Articles | Volume 7, issue 5
Research article 13 May 2014
Research article | 13 May 2014
Characterization and mitigation of water vapor effects in the measurement of ozone by chemiluminescence with nitric oxide
P. Boylan et al.
No articles found.
Wei Wang, Laurens Ganzeveld, Samuel Rossabi, Jacques Hueber, and Detlev Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11287–11304,Short summary
Trees exchange with the atmosphere nitrogen oxides and ozone, affecting the tropospheric composition and consequently air quality and ecosystem health. We examined the leaf-level gas exchanges for four typical tree species (pine, maple, oak, aspen) found in northern Michigan, US. The leaves largely absorb the gases, showing little evidence of emission. We measured the uptake rates that can be used to improve model studies of the source and sink processes controlling these gases in forests.
Dean Howard, Yannick Agnan, Detlev Helmig, Yu Yang, and Daniel Obrist
Biogeosciences, 17, 4025–4042,Short summary
The Arctic tundra represents a vast store of carbon that may be broken down by microbial activity into greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. Though microbes are less active in winter, the long duration of the cold season makes this period very important for carbon cycling. We show that, under conditions of warmer winter air temperatures and greater snowfall, deeper soils can remain warm enough to sustain significantly enhanced CH4 emission. This could have large implications for future climates.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Alex B. Guenther, Jeong-Hoo Park, Roger Seco, Eliane Alves, Sarah Batalha, Raoni Santana, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Julio Tóta, and Oscar Vega
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7179–7191,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are important components of the atmosphere due to their contribution to atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we report major BVOCs, e.g. isoprene and total monoterpene flux measurements with a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) using the eddy covariance (EC) method at a primary rainforest in eastern Amazonia. We used the measured data to evaluate the MEGAN2.1 model for the emission site.
Ryan J. Pound, Tomás Sherwen, Detlev Helmig, Lucy J. Carpenter, and Mat J. Evans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4227–4239,Short summary
Ozone is an important pollutant with impacts on health and the environment. Ozone is lost to plants, land and the oceans. Loss to the ocean is slow compared to all other types of land cover and has not received as much attention. We build on previous work to more accurately model ozone loss to the ocean. We find changes in the concentration of ozone over the oceans, notably the Southern Ocean, which improves model performance.
Detlev Helmig, Daniel Liptzin, Jacques Hueber, and Joel Savarino
The Cryosphere, 14, 199–209,Short summary
We present 15 months of trace gas observations from air withdrawn within the snowpack and from above the snow at Concordia Station in Antarctica. The data show occasional positive spikes, indicative of pollution from the station generator. The pollution signal can be seen in snowpack air shortly after it is observed above the snow surface, and lasting for up to several days, much longer than above the surface.
Martin Jiskra, Jeroen E. Sonke, Yannick Agnan, Detlev Helmig, and Daniel Obrist
Biogeosciences, 16, 4051–4064,Short summary
The tundra plays a pivotal role in Arctic mercury cycling by storing atmospheric mercury deposition and shuttling it to the Arctic Ocean. We used the isotopic fingerprint of mercury to investigate the processes controlling atmospheric mercury deposition. We found that the uptake of atmospheric mercury by vegetation was the major deposition source. Direct deposition to snow or soils only played a minor role. These results improve our understanding of Arctic mercury cycling.
Shaojie Song, Hélène Angot, Noelle E. Selin, Hubert Gallée, Francesca Sprovieri, Nicola Pirrone, Detlev Helmig, Joël Savarino, Olivier Magand, and Aurélien Dommergue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15825–15840,Short summary
Mercury is a trace metal with adverse health effects on human and wildlife. Its unique property makes it undergo long-range transport, and even remote Antarctica receives significant inputs. This paper presents the first model that aims to understand mercury behavior over the Antarctic Plateau. We find that mercury is quickly cycled between snow and air in the sunlit period, likely driven by bromine chemistry, and that several uncertain processes contribute to its behavior in the dark period.
Anna L. Hodshire, Brett B. Palm, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Qijing Bian, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Eben S. Cross, Douglas A. Day, Suzane S. de Sá, Alex B. Guenther, Armin Hansel, James F. Hunter, Werner Jud, Thomas Karl, Saewung Kim, Jesse H. Kroll, Jeong-Hoo Park, Zhe Peng, Roger Seco, James N. Smith, Jose L. Jimenez, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12433–12460,Short summary
We investigate the nucleation and growth processes that shape the aerosol size distribution inside oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) that sampled ambient air from Colorado and the Amazon rainforest. Results indicate that organics are important for both nucleation and growth, vapor uptake was limited to accumulation-mode particles, fragmentation reactions were important to limit particle growth at higher OH exposures, and an H2SO4-organics nucleation mechanism captured new particle formation well.
Yannick Agnan, Thomas A. Douglas, Detlev Helmig, Jacques Hueber, and Daniel Obrist
The Cryosphere, 12, 1939–1956,Short summary
In this study, we investigated mercury dynamics in an interior arctic tundra at Toolik Field Station (200 km from the Arctic Ocean) during two full snow seasons. We continuously measured atmospheric, snow gas phase, and soil pores mercury concentrations. We observed consistent concentration declines from the atmosphere to snowpack to soils, indicating that soils are continuous sinks of mercury. We suggest that interior arctic snowpacks may be negligible sources of mercury.
Brett B. Palm, Suzane S. de Sá, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Joel Brito, Florian Wurm, Paulo Artaxo, Ryan Thalman, Jian Wang, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Allen H. Goldstein, Yingjun Liu, Stephen R. Springston, Rodrigo Souza, Matt K. Newburn, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 467–493,Short summary
Ambient air was oxidized by OH or O3 in an oxidation flow reactor during both wet and dry seasons in the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated how much biogenic, urban, and biomass burning sources contributed to the ambient concentrations of SOA precursor gases and how their contributions changed diurnally and seasonally. SOA yields and hygroscopicity of organic aerosol in the oxidation flow reactor were also studied.
Yaoxian Huang, Shiliang Wu, Louisa J. Kramer, Detlev Helmig, and Richard E. Honrath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14661–14674,Short summary
A global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) was employed to simulate surface ozone and its precursors at Summit, Greenland in the Arctic and compare them with 2-year in situ surface observations. The model performed well in simulating certain species (such as carbon monoxide and propane), but some significant discrepancies were identified for other species (e.g., nitrogen oxides, ethane, PAN, and ozone). We further investigated the exact causes for model–data biases.
Mike J. Newland, Patricia Martinerie, Emmanuel Witrant, Detlev Helmig, David R. Worton, Chris Hogan, William T. Sturges, and Claire E. Reeves
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8269–8283,Short summary
We report increasing levels of alkyl nitrates in the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere between 1960 and the mid-1990s. These increases are symptomatic of large-scale changes to the chemical composition of the atmosphere, particularly with regards to the amounts of short-lived, reactive species. The observed increases are likely driven by increasing levels of nitrogen oxides. These changes have direct implications for the lifetimes of climate-relevant species in the atmosphere, such as methane.
Ivan Kourtchev, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Sarah Connors, James G. Levine, Alex T. Archibald, Ana F. L. Godoi, Sarah L. Paralovo, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Antonio O. Manzi, Roger Seco, Steve Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex Guenther, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Scot T. Martin, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11899–11913,
Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Karsten Baumann, Lina Hacker, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Allen H. Goldstein, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11563–11580,Short summary
IEPOX-SOA is biogenically derived secondary organic aerosol under anthropogenic influence, which has been shown to comprise a substantial fraction of OA globally. We investigated the lifetime of ambient IEPOX-SOA in the SE US and Amazonia, with an oxidation flow reactor and thermodenuder coupled with MS-based instrumentation. The low volatility and long lifetime of IEPOX-SOA against OH radicals' oxidation (> 2 weeks) was observed, which can help to constrain OA impact on air quality and climate.
Hélène Angot, Olivier Magand, Detlev Helmig, Philippe Ricaud, Boris Quennehen, Hubert Gallée, Massimo Del Guasta, Francesca Sprovieri, Nicola Pirrone, Joël Savarino, and Aurélien Dommergue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8249–8264,Short summary
While the Arctic has been extensively monitored, there is still much to be learned from the Antarctic continent regarding the processes that govern the budget of atmospheric mercury species. We report here the first year-round measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in the atmosphere and in snowpack interstitial air on the East Antarctic ice sheet. The striking reactivity observed on the Antarctic plateau most likely influences the cycle of atmospheric mercury on a continental scale.
Michel Legrand, Susanne Preunkert, Joël Savarino, Markus M. Frey, Alexandre Kukui, Detlev Helmig, Bruno Jourdain, Anna E. Jones, Rolf Weller, Neil Brough, and Hubert Gallée
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8053–8069,Short summary
Surface ozone, the most abundant atmospheric oxidant, has been measured since 2004 at the coastal East Antarctic site of Dumont d’Urville, and since 2007 at the Concordia station located on the high East Antarctic plateau. Long-term changes, seasonal and diurnal cycles, as well as inter-annual summer variability observed at these two East Antarctic sites are discussed. Influences like sea ice extent and outflow from inland Antarctica are discussed.
Luping Su, Edward G. Patton, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Alex B. Guenther, Lisa Kaser, Bin Yuan, Fulizi Xiong, Paul B. Shepson, Li Zhang, David O. Miller, William H. Brune, Karsten Baumann, Eric Edgerton, Andrew Weinheimer, Pawel K. Misztal, Jeong-Hoo Park, Allen H. Goldstein, Kate M. Skog, Frank N. Keutsch, and John E. Mak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7725–7741,
L. J. Kramer, D. Helmig, J. F. Burkhart, A. Stohl, S. Oltmans, and R. E. Honrath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6827–6849,
S. Preunkert, M. Legrand, M. M. Frey, A. Kukui, J. Savarino, H. Gallée, M. King, B. Jourdain, W. Vicars, and D. Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6689–6705,Short summary
During two austral summers HCHO was investigated in air, snow, and interstitial air at the Concordia site located on the East Antarctic Plateau. Snow emission fluxes were estimated to be around 1 to 2 and 3 to 5 x 10^12 molecules m-2 s-1 at night and at noon, respectively. Shading experiments suggest that the photochemical HCHO production in the snowpack at Concordia remains negligible. The mean HCHO level of 130pptv observed at 1m above the surface is quite well reproduced by 1-D simulations.
L. K. Emmons, S. R. Arnold, S. A. Monks, V. Huijnen, S. Tilmes, K. S. Law, J. L. Thomas, J.-C. Raut, I. Bouarar, S. Turquety, Y. Long, B. Duncan, S. Steenrod, S. Strode, J. Flemming, J. Mao, J. Langner, A. M. Thompson, D. Tarasick, E. C. Apel, D. R. Blake, R. C. Cohen, J. Dibb, G. S. Diskin, A. Fried, S. R. Hall, L. G. Huey, A. J. Weinheimer, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, J. Nowak, J. Peischl, J. M. Roberts, T. Ryerson, C. Warneke, and D. Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6721–6744,Short summary
Eleven 3-D tropospheric chemistry models have been compared and evaluated with observations in the Arctic during the International Polar Year (IPY 2008). Large differences are seen among the models, particularly related to the model chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and reactive nitrogen (NOx, PAN, HNO3) partitioning. Consistency among the models in the underestimation of CO, ethane and propane indicates the emission inventory is too low for these compounds.
K. Dzepina, C. Mazzoleni, P. Fialho, S. China, B. Zhang, R. C. Owen, D. Helmig, J. Hueber, S. Kumar, J. A. Perlinger, L. J. Kramer, M. P. Dziobak, M. T. Ampadu, S. Olsen, D. J. Wuebbles, and L. R. Mazzoleni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5047–5068,Short summary
Aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2.2km amsl on Pico Island of the North Atlantic Azores archipelago. Two aerosol samples characterized by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry had biomass burning and marine emissions origins, as corroborated by collocated gas- and particle-phase measurements, air masses analyses and satellites. The paper presents the first molecular characterization of aged and processed aerosol intercepted at a remote lower free troposphere
R. Ahmadov, S. McKeen, M. Trainer, R. Banta, A. Brewer, S. Brown, P. M. Edwards, J. A. de Gouw, G. J. Frost, J. Gilman, D. Helmig, B. Johnson, A. Karion, A. Koss, A. Langford, B. Lerner, J. Olson, S. Oltmans, J. Peischl, G. Pétron, Y. Pichugina, J. M. Roberts, T. Ryerson, R. Schnell, C. Senff, C. Sweeney, C. Thompson, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, R. Wild, E. J. Williams, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 411–429,Short summary
High 2013 wintertime O3 pollution events associated with oil/gas production within the Uinta Basin are studied using a 3D model. It's able quantitatively to reproduce these events using emission estimates of O3 precursors based on ambient measurements (top-down approach), but unable to reproduce them using a recent bottom-up emission inventory for the oil/gas industry. The role of various physical and meteorological processes, chemical species and pathways contributing to high O3 are quantified.
S. J. Lawson, P. W. Selleck, I. E. Galbally, M. D. Keywood, M. J. Harvey, C. Lerot, D. Helmig, and Z. Ristovski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 223–240,Short summary
Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are short-lived organic trace gases and important precursors of secondary organic aerosol. Measurements over oceans are sparse. We present the first in situ glyoxal and methylglyoxal observations over remote temperate oceans, alongside observations of precursor gases. Precursor gases cannot explain observed mixing ratios, highlighting an unknown source. We show a large discrepancy between calculated vertical column densities of glyoxal and those retrieved by satellite.
S. J. Oltmans, A. Karion, R. C. Schnell, G. Pétron, C. Sweeney, S. Wolter, D. Neff, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, D. Helmig, B. J. Johnson, and J. Hueber
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
D. R. Gentner, E. Ormeño, S. Fares, T. B. Ford, R. Weber, J.-H. Park, J. Brioude, W. M. Angevine, J. F. Karlik, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5393–5413,
B. Zhang, R. C. Owen, J. A. Perlinger, A. Kumar, S. Wu, M. Val Martin, L. Kramer, D. Helmig, and R. E. Honrath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2267–2287,
D. Helmig, V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, E. Witrant, T. Röckmann, A. Zuiderweg, R. Holzinger, J. Hueber, C. Thompson, J. W. C. White, W. Sturges, A. Baker, T. Blunier, D. Etheridge, M. Rubino, and P. Tans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1463–1483,
J.-H. Park, S. Fares, R. Weber, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 231–244,
A. Kumar, S. Wu, M. F. Weise, R. Honrath, R. C. Owen, D. Helmig, L. Kramer, M. Val Martin, and Q. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12537–12547,
P. M. Edwards, C. J. Young, K. Aikin, J. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, F. Geiger, J. Gilman, D. Helmig, J. S. Holloway, J. Kercher, B. Lerner, R. Martin, R. McLaren, D. D. Parrish, J. Peischl, J. M. Roberts, T. B. Ryerson, J. Thornton, C. Warneke, E. J. Williams, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8955–8971,
P. I. Palmer, M. Parrington, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, P. F. Bernath, T. J. Duck, D. L. Waugh, D. W. Tarasick, S. Andrews, E. Aruffo, L. J. Bailey, E. Barrett, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, K. R. Curry, P. Di Carlo, L. Chisholm, L. Dan, G. Forster, J. E. Franklin, M. D. Gibson, D. Griffin, D. Helmig, J. R. Hopkins, J. T. Hopper, M. E. Jenkin, D. Kindred, J. Kliever, M. Le Breton, S. Matthiesen, M. Maurice, S. Moller, D. P. Moore, D. E. Oram, S. J. O'Shea, R. C. Owen, C. M. L. S. Pagniello, S. Pawson, C. J. Percival, J. R. Pierce, S. Punjabi, R. M. Purvis, J. J. Remedios, K. M. Rotermund, K. M. Sakamoto, A. M. da Silva, K. B. Strawbridge, K. Strong, J. Taylor, R. Trigwell, K. A. Tereszchuk, K. A. Walker, D. Weaver, C. Whaley, and J. C. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6239–6261,
L. Hu, D. B. Millet, S. Y. Kim, K. C. Wells, T. J. Griffis, E. V. Fischer, D. Helmig, J. Hueber, and A. J. Curtis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3379–3392,
J.-H. Park, A. H. Goldstein, J. Timkovsky, S. Fares, R. Weber, J. Karlik, and R. Holzinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1439–1456,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: Laboratory Measurement | Topic: Validation and IntercomparisonsRevision of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) CO2 calibration scaleComparability of calibration strategies for measuring mercury concentrations in gas emission sources and the atmosphereGas Reference Materials for Underpinning Atmospheric Measurements of Stable Isotopes of Nitrous OxideCharacterizing water vapour concentration dependence of commercial cavity ring-down spectrometers for continuous on-site atmospheric water vapour isotope measurements in the tropicsNon-target analysis using gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry: application to time series of fourth generation synthetic halocarbons at Taunus Observatory (Germany)Implementation of an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy technique in an atmospheric simulation chamber for in situ NO3 monitoring: characterization and validation for kinetic studiesA portable, robust, stable, and tunable calibration source for gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO)Optimisation of a thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for the analysis of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpenesSIFT-MS optimization for atmospheric trace gas measurements at varying humidityN2O isotopocule measurements using laser spectroscopy: analyzer characterization and intercomparisonAn intercomparison of CH3O2 measurements by fluorescence assay by gas expansion and cavity ring-down spectroscopy within HIRAC (Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry)Photoacoustic measurement with infrared band-pass filters significantly overestimates NH3 emissions from cattle houses due to volatile organic compound (VOC) interferencesIsotopic characterization of nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous acid (HONO), and nitrate (pNO3−) from laboratory biomass burning during FIREXA new laser-based and ultra-portable gas sensor for indoor and outdoor formaldehyde (HCHO) monitoringNegligible influence of livestock contaminants and sampling system on ammonia measurements with cavity ring-down spectroscopyPreparation of primary standard mixtures for atmospheric oxygen measurements with less than 1 µmol mol−1 uncertainty for oxygen molar fractionsThe interference of tetrachloromethane in the measurement of benzene in the air by a gas chromatography–photoionisation detector (GC-PID)Evaluation of cation exchange membrane performance under exposure to high Hg0 and HgBr2 concentrationsGravimetrically prepared carbon dioxide standards in support of atmospheric researchThe importance of cylinder passivation for preparation and long-term stability of multicomponent monoterpene primary reference materialsDynamic–gravimetric preparation of metrologically traceable primary calibration standards for halogenated greenhouse gasesThe water vapour self-continuum absorption in the infrared atmospheric windows: new laser measurements near 3.3 and 2.0 µmInterlaboratory comparison of δ13C and δD measurements of atmospheric CH4 for combined use of data sets from different laboratoriesAbsolute, pressure-dependent validation of a calibration-free, airborne laser hygrometer transfer standard (SEALDH-II) from 5 to 1200 ppmv using a metrological humidity generatorAn intercomparison of HO2 measurements by fluorescence assay by gas expansion and cavity ring-down spectroscopy within HIRAC (Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry)Abundances of isotopologues and calibration of CO2 greenhouse gas measurementsIntercomparison of two cavity ring-down spectroscopy analyzers for atmospheric 13CO2 ∕ 12CO2 measurementDevelopment and evaluation of a suite of isotope reference gases for methane in airMIPAS database: new HNO3 line parameters at 7.6 µm validated with MIPAS satellite measurementsChallenges associated with the sampling and analysis of organosulfur compounds in air using real-time PTR-ToF-MS and offline GC-FIDTwin-cuvette measurement technique for investigation of dry deposition of O3 and PAN to plant leaves under controlled humidity conditionsGas adsorption and desorption effects on cylinders and their importance for long-term gas recordsHOx radical chemistry in oxidation flow reactors with low-pressure mercury lamps systematically examined by modelingACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO GAW and EMEP observation networksA method for stable carbon isotope ratio and concentration measurements of ambient aromatic hydrocarbonsInstrument intercomparison of glyoxal, methyl glyoxal and NO2 under simulated atmospheric conditionsMeasuring acetic and formic acid by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry: sensitivity, humidity dependence, and quantifying interferencesAccurate measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley bandPressure-dependent calibration of the OH and HO2 channels of a FAGE HOx instrument using the Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC)Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurementsThe AquaVIT-1 intercomparison of atmospheric water vapor measurement techniquesResults from the International Halocarbons in Air Comparison Experiment (IHALACE)A smog chamber comparison of a microfluidic derivatisation measurement of gas-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal with other analytical techniquesHigh-precision analysis of SF6 at ambient levelJena Reference Air Set (JRAS): a multi-point scale anchor for isotope measurements of CO2 in airA combustion setup to precisely reference δ13C and δ2H isotope ratios of pure CH4 to produce isotope reference gases of δ13C-CH4 in synthetic airQuantification of biogenic volatile organic compounds with a flame ionization detector using the effective carbon number conceptMeasuring variations of δ18O and δ2H in atmospheric water vapour using two commercial laser-based spectrometers: an instrument characterisation studySimultaneous stable isotope analysis of methane and nitrous oxide on ice core samplesA high volume sampling system for isotope determination of volatile halocarbons and hydrocarbons
Bradley D. Hall, Andrew M. Crotwell, Duane R. Kitzis, Thomas Mefford, Benjamin R. Miller, Michael F. Schibig, and Pieter P. Tans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3015–3032,Short summary
We have recently revised the carbon dioxide calibration scale used by numerous laboratories that measure atmospheric CO2. The revision follows from an improved understanding of the manometric method used to determine the absolute amount of CO2 in an atmospheric air sample. The new scale is 0.18 μmol mol−1 (ppm) greater than the previous scale at 400 ppm CO2. While this difference is small in relative terms (0.045 %), it is significant in terms of atmospheric monitoring.
Iris de Krom, Wijnand Bavius, Ruben Ziel, Elizabeth A. McGhee, Richard J. C. Brown, Igor Živković, Jan Gačnik, Vesna Fajon, Jože Kotnik, Milena Horvat, and Hugo Ent
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2317–2326,Short summary
To demonstrate the robustness and comparability of the novel primary mercury gas standard, the results of comparisons are presented with current calibration methods maintained, using the bell jar in combination with the Dumarey equation or NIST liquid standard reference material. The results show that the primary standard and the NIST reference material are comparable, whereas a difference of −8 % exists between results traceable to the primary standard and the Dumarey equation.
Ruth E. Hill-Pearce, Aimee Hillier, Eric Mussell Webber, Kanokrat Charoenpornpukdee, Simon O'Doherty, Joachim Mohn, Christoph Zellweger, David R. Worton, and Paul J. Brewer
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
There is currently a need for gas reference materials with well characterized delta values for monitoring N2O amount fractions. We present work towards the preparation of gas reference materials for calibration of in-field monitoring equipment, which target the WMO-GAW data quality objectives for comparability of amount fraction and demonstrate the stability of δ15Nα, δ15Nβ and δ18O values with pressure and effects of cylinder passivation.
Shujiro Komiya, Fumiyoshi Kondo, Heiko Moossen, Thomas Seifert, Uwe Schultz, Heike Geilmann, David Walter, and Jost V. Lavric
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1439–1455,Short summary
The Amazon basin influences the atmospheric and hydrological cycles on local to global scales. To better understand how, we plan to perform continuous on-site measurements of the stable isotope composition of atmospheric water vapour. For making accurate on-site observations possible, we have investigated the performance of two commercial analysers and determined the best calibration strategy. Well calibrated, both analysers will allow us to record natural signals in the Amazon rainforest.
Fides Lefrancois, Markus Jesswein, Markus Thoma, Andreas Engel, Kieran Stanley, and Tanja Schuck
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Synthetic halocarbons can contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion or to climate change. In many applications they have been replaced over the last years. The presented non-target analysis shows an application approach to quantify those replacements retrospectively, using recorded data of air measurements with gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We focus on the retrospective analysis of the fourth generation halocarbons, detected at Taunus Observatory in Germany.
Axel Fouqueau, Manuela Cirtog, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Pascal Zapf, Guillaume Siour, Xavier Landsheere, Guillaume Méjean, Daniele Romanini, and Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6311–6323,Short summary
An incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) technique has been developed for the in situ monitoring of NO3 radicals in the CSA simulation chamber at LISA. The optical cavity allows a high sensitivity for NO3 detection up to 6 ppt for an integration time of 10 s. The technique is now fully operational and can be used to determine rate constants for fast reactions involving complex volatile organic compounds (with rate constants up to 10−10 cm3 molecule−1 s−1).
Melodie Lao, Leigh R. Crilley, Leyla Salehpoor, Teles C. Furlani, Ilann Bourgeois, J. Andrew Neuman, Andrew W. Rollins, Patrick R. Veres, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Caroline C. Womack, Cora J. Young, and Trevor C. VandenBoer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5873–5890,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key intermediate in the generation of oxidants and fate of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere. High-purity calibration sources that produce stable atmospherically relevant levels under field conditions have not been made to date, reducing measurement accuracy. In this study a simple salt-coated tube humidified with water vapor is demonstrated to produce pure stable low levels of HONO, with modifications allowing the generation of higher amounts.
Aku Helin, Hannele Hakola, and Heidi Hellén
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3543–3560,Short summary
A thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method following sorbent tube sampling was developed for the determination of terpenes in gas-phase samples. The main focus was on the analysis of diterpenes, which have been limited in study in gas-phase samples. The analytical figures of merit were fit for purpose (e.g. quantitation limits <10 pptv and reproducibility <10 % for terpenes). Diterpenes could be detected and identified in emissions from spruce and pine samples.
Ann-Sophie Lehnert, Thomas Behrendt, Alexander Ruecker, Georg Pohnert, and Susan E. Trumbore
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3507–3520,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) like scents can appear and disappear quickly. For example, when a bug starts on a tree, the tree releases VOCs that warn the trees around him. Thus, one needs instruments measuring their concentration in real time and identify which VOC is measured. In our study, we compared two instruments doing that, PTR-MS and SIFT-MS. Both work similarly, but we found that the PTR-MS can measure lower concentrations, but the SIFT-MS can identify VOCs better.
Stephen J. Harris, Jesper Liisberg, Longlong Xia, Jing Wei, Kerstin Zeyer, Longfei Yu, Matti Barthel, Benjamin Wolf, Bryce F. J. Kelly, Dioni I. Cendón, Thomas Blunier, Johan Six, and Joachim Mohn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2797–2831,Short summary
The latest commercial laser spectrometers have the potential to revolutionize N2O isotope analysis. However, to do so, they must be able to produce trustworthy data. Here, we test the performance of widely used laser spectrometers for ambient air applications and identify instrument-specific dependencies on gas matrix and trace gas concentrations. We then provide a calibration workflow to facilitate the operation of these instruments in order to generate reproducible and accurate data.
Lavinia Onel, Alexander Brennan, Michele Gianella, James Hooper, Nicole Ng, Gus Hancock, Lisa Whalley, Paul W. Seakins, Grant A. D. Ritchie, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2441–2456,
Dezhao Liu, Li Rong, Jesper Kamp, Xianwang Kong, Anders Peter S. Adamsen, Albarune Chowdhury, and Anders Feilberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 259–272,
Jiajue Chai, David J. Miller, Eric Scheuer, Jack Dibb, Vanessa Selimovic, Robert Yokelson, Kyle J. Zarzana, Steven S. Brown, Abigail R. Koss, Carsten Warneke, and Meredith Hastings
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6303–6317,Short summary
Isotopic analysis offers a potential tool to distinguish between sources and interpret transformation pathways of atmospheric species. We applied recently developed techniques in our lab to characterize the isotopic composition of reactive nitrogen species (NOx, HONO, HNO3, pNO3-) in fresh biomass burning emissions. Intercomparison with other techniques confirms the suitability of our methods, allowing for future applications of our techniques in a variety of environments.
Joshua D. Shutter, Norton T. Allen, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6079–6089,Short summary
A new mid-infrared and ultra-portable formaldehyde (HCHO) sensor from Aeris Technologies is characterized and evaluated against well-established laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instrumentation. The Aeris sensor displays linear behavior (R squared > 0.94) and shows good agreement with LIF instruments. While the compact sensor is not currently a replacement for the most sensitive research-grade instrumentation available, its sub-ppbv precision is sufficient for indoor and outdoor HCHO monitoring.
Jesper Nørlem Kamp, Albarune Chowdhury, Anders Peter S. Adamsen, and Anders Feilberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2837–2850,Short summary
We tested the performance of a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument from Picarro for measuring ammonia. Interference tests with 10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were conducted to find potential interference of these VOCs. Calibrations show excellent linearity over a large dynamic range of NH3 concentrations. There is negligible interference from humidity and few of the tested VOCs. Overall, the CRDS system performs well with only negligible influence from other compounds.
Nobuyuki Aoki, Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Takuro Watanabe, Takuya Shimosaka, and Shohei Murayama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2631–2646,Short summary
Observation of atmospheric O2 requires highly precise standard gas mixtures with uncertainty of less than 1 ppm for the O2 mole fraction or 5 per meg for O2 / N2. The uncertainty had not been achieved due unknown uncertainty factors in mass determination of the filled source gases. We first developed the primary standard mixtures with 1 ppm for the O2 mole fraction or 5 per meg by identifying and reducing the unknown uncertainty factors.
Cristina Romero-Trigueros, María Esther González, Marta Doval Miñarro, and Enrique González Ferradás
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1685–1695,Short summary
Determining benzene in ambient air is mandatory in the European Union. The reference measuring technique is by gas chromatography (GC), and a photometric ionisation detector is recommended. This study shows that the simultaneous presence of benzene and tetrachloromethane causes a significant decrease in GC–photoionisation detector (GC-PID) readings. Given the importance of this behaviour, a possible mechanism was proposed. This study highlights the uncertainty of measuring benzene with a GC-PID.
Matthieu B. Miller, Sarrah M. Dunham-Cheatham, Mae Sexauer Gustin, and Grant C. Edwards
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1207–1217,Short summary
This study was undertaken to demonstrate that a cation exchange membrane (CEM) material used for sampling reactive mercury (RM) does not possess an inherent tendency to collect gaseous elemental mercury (GEM). Using a custom-built mercury vapor permeation system, we found that the CEM material has a very small GEM uptake of approximately 0.004 %, too small to create a significant artifact. We also found that a representative RM compound was collected by the CEM material with high efficiency.
Bradley D. Hall, Andrew M. Crotwell, Benjamin R. Miller, Michael Schibig, and James W. Elkins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 517–524,Short summary
We have used a one-step method for gravimetric preparation of CO2-in-air standards in aluminum cylinders. We consider both adsorption to stainless steel surfaces used in the transfer of highly pure CO2 and adsorption of CO2 to cylinder walls. This work compliments ongoing efforts to support atmospheric monitoring of CO2.
Nicholas D. C. Allen, David R. Worton, Paul J. Brewer, Celine Pascale, and Bernhard Niederhauser
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6429–6438,Short summary
This paper investigates the stability of trace level static terpene primary reference materials (PRMs) and how the choice of passivation affects this process. For the first time, sampling canisters that can be used in the field are tested and demonstrated to be suitable for terpene mixtures. The PRMs were compared against a novel dynamic generator system based on dilution of pure limonene vapour emitted from a permeation tube. The effect of cylinder pressure and decanting are also investigated.
Myriam Guillevic, Martin K. Vollmer, Simon A. Wyss, Daiana Leuenberger, Andreas Ackermann, Céline Pascale, Bernhard Niederhauser, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3351–3372,Short summary
We present new primary calibration scales for five halogenated greenhouse gases. The preparation method, newly applied to halocarbons, is dynamic and gravimetric and allows the generation of reference gas mixtures at near-ambient levels (pmol mol−1). Each prepared molar fraction is traceable to the realisation of SI units (International System of Units) and is assigned an uncertainty estimate following international guidelines.
Loic Lechevallier, Semen Vasilchenko, Roberto Grilli, Didier Mondelain, Daniele Romanini, and Alain Campargue
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2159–2171,Short summary
The amplitude, the temperature dependence, and the physical origin of the water vapour absorption continuum are a long standing issue in molecular spectroscopy with a direct impact in atmospheric and planetary sciences. Using highly sensitive laser spectrometers, the water self continuum has been determined with unprecedented sensitivity in infrared atmospheric transparency windows.
Taku Umezawa, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Thomas Röckmann, Carina van der Veen, Stanley C. Tyler, Ryo Fujita, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, Todd Sowers, Jochen Schmitt, Michael Bock, Jonas Beck, Hubertus Fischer, Sylvia E. Michel, Bruce H. Vaughn, John B. Miller, James W. C. White, Gordon Brailsford, Hinrich Schaefer, Peter Sperlich, Willi A. Brand, Michael Rothe, Thomas Blunier, David Lowry, Rebecca E. Fisher, Euan G. Nisbet, Andrew L. Rice, Peter Bergamaschi, Cordelia Veidt, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1207–1231,Short summary
Isotope measurements are useful for separating different methane sources. However, the lack of widely accepted standards and calibration methods for stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of methane in air has caused significant measurement offsets among laboratories. We conducted worldwide interlaboratory comparisons, surveyed the literature and assessed them systematically. This study may be of help in future attempts to harmonize data sets of isotopic composition of atmospheric methane.
Bernhard Buchholz and Volker Ebert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 459–471,Short summary
This paper describes the absolute validation of the novel, calibration-free SEALDH-II hygrometer at a traceable humidity generator. During 23 days of permanent operation, 15 H2O mole fractions levels (5–1200 ppmv) at 6 gas pressures (65–950 hPa) were validated. With this validation, SEALDH-II is the first metrologically validated humidity transfer standard which links several scientific airborne and laboratory measurement campaigns to the international metrological water vapor scale.
Lavinia Onel, Alexander Brennan, Michele Gianella, Grace Ronnie, Ana Lawry Aguila, Gus Hancock, Lisa Whalley, Paul W. Seakins, Grant A. D. Ritchie, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4877–4894,Short summary
Hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals are key intermediates participating in a rapid chemical cycling at the centre of the tropospheric oxidation. Fluorescence assay by gas expansion (FAGE) technique is the most commonly used for the HO2 measurements in the atmosphere. However, FAGE is an indirect technique, requiring calibration. This work finds a good agreement between the indirect FAGE method and the direct cavity ring-down spectroscopy method and hence validates FAGE and the FAGE calibration method.
Pieter P. Tans, Andrew M. Crotwell, and Kirk W. Thoning
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2669–2685,Short summary
We describe a new CO2 calibration system for the Central Calibration Laboratory of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch program. The system uses two laser spectroscopic instruments to measure the three major CO2 isotopologues individually. We account for isotopic differences between standards in the calibration hierarchy when assigning CO2 mole fraction, eliminating bias due to variations in the isotopic composition.
Jiaping Pang, Xuefa Wen, Xiaomin Sun, and Kuan Huang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3879–3891,
Peter Sperlich, Nelly A. M. Uitslag, Jürgen M. Richter, Michael Rothe, Heike Geilmann, Carina van der Veen, Thomas Röckmann, Thomas Blunier, and Willi A. Brand
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3717–3737,Short summary
Isotope measurements in atmospheric CH4 are performed since more than 3 decades. However, standard gases to harmonize global measurements are not available to this day. We designed two methods to calibrate a suite of 8 CH4 gases with a wide range in isotopic composition to the VPDB and VSMOW scales with high precision and accuracy. Synthetic air mixtures with ~2 ppm of calibrated CH4 can be provided to the community by the ISOLAB of the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry in Jena, Germany.
Agnès Perrin, Jean-Marie Flaud, Marco Ridolfi, Jean Vander Auwera, and Massimo Carlotti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2067–2076,Short summary
Improved line positions and intensities have been generated for the 7.6 µm spectral region of nitric acid, relying on a recent laboratory reinvestigation and comparisons of HNO3 volume mixing ratios retrieved from Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) radiances in the 11 and 7.6 µm regions. The much improved consistency of line intensities in both regions will make it possible to use them simultaneously to retrieve atmospheric HNO3.
Véronique Perraud, Simone Meinardi, Donald R. Blake, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1325–1340,Short summary
Gas phase organosulfur compounds in air serve as precursors of particles which impact human health, visibility, and climate. We compare here two different approaches to measuring these compounds, one an online mass spectrometry technique and the other canister sampling followed by offline analysis by gas chromatography. We show that each approach has its own advantages and limitations in measuring these compounds in complex mixtures, including some artifacts due to reactions on surfaces.
Shang Sun, Alexander Moravek, Lisa von der Heyden, Andreas Held, Matthias Sörgel, and Jürgen Kesselmeier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 599–617,Short summary
We present a dynamic twin-cuvette system for quantifying the trace gas exchange fluxes between plants and the atmosphere under controlled temperature, light, and humidity conditions. We found out that at a relative humidity of 40 %, the deposition velocity ratio of O3 and PAN was determined to be 0.45. At that humidity, the O3-deposition to the plant leaves was found to be only controlled by leaf stomata. For PAN, an additional resistance inhibited the uptake of PAN by the leaves.
M. C. Leuenberger, M. F. Schibig, and P. Nyfeler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5289–5299,Short summary
Adsorption/desorption effects of trace gases in gas cylinders were investigated. Our measurements indicate a rather strong effect on steel cylinders for CO2 that becomes easily visible through enhanced concentrations for low (<20 bars) gas pressure. Much smaller effects are observed for CO and CH4. Significantly smaller effects are measured for all gas species investigated on aluminium cylinders. Careful selection of gas cylinders for high-precision calibration purposes is recommended.
Z. Peng, D. A. Day, H. Stark, R. Li, J. Lee-Taylor, B. B. Palm, W. H. Brune, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4863–4890,
C. C. Hoerger, A. Claude, C. Plass-Duelmer, S. Reimann, E. Eckart, R. Steinbrecher, J. Aalto, J. Arduini, N. Bonnaire, J. N. Cape, A. Colomb, R. Connolly, J. Diskova, P. Dumitrean, C. Ehlers, V. Gros, H. Hakola, M. Hill, J. R. Hopkins, J. Jäger, R. Junek, M. K. Kajos, D. Klemp, M. Leuchner, A. C. Lewis, N. Locoge, M. Maione, D. Martin, K. Michl, E. Nemitz, S. O'Doherty, P. Pérez Ballesta, T. M. Ruuskanen, S. Sauvage, N. Schmidbauer, T. G. Spain, E. Straube, M. Vana, M. K. Vollmer, R. Wegener, and A. Wenger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2715–2736,Short summary
The performance of 20 European laboratories involved in long-term non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) measurements was assessed with respect to ACTRIS and GAW data quality objectives. The participants were asked to measure both a 30-component NMHC mixture in nitrogen and whole air. The NMHCs were analysed either by GC-FID or GC-MS. Most systems performed well for the NMHC in nitrogen, whereas in air more scatter was observed. Reasons for this are explained in the paper.
A. Kornilova, S. Moukhtar, M. Saccon, L. Huang, W. Zhang, and J. Rudolph
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2301–2313,Short summary
A technique for compound specific analysis of stable carbon isotope ratios and concentration of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOC) is presented. It is based on selective VOC sampling onto adsorbent filled cartridges. Examples of measurements conducted demonstrate that the ability to make accurate measurements in air with low VOC mixing ratios is important to avoid bias from an overrepresentation of samples that are strongly impacted by recent emissions.
R. Thalman, M. T. Baeza-Romero, S. M. Ball, E. Borrás, M. J. S. Daniels, I. C. A. Goodall, S. B. Henry, T. Karl, F. N. Keutsch, S. Kim, J. Mak, P. S. Monks, A. Muñoz, J. Orlando, S. Peppe, A. R. Rickard, M. Ródenas, P. Sánchez, R. Seco, L. Su, G. Tyndall, M. Vázquez, T. Vera, E. Waxman, and R. Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1835–1862,Short summary
Measurements of α-dicarbonyl compounds, like glyoxal (CHOCHO) and methyl glyoxal (CH3C(O)CHO), are informative about the rate of hydrocarbon oxidation, oxidative capacity, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. We have compared nine instruments and seven techniques to measure α-dicarbonyl, using simulation chamber facilities in the US and Europe. We assess our understanding of calibration, precision, accuracy and detection limits, as well as possible sampling biases.
M. Baasandorj, D. B. Millet, L. Hu, D. Mitroo, and B. J. Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1303–1321,
J. Viallon, S. Lee, P. Moussay, K. Tworek, M. Petersen, and R. I. Wielgosz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1245–1257,
F. A. F. Winiberg, S. C. Smith, I. Bejan, C. A. Brumby, T. Ingham, T. L. Malkin, S. C. Orr, D. E. Heard, and P. W. Seakins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 523–540,
C. S. Brauer, T. A. Blake, A. B. Guenther, S. W. Sharpe, R. L. Sams, and T. J. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3839–3847,
D. W. Fahey, R.-S. Gao, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, C. Schiller, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, T. Peter, N. Amarouche, L. M. Avallone, R. Bauer, Z. Bozóki, L. E. Christensen, S. M. Davis, G. Durry, C. Dyroff, R. L. Herman, S. Hunsmann, S. M. Khaykin, P. Mackrodt, J. Meyer, J. B. Smith, N. Spelten, R. F. Troy, H. Vömel, S. Wagner, and F. G. Wienhold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3177–3213,
B. D. Hall, A. Engel, J. Mühle, J. W. Elkins, F. Artuso, E. Atlas, M. Aydin, D. Blake, E.-G. Brunke, S. Chiavarini, P. J. Fraser, J. Happell, P. B. Krummel, I. Levin, M. Loewenstein, M. Maione, S. A. Montzka, S. O'Doherty, S. Reimann, G. Rhoderick, E. S. Saltzman, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, M. K. Vollmer, R. F. Weiss, D. Worthy, and Y. Yokouchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 469–490,
X. Pang, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, M. T. Baeza-Romero, T. J. Adams, S. M. Ball, M. J. S. Daniels, I. C. A. Goodall, P. S. Monks, S. Peppe, M. Ródenas García, P. Sánchez, and A. Muñoz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 373–389,
J. S. Lim, D. M. Moon, J. S. Kim, W.-T. Yun, and J. Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2293–2299,
M. Wendeberg, J. M. Richter, M. Rothe, and W. A. Brand
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 817–822,
P. Sperlich, M. Guillevic, C. Buizert, T. M. Jenk, C. J. Sapart, H. Schaefer, T. J. Popp, and T. Blunier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 2227–2236,
C. L. Faiola, M. H. Erickson, V. L. Fricaud, B. T. Jobson, and T. M. VanReken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1911–1923,
F. Aemisegger, P. Sturm, P. Graf, H. Sodemann, S. Pfahl, A. Knohl, and H. Wernli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1491–1511,
C. J. Sapart, C. van der Veen, I. Vigano, M. Brass,, R. S. W. van de Wal, M. Bock, H. Fischer, T. Sowers, C. Buizert, P. Sperlich, T. Blunier, M. Behrens, J. Schmitt, B. Seth, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2607–2618,
E. Bahlmann, I. Weinberg, R. Seifert, C. Tubbesing, and W. Michaelis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2073–2086,
Bariteau, L., Helmig, D., Fairall, C. W., Hare, J. E., Hueber, J., and Lang, E. K.: Determination of oceanic ozone deposition by ship-borne eddy covariance flux measurements, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 441–455, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-3-441-2010, 2010.
Cros, B., Delon, C., Affre, C., Marion, T., Druilhet, A., Perros, P. E., and Lopez A.: Sources and sinks of ozone in savanna and forest areas during EXPRESSO: Airborne turbulent flux measurements, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 105, 29347–29358, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000jd900451, 2000.
Edwards, J. M.: Oceanic latent heat fluxes: Consistency with the atmospheric hydrological and energy cycles and general circulation modeling, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006jd007324, 2007.
Evangelisti, F., Baroncelli, A., Bonasoni, P., Giovanelli, G., and Ravegnani, F.: Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measurement of tropospheric pollutants, Appl. Opt., 34, 2737–2744, 1995.
Fontijn, A., Sabadell, A. J., and Ronco, R. J.: Homogeneous chemiluminescence measurement of nitric oxide with ozone – implications for continuous selective monitoring of gaseous air pollutants, Anal. Chem., 42, 575–579, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60288a034, 1970.
Ganzeveld, L., Helmig, D., Fairall, C. W., Hare, J., and Pozzer, A.: Atmosphere-ocean ozone exchange: A global modeling study of biogeochemical, atmospheric, and waterside turbulence dependencies, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 23, GB4021, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008gb003301, 2009.
Guesten, H. and Heinrich, G.: On-line measurements of ozone surface fluxes: Part I. Methodology and instrumeneation, Atmos. Environ., 30, 897–909, 1996.
Helmig, D., Cohen, L. D., Bocquet, F., Oltmans, S., Grachev, A., and Neff, W.: Spring and summertime diurnal surface ozone fluxes over the polar snow at Summit, Greenland, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L08809, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008gl036549, 2009.
Helmig, D., Boylan, P., Johnson, B., Oltmans, S., Fairall, C. W., Staebler, R., Weinheimer, A., Orlando, J., Knapp, D., Montzka, D., Flocke, F., Freiß, U., Sihler, H., and Shepson, P.: Ozone Dynamics and Snow-Atmosphere Exchanges During Ozone Depletion Events at Barrow, Alaska, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D20303, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017531, 2012a.
Helmig, D., Lang, E. K., Bariteau, L., Boylan, P., Fairall, C. W., Ganzeveld, L., Hare, J. E., Hueber, J., and Pallandt, M.: Atmosphere-ocean ozone fluxes during the TexAQS 2006, STRATUS 2006, GOMECC 2007, GasEx 2008, and AMMA 2008 cruises, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D04305, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jd015955, 2012b.
Hönninger, G., von Friedeburg, C., and Platt, U.: Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 231–254, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-4-231-2004, 2004.
Hsu, J.: Multiple Comparisons: Theory and Methods, Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, USA, 1996.
Ibrom, A., Dellwik, E., Larsen, S. E., and Pilegaard, K.: On the use of the Webb-Pearman-Leuning theory for closed-path eddy correlation measurements, Tellus Ser. B, 59, 937–946, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00311.x, 2007.
Kawa, S. R. and Pearson, R.: Ozone budgets from the dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 9809–9817, 1989.
Kleindienst, T. E., Hudgens, E. E., Smith, D. F., McElroy, F. F., and Bufalini, J. J.: Comparison of chemiluminescence and ultraviolet ozone monitor responses in the presence of humidity and photochemical pollutants, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 43, 213–222, 1993.
Komhyr, W. D., Barnes, R. A., Brothers, G. B., Lathrop, J. A., and Opperman, D. P.: Electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde performance evaluation during STOIC 1989, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 9231–9244, https://doi.org/10.1029/94JD02175, 1995.
Lang, K.: Ozone flux measurements during the Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon Cruise 2007 (GOMECC), M.S. thesis, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, 88 pp., 2008.
Lenschow, D. H. and Raupach, M. R.: The attenuation of flucuations in scalar concentrations through sampling tubes, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 15259–15268, https://doi.org/10.1029/91JD01437, 1991.
Lenschow, D. H., Pearson, R., and Stankov, B. B.: Estimating the ozone budget in the boundary-layer by use of aircraft measurements of ozone eddy flux and mean concentration, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 7291–7297, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC086iC08p07291, 1981.
Lenschow, D. H., Pearson, R., and Stankov, B. B.: Measurements of ozone vertical flux to ocean and forest, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 8833–8837, 1982.
Matthews, R. D., Sawyer R. F., and Schefer R. W.: Interferences in chemiluminescence measurement of NO and NO2 emissions from combustion systems, Environ. Sci. Technol., 11, 1092–1096, https://doi.org/10.1021/es60135a005, 1977.
Muller, P.: The equations of oceanic motions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2006.
Ridley, B. A. and Grahek, F. E.: A small, low flow, high-sensitivity reaction vessel for no chemiluminescence detectors, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 7, 307–311, 1990.
Ridley, B. A., Grahek, F. E., and Walega, J. G.: A small, high-sensitivity, medium-response ozone detector suitable for measurements from light aircraft, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 9, 142–148, 1992.
Slusher, D. L., Neff, W. D., Kim, S., Huey, L. G., Wang, Y., Zeng, T., Tanner, D. J., Blake, D. R., Beyersdorf, A., Lefer, B. L., Crawford, J. H., Eisele, F. L., Mauldin, R. L., Kosciuch, E., Buhr, M. P., Wallace, H. W., and Davis, D. D.: Atmospheric chemistry results from the ANTCI 2005 Antarctic plateau airborne study, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D07304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012605, 2010.
Spicer, C. W., Joseph, D. W., and Ollison, W. M.: A Re-Examination of Ambient Air Ozone Monitor Interferences, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 60, 1353–1364, https://doi.org/10.3155/1047-32188.8.131.523, 2010.
Stull, R. B.: An introduction to boundary layer meteorology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988.
Wang, C.: Thermal Mass Flow Controller Scaling Relations, Measurement Science Conference, Anaheim, CA, 22–23 March 2012, 2012.
Webb, E. K., Pearman, G. I., and Leuning, R.: Correction of flux measurements for density effects due to heat and water-vapor transfer, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 106, 85–100, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49710644707, 1980.
Weinheimer, A. J.: Chemical methods: chemiluminescence, chemical amplification, electrochemistry, and derivatization, in: Analytical techniques for atmospheric measurement, edited by: Heard, D. W., Blackwell Publishing, 2006.
Weinheimer, A. J., Montzka, D. D., Campos, T. L., Walega, J. G., Ridley, B. A., Donnelly S. G., Keim, E. R., Del Negro, L. A., Proffitt, M. H., Margitan, J. J., Boering, K. A., Andrews, A. E., Daube, B. C., Wofsy, S. C., Anderson, B. E., Collins, J. E., Sachse, G. W., Vay, S. A., Elkins, J. W., Wamsley, P. R., Atlas, E. L., Flocke, F., Schauffler, S., Webster, C. R., May, R. D., Loewenstein, M., Podolske, J. R., Bui, T. P., Chan, K. R., Bowen, S. W., Schoeberl, M. R., Lait, L. R., and Newman, P. A.: Comparison between DC-8 and ER-2 species measurements in the tropical middle troposphere: NO, NOy, O3, CO2, CH4, and N2O, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 22087–22096, https://doi.org/10.1029/98JD01421, 1998.
Wesely, M. L. and Hicks B. B.: A review of the current status of knowledge on dry deposition, Atmos. Environ., 34, 2261–2282, 2000.
Williams, E. J., Fehsenfeld, F. C., Jobson, B. T, Kuster, W. C., Goldan, P. D., Stutz, J., and McCleanny, W. A.: Comparison of ultraviolet absorbance, chemiluminescence, and DOAS instruments for ambient ozone monitoring, Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 5755–5762, https://doi.org/10.1021/es0523542, 2006.
Wilson, K. L. and Birks, J. W.: Mechanism and elimination of a water vapor interference in the measurement of ozone by UV absorbance, Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 6361–6367, https://doi.org/10.1021/es052590c, 2006.
Zahn, A., Weppner, J., Widmann, H., Schlote-Holubek, K., Burger, B., Kuhner, T., and Franke, H.: A fast and precise chemiluminescence ozone detector for eddy flux and airbore application, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 363–375, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-5-363-2012, 2012.
Zeller, K.: Wintertime ozone fluxes and profiles above a subalpine spruce-fir forest, J. Appl. Meteorol., 39, 92–101, 2000.