modelled radical concentrations and products from the oxidation of MBO was observed in an environment with NO of ~ 200 pptv.
Hendrik Fuchs, Sascha Albrecht, Ismail–Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Martin Breitenlechner, Hans-Peter Dorn, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Martin Kaminski, Frank N. Keutsch, Anna Novelli, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Luc Vereecken, Robert Wegener, Alexander Zaytsev, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8001–8016,Short summary
The photooxidation of methyl vinyl ketone MVK, one of the most important products of isoprene that is emitted by plants, was investigated in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR for conditions found in forested areas. The comparison of measured trace gas time series with model calculations shows a gap in the understanding of radical chemistry in the MVK oxidation scheme. The possibility of unimolecular isomerization reactions were investigated by means of quantum-chemical calculations.
Defeng Zhao, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Mingjin Wang, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Ralf Tillmann, Zhaofeng Tan, Anna Novelli, Hendrik Fuchs, Iida Pullinen, Robert Wegener, Franz Rohrer, Jürgen Wildt, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Thomas F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1611–1628,Short summary
Air pollutants emitted by human activities such as NOx and SO2 can influence the abundance of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We found that NOx suppressed new particle formation and SOA mass formation. When both SO2 and NOx are present, the suppressing effect of NOx on SOA mass formation was counteracted by SO2. High NOx changed SOA chemical composition, forming more organic nitrate, because NOx changed radical chemistry during VOC oxidation.
Hendrik Fuchs, Anna Novelli, Michael Rolletter, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Stephan Kessel, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams, Vincent Michoud, Sebastien Dusanter, Nadine Locoge, Nora Zannoni, Valerie Gros, Francois Truong, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Danny R. Cryer, Charlotte A. Brumby, Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Paul W. Seakins, Dwayne E. Heard, Coralie Schoemaecker, Marion Blocquet, Sebastien Coudert, Sebastien Batut, Christa Fittschen, Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, Cheryl Ernest, Hartwig Harder, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Thomas Elste, Dagmar Kubistin, Stefanie Andres, Birger Bohn, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Qi Zou, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4023–4053,Short summary
Hydroxyl radical reactivity (k(OH)) is closely related to processes that lead to the formation of oxidised, secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosol. In order to compare the performances of instruments measuring k(OH), experiments were conducted in the simulation chamber SAPHIR. Chemical conditions were chosen either to be representative of the atmosphere or to test potential limitations of instruments. Overall, the results show that instruments are capable of measuring k(OH).
Martin Kaminski, Hendrik Fuchs, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Theo Brauers, Hans-Peter Dorn, Rolf Häseler, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Xin Li, Anna Lutz, Sascha Nehr, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Luc Vereecken, Robert Wegener, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6631–6650,Short summary
Monoterpenes emitted by trees are among the volatile organic compounds with the highest global emission rates. The atmospheric degradation of the monoterpene β-pinene was investigated in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich under low NOx and atmospheric β-pinene concentrations. While the budget of OH was balanced, both OH and HO2 concentrations were underestimated in the simulation results. These observations suggest the existence of unaccounted sources of HO2.
Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Keding Lu, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Birger Bohn, Sebastian Broch, Huabin Dong, Sebastian Gomm, Rolf Häseler, Lingyan He, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Ying Liu, Sihua Lu, Franz Rohrer, Min Shao, Baolin Wang, Ming Wang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Yinsong Zhang, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 663–690,Short summary
In this study, we performed accurate OH measurements as well as selective HO2 and RO2 measurements at a rural site in North China Plain with state-of-the-art instruments newly developed. We confirmed the previous discovery on the enhancement of the OH in low NOx with which little O3 production was associated, and we found a missing RO2 source in high NOx which promoted higher O3 production. Our results are of vital importance for ozone abatement strategies currently under discussion for China.
Hendrik Fuchs, Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Birger Bohn, Sebastian Broch, Steven S. Brown, Huabin Dong, Sebastian Gomm, Rolf Häseler, Lingyan He, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Ying Liu, Sihua Lu, Kyung-Eun Min, Franz Rohrer, Min Shao, Baolin Wang, Ming Wang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Yinson Zhang, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 645–661,Short summary
OH reactivity was measured during a 1-month long campaign at a rural site in the North China Plain in 2014. OH reactivity measurements are compared to calculations using OH reactant measurements. Good agreement is found indicating that all important OH reactants were measured. In addition, the chemical OH budget is analyzed. In contrast to previous campaigns in China in 2006, no significant imbalance between OH production and destruction is found.
Hendrik Fuchs, Zhaofeng Tan, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Sebastian Broch, Hans-Peter Dorn, Frank Holland, Christopher Künstler, Sebastian Gomm, Franz Rohrer, Stephanie Schrade, Ralf Tillmann, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1431–1447,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical is the key reactant that controls the chemical transformation of pollutants in the atmosphere. Observations of nighttime radicals concentrations were larger than predicted by models in field campaigns in forested and urban environments. Here, we investigated, if measurements could have been affected by artifacts. No significant interferences were found for atmospheric concentrations of reactants in ozonolysis experiments, but small artificats from nitrate radicals.
T. Hohaus, U. Kuhn, S. Andres, M. Kaminski, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, A. Wahner, R. Wegener, Z. Yu, and A. Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1247–1259,Short summary
As an extension of the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR, an environmentally-controlled dynamic (flow-through) plant chamber under SAPHIR (SAPHIR-PLUS) was developed. This facility allows for feeding a natural blend of biogenic trace gases into SAPHIR. PLUS is utilized to characterize the atmospheric chemistry of natural trace gas mixtures at close to ambient concentration levels. In this study, the results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail.
K.-E. Min, R. A. Washenfelder, W. P. Dubé, A. O. Langford, P. M. Edwards, K. J. Zarzana, J. Stutz, K. Lu, F. Rohrer, Y. Zhang, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 423–440,Short summary
We have developed a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for field measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns. The demonstrated precision (2σ) for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO, and NO2 are 34, 350, and 80 parts per trillion (pptv) in 5 s, with accuracy of 5.8, 9.0 and 5.0 %.
J. Kaiser, G. M. Wolfe, B. Bohn, S. Broch, H. Fuchs, L. N. Ganzeveld, S. Gomm, R. Häseler, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, J. Jäger, X. Li, I. Lohse, K. Lu, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Rohrer, R. Wegener, R. Wolf, T. F. Mentel, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A. Wahner, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1289–1298,Short summary
Using measurements acquired from a Zeppelin airship during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign, we show that VOC oxidation alone cannot account for the formaldehyde concentrations observed in the morning over rural Italy. Vertical profiles suggest a ground-level source of HCHO. Incorporating this additional HCHO source into a photochemical model increases calculated O3 production by as much as 12%.
D. F. Zhao, M. Kaminski, P. Schlag, H. Fuchs, I.-H. Acir, B. Bohn, R. Häseler, A. Kiendler-Scharr, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, M. J. Wang, R. Wegener, J. Wildt, A. Wahner, and Th. F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 991–1012,
X. Li, F. Rohrer, T. Brauers, A. Hofzumahaus, K. Lu, M. Shao, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12291–12305,
H. Berresheim, M. Adam, C. Monahan, C. O'Dowd, J. M. C. Plane, B. Bohn, and F. Rohrer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12209–12223,Short summary
Sulfuric acid plays a major role in the formation of aerosol particles and clouds. Measurements at the west coast of Ireland reveal that oxidation of SO2 by OH explains only 20%, on average, of H2SO4 formation in coastal marine air. Additional sources may be (a) oxidation by Criegee intermediates produced photolytically and/or (b) formation from SO3 instead of SO2 in the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide, suggesting an important role of marine emissions in the self-cleaning power of the atmosphere.
R. Dlugi, M. Berger, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, K. Lu, and G. Kramm
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10333–10362,
H. Fuchs, I.-H. Acir, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, H.-P. Dorn, R. Häseler, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, M. Kaminski, X. Li, K. Lu, A. Lutz, S. Nehr, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, R. Wegener, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7895–7908,
S. Nehr, B. Bohn, H.-P. Dorn, H. Fuchs, R. Häseler, A. Hofzumahaus, X. Li, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6941–6952,
J. Kaiser, X. Li, R. Tillmann, I. Acir, F. Holland, F. Rohrer, R. Wegener, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1571–1580,
J. Wildt, T. F. Mentel, A. Kiendler-Scharr, T. Hoffmann, S. Andres, M. Ehn, E. Kleist, P. Müsgen, F. Rohrer, Y. Rudich, M. Springer, R. Tillmann, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2789–2804,
R. M. Varma, S. M. Ball, T. Brauers, H.-P. Dorn, U. Heitmann, R. L. Jones, U. Platt, D. Pöhler, A. A. Ruth, A. J. L. Shillings, J. Thieser, A. Wahner, and D. S. Venables
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3115–3130,
H.-P. Dorn, R. L. Apodaca, S. M. Ball, T. Brauers, S. S. Brown, J. N. Crowley, W. P. Dubé, H. Fuchs, R. Häseler, U. Heitmann, R. L. Jones, A. Kiendler-Scharr, I. Labazan, J. M. Langridge, J. Meinen, T. F. Mentel, U. Platt, D. Pöhler, F. Rohrer, A. A. Ruth, E. Schlosser, G. Schuster, A. J. L. Shillings, W. R. Simpson, J. Thieser, R. Tillmann, R. Varma, D. S. Venables, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1111–1140,
G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, G. D'Amico, U. Wandinger, M. Adam, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Boselli, J. A. Bravo-Aranda, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, J. Cuesta, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, M. Gausa, E. Giannakaki, H. Giehl, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, S. Groß, M. Haeffelin, A. Hiebsch, M. Iarlori, D. Lange, H. Linné, F. Madonna, I. Mattis, R.-E. Mamouri, M. A. P. McAuliffe, V. Mitev, F. Molero, F. Navas-Guzman, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, C. Pietras, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, J. Preißler, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, A. A. Ruth, J. Schmidt, F. Schnell, P. Seifert, I. Serikov, M. Sicard, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, M. Tesche, T. Trickl, X. Wang, F. Wagner, M. Wiegner, and K. M. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4429–4450,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: Laboratory Measurement | Topic: Validation and IntercomparisonsControlled-release testing of the static chamber methodology for direct measurements of methane emissionsComparison of temperature dependent calibration methods of an instrument to measure OH and HO2 radicals using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopyDevelopment of an International System of Units (SI)-traceable transmission curve reference material to improve the quantitation and comparability of proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry measurementsImprovement of online monitoring technology based on the Berthelot reaction and long path absorption photometer for the measurement of ambient NH3: Field applications in low-concentration environmentsReactive uptake coefficients for multiphase reactions determined by a dynamic chamber systemInfluence of CO2 adsorption on cylinders and fractionation of CO2 and air during the preparation of a standard mixtureBehavior of KCl sorbent traps and KCl trapping solutions used for atmospheric mercury speciation: stability and specificityIntercomparison of O2 ∕ N2 ratio scales among AIST, NIES, TU, and SIO based on a round-robin exercise using gravimetric standard mixturesCharacterisation of gas reference materials for underpinning atmospheric measurements of stable isotopes of nitrous oxideAn indirect-calibration method for non-target quantification of trace gases applied to a time series of fourth-generation synthetic halocarbons at the Taunus Observatory (Germany)Revision of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) CO2 calibration scaleComparability of calibration strategies for measuring mercury concentrations in gas emission sources and the atmosphereCharacterizing water vapour concentration dependence of commercial cavity ring-down spectrometers for continuous on-site atmospheric water vapour isotope measurements in the tropicsImplementation of an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy technique in an atmospheric simulation chamber for in situ NO3 monitoring: characterization and validation for kinetic studiesA portable, robust, stable, and tunable calibration source for gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO)Optimisation of a thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for the analysis of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpenesSIFT-MS optimization for atmospheric trace gas measurements at varying humidityN2O isotopocule measurements using laser spectroscopy: analyzer characterization and intercomparisonAn intercomparison of CH3O2 measurements by fluorescence assay by gas expansion and cavity ring-down spectroscopy within HIRAC (Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry)Photoacoustic measurement with infrared band-pass filters significantly overestimates NH3 emissions from cattle houses due to volatile organic compound (VOC) interferencesIsotopic characterization of nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous acid (HONO), and nitrate (pNO3−) from laboratory biomass burning during FIREXA new laser-based and ultra-portable gas sensor for indoor and outdoor formaldehyde (HCHO) monitoringNegligible influence of livestock contaminants and sampling system on ammonia measurements with cavity ring-down spectroscopyPreparation of primary standard mixtures for atmospheric oxygen measurements with less than 1 µmol mol−1 uncertainty for oxygen molar fractionsThe interference of tetrachloromethane in the measurement of benzene in the air by a gas chromatography–photoionisation detector (GC-PID)Evaluation of cation exchange membrane performance under exposure to high Hg0 and HgBr2 concentrationsGravimetrically prepared carbon dioxide standards in support of atmospheric researchThe importance of cylinder passivation for preparation and long-term stability of multicomponent monoterpene primary reference materialsDynamic–gravimetric preparation of metrologically traceable primary calibration standards for halogenated greenhouse gasesThe water vapour self-continuum absorption in the infrared atmospheric windows: new laser measurements near 3.3 and 2.0 µmInterlaboratory comparison of δ13C and δD measurements of atmospheric CH4 for combined use of data sets from different laboratoriesAbsolute, pressure-dependent validation of a calibration-free, airborne laser hygrometer transfer standard (SEALDH-II) from 5 to 1200 ppmv using a metrological humidity generatorAn intercomparison of HO2 measurements by fluorescence assay by gas expansion and cavity ring-down spectroscopy within HIRAC (Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry)Abundances of isotopologues and calibration of CO2 greenhouse gas measurementsIntercomparison of two cavity ring-down spectroscopy analyzers for atmospheric 13CO2 ∕ 12CO2 measurementDevelopment and evaluation of a suite of isotope reference gases for methane in airMIPAS database: new HNO3 line parameters at 7.6 µm validated with MIPAS satellite measurementsChallenges associated with the sampling and analysis of organosulfur compounds in air using real-time PTR-ToF-MS and offline GC-FIDTwin-cuvette measurement technique for investigation of dry deposition of O3 and PAN to plant leaves under controlled humidity conditionsGas adsorption and desorption effects on cylinders and their importance for long-term gas recordsHOx radical chemistry in oxidation flow reactors with low-pressure mercury lamps systematically examined by modelingACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO GAW and EMEP observation networksA method for stable carbon isotope ratio and concentration measurements of ambient aromatic hydrocarbonsInstrument intercomparison of glyoxal, methyl glyoxal and NO2 under simulated atmospheric conditionsMeasuring acetic and formic acid by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry: sensitivity, humidity dependence, and quantifying interferencesAccurate measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley bandPressure-dependent calibration of the OH and HO2 channels of a FAGE HOx instrument using the Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC)Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurementsThe AquaVIT-1 intercomparison of atmospheric water vapor measurement techniquesCharacterization and mitigation of water vapor effects in the measurement of ozone by chemiluminescence with nitric oxide
James P. Williams, Khalil El Hachem, and Mary Kang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3421–3435,Short summary
Methane is powerful greenhouse gas; thus, to reduce methane emissions, it is important that the methods used to measure methane are tested and validated. The static chamber method is an enclosure-based technique that directly measures methane emissions; however, it has not been thoroughly tested for the new variety of methane sources that it is currently being used for. We find that the static chamber method can accurately measure methane emissions under a wide range of methane emission rates.
Frank A. F. Winiberg, William J. Warman, Charlotte A. Brumby, Graham Boustead, Iustinian G. Bejan, Thomas H. Speak, Dwayne E. Heard, Daniel Stone, and Paul W. Seakins
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
OH and HO2 are key reactive intermediates in the Earth's atmosphere. Accurate measurements in either the field or in simulation chambers provide a good test for chemical mechanisms. Fluorescence techniques have the appropriate sensitivity for detection but require calibration. This paper compares different methods of calibration and specifically how calibration factors vary across a temperature range relevant to atmospheric and chamber determinations.
David R. Worton, Sergi Moreno, Kieran O'Daly, and Rupert Holzinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1061–1072,Short summary
Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry is widely used in the environmental, health, and food and beverage sectors. As a result, there is a need for accurate and comparable measurements. In this work we have developed a 20-component gravimetrically prepared traceable primary reference material (gas standard in a high-pressure cylinder) to enable quantitative and comparable measurements. The accuracy of all components was better than 3 %–10 % with stabilities of better than 1–2 years.
Shasha Tian, Kexin Zu, Huabin Dong, Limin Zeng, Keding Lu, and Qi Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We developed an online NH3 monitoring system (SAC-LOPAP) based on Berthelot reactions and a long path absorption photometer (LOPAP), which could run statically for a long time and be applied to the continuous online measurement of low concentrations of ambient air by optimizing the reaction conditions, adding a constant temperature module and liquid flow controller, which was well suited for investigation of the NH3 budget from urban to rural conditions in China.
Guo Li, Hang Su, Meng Li, Uwe Kuhn, Guangjie Zheng, Lei Han, Fengxia Bao, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6433–6446,Short summary
A large fraction of previous work using dynamic flow chambers was to quantify gas exchange in terms of flux or deposition/emission rate. Here, we extended the usage of this technique to examine uptake kinetics on sample surfaces. The good performance of the chamber system was validated. This technique can be further used for liquid samples and real atmospheric aerosol samples without complicated coating procedures, which complements the existing techniques in atmospheric kinetic studies.
Nobuyuki Aoki, Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Shohei Murayama, and Nobuhiro Matsumoto
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5969–5983,Short summary
The CO2 concentration in a cylinder is affected by carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption to a cylinder’s internal surface and fractionation of CO2 and air in the preparation of standard mixtures. We demonstrate that the effects make the CO2 molar fractions deviate in standard mixtures prepared by diluting pure CO2 with air three times. This means that CO2 standard gases are difficult to gravimetrically prepare through multistep dilution.
Jan Gačnik, Igor Živković, Sergio Ribeiro Guevara, Radojko Jaćimović, Jože Kotnik, Gianmarco De Feo, Matthew A. Dexter, Warren T. Corns, and Milena Horvat
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6619–6631,Short summary
Atmospheric mercury and knowledge of its transformations and processes are of great importance for lowering its anthropogenic emissions. To ensure that, it is crucial to have a tested and validated measurement procedure. Since this is not always the case, we performed experiments that provided insight into commonly used atmospheric mercury sampling methods. The results showed that some sampling methods are unsuitable, and some are useful if we consider the results obtained from this work.
Nobuyuki Aoki, Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Yasunori Tohjima, Shinji Morimoto, Ralph F. Keeling, Adam Cox, Shuichiro Takebayashi, and Shohei Murayama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6181–6193,Short summary
Observing the minimal long-term change in atmospheric O2 molar fraction combined with CO2 observation enables us to estimate terrestrial biospheric and oceanic CO2 uptakes separately. In this study, we firstly identified the span offset between the laboratory O2 scales using our developed high-precision standard mixtures, suggesting that the result may allow us to estimate terrestrial biospheric and oceanic CO2 uptakes precisely.
Ruth E. Hill-Pearce, Aimee Hillier, Eric Mussell Webber, Kanokrat Charoenpornpukdee, Simon O'Doherty, Joachim Mohn, Christoph Zellweger, David R. Worton, and Paul J. Brewer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5447–5458,Short summary
There is currently a need for gas reference materials with well-characterised delta values for monitoring N2O amount fractions. We present work towards the preparation of gas reference materials for calibration of in-field monitoring equipment, which target the WMO-GAW data quality objectives for comparability of amount fraction and demonstrate the stability of δ15Nα, δ15Nβ and δ18O values with pressure and effects of cylinder passivation.
Fides Lefrancois, Markus Jesswein, Markus Thoma, Andreas Engel, Kieran Stanley, and Tanja Schuck
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4669–4687,Short summary
Synthetic halocarbons can contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion or to climate change. In many applications they have been replaced over the last years. The presented non-target analysis shows an application approach to quantify those replacements retrospectively, using recorded data of air measurements with gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We focus on the retrospective analysis of the fourth-generation halocarbons, detected at Taunus Observatory in Germany.
Bradley D. Hall, Andrew M. Crotwell, Duane R. Kitzis, Thomas Mefford, Benjamin R. Miller, Michael F. Schibig, and Pieter P. Tans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3015–3032,Short summary
We have recently revised the carbon dioxide calibration scale used by numerous laboratories that measure atmospheric CO2. The revision follows from an improved understanding of the manometric method used to determine the absolute amount of CO2 in an atmospheric air sample. The new scale is 0.18 μmol mol−1 (ppm) greater than the previous scale at 400 ppm CO2. While this difference is small in relative terms (0.045 %), it is significant in terms of atmospheric monitoring.
Iris de Krom, Wijnand Bavius, Ruben Ziel, Elizabeth A. McGhee, Richard J. C. Brown, Igor Živković, Jan Gačnik, Vesna Fajon, Jože Kotnik, Milena Horvat, and Hugo Ent
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2317–2326,Short summary
To demonstrate the robustness and comparability of the novel primary mercury gas standard, the results of comparisons are presented with current calibration methods maintained, using the bell jar in combination with the Dumarey equation or NIST liquid standard reference material. The results show that the primary standard and the NIST reference material are comparable, whereas a difference of −8 % exists between results traceable to the primary standard and the Dumarey equation.
Shujiro Komiya, Fumiyoshi Kondo, Heiko Moossen, Thomas Seifert, Uwe Schultz, Heike Geilmann, David Walter, and Jost V. Lavric
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1439–1455,Short summary
The Amazon basin influences the atmospheric and hydrological cycles on local to global scales. To better understand how, we plan to perform continuous on-site measurements of the stable isotope composition of atmospheric water vapour. For making accurate on-site observations possible, we have investigated the performance of two commercial analysers and determined the best calibration strategy. Well calibrated, both analysers will allow us to record natural signals in the Amazon rainforest.
Axel Fouqueau, Manuela Cirtog, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Pascal Zapf, Guillaume Siour, Xavier Landsheere, Guillaume Méjean, Daniele Romanini, and Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6311–6323,Short summary
An incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) technique has been developed for the in situ monitoring of NO3 radicals in the CSA simulation chamber at LISA. The optical cavity allows a high sensitivity for NO3 detection up to 6 ppt for an integration time of 10 s. The technique is now fully operational and can be used to determine rate constants for fast reactions involving complex volatile organic compounds (with rate constants up to 10−10 cm3 molecule−1 s−1).
Melodie Lao, Leigh R. Crilley, Leyla Salehpoor, Teles C. Furlani, Ilann Bourgeois, J. Andrew Neuman, Andrew W. Rollins, Patrick R. Veres, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Caroline C. Womack, Cora J. Young, and Trevor C. VandenBoer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5873–5890,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key intermediate in the generation of oxidants and fate of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere. High-purity calibration sources that produce stable atmospherically relevant levels under field conditions have not been made to date, reducing measurement accuracy. In this study a simple salt-coated tube humidified with water vapor is demonstrated to produce pure stable low levels of HONO, with modifications allowing the generation of higher amounts.
Aku Helin, Hannele Hakola, and Heidi Hellén
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3543–3560,Short summary
A thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method following sorbent tube sampling was developed for the determination of terpenes in gas-phase samples. The main focus was on the analysis of diterpenes, which have been limited in study in gas-phase samples. The analytical figures of merit were fit for purpose (e.g. quantitation limits <10 pptv and reproducibility <10 % for terpenes). Diterpenes could be detected and identified in emissions from spruce and pine samples.
Ann-Sophie Lehnert, Thomas Behrendt, Alexander Ruecker, Georg Pohnert, and Susan E. Trumbore
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3507–3520,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) like scents can appear and disappear quickly. For example, when a bug starts on a tree, the tree releases VOCs that warn the trees around him. Thus, one needs instruments measuring their concentration in real time and identify which VOC is measured. In our study, we compared two instruments doing that, PTR-MS and SIFT-MS. Both work similarly, but we found that the PTR-MS can measure lower concentrations, but the SIFT-MS can identify VOCs better.
Stephen J. Harris, Jesper Liisberg, Longlong Xia, Jing Wei, Kerstin Zeyer, Longfei Yu, Matti Barthel, Benjamin Wolf, Bryce F. J. Kelly, Dioni I. Cendón, Thomas Blunier, Johan Six, and Joachim Mohn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2797–2831,Short summary
The latest commercial laser spectrometers have the potential to revolutionize N2O isotope analysis. However, to do so, they must be able to produce trustworthy data. Here, we test the performance of widely used laser spectrometers for ambient air applications and identify instrument-specific dependencies on gas matrix and trace gas concentrations. We then provide a calibration workflow to facilitate the operation of these instruments in order to generate reproducible and accurate data.
Lavinia Onel, Alexander Brennan, Michele Gianella, James Hooper, Nicole Ng, Gus Hancock, Lisa Whalley, Paul W. Seakins, Grant A. D. Ritchie, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2441–2456,
Dezhao Liu, Li Rong, Jesper Kamp, Xianwang Kong, Anders Peter S. Adamsen, Albarune Chowdhury, and Anders Feilberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 259–272,
Jiajue Chai, David J. Miller, Eric Scheuer, Jack Dibb, Vanessa Selimovic, Robert Yokelson, Kyle J. Zarzana, Steven S. Brown, Abigail R. Koss, Carsten Warneke, and Meredith Hastings
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6303–6317,Short summary
Isotopic analysis offers a potential tool to distinguish between sources and interpret transformation pathways of atmospheric species. We applied recently developed techniques in our lab to characterize the isotopic composition of reactive nitrogen species (NOx, HONO, HNO3, pNO3-) in fresh biomass burning emissions. Intercomparison with other techniques confirms the suitability of our methods, allowing for future applications of our techniques in a variety of environments.
Joshua D. Shutter, Norton T. Allen, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6079–6089,Short summary
A new mid-infrared and ultra-portable formaldehyde (HCHO) sensor from Aeris Technologies is characterized and evaluated against well-established laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instrumentation. The Aeris sensor displays linear behavior (R squared > 0.94) and shows good agreement with LIF instruments. While the compact sensor is not currently a replacement for the most sensitive research-grade instrumentation available, its sub-ppbv precision is sufficient for indoor and outdoor HCHO monitoring.
Jesper Nørlem Kamp, Albarune Chowdhury, Anders Peter S. Adamsen, and Anders Feilberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2837–2850,Short summary
We tested the performance of a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument from Picarro for measuring ammonia. Interference tests with 10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were conducted to find potential interference of these VOCs. Calibrations show excellent linearity over a large dynamic range of NH3 concentrations. There is negligible interference from humidity and few of the tested VOCs. Overall, the CRDS system performs well with only negligible influence from other compounds.
Nobuyuki Aoki, Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Takuro Watanabe, Takuya Shimosaka, and Shohei Murayama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2631–2646,Short summary
Observation of atmospheric O2 requires highly precise standard gas mixtures with uncertainty of less than 1 ppm for the O2 mole fraction or 5 per meg for O2 / N2. The uncertainty had not been achieved due unknown uncertainty factors in mass determination of the filled source gases. We first developed the primary standard mixtures with 1 ppm for the O2 mole fraction or 5 per meg by identifying and reducing the unknown uncertainty factors.
Cristina Romero-Trigueros, María Esther González, Marta Doval Miñarro, and Enrique González Ferradás
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1685–1695,Short summary
Determining benzene in ambient air is mandatory in the European Union. The reference measuring technique is by gas chromatography (GC), and a photometric ionisation detector is recommended. This study shows that the simultaneous presence of benzene and tetrachloromethane causes a significant decrease in GC–photoionisation detector (GC-PID) readings. Given the importance of this behaviour, a possible mechanism was proposed. This study highlights the uncertainty of measuring benzene with a GC-PID.
Matthieu B. Miller, Sarrah M. Dunham-Cheatham, Mae Sexauer Gustin, and Grant C. Edwards
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1207–1217,Short summary
This study was undertaken to demonstrate that a cation exchange membrane (CEM) material used for sampling reactive mercury (RM) does not possess an inherent tendency to collect gaseous elemental mercury (GEM). Using a custom-built mercury vapor permeation system, we found that the CEM material has a very small GEM uptake of approximately 0.004 %, too small to create a significant artifact. We also found that a representative RM compound was collected by the CEM material with high efficiency.
Bradley D. Hall, Andrew M. Crotwell, Benjamin R. Miller, Michael Schibig, and James W. Elkins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 517–524,Short summary
We have used a one-step method for gravimetric preparation of CO2-in-air standards in aluminum cylinders. We consider both adsorption to stainless steel surfaces used in the transfer of highly pure CO2 and adsorption of CO2 to cylinder walls. This work compliments ongoing efforts to support atmospheric monitoring of CO2.
Nicholas D. C. Allen, David R. Worton, Paul J. Brewer, Celine Pascale, and Bernhard Niederhauser
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6429–6438,Short summary
This paper investigates the stability of trace level static terpene primary reference materials (PRMs) and how the choice of passivation affects this process. For the first time, sampling canisters that can be used in the field are tested and demonstrated to be suitable for terpene mixtures. The PRMs were compared against a novel dynamic generator system based on dilution of pure limonene vapour emitted from a permeation tube. The effect of cylinder pressure and decanting are also investigated.
Myriam Guillevic, Martin K. Vollmer, Simon A. Wyss, Daiana Leuenberger, Andreas Ackermann, Céline Pascale, Bernhard Niederhauser, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3351–3372,Short summary
We present new primary calibration scales for five halogenated greenhouse gases. The preparation method, newly applied to halocarbons, is dynamic and gravimetric and allows the generation of reference gas mixtures at near-ambient levels (pmol mol−1). Each prepared molar fraction is traceable to the realisation of SI units (International System of Units) and is assigned an uncertainty estimate following international guidelines.
Loic Lechevallier, Semen Vasilchenko, Roberto Grilli, Didier Mondelain, Daniele Romanini, and Alain Campargue
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2159–2171,Short summary
The amplitude, the temperature dependence, and the physical origin of the water vapour absorption continuum are a long standing issue in molecular spectroscopy with a direct impact in atmospheric and planetary sciences. Using highly sensitive laser spectrometers, the water self continuum has been determined with unprecedented sensitivity in infrared atmospheric transparency windows.
Taku Umezawa, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Thomas Röckmann, Carina van der Veen, Stanley C. Tyler, Ryo Fujita, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, Todd Sowers, Jochen Schmitt, Michael Bock, Jonas Beck, Hubertus Fischer, Sylvia E. Michel, Bruce H. Vaughn, John B. Miller, James W. C. White, Gordon Brailsford, Hinrich Schaefer, Peter Sperlich, Willi A. Brand, Michael Rothe, Thomas Blunier, David Lowry, Rebecca E. Fisher, Euan G. Nisbet, Andrew L. Rice, Peter Bergamaschi, Cordelia Veidt, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1207–1231,Short summary
Isotope measurements are useful for separating different methane sources. However, the lack of widely accepted standards and calibration methods for stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of methane in air has caused significant measurement offsets among laboratories. We conducted worldwide interlaboratory comparisons, surveyed the literature and assessed them systematically. This study may be of help in future attempts to harmonize data sets of isotopic composition of atmospheric methane.
Bernhard Buchholz and Volker Ebert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 459–471,Short summary
This paper describes the absolute validation of the novel, calibration-free SEALDH-II hygrometer at a traceable humidity generator. During 23 days of permanent operation, 15 H2O mole fractions levels (5–1200 ppmv) at 6 gas pressures (65–950 hPa) were validated. With this validation, SEALDH-II is the first metrologically validated humidity transfer standard which links several scientific airborne and laboratory measurement campaigns to the international metrological water vapor scale.
Lavinia Onel, Alexander Brennan, Michele Gianella, Grace Ronnie, Ana Lawry Aguila, Gus Hancock, Lisa Whalley, Paul W. Seakins, Grant A. D. Ritchie, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4877–4894,Short summary
Hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals are key intermediates participating in a rapid chemical cycling at the centre of the tropospheric oxidation. Fluorescence assay by gas expansion (FAGE) technique is the most commonly used for the HO2 measurements in the atmosphere. However, FAGE is an indirect technique, requiring calibration. This work finds a good agreement between the indirect FAGE method and the direct cavity ring-down spectroscopy method and hence validates FAGE and the FAGE calibration method.
Pieter P. Tans, Andrew M. Crotwell, and Kirk W. Thoning
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2669–2685,Short summary
We describe a new CO2 calibration system for the Central Calibration Laboratory of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch program. The system uses two laser spectroscopic instruments to measure the three major CO2 isotopologues individually. We account for isotopic differences between standards in the calibration hierarchy when assigning CO2 mole fraction, eliminating bias due to variations in the isotopic composition.
Jiaping Pang, Xuefa Wen, Xiaomin Sun, and Kuan Huang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3879–3891,
Peter Sperlich, Nelly A. M. Uitslag, Jürgen M. Richter, Michael Rothe, Heike Geilmann, Carina van der Veen, Thomas Röckmann, Thomas Blunier, and Willi A. Brand
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3717–3737,Short summary
Isotope measurements in atmospheric CH4 are performed since more than 3 decades. However, standard gases to harmonize global measurements are not available to this day. We designed two methods to calibrate a suite of 8 CH4 gases with a wide range in isotopic composition to the VPDB and VSMOW scales with high precision and accuracy. Synthetic air mixtures with ~2 ppm of calibrated CH4 can be provided to the community by the ISOLAB of the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry in Jena, Germany.
Agnès Perrin, Jean-Marie Flaud, Marco Ridolfi, Jean Vander Auwera, and Massimo Carlotti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2067–2076,Short summary
Improved line positions and intensities have been generated for the 7.6 µm spectral region of nitric acid, relying on a recent laboratory reinvestigation and comparisons of HNO3 volume mixing ratios retrieved from Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) radiances in the 11 and 7.6 µm regions. The much improved consistency of line intensities in both regions will make it possible to use them simultaneously to retrieve atmospheric HNO3.
Véronique Perraud, Simone Meinardi, Donald R. Blake, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1325–1340,Short summary
Gas phase organosulfur compounds in air serve as precursors of particles which impact human health, visibility, and climate. We compare here two different approaches to measuring these compounds, one an online mass spectrometry technique and the other canister sampling followed by offline analysis by gas chromatography. We show that each approach has its own advantages and limitations in measuring these compounds in complex mixtures, including some artifacts due to reactions on surfaces.
Shang Sun, Alexander Moravek, Lisa von der Heyden, Andreas Held, Matthias Sörgel, and Jürgen Kesselmeier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 599–617,Short summary
We present a dynamic twin-cuvette system for quantifying the trace gas exchange fluxes between plants and the atmosphere under controlled temperature, light, and humidity conditions. We found out that at a relative humidity of 40 %, the deposition velocity ratio of O3 and PAN was determined to be 0.45. At that humidity, the O3-deposition to the plant leaves was found to be only controlled by leaf stomata. For PAN, an additional resistance inhibited the uptake of PAN by the leaves.
M. C. Leuenberger, M. F. Schibig, and P. Nyfeler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5289–5299,Short summary
Adsorption/desorption effects of trace gases in gas cylinders were investigated. Our measurements indicate a rather strong effect on steel cylinders for CO2 that becomes easily visible through enhanced concentrations for low (<20 bars) gas pressure. Much smaller effects are observed for CO and CH4. Significantly smaller effects are measured for all gas species investigated on aluminium cylinders. Careful selection of gas cylinders for high-precision calibration purposes is recommended.
Z. Peng, D. A. Day, H. Stark, R. Li, J. Lee-Taylor, B. B. Palm, W. H. Brune, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4863–4890,
C. C. Hoerger, A. Claude, C. Plass-Duelmer, S. Reimann, E. Eckart, R. Steinbrecher, J. Aalto, J. Arduini, N. Bonnaire, J. N. Cape, A. Colomb, R. Connolly, J. Diskova, P. Dumitrean, C. Ehlers, V. Gros, H. Hakola, M. Hill, J. R. Hopkins, J. Jäger, R. Junek, M. K. Kajos, D. Klemp, M. Leuchner, A. C. Lewis, N. Locoge, M. Maione, D. Martin, K. Michl, E. Nemitz, S. O'Doherty, P. Pérez Ballesta, T. M. Ruuskanen, S. Sauvage, N. Schmidbauer, T. G. Spain, E. Straube, M. Vana, M. K. Vollmer, R. Wegener, and A. Wenger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2715–2736,Short summary
The performance of 20 European laboratories involved in long-term non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) measurements was assessed with respect to ACTRIS and GAW data quality objectives. The participants were asked to measure both a 30-component NMHC mixture in nitrogen and whole air. The NMHCs were analysed either by GC-FID or GC-MS. Most systems performed well for the NMHC in nitrogen, whereas in air more scatter was observed. Reasons for this are explained in the paper.
A. Kornilova, S. Moukhtar, M. Saccon, L. Huang, W. Zhang, and J. Rudolph
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2301–2313,Short summary
A technique for compound specific analysis of stable carbon isotope ratios and concentration of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOC) is presented. It is based on selective VOC sampling onto adsorbent filled cartridges. Examples of measurements conducted demonstrate that the ability to make accurate measurements in air with low VOC mixing ratios is important to avoid bias from an overrepresentation of samples that are strongly impacted by recent emissions.
R. Thalman, M. T. Baeza-Romero, S. M. Ball, E. Borrás, M. J. S. Daniels, I. C. A. Goodall, S. B. Henry, T. Karl, F. N. Keutsch, S. Kim, J. Mak, P. S. Monks, A. Muñoz, J. Orlando, S. Peppe, A. R. Rickard, M. Ródenas, P. Sánchez, R. Seco, L. Su, G. Tyndall, M. Vázquez, T. Vera, E. Waxman, and R. Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1835–1862,Short summary
Measurements of α-dicarbonyl compounds, like glyoxal (CHOCHO) and methyl glyoxal (CH3C(O)CHO), are informative about the rate of hydrocarbon oxidation, oxidative capacity, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. We have compared nine instruments and seven techniques to measure α-dicarbonyl, using simulation chamber facilities in the US and Europe. We assess our understanding of calibration, precision, accuracy and detection limits, as well as possible sampling biases.
M. Baasandorj, D. B. Millet, L. Hu, D. Mitroo, and B. J. Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1303–1321,
J. Viallon, S. Lee, P. Moussay, K. Tworek, M. Petersen, and R. I. Wielgosz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1245–1257,
F. A. F. Winiberg, S. C. Smith, I. Bejan, C. A. Brumby, T. Ingham, T. L. Malkin, S. C. Orr, D. E. Heard, and P. W. Seakins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 523–540,
C. S. Brauer, T. A. Blake, A. B. Guenther, S. W. Sharpe, R. L. Sams, and T. J. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3839–3847,
D. W. Fahey, R.-S. Gao, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, C. Schiller, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, T. Peter, N. Amarouche, L. M. Avallone, R. Bauer, Z. Bozóki, L. E. Christensen, S. M. Davis, G. Durry, C. Dyroff, R. L. Herman, S. Hunsmann, S. M. Khaykin, P. Mackrodt, J. Meyer, J. B. Smith, N. Spelten, R. F. Troy, H. Vömel, S. Wagner, and F. G. Wienhold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3177–3213,
P. Boylan, D. Helmig, and J.-H. Park
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1231–1244,
Acker, K., Möller, D., Wieprecht, W., Meixner, F. X., Bohn, B., Gilge, S., Plass-Dülmer, C., and Berresheim, H.: Strong daytime production of OH from HNO2 at a rural mountain site, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L02809, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024643, 2006.
Alicke, B., Geyer, A., Hofzumahaus, A., Holland, F., Konrad, S., Patz, H. W., Schäfer, J., Stutz, J., Volz-Thomas, A., and Platt, U.: OH formation by HONO photolysis during the BERLIOZ experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8247, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000579, 2003.
Ashu-Ayem, E. R., Nitschke, U., Monahan, C., Chen, J., Darby, S. B., Smith, P. D., O'Dowd, C. D., Stengel, D. B., and Venables, D. S.: Coastal iodine emissions. 1. Release of I2 by Laminaria Digitata in chamber experiments, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 10413–10421, https://doi.org/10.1021/es204534v, 2012.
Aumont, B., Chervier, F., and Laval, S.: Contribution of HONO sources to the chemistry in the polluted boundary layer, Atmos. Environ., 37, 487–498, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00920-2, 2003.
Barney, W. S., Wingen, L. M., Lakin, M. J., Brauers, T., Stutz, J., and Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.: Infrared absorption cross-section measurements for nitrous acid (HONO) at room temperature, J. Phys. Chem. A, 104, 1692–1699, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp010734d, 2000.
Beine, H. J., Amoroso, A., Esposito, G., Sparapani, R., Ianniello, A., Georgiadis, T., Nardino, M., Bonasoni, P., Cristofanelli, P., and Dominé, F.: Deposition of atmospheric nitrous acid on alkaline snow surfaces, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L10808, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL022589, 2005.
Bitter, M., Ball, S. M., Povey, I. M., and Jones, R. L.: A broadband cavity ringdown spectrometer for in-situ measurements of atmospheric trace gases, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2547–2560, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-2547-2005, 2005.
Bogumil, K., Orphal, J., Homann, T., Voigt, S., Spietz, P., Fleischmann, O. C., Vogel, A., Hartmann, M., Bovensmann, H., Frerick, J., and Burrows, J. P.: Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: Instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote sensing in the 230-2380 nm region, J. Photoch. Photobio. A, 157, 167–184, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(03)00062-5, 2003.
Bongartz, A., Kames, J., Schurath, U., George, C., Mirabel, P., and Ponche, J. L.: Experimental determination of HONO mass accomodation coefficients using two different techniques, J. Atmos. Chem., 18, 149–169, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00696812, 1994.
Bottorff, B., Reidy, E., Mielke, L., Dusanter, S., and Stevens, P. S.: Development of a laser-photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of nitrous acid and hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6039–6056, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-14-6039-2021, 2021.
Bröske, R., Kleffmann, J., and Wiesen, P.: Heterogeneous conversion of NO2 on secondary organic aerosol surfaces: A possible source of nitrous acid (HONO) in the atmosphere?, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 469–474, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-3-469-2003, 2003.
Brust, A. S., Becker, K. H., Kleffmann, J., and Wiesen, P.: UV absorption cross sections of nitrous acid, Atmos. Environ., 34, 13–19, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00322-2, 2000.
Burrows, J. P., Dehn, A., Deters, B., Himmelmann, S., Richter, A., Voigt, S., and Orphal, J.: Atmospheric remote-sensing reference data from GOME: Part 1. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 231–794 nm range, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 60, 1025–1031, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4073(97)00197-0, 1998.
Calvert, J. G., Yarwood, G., and Dunker, A. M.: An evaluation of the mechanism of nitrous acid formation in the urban atmosphere, Res. Chem. Intermediat., 20, 463–502, https://doi.org/10.1163/156856794X00423, 1994.
Chen, J., Wenger, J. C., and Venables, D. S.: Near-ultraviolet absorption cross sections of nitrophenols and their potential influence on tropospheric oxidation capacity, J. Phys. Chem. A, 115, 12235–12242, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp206929r, 2011.
Crilley, L. R., Kramer, L. J., Ouyang, B., Duan, J., Zhang, W., Tong, S., Ge, M., Tang, K., Qin, M., Xie, P., Shaw, M. D., Lewis, A. C., Mehra, A., Bannan, T. J., Worrall, S. D., Priestley, M., Bacak, A., Coe, H., Allan, J., Percival, C. J., Popoola, O. A. M., Jones, R. L., and Bloss, W. J.: Intercomparison of nitrous acid (HONO) measurement techniques in a megacity (Beijing), Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6449–6463, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-6449-2019, 2019.
Destaillats, H., Spaulding, R. S., and Charles, M. J.: Ambient air measurement of acrolein and other carbonyls at the Oakland-San Francisco bay bridge toll plaza, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 2227–2235, https://doi.org/10.1021/es011394c, 2002.
Dixneuf, S., Ruth, A. A., Vaughan, S., Varma, R. M., and Orphal, J.: The time dependence of molecular iodine emission from Laminaria digitata, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 823–829, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-823-2009, 2009.
Djehiche, M., Tomas, A., Fittschen, C., and Coddeville, P.: First direct detection of HONO in the reaction of methylnitrite (CH3ONO) with OH radicals, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 608–614, https://doi.org/10.1021/es103076e, 2011.
Donaldson, M. A., Berke, A. E., and Raff, J. D.: Uptake of gas phase nitrous acid onto boundary layer soil surfaces, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 375–383, https://doi.org/10.1021/es404156a, 2014.
Dorn, H.-P., Apodaca, R. L., Ball, S. M., Brauers, T., Brown, S. S., Crowley, J. N., Dubé, W. P., Fuchs, H., Häseler, R., Heitmann, U., Jones, R. L., Kiendler-Scharr, A., Labazan, I., Langridge, J. M., Meinen, J., Mentel, T. F., Platt, U., Pöhler, D., Rohrer, F., Ruth, A. A., Schlosser, E., Schuster, G., Shillings, A. J. L., Simpson, W. R., Thieser, J., Tillmann, R., Varma, R., Venables, D. S., and Wahner, A.: Intercomparison of NO3 radical detection instruments in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1111–1140, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-6-1111-2013, 2013.
Duan, J., Qin, M., Ouyang, B., Fang, W., Li, X., Lu, K., Tang, K., Liang, S., Meng, F., Hu, Z., Xie, P., Liu, W., and Häsler, R.: Development of an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for in situ measurements of HONO and NO2, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4531–4543, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-11-4531-2018, 2018.
Febo, A., Perrino, C., and Allegrini, I.: Measurement of nitrous acid in Milan, Italy, by DOAS and diffusion denuders, Atmos. Environ., 30, 3599–3609, https://doi.org/10.1016/1352-2310(96)00069-6, 1996.
Fehsenfeld, F., Calvert, J., Fall, R., Goldan, P., Guenther, A., Hewitt, C. N., Lamb, B., Liu, S., Trainer, M., Westberg, H., and Zimmerman, P.: Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 6, 389–430, https://doi.org/10.1029/92GB02125, 1992.
Ferm, M. and Sjödin, A.: A sodium carbonate coated denuder for determination of nitrous acid in the atmosphere, Atmos. Environ., 19, 979–983, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(85)90243-4, 1985.
Fiedler, S. E., Hese, A., and Ruth, A. A.: Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy, Chem. Phys. Lett., 371, 284–294, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2614(03)00263-X, 2003.
Finlayson-Pitts, B. J., Wingen, L. M., Sumner, A. L., Syomin, D., and Ramazan, K. A.: The heterogeneous hydrolysis of NO2 in laboratory systems and in outdoor and indoor atmospheres: An integrated mechanism, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 223–242, https://doi.org/10.1039/B208564J, 2003.
Fouqueau, A., Cirtog, M., Cazaunau, M., Pangui, E., Zapf, P., Siour, G., Landsheere, X., Méjean, G., Romanini, D., and Picquet-Varrault, B.: Implementation of an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy technique in an atmospheric simulation chamber for in situ NO3 monitoring: characterization and validation for kinetic studies, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6311–6323, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-13-6311-2020, 2020.
Fuchs, H., Ball, S. M., Bohn, B., Brauers, T., Cohen, R. C., Dorn, H.-P., Dubé, W. P., Fry, J. L., Häseler, R., Heitmann, U., Jones, R. L., Kleffmann, J., Mentel, T. F., Müsgen, P., Rohrer, F., Rollins, A. W., Ruth, A. A., Kiendler-Scharr, A., Schlosser, E., Shillings, A. J. L., Tillmann, R., Varma, R. M., Venables, D. S., Villena Tapia, G., Wahner, A., Wegener, R., Wooldridge, P. J., and Brown, S. S.: Intercomparison of measurements of NO2 concentrations in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR during the NO3Comp campaign, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 21–37, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-3-21-2010, 2010.
Fuchs, H., Acir, I.-H., Bohn, B., Brauers, T., Dorn, H.-P., Häseler, R., Hofzumahaus, A., Holland, F., Kaminski, M., Li, X., Lu, K., Lutz, A., Nehr, S., Rohrer, F., Tillmann, R., Wegener, R., and Wahner, A.: OH regeneration from methacrolein oxidation investigated in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7895–7908, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-7895-2014, 2014.
Gherman, T., Venables, D. S., Vaughan, S., Orphal, J., and Ruth, A. A.: Incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the near-ultraviolet: Application to HONO and NO2, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 890–895, https://doi.org/10.1021/es0716913, 2008.
Häseler, R., Brauers, T., Holland, F., and Wahner, A.: Development and application of a new mobile LOPAP instrument for the measurement of HONO altitude profiles in the planetary boundary layer, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 2, 2027–2054, https://doi.org/10.5194/amtd-2-2027-2009, 2009.
Hanst, P. L., Wong, N. W., and Bragin, J.: A long-path infrared study of Los Angeles smog, Atmos. Environ., 16, 969–981, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(82)90183-4, 1982.
Harder, J. W., Brault, J. W., Johnston, P. V., and Mount, G. H.: Temperature dependent NO2 cross sections at high spectral resolution, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 3861–3879, https://doi.org/10.1029/96JD03086, 1997.
Harrison, R. M. and Kitto, A. M. N.: Evidence for a surface source of atmospheric nitrous acid, Atmos. Environ., 28, 1089–1094, https://doi.org/10.1016/1352-2310(94)90286-0, 1994.
Heland, J., Kleffmann, J., Kurtenbach, R., and Wiesen, P.: A new instrument to measure gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) in the atmosphere, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 3207–3212, https://doi.org/10.1021/es000303t, 2001.
Hoch, D. J., Buxmann, J., Sihler, H., Pöhler, D., Zetzsch, C., and Platt, U.: A Cavity-Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument for measurement of BrO, HCHO, HONO and O3, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 5, 3079–3115, https://doi.org/10.5194/amtd-5-3079-2012, 2012.
Huang, G., Zhou, X. L., Deng, G. H., Qiao, H. C., and Civerolo, K.: Measurements of atmospheric nitrous acid and nitric acid, Atmos. Environ., 36, 2225–2235, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00170-X, 2002.
Jain, C., Morajkar, P., Schoemaecker, C., Viskolcz, B., and Fittschen, C.: Measurement of absolute absorption cross sections for nitrous acid (HONO) in the near-infrared region by the continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) technique coupled to laser photolysis, J. Phys. Chem. A, 115, 10720–10728, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp203001y, 2011.
Johnston, H. S. and Graham, R.: Photochemistry of NOx and HNOx compounds, Can. J. Chem.-Rev. Can. Chim., 52, 1415–1423, https://doi.org/10.1139/v74-214, 1974.
Jordan, N. and Osthoff, H. D.: Quantification of nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air by broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) between 361 and 388 nm, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 273–285, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-13-273-2020, 2020.
Karl, M.: Modellierung atmosphärisch-chemischer Reaktionen in der Tageslicht-Atmosphären-Simulationskammer SAPHIR, Dissertation, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 1–216, 2004.
Keller-Rudek, H., Moortgat, G. K., Sander, R., and Sörensen, R.: The MPI-Mainz UV/VIS Spectral Atlas of Gaseous Molecules of Atmospheric Interest, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 365–373, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-5-365-2013, 2013.
Kennedy, O. J., Ouyang, B., Langridge, J. M., Daniels, M. J. S., Bauguitte, S., Freshwater, R., McLeod, M. W., Ironmonger, C., Sendall, J., Norris, O., Nightingale, R., Ball, S. M., and Jones, R. L.: An aircraft based three channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for simultaneous measurements of NO3, N2O5 and NO2, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 1759–1776, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-1759-2011, 2011.
Kleffmann, J.: Daytime sources of nitrous acid (HONO) in the atmospheric boundary layer, Chem. Phys. Chem., 8, 1137–1144, https://doi.org/10.1002/cphc.200700016, 2007.
Kleffmann, J. and Wiesen, P.: Technical Note: Quantification of interferences of wet chemical HONO LOPAP measurements under simulated polar conditions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 6813–6822, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-6813-2008, 2008.
Kleffmann, J., Heland, J., Kurtenbach, R., Lorzer, J., and Wiesen, P.: A new instrument (LOPAP) for the detection of nitrous acid (HONO), Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 4, 48–54, 2002.
Kleffmann, J., Kurtenbach, R., Lorzer, J., Wiesen, P., Kalthoff, N., Vogel, B., and Vogel, H.: Measured and simulated vertical profiles of nitrous acid – Part I: Field measurements, Atmos. Environ., 37, 2949–2955, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00242-5, 2003.
Kleffmann, J., Gavriloaiei, T., Hofzumahaus, A., Holland, F., Koppmann, R., Rupp, L., Schlosser, E., Siese, M., and Wahner, A.: Daytime formation of nitrous acid: A major source of OH radicals in a forest, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L05818, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL022524, 2005.
Kleffmann, J., Lörzer, J. C., Wiesen, P., Kern, C., Trick, S., Volkamer, R., Rodenas, M., and Wirtz, K.: Intercomparison of the DOAS and LOPAP techniques for the detection of nitrous acid (HONO), Atmos. Environ., 40, 3640–3652, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.03.027, 2006.
Lammel, G. and Cape, J. N.: Nitrous acid and nitrite in the atmosphere, Chem. Soc. Rev., 25, 361–369, https://doi.org/10.1039/CS9962500361, 1996.
Langridge, J. M., Ball, S. M., and Jones, R. L.: A compact broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric NO2 using light emitting diodes, Analyst, 131, 916–922, https://doi.org/10.1039/B605636A, 2006.
Leigh, R. J., Ball, S. M., Whitehead, J., Leblanc, C., Shillings, A. J. L., Mahajan, A. S., Oetjen, H., Lee, J. D., Jones, C. E., Dorsey, J. R., Gallagher, M., Jones, R. L., Plane, J. M. C., Potin, P., and McFiggans, G.: Measurements and modelling of molecular iodine emissions, transport and photodestruction in the coastal region around Roscoff, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11823–11838, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-11823-2010, 2010.
Li, X., Brauers, T., Häseler, R., Bohn, B., Fuchs, H., Hofzumahaus, A., Holland, F., Lou, S., Lu, K. D., Rohrer, F., Hu, M., Zeng, L. M., Zhang, Y. H., Garland, R. M., Su, H., Nowak, A., Wiedensohler, A., Takegawa, N., Shao, M., and Wahner, A.: Exploring the atmospheric chemistry of nitrous acid (HONO) at a rural site in Southern China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1497–1513, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-1497-2012, 2012.
Li, X., Rohrer, F., Hofzumahaus, A., Brauers, T., Häseler, R., Bohn, B., Broch, S., Fuchs, H., Gomm, S., Holland, F., Jäger, J., Kaiser, J., Keutsch, F. N., Lohse, I., Lu, K. D., Tillmann, R., Wegener, R., Wolfe, G. M., Mentel, T. F., Kiendler-Scharr, A., and Wahner, A.: Missing gas-phase source of HONO inferred from zeppelin measurements in the troposphere, Science, 344, 292–296, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1248999, 2014.
Liao, W., Hecobian, A., Mastromarino, J., and Tan, D.: Development of a photo-fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence measurement of atmospheric nitrous acid, Atmos. Environ., 40, 17–26, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.07.001, 2006.
Liu, Y., Nie, W., Xu, Z., Wang, T., Wang, R., Li, Y., Wang, L., Chi, X., and Ding, A.: Semi-quantitative understanding of source contribution to nitrous acid (HONO) based on 1 year of continuous observation at the SORPES station in eastern China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13289–13308, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-13289-2019, 2019.
Meller, R.: personal communication to E.-P. Röth, R. Ruhnke, G. Moortgat, R. Meller, and W. Schneider, Berichte des Forschungszentums Jülich, jül-3341 (1997), http://satellite.mpic.de/spectral_atlas/cross_sections/Organics%20(carbonyls)/Aldehydes(aliphatic)/CH2=C(CH3)CHO_Meller(1990)_294K_237-391nm.txt (last access: 18 February 2022), 1990.
Mérienne, M. F., Jenouvrier, A., and Coquart, B.: The NO2 absorption-spectrum. I: Absorption cross-sections at ambient-temperature in the 300–500 nm region, J. Atmos. Chem., 20, 281–297, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00694498, 1995.
Min, K.-E., Washenfelder, R. A., Dubé, W. P., Langford, A. O., Edwards, P. M., Zarzana, K. J., Stutz, J., Lu, K., Rohrer, F., Zhang, Y., and Brown, S. S.: A broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for aircraft measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 423–440, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-423-2016, 2016.
Montzka, S. A., Trainer, M., Goldan, P. D., Kuster, W. C., and Fehsenfeld, F. C.: Isoprene and its oxidation products, methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, in the rural troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 1101–1111, https://doi.org/10.1029/92JD02382, 1993.
Nakashima, Y. and Sadanaga, Y.: Validation of in situ measurements of atmospheric nitrous acid using incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy, Analytical Sciences, 33, 519–524, https://doi.org/10.2116/analsci.33.519, 2017.
Nehr, S., Bohn, B., Dorn, H.-P., Fuchs, H., Häseler, R., Hofzumahaus, A., Li, X., Rohrer, F., Tillmann, R., and Wahner, A.: Atmospheric photochemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons: OH budgets during SAPHIR chamber experiments, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6941–6952, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-6941-2014, 2014.
Nussbaumer, C. M., Parchatka, U., Tadic, I., Bohn, B., Marno, D., Martinez, M., Rohloff, R., Harder, H., Kluge, F., Pfeilsticker, K., Obersteiner, F., Zöger, M., Doerich, R., Crowley, J. N., Lelieveld, J., and Fischer, H.: Modification of a conventional photolytic converter for improving aircraft measurements of NO2 via chemiluminescence, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6759–6776, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-14-6759-2021, 2021.
Oms, M. T., Jongejan, P. A. C., Veltkamp, A. C., Wyers, G. P., and Slanina, J.: Continuous monitoring of atmospheric HCl, HNO2, HNO3, and SO2, by wet-annular denuder air sampling with on-line chromatographic analysis, Int. J. Environ. An. Ch., 62, 207–218, https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319608028134, 1996.
Pierotti, D., Wofsy, S. C., Jacob, D., and Rasmussen, R. A.: Isoprene and its oxidation products: Methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 1871–1881, https://doi.org/10.1029/JD095iD02p01871, 1990.
Pinto, J. P., Dibb, J., Lee, B. H., Rappenglück, B., Wood, E. C., Levy, M., Zhang, R.-Y., Lefer, B., Ren, X.-R., Stutz, J., Tsai, C., Ackermann, L., Golovko, J., Herndon, S. C., Oakes, M., Meng, Q.-Y., Munger, J. W., Zahniser, M., and Zheng, J.: Intercomparison of field measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) during the SHARP campaign, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 5583–5601, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD020287, 2014.
Press, W. H., Flannery, T. S., and Vetterling, W. T.: Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing, Cambridge University Press, pp. 51 and 670, ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8, 1986.
Ramazan, K. A., Syomin, D., and Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.: The photochemical production of HONO during the heterogeneous hydrolysis of NO2, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 6, 3836–3843, https://doi.org/10.1039/B402195A, 2004.
Reisinger, A. R.: Observations of HNO2 in the polluted winter atmosphere: possible heterogeneous production on aerosols, Atmos. Environ., 34, 3865–3874, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00179-5, 2000.
Roberts, J. M. and Bertman, S. B.: The thermal decomposition of peroxy acetic nitric anhydride (PAN) and peroxymethacrylic nitric anhydride (MPAN), Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 24, 297–307, https://doi.org/10.1002/kin.550240307, 1992.
Ródenas, M., Munoz, A., Alacreu, F., Brauers, T., Dorn, H. P., Kleffmann, J., and Bloss, W.: Assessment of HONO Measurements: The FIONA Campaign at EUPHORE, in: Disposal of Dangerous Chemicals in Urban Areas and Mega Cities: Role of Oxides and Acids of Nitrogen in Atmospheric Chemistry, edited by: Barnes, I. and Rudzinski, K. J., Springer, Dordrecht, 45–58, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5034-0_4, 2013.
Rodgers, M. O. and Davis, D. D.: A UV-photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence sensor for detection of HONO, Environ. Sci. Technol., 23, 1106–1112, https://doi.org/10.1021/es00067a007, 1989.
Rohrer, F. and Brüning, D.: Surface NO and NO2 mixing ratios measured between 30∘ N and 30∘ S in the Atlantic region, J. Atmos. Chem., 15, 253–267, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00115397, 1992.
Rohrer, F., Bohn, B., Brauers, T., Brüning, D., Johnen, F.-J., Wahner, A., and Kleffmann, J.: Characterisation of the photolytic HONO-source in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2189–2201, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-2189-2005, 2005.
Ruth, A. A. and Lynch, K. T.: Incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced total internal reflection spectroscopy of surface adsorbed metalloporphyrins, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 10, 7098–7108, https://doi.org/10.1039/B809591D, 2008.
Ruth, A. A., Dixneuf, S., and Raghunandan, R.: Broadband cavity-enhanced absorption Spectroscopy with incoherent light, in: Cavity enhanced spectroscopy and sensing, edited by: Gagliardi, G. and Loock, H. P., Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 179, 485–517, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-40003-2, 2014.
Saiz-Lopez, A., Plane, J. M. C., McFiggans, G., Williams, P. I., Ball, S. M., Bitter, M., Jones, R. L., Hongwei, C., and Hoffmann, T.: Modelling molecular iodine emissions in a coastal marine environment: the link to new particle formation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 883–895, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-883-2006, 2006.
Schiller, C. L., Locquiao, S., Johnson, T. J., and Harris, G. W.: Atmospheric measurements of HONO by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, J. Atmos. Chem., 40, 275–293, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012264601306, 2001.
Scharko, N. K., Berke, A. E., and Raff, J. D.: Release of nitrous acid and nitrogen dioxide from nitrate photolysis in acidic aqueous solutions, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 11991–12001, https://doi.org/10.1021/es503088x, 2014.
Sleiman, M., Logue, J. M., Luo, W., Pankow, J. F., Gundel, L. A., and Destaillats, H.: Inhalable constituents of thirdhand tobacco smoke: Chemical characterization and health impact considerations, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 13093–13101, https://doi.org/10.1021/es5036333, 2014.
Simon, P. K. and Dasgupta, P. K.: Continuous automated measurement of gaseous nitrous and nitric acids and particulate nitrite and nitrate, Environ. Sci. Technol., 29, 1534–1541, https://doi.org/10.1021/es00006a015, 1995.
Spataro, F. and Ianniello, A.: Sources of atmospheric nitrous acid: State of the science, current research needs, and future prospects, J. Air Waste Manage., 64, 1232–1250, https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2014.952846, 2014.
Spindler, G., Hesper, J., Brüggemann, E., Dubois, R., Müller, T., and Herrmann, H.: Wet annular denuder measurements of nitrous acid: laboratory study of the artefact reaction of NO2 with S(IV) in aqueous solution and comparison with field measurements, Atmos. Environ., 37, 2643–2662, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00209-7, 2003.
Staffelbach, T., Neftel, A., and Horowitz, L. W.: Photochemical oxidant formation over southern Switzerland. 2. Model results, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 23363–23373, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JD00932, 1997.
Stemmler, K., Ammann, M., Donders, C., Kleffmann, J., and George, C.: Photosensitized reduction of nitrogen dioxide on humic acid as a source of nitrous acid, Nature, 440, 195–198, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04603, 2006.
Stutz, J., Kim, E. S., Platt, U., Bruno, P., Perrino, C., and Febo, A.: UV-visible absorption cross sections of nitrous acid, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 14585–14592, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD900003, 2000.
Stutz, J., Oha, H.-J., Whitlow, S. I., Anderson, C., Dibb, J. E., Flynn, J. H., Rappenglück, B., and Lefer, B.: Simultaneous DOAS and mist-chamber IC measurements of HONO in Houston, TX, Atmos. Environ., 44, 4090–4098, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.02.003, 2010.
Takenaka, N., Terada, H., Oro, Y., Hiroi, M., Yoshikawa, H., Okitsu, K., and Bandow, H.: A new method for the measurement of trace amounts of HONO in the atmosphere using an air-dragged aqua-membrane-type denuder and fluorescence detection, Analyst, 129, 1130–1136, https://doi.org/10.1039/B407726A, 2004.
Tang, K., Qin, M., Fang, W., Duan, J., Meng, F., Ye, K., Zhang, H., Xie, P., He, Y., Xu, W., Liu, J., and Liu, W.: Simultaneous detection of atmospheric HONO and NO2 utilising an IBBCEAS system based on an iterative algorithm, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6487–6499, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-13-6487-2020, 2020.
Thalman, R. and Volkamer, R.: Inherent calibration of a blue LED-CE-DOAS instrument to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 1797–1814, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-3-1797-2010, 2010.
Vandaele, A. C., Hermans, C., Fally, S., Carleer, M., Colin, R., Mérienne, M.-F., and Jenouvrier, A.: High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross-section: Temperature and pressure effects, J. Geophys. Res., 107, ACH 3-1–ACH 3-12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000971, 2002.
Varma, R. M., Venables, D. S., Ruth, A. A., Heitmann, U., Schlosser, E., and Dixneuf, S.: Long optical cavities for open-path monitoring of atmospheric trace gases and aerosol extinction, Appl. Optics, 48, B159–B171, https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.48.00B159, 2009.
Varma, R. M., Ball, S. M., Brauers, T., Dorn, H.-P., Heitmann, U., Jones, R. L., Platt, U., Pöhler, D., Ruth, A. A., Shillings, A. J. L., Thieser, J., Wahner, A., and Venables, D. S.: Light extinction by secondary organic aerosol: an intercomparison of three broadband cavity spectrometers, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3115–3130, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-6-3115-2013, 2013.
Vogel, B., Vogel, H., Kleffmann, J., and Kurtenbach, R.: Measured and simulated vertical profiles of nitrous acid – Part II. Model simulations and indications for a photolytic source, Atmos. Environ., 37, 2957–2966, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00243-7, 2003.
Voigt, S., Orphal, J., and Burrows, J. P.: The temperature and pressure dependence of the absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 250–800 nm region measured by Fourier-transform spectroscopy, J. Photoch. Photobio. A, 149, 1–7, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(01)00650-5, 2002.
Wang, L. M. and Zhang, J. S.: Detection of nitrous acid by cavity ring down spectroscopy, Environ. Sci. Technol., 34, 4221–4227, https://doi.org/10.1021/es0011055, 2000.
Warneke, C., Holzinger, R., Hansel, A., Jordan, A., Lindinger, W., Pöschl, U., Williams, J., Hoor, P., Fischer, H., Crutzen, P. J., Scheeren, H. A., and Lelieveld, J.: Isoprene and its oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and isoprene related peroxides measured online over the tropical rain forest of Surinam in March 1998, J. Atmos. Chem., 38, 167–185, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006326802432, 2001.
Washenfelder, R. A., Langford, A. O., Fuchs, H., and Brown, S. S.: Measurement of glyoxal using an incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 7779–7793, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-7779-2008, 2008.
Wennberg, P. O., Bates, K. H., Crounse, J. D., Dodson, L. G., McVay, R. C., Mertens, L. A., Nguyen, T. B., Praske, E., Schwantes, R. H., Smarte, M. D., StClair, J. M., Teng, A. P., Zhang, X., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Gas-phase reactions of isoprene and its major oxidation products, Chem. Rev., 118, 3337–3390, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.7b00439, 2018.
Wisthaler, A., Apel, E. C., Bossmeyer, J., Hansel, A., Junkermann, W., Koppmann, R., Meier, R., Müller, K., Solomon, S. J., Steinbrecher, R., Tillmann, R., and Brauers, T.: Technical Note: Intercomparison of formaldehyde measurements at the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2189–2200, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-2189-2008, 2008.
Wu, T., Zhao, W., Chen, W., Zhang, W., and Gao, X.: Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode, Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O., 94, 85–94, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-008-3308-8, 2009.
Wu, T., Chen, W., Fertein, E., Cazier, F., Dewaele, D., and Gao, X.: Development of an open-path incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced spectroscopy based instrument for simultaneous measurement of HONO and NO2 in ambient air, Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O., 106, 501–509, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-011-4818-3, 2012.
Wu, T., Zha, Q., Chen, W., Xu, Z., Wang, T., and He, X.: Development and deployment of a cavity enhanced UV-LED spectrometer for measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 in Hong Kong, Atmos. Environ., 95, 544–551, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.07.016, 2014.
Yi, H., Wu, T., Wang, G., Zhao, W., Fertein, E., Coeur, C., Gao, X., Zhang, W., and Chen, W.: Sensing atmospheric reactive species using light emitting diode by incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy, Opt. Express, 24, A781–A790, https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.24.00A781, 2016.
Yi, H., Cazaunau, M., Gratien, A., Michoud, V., Pangui, E., Doussin, J.-F., and Chen, W.: Intercomparison of IBBCEAS, NitroMAC and FTIR analyses for HONO, NO2 and CH2O measurements during the reaction of NO2 with H2O vapour in the simulation chamber CESAM, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5701–5715, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-14-5701-2021, 2021.
Zhou, X., Civerolo, K., Dai, H. P., Huang, G., Schwab, J., and Demerjian, K.: Summertime nitrous acid chemistry in the atmospheric boundary layer at a rural site in New York state, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4590, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD001539, 2002a.
Zhou, X., He, Y., Huang, G., Thornberry, T. D., Carroll, M. A., and Bertman, S. B.: Photochemical production of nitrous acid on glass sample manifold surface, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 26-1–26-4, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015080, 2002b.
Zhou, X., Gao, H. L., He, Y., Huang, G., Bertman, S. B., Civerolo, K., and Schwab, J.: Nitric acid photolysis on surfaces in low-NOx environments: Significant atmospheric implications, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 2217, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL018620, 2003.
Atmospheric chambers, like SAPHIR in Jülich (Germany), are used to experimentally simulate specific atmospheric scenarios to improve our understanding of the complex chemical reactions occurring in our atmospheres. These facilities hence require cutting-edge gas-sensing capabilities to detect trace gases at the lowest level and in a short time. One important trace gas is HONO, for which we custom-built an optical sensing setup, capable of detecting one HONO molecule in ~40 billion in 1 min.
Atmospheric chambers, like SAPHIR in Jülich (Germany), are used to experimentally simulate...