Articles | Volume 6, issue 9
Research article 23 Sep 2013
Research article | 23 Sep 2013
Ground-based stratospheric O3 and HNO3 measurements at Thule, Greenland: an intercomparison with Aura MLS observations
I. Fiorucci et al.
No articles found.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Ryan Hossaini, Graham W. Mann, Michelle L. Santee, and Mark Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Solar flux variations associated with 11-year sunspot cycle is believed to exert important external climate forcing. As largest variations occur at shorter wavelengths such as Ultra-Violet part of the solar spectrum, associated changes in stratospheric ozone are thought provide direct evidence for solar climate interaction. Until now, most of the studies reported double-peak structured solar cycle signal (SCS), but relatively new satellite data suggest only single peak structured SCS.
Nathaniel J. Livesey, William G. Read, Lucien Froidevaux, Alyn Lambert, Michelle L. Santee, Michael J. Schwartz, Luis F. Millán, Robert F. Jarnot, Paul A. Wagner, Dale F. Hurst, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick E. Sheese, and Gerald E. Nedoluha
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), an instrument on NASA's Aura mission launched in 2004, measures vertical profiles of the temperature and composition of Earth's
middle atmosphere(the region from ~12 to ~100 km altitude). We describe how, among the 16 trace gases measured by MLS, the measurements of water vapor (N2O) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have started to drift since ~2010. The paper also discusses the origins of this drift and work to ameliorate it in a new version of the MLS dataset.
Frank Werner, Nathaniel Livesey, Michael Schwartz, William Read, Michelle Santee, and Galina Wind
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
In this study we present an improved cloud detection scheme for the Microwave Limb Sounder, which is based on a feedforward artificial neural network. This new algorithm is shown to not only reliably detect high and mid-level convection containing even small amounts of cloud water, but also to distinguish between high-reaching and mid- to low-level convection.
Hugh C. Pumphrey, Michael J. Schwartz, Michelle L. Santee, George P. Kablick III, Michael D. Fromm, and Nathaniel J. Livesey
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Forest fires in British Columbia in August 2017 caused an unusual phenomonon: smoke and gases from the fires rose quickly to a height of 10 km. From there, the pollution continued to rise more slowly for many weeks, travelling round the world as it did so. In this paper, we describe how we used data from a satellite instrument to observe this polluted volume of air. The satellite has now been working for 16 years but has observed only three events of this type.
Quentin Errera, Simon Chabrillat, Yves Christophe, Jonas Debosscher, Daan Hubert, William Lahoz, Michelle L. Santee, Masato Shiotani, Sergey Skachko, Thomas von Clarmann, and Kaley Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13647–13679,Short summary
BRAM2 is a 13-year reanalysis of the chemical composition from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere based on the assimilation of the Microwave Limb Sounder observations where eight species are assimilated: O3, H2O, N2O, HNO3, HCl, ClO, CH3Cl and CO. BRAM2 agrees generally well with independent observations in the middle stratosphere, the polar vortex and the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere but also shows several issues in the model and in the observations.
Sören Johansson, Michelle L. Santee, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Michael Höpfner, Marleen Braun, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Erik Kretschmer, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Ines Tritscher, Jörn Ungermann, Kaley A. Walker, and Wolfgang Woiwode
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8311–8338,Short summary
We present a study based on GLORIA aircraft and MLS/ACE-FTS/CALIOP satellite measurements during the Arctic winter 2015/16, which demonstrate (for the Arctic) unusual chlorine deactivation into HCl instead of ClONO2 due to low ozone abundances in the lowermost stratosphere, with a focus at 380 K potential temperature. The atmospheric models CLaMS and EMAC are evaluated, and measured ClONO2 is linked with transport and in situ deactivation in the lowermost stratosphere.
Mohamadou Diallo, Paul Konopka, Michelle L. Santee, Rolf Müller, Mengchu Tao, Kaley A. Walker, Bernard Legras, Martin Riese, Manfred Ern, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 425–446,Short summary
This paper assesses the structural changes in the shallow and transition branches of the BDC induced by El Nino using the Lagrangian model simulations driven by ERAi and JRA-55 combined with MLS observations. We found a clear evidence of a weakening of the transition branch due to an upward shift in the dissipation height of the planetary and gravity waves and a strengthening of the shallow branch due to enhanced GW breaking in the tropics–subtropics and PW breaking at high latitudes.
Mohamadou Diallo, Martin Riese, Thomas Birner, Paul Konopka, Rolf Müller, Michaela I. Hegglin, Michelle L. Santee, Mark Baldwin, Bernard Legras, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13055–13073,Short summary
The unprecedented timing of an El Niño event aligned with the disrupted QBO in 2015–2016 caused a perturbation to the stratospheric circulation, affecting trace gases. This paper resolves the puzzling response of the lower stratospheric water vapor by showing that the QBO disruption reversed the lower stratosphere moistening triggered by the alignment of the El Niño event with a westerly QBO in early boreal winter.
Sören Johansson, Wolfgang Woiwode, Michael Höpfner, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Anne Kleinert, Erik Kretschmer, Thomas Latzko, Johannes Orphal, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Michelle L. Santee, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Giez, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Andreas Zahn, Andreas Engel, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, and Hermann Oelhaf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4737–4756,Short summary
We present two-dimensional cross sections of temperature, HNO3, O3, ClONO2, H2O and CFC-12 from measurements of the GLORIA infrared limb imager during the POLSTRACC/GW-LCYCLE/SALSA aircraft campaigns in the Arctic winter 2015/2016. GLORIA sounded the atmosphere between 5 and 14 km with vertical resolutions of 0.4–1 km. Estimated errors are in the range of 1–2 K (temperature) and 10 %–20 % (trace gases). Comparisons to in situ instruments onboard the aircraft and to Aura/MLS are shown.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Gabriele Stiller, Michael Höpfner, Michelle L. Santee, Sylvia Kellmann, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8873–8892,Short summary
An extensive assessment of the performance of the chemistry–climate model EMAC is given for Arctic winters 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The EMAC simulations are compared to satellite observations. The comparisons between EMAC simulations and satellite observations show that model and measurements compare well for these two Arctic winters. However, differences between model and observations are found that need improvements in the model in the future.
Xiaolu Yan, Paul Konopka, Felix Ploeger, Mengchu Tao, Rolf Müller, Michelle L. Santee, Jianchun Bian, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8079–8096,Short summary
Many works investigate the impact of ENSO on the troposphere. However, only a few works check the impact of ENSO at higher altitudes. Here, we analyse the impact of ENSO on the vicinity of the tropopause using reanalysis, satellite, in situ and model data. We find that ENSO shows the strongest signal in winter, but its impact can last until early the next summer. The ENSO anomaly is insignificant in late summer. Our study can help to understand the atmosphere propagation after ENSO.
Luis F. Millán, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Michelle L. Santee, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4187–4199,Short summary
This study investigates orbital sampling biases and evaluates the additional impact caused by data quality screening for the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS).
Gabriele Mevi, Giovanni Muscari, Pietro Paolo Bertagnolio, Irene Fiorucci, and Giandomenico Pace
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1099–1117,Short summary
In July 2016, a new ground-based 22 GHz spectrometer for measuring lower and middle atmospheric water vapor was installed at the Thule High Arctic Atmospheric Observatory located at Thule Air Base (76.5° N, 68.8° W), Greenland. The spectrometer, VESPA-22, is designed to operate automatically with little maintenance. The intercomparison between VESPA-22 dataset and the satellite-based Microwave Limb Sounder dataset shows an average difference within 1.4 % up to 60 km altitude.
Alyn Lambert and Michelle L. Santee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1945–1975,
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Michelle L. Santee, Lucien Froidevaux, Jörn Ungermann, Roland Ruhnke, Wolfgang Woiwode, Hermann Oelhaf, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12893–12910,Short summary
The 2015/2016 Arctic winter was one of the coldest winters in recent years, allowing extensive PSC formation and chlorine activation. Model simulations of the 2015/2016 Arctic winter were performed with the atmospheric chemistry–climate model ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC). We find that ozone loss was quite strong but not as strong as in 2010/2011; denitrification and dehydration were so far the strongest observed in the Arctic stratosphere in at least the past 10 years.
Gloria L. Manney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Zachary D. Lawrence, Krzysztof Wargan, Luis F. Millán, Michael J. Schwartz, Michelle L. Santee, Alyn Lambert, Steven Pawson, Brian W. Knosp, Ryan A. Fuller, and William H. Daffer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11541–11566,Short summary
The upper tropospheric–lower stratospheric (UTLS) jet stream and multiple tropopause distributions are compared among five state-of-the-art reanalyses. The reanalyses show very similar global distributions of UTLS jets, reflecting their overall high quality; slightly larger differences are seen in tropopause characteristics. Regional and seasonal differences, albeit small, may have implications for using these reanalyses for quantitative dynamical and transport studies focusing on the UTLS.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Jonathon S. Wright, Gloria L. Manney, Lesley J. Gray, James Anstey, Thomas Birner, Sean Davis, Edwin P. Gerber, V. Lynn Harvey, Michaela I. Hegglin, Cameron R. Homeyer, John A. Knox, Kirstin Krüger, Alyn Lambert, Craig S. Long, Patrick Martineau, Andrea Molod, Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Michelle L. Santee, Susann Tegtmeier, Simon Chabrillat, David G. H. Tan, David R. Jackson, Saroja Polavarapu, Gilbert P. Compo, Rossana Dragani, Wesley Ebisuzaki, Yayoi Harada, Chiaki Kobayashi, Will McCarty, Kazutoshi Onogi, Steven Pawson, Adrian Simmons, Krzysztof Wargan, Jeffrey S. Whitaker, and Cheng-Zhi Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1417–1452,Short summary
We introduce the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP), review key concepts and elements of atmospheric reanalysis systems, and summarize the technical details of and differences among 11 of these systems. This work supports scientific studies and intercomparisons of reanalysis products by collecting these background materials and technical details into a single reference. We also address several common misunderstandings and points of confusion regarding reanalyses.
Alyn Lambert, Michelle L. Santee, and Nathaniel J. Livesey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15219–15246,
Luis F. Millán, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Michelle L. Santee, Jessica L. Neu, Gloria L. Manney, and Ryan A. Fuller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11521–11534,Short summary
This paper describes the impact of orbital sampling applied to stratospheric temperature and trace gas fields. Model fields are sampled using real sampling patterns from different satellites. We find that coarse nonuniform sampling patterns may introduce non-negligible errors into the inferred magnitude of temperature and trace gas trends and necessitate considerably longer records for their definitive detection.
Gerald E. Nedoluha, Brian J. Connor, Thomas Mooney, James W. Barrett, Alan Parrish, R. Michael Gomez, Ian Boyd, Douglas R. Allen, Michael Kotkamp, Stefanie Kremser, Terry Deshler, Paul Newman, and Michelle L. Santee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10725–10734,Short summary
Chlorine monoxide (ClO) is central to the formation of the springtime Antarctic ozone hole since it is the catalytic agent in the most important ozone-depleting chemical cycle. We present 20 years of measurements of ClO from the Chlorine monOxide Experiment at Scott Base, Antarctica, and 12 years of measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder to show that the trends in ClO during the ozone hole season are consistent with changes in stratospheric chlorine observed elsewhere.
Hideaki Nakajima, Ingo Wohltmann, Tobias Wegner, Masanori Takeda, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, Ralph Lehmann, Michelle L. Santee, and Markus Rex
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3311–3325,Short summary
This paper presents the first trial of analyzing amount of chlorine activation on different PSC compositions by using match analysis on trajectories initiated from PSC locations identified by CALIPSO/CALIOP measurements. The measured minor species such as HCl and ClO by MLS are compared with ATLAS chemistry-transport model (CTM) results. PSC growth to NAT, NAT/STS mixture, and ice were identified by different temperature decrease histories on trajectories.
L. Froidevaux, J. Anderson, H.-J. Wang, R. A. Fuller, M. J. Schwartz, M. L. Santee, N. J. Livesey, H. C. Pumphrey, P. F. Bernath, J. M. Russell III, and M. P. McCormick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10471–10507,
J. Kuttippurath, S. Godin-Beekmann, F. Lefèvre, M. L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, and A. Hauchecorne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10385–10397,Short summary
Our study finds large interannual variability in Antarctic ozone loss in the recent decade, with a number of winters showing shallow ozone holes but also with the year of the largest ozone hole in the last decades. These smaller ozone holes or ozone losses are mainly related to the year-to-year changes in dynamical processes rather than the variations in anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), as the change in ODS levels during the study period was very small.
N. J. Livesey, M. L. Santee, and G. L. Manney
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9945–9963,Short summary
Employing the well-established "Match" technique, we quantify polar stratospheric ozone loss during multiple Arctic and Antarctic winters, based on observations from the spaceborne Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument. The dense MLS spatial coverage enables many more matches than is possible for balloon-based observations. Applying the same technique to MLS observations of the long-lived N2O molecule gives an measure of the impact of transport errors on our ozone loss estimates.
G. L. Manney, Z. D. Lawrence, M. L. Santee, N. J. Livesey, A. Lambert, and M. C. Pitts
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5381–5403,Short summary
Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) cause a rapid rise in lower stratospheric temperatures, terminating conditions favorable to chemical ozone loss. We show that although temperatures rose precipitously during the vortex split SSW in early Jan 2013, because the offspring vortices each remained isolated and in regions that received sunlight, chemical ozone loss continued for over 1 month after the SSW. Dec/Jan Arctic ozone loss was larger than any previously observed during that period.
Z. D. Lawrence, G. L. Manney, K. Minschwaner, M. L. Santee, and A. Lambert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3873–3892,Short summary
We use a comprehensive set of diagnostics to investigate how two widely used modern reanalysis data sets might affect studies of lower stratospheric polar processing and ozone loss. Our results show that the agreement in temperature diagnostics between the two reanalyses improves over time in both hemispheres with increasing assimilation model inputs. This suggests that both data sets are appropriate choices for studies of polar processing in recent winters.
F. Tummon, B. Hassler, N. R. P. Harris, J. Staehelin, W. Steinbrecht, J. Anderson, G. E. Bodeker, A. Bourassa, S. M. Davis, D. Degenstein, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, E. Kyrölä, M. Laine, C. Long, A. A. Penckwitt, C. E. Sioris, K. H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, H.-J. Wang, and J. Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3021–3043,Short summary
Understanding ozone trends in the vertical is vital in terms of assessing the success of the Montreal Protocol. This paper compares and analyses the long-term trends in stratospheric ozone from seven new merged satellite data sets. The data sets largely agree well with each other, particularly for the negative trends seen in the early period 1984-1997. For the 1998-2011 period there is less agreement, but a clear shift from negative to mostly positive trends.
A. Laeng, U. Grabowski, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, V. Sofieva, I. Petropavlovskikh, D. Hubert, T. Bathgate, P. Bernath, C. D. Boone, C. Clerbaux, P. Coheur, R. Damadeo, D. Degenstein, S. Frith, L. Froidevaux, J. Gille, K. Hoppel, M. McHugh, Y. Kasai, J. Lumpe, N. Rahpoe, G. Toon, T. Sano, M. Suzuki, J. Tamminen, J. Urban, K. Walker, M. Weber, and J. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3971–3987,
A. Parrish, I. S. Boyd, G. E. Nedoluha, P. K. Bhartia, S. M. Frith, N. A. Kramarova, B. J. Connor, G. E. Bodeker, L. Froidevaux, M. Shiotani, and T. Sakazaki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7255–7272,
M. Rex, S. Kremser, P. Huck, G. Bodeker, I. Wohltmann, M. L. Santee, and P. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6545–6555,
V. F. Sofieva, N. Kalakoski, S.-M. Päivärinta, J. Tamminen, M. Laine, and L. Froidevaux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1891–1900,
B. Hassler, I. Petropavlovskikh, J. Staehelin, T. August, P. K. Bhartia, C. Clerbaux, D. Degenstein, M. De Mazière, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Dufour, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Granville, N. R. P. Harris, K. Hoppel, D. Hubert, Y. Kasai, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, J.-C. Lambert, P. F. Levelt, C. T. McElroy, R. D. McPeters, R. Munro, H. Nakajima, A. Parrish, P. Raspollini, E. E. Remsberg, K. H. Rosenlof, A. Rozanov, T. Sano, Y. Sasano, M. Shiotani, H. G. J. Smit, G. Stiller, J. Tamminen, D. W. Tarasick, J. Urban, R. J. van der A, J. P. Veefkind, C. Vigouroux, T. von Clarmann, C. von Savigny, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1395–1427,
E. Eckert, T. von Clarmann, M. Kiefer, G. P. Stiller, S. Lossow, N. Glatthor, D. A. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, M. Pastel, W. Steinbrecht, D. P. J. Swart, K. A. Walker, and P. F. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2571–2589,
C. Gebhardt, A. Rozanov, R. Hommel, M. Weber, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, and A. M. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 831–846,
C. Adams, A. E. Bourassa, V. Sofieva, L. Froidevaux, C. A. McLinden, D. Hubert, J.-C. Lambert, C. E. Sioris, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 49–64,
S. M. Khaykin, I. Engel, H. Vömel, I. M. Formanyuk, R. Kivi, L. I. Korshunov, M. Krämer, A. D. Lykov, S. Meier, T. Naebert, M. C. Pitts, M. L. Santee, N. Spelten, F. G. Wienhold, V. A. Yushkov, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11503–11517,
M. von Hobe, S. Bekki, S. Borrmann, F. Cairo, F. D'Amato, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ebersoldt, M. Ebert, C. Emde, I. Engel, M. Ern, W. Frey, S. Genco, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, G. Günther, E. Hösen, L. Hoffmann, V. Homonnai, C. R. Hoyle, I. S. A. Isaksen, D. R. Jackson, I. M. Jánosi, R. L. Jones, K. Kandler, C. Kalicinsky, A. Keil, S. M. Khaykin, F. Khosrawi, R. Kivi, J. Kuttippurath, J. C. Laube, F. Lefèvre, R. Lehmann, S. Ludmann, B. P. Luo, M. Marchand, J. Meyer, V. Mitev, S. Molleker, R. Müller, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, Y. Orsolini, T. Peter, K. Pfeilsticker, C. Piesch, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, F. D. Pope, F. Ravegnani, M. Rex, M. Riese, T. Röckmann, B. Rognerud, A. Roiger, C. Rolf, M. L. Santee, M. Scheibe, C. Schiller, H. Schlager, M. Siciliani de Cumis, N. Sitnikov, O. A. Søvde, R. Spang, N. Spelten, F. Stordal, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, A. Ulanovski, J. Ungermann, S. Viciani, C. M. Volk, M. vom Scheidt, P. von der Gathen, K. Walker, T. Wegner, R. Weigel, S. Weinbruch, G. Wetzel, F. G. Wienhold, I. Wohltmann, W. Woiwode, I. A. K. Young, V. Yushkov, B. Zobrist, and F. Stroh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9233–9268,
Y. Kasai, H. Sagawa, D. Kreyling, E. Dupuy, P. Baron, J. Mendrok, K. Suzuki, T. O. Sato, T. Nishibori, S. Mizobuchi, K. Kikuchi, T. Manabe, H. Ozeki, T. Sugita, M. Fujiwara, Y. Irimajiri, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath, C. Boone, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, J. Orphal, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, D. Degenstein, A. E. Bourassa, N. D. Lloyd, L. Froidevaux, M. Birk, G. Wagner, F. Schreier, J. Xu, P. Vogt, T. Trautmann, and M. Yasui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2311–2338,
B. J. Connor, T. Mooney, G. E. Nedoluha, J. W. Barrett, A. Parrish, J. Koda, M. L. Santee, and R. M. Gomez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8643–8650,
M. Khosravi, P. Baron, J. Urban, L. Froidevaux, A. I. Jonsson, Y. Kasai, K. Kuribayashi, C. Mitsuda, D. P. Murtagh, H. Sagawa, M. L. Santee, T. O. Sato, M. Shiotani, M. Suzuki, T. von Clarmann, K. A. Walker, and S. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7587–7606,
N. J. Livesey, J. A. Logan, M. L. Santee, J. W. Waters, R. M. Doherty, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, and J. H. Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 579–598,
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water vapour retrieval from S-5P/TROPOMI in the visible blue spectral rangeAssessment of NO2 observations during DISCOVER-AQ and KORUS-AQ field campaignsIntercomparison of NO2, O4, O3 and HCHO slant column measurements by MAX-DOAS and zenith-sky UV–visible spectrometers during CINDI-2Assessment of the quality of TROPOMI high-spatial-resolution NO2 data products in the Greater Toronto AreaValidation of acetonitrile (CH3CN) measurements in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere from the SMILES instrument on the International Space StationComparison of optimal estimation HDO∕H2O retrievals from AIRS with ORACLES measurementsComparison of GTO-ECV and adjusted MERRA-2 total ozone columns from the last 2 decades and assessment of interannual variabilityShipborne MAX-DOAS measurements for validation of TROPOMI NO2 productsAssessing Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide retrievals over urban versus non-urban regionsEarly results and validation of SAGE III-ISS ozone profile measurements from onboard the International Space StationValidation of MAX-DOAS retrievals of aerosol extinction, SO2, and NO2 through comparison with lidar, sun photometer, active DOAS, and aircraft measurements in the Athabasca oil sands region
Vinod Kumar, Julia Remmers, Steffen Beirle, Joachim Fallmann, Astrid Kerkweg, Jos Lelieveld, Mariano Mertens, Andrea Pozzer, Benedikt Steil, Marc Barra, Holger Tost, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5241–5269,Short summary
We present high-resolution regional atmospheric chemistry model simulations focused around Germany. We highlight the importance of spatial resolution of the model itself as well as the input emissions inventory and short-scale temporal variability of emissions for simulations. We propose a consistent approach for evaluating the simulated vertical distribution of NO2 using MAX-DOAS measurements while also considering its spatial sensitivity volume and change in sensitivity within this volume.
Ralf Zuber, Ulf Köhler, Luca Egli, Mario Ribnitzky, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, and Julian Gröbner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4915–4928,Short summary
We validated two BTS-based systems in a longer-term TOC analysis in the 2019/2020 campaign at Hohenpeißenberg and Davos. The results showed a deviation of the BTS-Solar to Brewers of < 0.1 % with a k = 2 of < 1.5 %. Koherent showed a deviation of 1.7 % with a k = 2 of 2.7 %. Resultingly, the BTS-Solar performance is comparable to Brewers in Hohenpeißenberg. Koherent shows a seasonal variation in Davos due to the sensitivity of its TOC retrieval algorithm to stratospheric temperature.
Susanne Crewell, Kerstin Ebell, Patrick Konjari, Mario Mech, Tatiana Nomokonova, Ana Radovan, David Strack, Arantxa M. Triana-Gómez, Stefan Noël, Raul Scarlat, Gunnar Spreen, Marion Maturilli, Annette Rinke, Irina Gorodetskaya, Carolina Viceto, Thomas August, and Marc Schröder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4829–4856,Short summary
Water vapor (WV) is an important variable in the climate system. Satellite measurements are thus crucial to characterize the spatial and temporal variability in WV and how it changed over time. In particular with respect to the observed strong Arctic warming, the role of WV still needs to be better understood. However, as shown in this paper, a detailed understanding is still hampered by large uncertainties in the various satellite WV products, showing the need for improved methods to derive WV.
René Stübi, Herbert Schill, Eliane Maillard Barras, Jörg Klausen, and Alexander Haefele
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4203–4217,Short summary
Total ozone column has been measured since 1926 in the Swiss Alps station Arosa. These worldwide series are based on Dobson sun spectrophotometers. To assure the continuity of these series, a two-stage project was realized at MeteoSwiss: first, Dobson instruments were automated, and then parallel measurements between Arosa and a nearby site in Davos were carried out. The analysis of the data of the manual-to-automated transition and coincident data between the two sites are presented here.
Daniel Zawada, Ghislain Franssens, Robert Loughman, Antti Mikkonen, Alexei Rozanov, Claudia Emde, Adam Bourassa, Seth Dueck, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Didier Ramon, Vladimir Rozanov, Emmanuel Dekemper, Erkki Kyrölä, John P. Burrows, Didier Fussen, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3953–3972,Short summary
Satellite measurements of atmospheric composition often rely on computer tools known as radiative transfer models to model the propagation of sunlight within the atmosphere. Here we have performed a detailed inter-comparison of seven different radiative transfer models in a variety of conditions. We have found that the models agree remarkably well, at a level better than previously reported. This result provides confidence in our understanding of atmospheric radiative transfer.
Robin Wing, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Thomas J. McGee, John T. Sullivan, Sergey Khaykin, Grant Sumnicht, and Laurence Twigg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3773–3794,Short summary
This paper is a validation study of the newly installed ozone and temperature lidar at Hohenpeißenberg, Germany. As part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), lidar stations are routinely compared against a travelling reference lidar operated by NASA. We have also attempted to assess potential biases in the reference lidar by comparing the results of this validation campaign with a previous campaign at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Hei Shing Lee, Johanna Tamminen, Christophe Lerot, Fabian Romahn, and Diego G. Loyola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2993–3002,Short summary
Our paper discusses the structure function method, which allows validation of random uncertainties in the data and, at the same time, probing of the small-scale natural variability. We applied this method to the clear-sky total ozone measurements by TROPOMI Sentinel-5P satellite instrument and found that the TROPOMI random error estimation is adequate. The discussed method is a powerful tool, which can be used in various applications.
Mahesh Kumar Sha, Bavo Langerock, Jean-François L. Blavier, Thomas Blumenstock, Tobias Borsdorff, Matthias Buschmann, Angelika Dehn, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Frank Hase, Pauli Heikkinen, Christian Hermans, Laura T. Iraci, Pascal Jeseck, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Nicolas Kumps, Jochen Landgraf, Alba Lorente, Emmanuel Mahieu, Maria V. Makarova, Johan Mellqvist, Jean-Marc Metzger, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, John Robinson, Sébastien Roche, Coleen M. Roehl, Amelie N. Röhling, Constantina Rousogenous, Matthias Schneider, Kei Shiomi, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Osamu Uchino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Pucai Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Tyler Wizenberg, Debra Wunch, Shoma Yamanouchi, Yang Yang, and Minqiang Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
This paper presents for the first time Sentinel-5 Precursor Methane and Carbon Monoxide validation results covering a period from November 2017 to September 2020. For this study, we used global TCCON and NDACC-IRWG network data covering a wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions at different terrains. We also show the influence of a priori alignment, smoothing uncertainties, and the sensitivity of the validation results towards the application of advanced co-location criteria.
Xiaoyi Zhao, Vitali Fioletov, Michael Brohart, Volodya Savastiouk, Ihab Abboud, Akira Ogyu, Jonathan Davies, Reno Sit, Sum Chi Lee, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, Moritz Müller, Debora Griffin, and Chris McLinden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2261–2283,Short summary
The Brewer spectrophotometer is one of the main instruments for measurements of atmospheric total column ozone. The global Brewer network largely relies on the world reference instruments (the Brewer triad) operated by Environment and Climate Change Canada since the early 1980s. This study provides an updated assessment (1999–2019) of the reference instrument performance, in terms of random uncertainties and long-term stability.
Qiansi Tu, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Matthias Schneider, Andreas Schneider, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Benjamin Ertl, Christopher Diekmann, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Michael Sommer, Tobias Borsdorff, and Uwe Raffalski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1993–2011,Short summary
We compare column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of water vapor (XH2O) retrievals from the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) with two co-located ground-based spectrometers as references at two boreal sites. Our study supports the assumption that COCCON also delivers a well-characterized XH2O data product. This is the first published study applying COCCON for MUSICA IASI and TROPOMI validation.
Wannan Wang, Tianhai Cheng, Ronald J. van der A, Jos de Laat, and Jason E. Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1673–1687,Short summary
This paper is an evaluation of the AIRS and MLS ozone (O3) algorithms via comparison with daytime and night-time O3 datasets. Results show that further refinements of the AIRS O3 algorithm are required for better surface emissivity retrievals and that cloud cover is another problem that needs to be solved. An inconsistency is found in the
AscDescModeflag of the MLS v4.20 standard O3 product for 90–60° S and 60–90° N, resulting in inconsistent O3 profiles in these regions before May 2015.
David F. Pollard, John Robinson, Hisako Shiona, and Dan Smale
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1501–1510,Short summary
This work describes the steps taken to ensure a continuous, high-quality dataset of column-averaged greenhouse gas retrievals from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) site at Lauder, New Zealand, following a change in the Fourier transform spectrometer used to make the measurements from which the retrievals are made.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Doug A. Degenstein, Felicia Kolonjari, David Plummer, Douglas E. Kinnison, Patrick Jöckel, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1425–1438,Short summary
Output from climate chemistry models (CMAM, EMAC, and WACCM) is used to estimate the expected geophysical variability of ozone concentrations between coincident satellite instrument measurement times and geolocations. We use the Canadian ACE-FTS and OSIRIS instruments as a case study. Ensemble mean estimates are used to optimize coincidence criteria between the two instruments, allowing for the use of more coincident profiles while providing an estimate of the geophysical variation.
Shoma Yamanouchi, Camille Viatte, Kimberly Strong, Erik Lutsch, Dylan B. A. Jones, Cathy Clerbaux, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, and Pierre-Francois Coheur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 905–921,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) is a major source of pollution in the air. As such, there have been increasing efforts to measure the atmospheric abundance of NH3 and its spatial and temporal variability. In this study, long-term measurements of NH3 over Toronto, Canada, derived from multiscale datasets are examined. These NH3 datasets were compared to each other and to a model to better understand NH3 variability and to assess model performance.
Frederik Tack, Alexis Merlaud, Marian-Daniel Iordache, Gaia Pinardi, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Henk Eskes, Bart Bomans, Pepijn Veefkind, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 615–646,Short summary
We assess the TROPOMI tropospheric NO2 product (OFFL v1.03.01; 3.5 km × 7 km at nadir observations) based on coinciding airborne APEX reference observations (~75 m × 120 m), acquired over polluted regions in Belgium. The TROPOMI NO2 product meets the mission requirements in terms of precision and accuracy. However, we show that TROPOMI is biased low over polluted areas, mainly due to the limited spatial resolution of a priori input for the AMF computation.
Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Cesar Guarín, Wolfgang Stremme, Martina M. Friedrich, Alejandro Bezanilla, Diana Rivera Ramos, Cristina A. Mendoza-Rodríguez, Michel Grutter, Thomas Blumenstock, and Frank Hase
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 595–613,
Tijl Verhoelst, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Henk J. Eskes, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Ann Mari Fjæraa, José Granville, Sander Niemeijer, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, François Hendrick, Andrea Pazmiño, Alkiviadis Bais, Ariane Bazureau, K. Folkert Boersma, Kristof Bognar, Angelika Dehn, Sebastian Donner, Aleksandr Elokhov, Manuel Gebetsberger, Florence Goutail, Michel Grutter de la Mora, Aleksandr Gruzdev, Myrto Gratsea, Georg H. Hansen, Hitoshi Irie, Nis Jepsen, Yugo Kanaya, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Rigel Kivi, Karin Kreher, Pieternel F. Levelt, Cheng Liu, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro Comas, Ankie J. M. Piters, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Thierry Portafaix, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, John Rimmer, Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Lidia Saavedra de Miguel, Valery P. Sinyakov, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Michel Van Roozendael, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Thomas Wagner, Folkard Wittrock, Margarita Yela González, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 481–510,Short summary
This paper reports on the ground-based validation of the NO2 data produced operationally by the TROPOMI instrument on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite. Tropospheric, stratospheric, and total NO2 columns are compared to measurements collected from MAX-DOAS, ZSL-DOAS, and PGN/Pandora instruments respectively. The products are found to satisfy mission requirements in general, though negative mean differences are found at sites with high pollution levels. Potential causes are discussed.
Susan S. Kulawik, John R. Worden, Vivienne H. Payne, Dejian Fu, Steven C. Wofsy, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Bruce C. Daube Jr., Alan Lipton, Igor Polonsky, Yuguang He, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Daniel J. Jacob, and Yi Yin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 335–354,Short summary
This paper shows comparisons of a new single-footprint methane product from the AIRS satellite to aircraft-based observations. We show that this AIRS methane product provides useful information to study seasonal and global methane trends of this important greenhouse gas.
Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Carlos Alberti, Marc Allaart, Arnoud Apituley, Alkis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Stijn Berkhout, Kristof Bognar, Tim Bösch, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Mirjam den Hoed, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Martina M. Friedrich, Arnoud Frumau, Lou Gast, Clio Gielen, Laura Gomez-Martín, Nan Hao, Arjan Hensen, Bas Henzing, Christian Hermans, Junli Jin, Karin Kreher, Jonas Kuhn, Johannes Lampel, Ang Li, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Olga Puentedura, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Elena Spinei, Deborah Stein Zweers, Kimberly Strong, Daan Swart, Frederik Tack, Martin Tiefengraber, René van der Hoff, Michel van Roozendael, Tim Vlemmix, Jan Vonk, Thomas Wagner, Yang Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Matthias Wiegner, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1–35,Short summary
Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is a ground-based remote sensing measurement technique that derives atmospheric aerosol and trace gas vertical profiles from skylight spectra. In this study, consistency and reliability of MAX-DOAS profiles are assessed by applying nine different evaluation algorithms to spectral data recorded during an intercomparison campaign in the Netherlands and by comparing the results to colocated supporting observations.
Seidai Nara, Tomohiro O. Sato, Takayoshi Yamada, Tamaki Fujinawa, Kota Kuribayashi, Takeshi Manabe, Lucien Froidevaux, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Kaley A. Walker, Jian Xu, Franz Schreier, Yvan J. Orsolini, Varavut Limpasuvan, Nario Kuno, and Yasuko Kasai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6837–6852,Short summary
In the atmosphere, more than 80 % of chlorine compounds are anthropogenic. Hydrogen chloride (HCl), the main stratospheric chlorine reservoir, is useful to estimate the total budget of the atmospheric chlorine compounds. We report, for the first time, the HCl vertical distribution from the middle troposphere to the lower thermosphere using a high-sensitivity SMILES measurement; the data quality is quantified by comparisons with other measurements and via theoretical error analysis.
Robert G. Ryan, Jeremy D. Silver, Richard Querel, Dan Smale, Steve Rhodes, Matt Tully, Nicholas Jones, and Robyn Schofield
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6501–6519,Short summary
Models have identified Australasia as a formaldehyde (HCHO) hotspot from vegetation sources, but few measurement studies exist to verify this. We compare, and find good agreement between, HCHO measurements using three – two ground-based and one satellite-based – different spectroscopic techniques in Australia and New Zealand. This gives confidence in using satellite observations to study HCHO and associated air chemistry and pollution problems in this under-studied part of the world.
Gaia Pinardi, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Nicolas Theys, Nader Abuhassan, Alkiviadis Bais, Folkert Boersma, Alexander Cede, Jihyo Chong, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Anatoly Dzhola, Henk Eskes, Udo Frieß, José Granville, Jay R. Herman, Robert Holla, Jari Hovila, Hitoshi Irie, Yugo Kanaya, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Natalia Kouremeti, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Jianzhong Ma, Enno Peters, Ankie Piters, Oleg Postylyakov, Andreas Richter, Julia Remmers, Hisahiro Takashima, Martin Tiefengraber, Pieter Valks, Tim Vlemmix, Thomas Wagner, and Folkard Wittrock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6141–6174,Short summary
We validate several GOME-2 and OMI tropospheric NO2 products with 23 MAX-DOAS and 16 direct sun instruments distributed worldwide, highlighting large horizontal inhomogeneities at several sites affecting the validation results. We propose a method for quantification and correction. We show the application of such correction reduces the satellite underestimation in almost all heterogeneous cases, but a negative bias remains over the MAX-DOAS and direct sun network ensemble for both satellites.
Laura M. Judd, Jassim A. Al-Saadi, James J. Szykman, Lukas C. Valin, Scott J. Janz, Matthew G. Kowalewski, Henk J. Eskes, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Alexander Cede, Moritz Mueller, Manuel Gebetsberger, Robert Swap, R. Bradley Pierce, Caroline R. Nowlan, Gonzalo González Abad, Amin Nehrir, and David Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6113–6140,Short summary
This paper evaluates Sentinel-5P TROPOMI v1.2 NO2 tropospheric columns over New York City using data from airborne mapping spectrometers and a network of ground-based spectrometers (Pandora) collected in 2018. These evaluations consider impacts due to cloud parameters, a priori profile assumptions, and spatial and temporal variability. Overall, TROPOMI tropospheric NO2 columns appear to have a low bias in this region.
Robin Wing, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Thomas J. McGee, John T. Sullivan, Grant Sumnicht, Gérard Ancellet, Alain Hauchecorne, Sergey Khaykin, and Philippe Keckhut
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5621–5642,Short summary
A lidar intercomparison campaign was conducted over a period of 28 nights at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP) in 2017 and 2018. The objective is to validate the ozone and temperature profiles at OHP to ensure the quality of data submitted to the NDACC database remains high. A mobile reference lidar operated by NASA was transported to OHP and operated concurrently with the French lidars. Agreement for ozone was better than 5 % between 20 and 40 km, and temperatures were equal within 3 K.
Alexis Merlaud, Livio Belegante, Daniel-Eduard Constantin, Mirjam Den Hoed, Andreas Carlos Meier, Marc Allaart, Magdalena Ardelean, Maxim Arseni, Tim Bösch, Hugues Brenot, Andreea Calcan, Emmanuel Dekemper, Sebastian Donner, Steffen Dörner, Mariana Carmelia Balanica Dragomir, Lucian Georgescu, Anca Nemuc, Doina Nicolae, Gaia Pinardi, Andreas Richter, Adrian Rosu, Thomas Ruhtz, Anja Schönhardt, Dirk Schuettemeyer, Reza Shaiganfar, Kerstin Stebel, Frederik Tack, Sorin Nicolae Vâjâiac, Jeni Vasilescu, Jurgen Vanhamel, Thomas Wagner, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5513–5535,Short summary
The AROMAT campaigns took place in Romania in 2014 and 2015. They aimed to test airborne observation systems dedicated to air quality studies and to verify the concept of such campaigns in support of the validation of space-borne atmospheric missions. We show that airborne measurements of NO2 can be valuable for the validation of air quality satellites. For H2CO and SO2, the validation should involve ground-based measurement systems at key locations that the AROMAT measurements help identify.
Brice Barret, Emanuele Emili, and Eric Le Flochmoen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5237–5257,Short summary
The IASI satellite sensor is used to document the variability and evolution of tropospheric ozone (O3). IASI O3 retrievals generally use a single a priori profile which can be responsible for biases and too-low variability. We have therefore implemented a dynamical a priori profile based on pixel location, month and tropopause height. Comparison with 10 years of global ozonesonde profiles shows large improvements in the retrieved tropospheric O3, with biases corrected and enhanced variabilities.
Ermioni Dimitropoulou, François Hendrick, Gaia Pinardi, Martina M. Friedrich, Alexis Merlaud, Frederik Tack, Helene De Longueville, Caroline Fayt, Christian Hermans, Quentin Laffineur, Frans Fierens, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5165–5191,Short summary
We present 1 year of dual-scan ground-based multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements of aerosol and tropospheric NO2 in Uccle (Belgium). Measuring tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) in different azimuthal directions has a positive effect on comparison with measurements from TROPOMI. We prove that the use of inadequate a priori NO2 profile shape data in the TROPOMI retrieval is responsible for the systematic underestimation of S5P NO2 data.
Hirofumi Ohyama, Isamu Morino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Theresa Klausner, Gerry Bagtasa, Matthäus Kiel, Matthias Frey, Akihiro Hori, Osamu Uchino, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Alina Fiehn, Anke Roiger, Michael Lichtenstern, Hans Schlager, Pao K. Wang, Charles C.-K. Chou, Maria Dolores Andrés-Hernández, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5149–5163,Short summary
Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 measured by a solar viewing portable Fourier transform spectrometer (EM27/SUN) were validated with in situ profile data obtained during the transfer flights of two aircraft campaigns. Atmospheric dynamical properties based on ERA5 and WRF-Chem were used as criteria for selecting the best aircraft profiles for the validation. The resulting air-mass-independent correction factors for the EM27/SUN data were 0.9878 for CO2 and 0.9829 for CH4.
Yang Wang, Arnoud Apituley, Alkiviadis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Nuria Benavent, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Henning Finkenzeller, Martina M. Friedrich, Udo Frieß, David Garcia-Nieto, Laura Gómez-Martín, François Hendrick, Andreas Hilboll, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Theodore K. Koenig, Karin Kreher, Vinod Kumar, Aleksandra Kyuberis, Johannes Lampel, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Oleg L. Polyansky, Oleg Postylyakov, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Stefan Schmitt, Xin Tian, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Michel Van Roozendael, Rainer Volkamer, Zhuoru Wang, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5087–5116,
Nicole Jacobs, William R. Simpson, Debra Wunch, Christopher W. O'Dell, Gregory B. Osterman, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Qiansi Tu, Matthias Frey, Manvendra K. Dubey, Harrison A. Parker, Rigel Kivi, and Pauli Heikkinen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5033–5063,Short summary
The boreal forest is the largest seasonally varying biospheric CO2-exchange region on Earth. This region is also undergoing amplified climate warming, leading to concerns about the potential for altered regional carbon exchange. Satellite missions, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) project, can measure CO2 abundance over the boreal forest but need validation for the assurance of accuracy. Therefore, we carried out a ground-based validation of OCO-2 CO2 data at three locations.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Peter Forkman, Bengt Rydberg, Bernd Funke, Kaley A. Walker, and Hugh C. Pumphrey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5013–5031,Short summary
We present a unique – by time extension and geographical coverage – dataset of satellite observations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the mesosphere which will allow us to study dynamical processes, since CO is a very good tracer of circulation in the mesosphere. Previously, the dataset was unusable due to instrumental artefacts that affected the measurements. We identify the cause of the artefacts, eliminate them and prove the quality of the results by comparing with other instrument measurements.
Sara Martínez-Alonso, Merritt Deeter, Helen Worden, Tobias Borsdorff, Ilse Aben, Róisin Commane, Bruce Daube, Gene Francis, Maya George, Jochen Landgraf, Debbie Mao, Kathryn McKain, and Steven Wofsy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4841–4864,Short summary
CO is of great importance in climate and air quality studies. To understand newly available TROPOMI data in the frame of the global CO record, we compared those to satellite (MOPITT) and airborne (ATom) CO datasets. The MOPITT dataset is the longest to date (2000–present) and is well-characterized. We used ATom to validate cloudy TROPOMI data over oceans and investigate TROPOMI's vertical sensitivity to CO. Our results show that TROPOMI CO data are in excellent agreement with the other datasets.
Qiansi Tu, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Uwe Raffalski, Jochen Landgraf, Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Huilin Chen, Florian Dietrich, and Jia Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4751–4771,Short summary
Two COCCON instruments are used to observe multiyear greenhouse gases in boreal areas and are compared with the CAMS analysis and S5P satellite data. These three datasets predict greenhouse gas gradients with reasonable agreement. The results indicate that the COCCON instrument has the capability of measuring gradients on regional scales, and observations performed with the portable spectrometers can contribute to inferring sources and sinks and to validating spaceborne greenhouse gases.
Lieuwe G. Tilstra, Martin de Graaf, Ping Wang, and Piet Stammes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4479–4497,Short summary
The goal of the study was to determine the accuracy of the radiometric calibration of the TROPOMI instrument on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite in flight. The Earth reflectances were compared to radiative transfer calculations. We report calibration accuracies and errors for 21 selected wavelength bands between 328 and 2314 nm, located in TROPOMI spectral bands 3–7. The reported numbers can be used to perform corrections that will benefit the retrievals of many atmospheric properties.
Temesgen Yirdaw Berhe, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4079–4096,Short summary
The retrieved CH4 and N2O VMR and column amounts from Addis Ababa, tropical site, are found to exhibit very good agreement with all coincident satellite observations (MIPAS, MLS, and AIRS). Furthermore, the bias obtained from the comparison is comparable to the precision of FTIR measurement, which allows the use of data in further scientific studies as it represents a unique environment of tropical Africa, a region poorly investigated in the past.
Anteneh Getachew Mengistu and Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4009–4033,Short summary
This paper assesses the performance of observed XCO2 from the GOSAT and OCO-2 satellites in capturing simulated XCO2 from the NOAA Carbon Tracker model over Africa. These satellite observations and Carbon Tracker mixing ratios near the surface are also compared to available in situ CO2 flask data from Assekrem, Algeria; Mt. Kenya; Gobabeb, Namibia; and Cape Town; as well as to data off the coast at Seychelles, Ascension Island, and at Izana, Tenerife.
Corinne Vigouroux, Bavo Langerock, Carlos Augusto Bauer Aquino, Thomas Blumenstock, Zhibin Cheng, Martine De Mazière, Isabelle De Smedt, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Diego Loyola, Erik Lutsch, Emmanuel Mahieu, Maria Makarova, Jean-Marc Metzger, Isamu Morino, Isao Murata, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Gaia Pinardi, Amelie Röhling, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kim Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Michel van Roozendael, Pucai Wang, and Holger Winkler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3751–3767,Short summary
We validate the TROPOMI HCHO product with ground-based FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) measurements from 25 stations. We find that TROPOMI overestimates HCHO under clean conditions, while it underestimates it at high HCHO levels. Both TROPOMI precision and accuracy reach the pre-launch requirements, and its precision can even be 2 times better. The observed TROPOMI seasonal variability is in agreement with the FTIR data. The TROPOMI random uncertainty and data filtering should be refined.
Ian Ashpole and Aldona Wiacek
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3521–3542,Short summary
We analyse temporal trends in carbon monoxide (CO) detected by the MOPITT satellite instrument over the coastal city of Halifax, Canada. We show that trends in surface level CO differ significantly depending on the data product used (Level 2 or Level 3). This is linked to the different sensitivity with which MOPITT can detect CO at the surface over land and water as well as the differing degree to which the data can be filtered to account for this in the different products.
Stacey M. Frith, Pawan K. Bhartia, Luke D. Oman, Natalya A. Kramarova, Richard D. McPeters, and Gordon J. Labow
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2733–2749,Short summary
We use the NASA GEOS-GMI chemistry climate model to construct a climatology of stratospheric ozone diurnal variations as a function of latitude, pressure and month, which can be used in a variety of data analysis tasks involving ozone observations made at different times of the day. The climatology compares well with previous modeling simulations and available observations, and to the authors' knowledge is the first characterization of the diurnal cycle available for general ozone data analyses.
Christian Borger, Steffen Beirle, Steffen Dörner, Holger Sihler, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2751–2783,Short summary
We present a total column water vapour (TCWV) retrieval analysing measurements from S-5P/TROPOMI in the visible blue spectral range. The retrieval can well capture the global water vapour distribution with similar sensitivity over the land and ocean and agrees well with various reference data sets within the estimated TCWV uncertainties of typically around 10 %–20 %.
Sungyeon Choi, Lok N. Lamsal, Melanie Follette-Cook, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay A. Krotkov, William H. Swartz, Kenneth E. Pickering, Christopher P. Loughner, Wyat Appel, Gabriele Pfister, Pablo E. Saide, Ronald C. Cohen, Andrew J. Weinheimer, and Jay R. Herman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2523–2546,
Karin Kreher, Michel Van Roozendael, Francois Hendrick, Arnoud Apituley, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Udo Frieß, Andreas Richter, Thomas Wagner, Johannes Lampel, Nader Abuhassan, Li Ang, Monica Anguas, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Henning Finkenzeller, David Garcia-Nieto, Clio Gielen, Laura Gómez-Martín, Nan Hao, Bas Henzing, Jay R. Herman, Christian Hermans, Syedul Hoque, Hitoshi Irie, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Junaid Khayyam Butt, Fahim Khokhar, Theodore K. Koenig, Jonas Kuhn, Vinod Kumar, Cheng Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Abhishek K. Mishra, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro-Comas, Mareike Ostendorf, Andrea Pazmino, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Manuel Pinharanda, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Oleg Postylyakov, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Vinayak Sinha, Elena Spinei, Kimberly Strong, Frederik Tack, Xin Tian, Martin Tiefengraber, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Jeroen van Gent, Rainer Volkamer, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Shanshan Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua H. Xie, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2169–2208,Short summary
In September 2016, 36 spectrometers from 24 institutes measured a number of key atmospheric pollutants during an instrument intercomparison campaign (CINDI-2) at Cabauw, the Netherlands. Here we report on the outcome of this intercomparison exercise. The three major goals were to characterise the differences between the participating instruments, to define a robust methodology for performance assessment, and to contribute to the harmonisation of the measurement settings and retrieval methods.
Xiaoyi Zhao, Debora Griffin, Vitali Fioletov, Chris McLinden, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, Moritz Müller, Kristof Bognar, Kimberly Strong, Folkert Boersma, Henk Eskes, Jonathan Davies, Akira Ogyu, and Sum Chi Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2131–2159,Short summary
Pandora NO2 measurements made at three sites located in the Toronto area are used to evaluate the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) NO2 data products, including standard NO2 and research data developed using a high-resolution regional air quality forecast model. TROPOMI pixels located upwind and downwind from the Pandora sites were analyzed by a new wind-based validation method, which revealed the spatial patterns of local and transported emissions and regional air quality changes.
Tamaki Fujinawa, Tomohiro O. Sato, Takayoshi Yamada, Seidai Nara, Yuki Uchiyama, Kodai Takahashi, Naohiro Yoshida, and Yasuko Kasai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2119–2129,Short summary
We performed an error analysis of SMILES observations for acetonitrile and a validation using the MLS observations by extracting the coincident points between SMILES and MLS data. The major error sources for the SMILES observations were quantitatively estimated. At upper pressure levels the difference between the two datasets increased because of an uncertainty in MLS observations. The results showed that SMILES has an advantage in measuring acetonitrile in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere.
Robert L. Herman, John Worden, David Noone, Dean Henze, Kevin Bowman, Karen Cady-Pereira, Vivienne H. Payne, Susan S. Kulawik, and Dejian Fu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1825–1834,Short summary
This study is the first assessment and validation of AIRS HDO / H2O retrieved by optimal estimation. Initial comparisons with in situ measurements from NASA ORACLES are promising: the small bias and consistent rms of AIRS suggest that AIRS has well-characterized HDO / H2O. This analysis opens the possibility of a new 17-year long-term data record of global tropospheric HDO / H2O measured from space.
Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Diego G. Loyola, Gordon Labow, and Stacey M. Frith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1633–1654,Short summary
We compare total ozone columns from the satellite-based GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable record and the adjusted Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications version 2 reanalysis during their overlap period from 1995 to 2018. Ozone columns and anomalies show a very good agreement in terms of spatial and temporal patterns. In the tropics the interannual variability is assessed by means of an EOF analysis and both data records show a remarkable consistency.
Ping Wang, Ankie Piters, Jos van Geffen, Olaf Tuinder, Piet Stammes, and Stefan Kinne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1413–1426,Short summary
The comparison of shipborne MAX-DOAS and TROPOMI NO2 products is important for the evaluation of the TROPOMI products. The ship cruises were mainly over remote oceans, thus we only measured background tropospheric NO2. Stratospheric NO2 was measured more accurately because there was almost no contamination from tropospheric NO2. We found that the TROPOMI stratospheric NO2 vertical column densities were slightly higher than the MAX-DOAS measurements.
Wenfu Tang, Helen M. Worden, Merritt N. Deeter, David P. Edwards, Louisa K. Emmons, Sara Martínez-Alonso, Benjamin Gaubert, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Glenn S. Diskin, Russell R. Dickerson, Xinrong Ren, Hao He, and Yutaka Kondo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1337–1356,
M. Patrick McCormick, Liqiao Lei, Michael T. Hill, John Anderson, Richard Querel, and Wolfgang Steinbrecht
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1287–1297,Short summary
We present a validation of O3 data from the SAGE III-ISS instrument using ground-based lidars and ozonesondes from Hohenpeißenberg and Lauder as well as O3 data from the ACE-FTS instrument. Average differences in the O3 concentration between SAGE III-ISS and the lidar and sonde observations are < 10 % over much of the lower and middle stratosphere. The ACE comparisons are < 5 % from 20 to 45 km. These results provide confidence in the SAGE III measurements of global stratospheric O3 profiles.
Zoë Y. W. Davis, Udo Frieß, Kevin B. Strawbridge, Monika Aggarwaal, Sabour Baray, Elijah G. Schnitzler, Akshay Lobo, Vitali E. Fioletov, Ihab Abboud, Chris A. McLinden, Jim Whiteway, Megan D. Willis, Alex K. Y. Lee, Jeff Brook, Jason Olfert, Jason O'Brien, Ralf Staebler, Hans D. Osthoff, Cristian Mihele, and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1129–1155,Short summary
Here, we evaluate a ground-based remote sensing method (MAX-DOAS) for measuring total pollutant loading and vertical profiles of pollution in the lower atmosphere by comparing our method to a variety of other measurement methods (lidar, sunphotometer, active DOAS, and aircraft measurements). Measurements were made in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Alberta, Canada. The complex dataset provided a rare opportunity to evaluate the performance of MAX-DOAS under varying atmospheric conditions.
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