Articles | Volume 8, issue 1
Research article 15 Jan 2015
Research article | 15 Jan 2015
Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing for the determination of air temperature
S. A. P. de Jong et al.
No articles found.
Wouter Dorigo, Irene Himmelbauer, Daniel Aberer, Lukas Schremmer, Ivana Petrakovic, Luca Zappa, Wolfgang Preimesberger, Angelika Xaver, Frank Annor, Jonas Ardö, Dennis Baldocchi, Günter Blöschl, Heye Bogena, Luca Brocca, Jean-Christophe Calvet, Julio J. Camarero, Giorgio Capello, Minha Choi, Michael C. Cosh, Jerome Demarty, Nick van de Giesen, Istvan Hajdu, Karsten H. Jensen, Kasturi Devi Kanniah, Ileen de Kat, Gottfried Kirchengast, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Jenni Kyrouac, Kristine Larson, Suxia Liu, Alexander Loew, Mahta Moghaddam, José Martínez Fernández, Cristian Mattar Bader, Renato Morbidelli, Jan P. Musial, Elise Osenga, Michael A. Palecki, Isabella Pfeil, Jarret Powers, Jaakko Ikonen, Alan Robock, Christoph Rüdiger, Udo Rummel, Michael Strobel, Zhongbo Su, Ryan Sullivan, Torbern Tagesson, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Jeffrey Walker, Jean Pierre Wigneron, Mel Woods, Kun Yang, Xiang Zhang, Marek Zreda, Stephan Dietrich, Alexander Gruber, Peter van Oevelen, Wolfgang Wagner, Klaus Scipal, Matthias Drusch, and Roberto Sabia
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESS
Moctar Dembélé, Bettina Schaefli, Nick van de Giesen, and Grégoire Mariéthoz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5379–5406,Short summary
This study evaluates 102 combinations of rainfall and temperature datasets from satellite and reanalysis sources as input to a fully distributed hydrological model. The model is recalibrated for each input dataset, and the outputs are evaluated with streamflow, evaporation, soil moisture and terrestrial water storage data. Results show that no single rainfall or temperature dataset consistently ranks first in reproducing the spatio-temporal variability of all hydrological processes.
Justus G. V. van Ramshorst, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, Bart Schilperoort, Bas J. H. van de Wiel, Jonathan G. Izett, John S. Selker, Chad W. Higgins, Hubert H. G. Savenije, and Nick C. van de Giesen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5423–5439,Short summary
In this work we present experimental results of a novel actively heated fiber-optic (AHFO) observational wind-probing technique. We utilized a controlled wind-tunnel setup to assess both the accuracy and precision of AHFO under a range of operational conditions (wind speed, angles of attack and temperature differences). AHFO has the potential to provide high-resolution distributed observations of wind speeds, allowing for better spatial characterization of fine-scale processes.
Didier de Villiers, Marc Schleiss, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, Rolf Hut, and Nick van de Giesen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
A new inexpensive rainfall measuring instrument (the intervalometer) is tested. It is reliant on an accurate parameterisation of the drop size distribution (DSD) to determine rainfall rates. Statistical homogeneity is a fundamental assumption of the most widely used current DSD parameterisations. This study shows that whilst this assumption is most likely not strictly true for rainfall it is useful in deriving accurate rainfall rates. The intervalometer shows good potential for deployment.
Jeffrey C. Davids, Martine M. Rutten, Anusha Pandey, Nischal Devkota, Wessel David van Oyen, Rajaram Prajapati, and Nick van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1045–1065,Short summary
Wise management of water resources requires data. Nevertheless, the amount of water data being collected continues to decline. We evaluated potential citizen science approaches for measuring flows of headwater streams and springs. After selecting salt dilution as the preferred approach, we partnered with Nepali students to cost-effectively measure flows and water quality with smartphones at 264 springs and streams which provide crucial water supplies to the rapidly expanding Kathmandu Valley.
Tim van Emmerik, Susan Steele-Dunne, Pierre Gentine, Rafael S. Oliveira, Paulo Bittencourt, Fernanda Barros, and Nick van de Giesen
Biogeosciences, 15, 6439–6449,Short summary
Trees are very important for the water and carbon cycles. Climate and weather models often assume constant vegetation parameters because good measurements are missing. We used affordable accelerometers to measure tree sway of 19 trees in the Amazon rainforest. We show that trees respond very differently to the same weather conditions, which means that vegetation parameters are dynamic. With our measurements trees can be accounted for more realistically, improving climate and weather models.
Elena Cristiano, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, Santiago Gaitan, Susana Ochoa Rodriguez, and Nick van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2425–2447,Short summary
In this work we investigate the influence rainfall and catchment scales have on hydrological response. This problem is quite relevant in urban areas, where the response is fast due to the high degree of imperviousness. We presented a new approach to classify rainfall variability in space and time and use this classification to investigate rainfall aggregation effects on urban hydrological response. This classification allows the spatial extension of the main core of the storm to be identified.
Koen Hilgersom, Marcel Zijlema, and Nick van de Giesen
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 521–540,Short summary
This study models the local inflow of groundwater at the bottom of a stream with large density gradients between the groundwater and surface water. Modelling salt and heat transport in a water body is very challenging, as it requires large computation times. Due to the circular local groundwater inflow and a negligible stream discharge, we assume axisymmetry around the inflow, which is easily implemented in an existing model, largely reduces the computation times, and still performs accurately.
Hubertus M. Coerver, Martine M. Rutten, and Nick C. van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 831–851,Short summary
Global hydrological models aim to model hydrological processes, like flows in a river, on a global scale, as opposed to traditional models which are regional. A big challenge in creating these models is the inclusion of impacts on the hydrological cycle caused by humans, for example by the operation of large (hydropower) dams. The presented study investigates a new way to include these impacts by dams into global hydrological models.
Natalie C. Ceperley, Theophile Mande, Nick van de Giesen, Scott Tyler, Hamma Yacouba, and Marc B. Parlange
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4149–4167,Short summary
We relate land cover (savanna forest and agriculture) to evaporation in Burkina Faso, west Africa. We observe more evaporation and temperature movement over the savanna forest in the headwater area relative to the agricultural section of the watershed. We find that the fraction of available energy converted to evaporation relates to vegetation cover and soil moisture. From the results, evaporation can be calculated where ground-based measurements are lacking, frequently the case across Africa.
Elena Cristiano, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, and Nick van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3859–3878,Short summary
In the last decades, new instruments were developed to measure rainfall and hydrological processes at high resolution. Weather radars are used, for example, to measure how rainfall varies in space and time. At the same time, new models were proposed to reproduce and predict hydrological response, in order to prevent flooding in urban areas. This paper presents a review of our current knowledge of rainfall and hydrological processes in urban areas, focusing on their variability in time and space.
Rolf Hut, Niels Drost, Maarten van Meersbergen, Edwin Sutanudjaja, Marc Bierkens, and Nick van de Giesen
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
A system that predicts the amount of water flowing in each river on earth, 9 days ahead, is build using existing parts of open source computer code build by different researchers in other projects. The glue between all pre-existing parts are all open interfaces which means that the pieces system click together like a house of LEGOs. It is easy to remove a piece (a brick) and replace it with another, improved, piece. The resulting predictions are available online at forecast.ewatercycle.org
Koen Hilgersom, Tim van Emmerik, Anna Solcerova, Wouter Berghuijs, John Selker, and Nick van de Giesen
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 151–162,Short summary
Fibre optic distributed temperature sensing allows one to measure temperature patterns along a fibre optic cable with resolutions down to 25 cm. In geosciences, we sometimes wrap the cable to a coil to measure temperature at even smaller scales. We show that coils with narrow bends affect the measured temperatures. This also holds for the object to which the coil is attached, when heated by solar radiation. We therefore recommend the necessity to carefully design such distributed temperature probes.
K. E. R. Pramana, M. W. Ertsen, and N. C. van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
J. Hoogeveen, J.-M. Faurès, L. Peiser, J. Burke, and N. van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3829–3844,Short summary
GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by FAO to assess water use in irrigated agriculture, the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed high-resolution data sets that are consistent at global level and is calibrated and validated against information published in global databases. The paper describes methodology, input and output data, calibration and validation of the model.
G. Bruni, R. Reinoso, N. C. van de Giesen, F. H. L. R. Clemens, and J. A. E. ten Veldhuis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 691–709,
S. V. Weijs, N. van de Giesen, and M. B. Parlange
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3171–3187,
O. A. C. Hoes, R. W. Hut, N. C. van de Giesen, and M. Boomgaard
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
Related subject area
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measurements of water vapour in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere as well as the temperature in the upper stratosphere and mesosphereFirst high-resolution tropospheric NO2 observations from the Ultraviolet Visible Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer (UVHIS)Quantitative imaging of volcanic SO2 plumes using Fabry–Pérot interferometer correlation spectroscopySpectral Calibration of the MethaneAIR InstrumentThree decades of tropospheric ozone lidar development at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, GermanySolar tracker with optical feedback and continuous rotationAssessment of global total column water vapor sounding using a spaceborne differential absorption radarThe design and development of a tuneable and portable radiation source for in situ spectrometer characterisationPerformance of an open-path near infrared measurement system for measurements of CO2 and CH4 during extended field trialsIntercomparison of low- and high-resolution infrared spectrometers for ground-based solar remote sensing measurements of total column concentrations of CO2, CH4, and CORecommendations for spectral fitting of SO2 from miniature multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurementsAtmospheric ammonia (NH3) over the Paris megacity: 9 years of total column observations from ground-based infrared remote sensingIn-flight calibration results of the TROPOMI payload on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor satelliteThe use of the 1.27 µm O2 absorption band for greenhouse gas monitoring from space and application to MicroCarbTowards spaceborne monitoring of localized CO2 emissions: an instrument concept and first performance assessmentEvaluating different methods for elevation calibration of MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) instruments during the CINDI-2 campaignSpectral sizing of a coarse-spectral-resolution satellite sensor for XCO2Benefit of ozone observations from Sentinel-5P and future Sentinel-4 missions on tropospheric compositionPerformance evaluation of THz Atmospheric Limb Sounder (TALIS) of ChinaIn-flight calibration and monitoring of the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) short-wave infrared (SWIR) moduleCaution with spectroscopic NO2 reference cells (cuvettes)Full-azimuthal imaging-DOAS observations of NO2 and O4 during CINDI-2Recent improvements of long-path DOAS measurements: impact on accuracy and stability of short-term and automated long-term observationsGround-based millimetre-wave measurements of middle-atmospheric carbon monoxide above Ny-Ålesund (78.9° N, 11.9° E)A scanning strategy optimized for signal-to-noise ratio for the Geostationary Carbon Cycle Observatory (GeoCarb) instrumentThe OCO-3 mission: measurement objectives and expected performance based on 1 year of simulated dataLaser frequency stabilization based on a universal sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS instrumentation for the potential application in atmospheric lidarBuilding the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometerTowards imaging of atmospheric trace gases using Fabry–Pérot interferometer correlation spectroscopy in the UV and visible spectral rangeUpgrade and automation of the JPL Table Mountain Facility tropospheric ozone lidar (TMTOL) for near-ground ozone profiling and satellite validationSpatial heterodyne observations of water (SHOW) from a high-altitude airplane: characterization, performance, and first resultsDemonstration of an off-axis parabolic receiver for near-range retrieval of lidar ozone profilesProfiling of CH4 background mixing ratio in the lower troposphere with Raman lidar: a feasibility experimentA fully autonomous ozone, aerosol and nighttime water vapor lidar: a synergistic approach to profiling the atmosphere in the Canadian oil sands regionPre-launch calibration results of the TROPOMI payload on-board the Sentinel-5 Precursor satelliteLevel 1b error budget for MIPAS on 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Sebastian Wolff, Gerhard Ehret, Christoph Kiemle, Axel Amediek, Mathieu Quatrevalet, Martin Wirth, and Andreas Fix
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2717–2736,Short summary
We report on CO2 emissions of a coal-fired power plant derived from flight measurements performed with the IPDA lidar CHARM-F during the CoMet campaign in spring 2018. Despite the results being in broad agreement with reported emissions, we observe strong variations between successive flyovers. Using a high-resolution large eddy simulation, we identify strong atmospheric turbulence as the cause for the variations and recommend more favorable measurement conditions for future campaign planning.
Dylan Jervis, Jason McKeever, Berke O. A. Durak, James J. Sloan, David Gains, Daniel J. Varon, Antoine Ramier, Mathias Strupler, and Ewan Tarrant
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2127–2140,Short summary
We describe how the GHGSat-D demonstration satellite is designed and operated in order to measure greenhouse gas emissions from different types of industrial facilities. The distinguishing features of GHGSat-D, or
Claire, are its compact size (< 15 kg) and high spatial resolution (< 50 m). We give a mathematical model of the instrument and describe the techniques used to infer a methane concentration from a measurement of the sunlight that has reflected off the Earth's surface.
Hiroshi Suto, Fumie Kataoka, Nobuhiro Kikuchi, Robert O. Knuteson, Andre Butz, Markus Haun, Henry Buijs, Kei Shiomi, Hiroko Imai, and Akihiko Kuze
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2013–2039,Short summary
The Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite-2 (GOSAT-2), in orbit since October 2018, is the follow-up mission of GOSAT, which has been operating since January 2009. Both satellites are dedicated to the monitoring of global carbon dioxide and methane to further knowledge of the global carbon cycle. This paper has reported on the function and performance of the TANSO-FTS-2 instrument, level-1 data processing, and calibrations for the first year of GOSAT-2 observation.
Florian Richter, Corneli Keim, Jérôme Caron, Jasper Krauser, Dennis Weise, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1561–1571,Short summary
Much effort has gone into obtaining crucial information about the progress of climate change, which depends on trace gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Satellite-based imaging spectrometers are used to record the Earth's reflectance in order to quantify the concentration of relevant trace gases. This work contributes an approach to a well-known calibration uncertainty regarding diffuser speckle and could significantly reduce overheads in the future planning phases of such instruments.
Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, Axel Keens, Denis Czurlok, Orfeo Colebatch, Omaira Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Pauli Heikkinen, Pascal Jeseck, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Erik Lutsch, Maria Makarova, Hamud K. Imhasin, Johan Mellqvist, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Uwe Raffalski, Markus Rettinger, John Robinson, Matthias Schneider, Christian Servais, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, and Voltaire A. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1239–1252,Short summary
This study investigates the level of channeling (optical resonances) of each FTIR spectrometer within the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). Since the air gap of the beam splitter is a significant source of channeling, we propose new beam splitters with an increased wedge of the air gap. This study shows the potential for reducing channeling in the FTIR spectrometers operated by the NDACC, thereby increasing the quality of recorded spectra across the network.
Florian Dietrich, Jia Chen, Benno Voggenreiter, Patrick Aigner, Nico Nachtigall, and Björn Reger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1111–1126,Short summary
Climate change is one of the defining issues of our time. However, most of the current emission estimates are based on calculations, not on actual measurements as it is difficult to quantify the emissions of large sources such as cities. This study shows how to use the relatively new approach of column measurements to quantify urban greenhouse gas emissions in an exact way using only a few compact measurement systems. The approach can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation policies.
Maria V. Makarova, Carlos Alberti, Dmitry V. Ionov, Frank Hase, Stefani C. Foka, Thomas Blumenstock, Thorsten Warneke, Yana A. Virolainen, Vladimir S. Kostsov, Matthias Frey, Anatoly V. Poberovskii, Yuri M. Timofeyev, Nina N. Paramonova, Kristina A. Volkova, Nikita A. Zaitsev, Egor Y. Biryukov, Sergey I. Osipov, Boris K. Makarov, Alexander V. Polyakov, Viktor M. Ivakhov, Hamud Kh. Imhasin, and Eugene F. Mikhailov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1047–1073,Short summary
Fundamental understanding of the major processes driving climate change is a key problem which is to be solved, not only on a global but also on a regional scale. The Emission Monitoring Mobile Experiment (EMME) carried out in 2019 with two portable Bruker EM27/SUN spectrometers as core instruments provided new information on the emissions of greenhouse (CO2, CH4) and reactive (CO, NOx) gases from St. Petersburg (Russia), which is the largest northern megacity with a population of 5 million.
Elena Spinei, Martin Tiefengraber, Moritz Müller, Manuel Gebetsberger, Alexander Cede, Luke Valin, James Szykman, Andrew Whitehill, Alexander Kotsakis, Fernando Santos, Nader Abbuhasan, Xiaoyi Zhao, Vitali Fioletov, Sum Chi Lee, and Robert Swap
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 647–663,Short summary
Plastics are widely used in everyday life and scientific equipment. This paper presents Delrin plastic off-gassing as a function of temperature on the atmospheric measurements of formaldehyde by Pandora spectroscopic instruments. The sealed telescope assembly containing Delrin components emitted large amounts of formaldehyde at 30–45 °C, interfering with the Pandora measurements. These results have a broader implication since electronic products often experience the same temperature.
Lisa Klanner, Katharina Höveler, Dina Khordakova, Matthias Perfahl, Christian Rolf, Thomas Trickl, and Hannes Vogelmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 531–555,Short summary
The importance of water vapour as the most influential greenhouse gas and for air composition calls for detailed investigations. The details of the highly inhomogeneous distribution of water vapour can be determined with lidar, the very low concentrations at high altitudes imposing a major challenge. An existing water-vapour lidar in the Bavarian Alps was recently complemented by a powerful Raman lidar that provides water vapour up to 20 km and temperature up to 90 km within just 1 h.
Liang Xi, Fuqi Si, Yu Jiang, Haijin Zhou, Kai Zhan, Zhen Chang, Xiaohan Qiu, and Dongshang Yang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 435–454,Short summary
In this paper, we present a novel airborne imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument: the Ultraviolet Visible Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer (UVHIS), which is developed for trace gas monitoring and pollution mapping. In the first demonstration flight on 23 June 2018, the UVHIS instrument clearly detected several NO2 emission plumes transporting from south to north. UVHIS NO2 vertical columns are well correlated with ground-based mobile DOAS observations.
Christopher Fuchs, Jonas Kuhn, Nicole Bobrowski, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 295–307,Short summary
We present first measurements of volcanic SO2 emissions with a novel imaging technique for atmospheric trace gases in the UV and visible spectral range. Periodic spectral Fabry–Pérot interferometer transmission features are matched to differential absorption cross sections of the investigated trace gas, yielding high selectivity and sensitivity. The technique can be extended to measure many other trace gases with high spatio-temporal resolution.
Carly Staebell, Kang Sun, Jenna Samra, Jonathan Franklin, Christopher Chan Miller, Xiong Liu, Eamon Conway, Kelly Chance, Scott Milligan, and Steven Wofsy
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMT
Thomas Trickl, Helmuth Giehl, Frank Neidl, Matthias Perfahl, and Hannes Vogelmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6357–6390,Short summary
Lidar sounding of ozone and other atmospheric constituents has proved to be an invaluable tool for atmospheric studies. The ozone lidar systems developed at Garmisch-Partenkirchen have reached an accuracy level almost matching that of in situ sensors. Since the late 1990s numerous important scientific discoveries have been made, such as the first observation of intercontinental transport of ozone and the very high occurrence of intrusions of stratospheric air into the troposphere.
John Robinson, Dan Smale, David Pollard, and Hisako Shiona
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5855–5871,Short summary
Solar trackers are used by spectrometers to measure atmospheric trace gas concentrations using direct-sun spectroscopy. The ideal tracker should be sufficiently accurate, highly reliable, and with a longevity that exceeds the lifetime of the spectrometer which it serves. It should also be affordable, easy to use, and not too complex should maintenance be required. We present a design that fulfils these requirements using some simple innovations.
Luis Millán, Richard Roy, and Matthew Lebsock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5193–5205,Short summary
This paper describes the feasibility of using a differential absorption radar technique for the remote sensing of total column water vapor from a spaceborne platform.
Marek Šmíd, Geiland Porrovecchio, Jiří Tesař, Tim Burnitt, Luca Egli, Julian Grőbner, Petr Linduška, and Martin Staněk
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMT
Nicholas M. Deutscher, Travis A. Naylor, Christopher G. R. Caldow, Hamish L. McDougall, Alex G. Carter, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
This work describes the performance of an open-path measurement system for greenhouse gases in an extended field trial. The instrument obtained measurement repeatability of 0.1 % or better for CO2 and CH4 measurements over a 1.55 km one-way pathway. Comparison to co-located in situ measurements allows characterisation of biases relative to global reference scales. The research was done to show the applicability of the technique and its ability to detect atmospheric-relevant sources and sinks.
Mahesh Kumar Sha, Martine De Mazière, Justus Notholt, Thomas Blumenstock, Huilin Chen, Angelika Dehn, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Pauli Heikkinen, Christian Hermans, Alex Hoffmann, Marko Huebner, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Bavo Langerock, Christof Petri, Francis Scolas, Qiansi Tu, and Damien Weidmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4791–4839,Short summary
We present the results of the 2017 FRM4GHG campaign at the Sodankylä TCCON site aimed at characterising the assessment of several low-cost portable instruments for precise solar absorption measurements of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and CO. The test instruments provided stable and precise measurements of these gases with quantified small biases. This qualifies the instruments to complement TCCON and expand the global coverage of ground-based measurements of these gases.
Zoë Y. W. Davis and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3993–4008,Short summary
MAX-DOAS is a technique that can be used to measure pollutant concentrations and vertical profiles in the atmosphere via remote sensing of sky-scattered light with a telescope. Measuring SO2 is particularly challenging because of low light intensities in regions where SO2 absorbs solar radiation. Here, we performed experiments that document inaccuracies in these measurements as a function of spectral
fitting windows. We provide recommendations for measuring SO2 with greater accuracy.
Benoît Tournadre, Pascale Chelin, Mokhtar Ray, Juan Cuesta, Rebecca D. Kutzner, Xavier Landsheere, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Jean-Marie Flaud, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Johannes Orphal, Camille Viatte, and Claude Camy-Peyret
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3923–3937,Short summary
We present some results about ammonia pollution because NH3, mainly emitted by agricultural activities, is a precursor of fine particles. This study is based on the first multiyear time series (2009–2017) of atmospheric NH3 ground-based measurements over the Paris megacity. This pollutant varies seasonally by 2 orders of magnitude, especially in spring. We highlight that this kind of instrument could be easily installed and is very useful for analyzing NH3 in other megacities or source regions.
Antje Ludewig, Quintus Kleipool, Rolf Bartstra, Robin Landzaat, Jonatan Leloux, Erwin Loots, Peter Meijering, Emiel van der Plas, Nico Rozemeijer, Frank Vonk, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3561–3580,Short summary
After the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite launch on 13 October 2017, its single payload, the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), was tested and calibrated extensively. Changes due to ageing of the instrument and new insights have led to updates to the L1b processor and its calibration key data, leading to improvements of the data quality. Regularly scheduled calibration measurements are used in the nominal operations phase (since 30 April 2018) to correct instrument degradation.
Jean-Loup Bertaux, Alain Hauchecorne, Franck Lefèvre, François-Marie Bréon, Laurent Blanot, Denis Jouglet, Pierre Lafrique, and Pavel Akaev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3329–3374,Short summary
Monitoring of greenhouse gases from space is usually done by measuring the quantity of CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere from their spectral absorption imprinted on the solar spectrum backscattered upwards. We show that the use of the near-infrared band of O2 at 1.27 µm, instead of the O2 band at 0.76 nm used up to now, may be more appropriate to better account for aerosols, in spite of a known airglow emission from ozone. The climate space mission MicroCarb (launched in 2021) includes this new band.
Johan Strandgren, David Krutz, Jonas Wilzewski, Carsten Paproth, Ilse Sebastian, Kevin R. Gurney, Jianming Liang, Anke Roiger, and André Butz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2887–2904,Short summary
This paper presents the concept of a spaceborne imaging spectrometer targeting the routine monitoring of CO2 emissions from localized point sources down to an emission strength of about 1 Mt CO2 yr-1. Using high-resolution CO2 emission and albedo data, it is shown that CO2 plumes from point sources with an emission strength down to the order of 0.3 Mt CO2 yr-1 can be resolved in an urban environment (when limited by instrument noise only), hence leaving significant margin for additional errors.
Sebastian Donner, Jonas Kuhn, Michel Van Roozendael, Alkiviadis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Ilya Bruchkouski, Ka Lok Chan, Steffen Dörner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Christian Hermans, Junli Jin, Ang Li, Jianzhong Ma, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Andreas Richter, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Kimberly Strong, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Yang Wang, Pinhua Xie, Jin Xu, Xiaoyi Zhao, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 685–712,Short summary
The calibration of the elevation angles of MAX-DOAS instruments is important for the correct interpretation of such MAX-DOAS measurements. We present and evaluate different methods for the elevation calibration of MAX-DOAS instruments which were applied during the CINDI-2 field campaign.
Jonas Simon Wilzewski, Anke Roiger, Johan Strandgren, Jochen Landgraf, Dietrich G. Feist, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Isamu Morino, Hirofumi Ohyama, Yao Té, Rigel Kivi, Thorsten Warneke, Justus Notholt, Manvendra Dubey, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Frank Hase, Kei Shiomi, and André Butz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 731–745,Short summary
Through spectral degradation of GOSAT measurements in the 1.6 and 2.0 μm spectral bands, we mimic a single-band, passive satellite sensor for monitoring of CO2 emissions at fine spatial scales. We compare retrievals of XCO2 from these bands to TCCON and native GOSAT retrievals. At spectral resolutions near 1.3 nm, XCO2 retrievals from both bands show promising performance, but the 2.0 μm band is favorable due to better noise performance and the potential to retrieve some aerosol information.
Samuel Quesada-Ruiz, Jean-Luc Attié, William A. Lahoz, Rachid Abida, Philippe Ricaud, Laaziz El Amraoui, Régina Zbinden, Andrea Piacentini, Mathieu Joly, Henk Eskes, Arjo Segers, Lyana Curier, Johan de Haan, Jukka Kujanpää, Albert Christiaan Plechelmus Oude Nijhuis, Johanna Tamminen, Renske Timmermans, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 131–152,
Wenyu Wang, Zhenzhan Wang, and Yongqiang Duan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 13–38,Short summary
THz Atmospheric Limb Sounder (TALIS) is a microwave limb sounder designed to measure the temperature and chemical species. The instrument will make an important contribution to monitoring the chemistry of the middle atmosphere. This paper describes the performance of this instrument. We use the radiative transfer model to evaluate its performance. As a result, the retrieval precision is quite acceptable.
Tim A. van Kempen, Richard M. van Hees, Paul J. J. Tol, Ilse Aben, and Ruud W. M. Hoogeveen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6827–6844,Short summary
This paper presents the TROPOMI-SWIR performance and health after a year of full operations. Using the on-going monitoring program, TROPOMI-SWIR is shown to be in excellent health and is performing as well as, if not better than, expected. With the exception of a tiny loss of detector pixels (less than 0.05 % over a full year), no components appear to be degrading. We show that TROPOMI-SWIR is expected to keep on providing excellent data for the full S5-P lifetime.
Ulrich Platt and Jonas Kuhn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6259–6272,Short summary
Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by absorption spectroscopy are frequently supported by recording the amount of trace gas in absorption cells. These are typically small glass (or quartz) cylinders containing the gas to be studied. Here we show in the example of NO2-absorption cells that the effective amount of gas seen by the instrument can deviate greatly from expected values (by orders of magnitude in severe cases). Some suggestions for improving the situation are discussed.
Enno Peters, Mareike Ostendorf, Tim Bösch, André Seyler, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, Jeroen Sebastiaan Henzing, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4171–4190,Short summary
A novel imaging-DOAS instrument (IMPACT) is presented for measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the atmosphere. The instrument combines full-azimuthal pointing (360°) with a large vertical coverage (40°). Complete panoramic scans and vertical NO2 profiles around the measurement site are acquired at a temporal resolution of 15 min. In addition, information about the aerosol phase function is retrieved from O4 slant columns along multiple almucantar scans measured simultaneously by IMPACT.
Jan-Marcus Nasse, Philipp G. Eger, Denis Pöhler, Stefan Schmitt, Udo Frieß, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4149–4169,Short summary
We present several changes to the setup of long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) instruments, including the application of a laser-driven light source, a modified coupling of the measurement signal between components, improved stray-light suppression, and better signal homogenization measures. These changes reduce detection limits of typical trace-gas species by a factor of 3–4 compared to previous setups and enable automated long-term observations in Antarctica.
Niall J. Ryan, Mathias Palm, Christoph G. Hoffmann, Jens Goliasch, and Justus Notholt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4077–4089,Short summary
We present a new ground-based instrument (CORAM) that measures atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations within approximately 47–87 km in altitude with a 1 h time resolution. The measurements are made at Ny-Ålesund (79° N), Svalbard, and add much-needed coverage to the high Arctic. The first measured CO profiles from winter 2017/2018 are compared to co-located measurements from the Aura MLS satellite instrument and show agreement on daily and monthly timescales.
Jeffrey Nivitanont, Sean M. R. Crowell, and Berrien Moore III
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3317–3334,Short summary
A scanning strategy is proposed for the upcoming GeoCarb instrument that minimizes predicted retrieval errors of CO2 by optimizing signal-to-noise ratio with respect to air mass factor and solar zenith angle. The strategy is generated using a modified greedy algorithm that optimizes over these stationary processes while also considering operational constraints. This method increases the number of soundings with predicted CO2 retrieval error less than 2 ppm by 18–41 %.
Annmarie Eldering, Thomas E. Taylor, Christopher W. O'Dell, and Ryan Pavlick
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2341–2370,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3 (OCO-3) is scheduled for a 2019 launch to the International Space Station (ISS). It is expected to continue the record of column carbon dioxide (XCO2) and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) measurements from space used to study and constrain the Earth's carbon cycle. This work highlights the measurement objectives and uses simulated data to show that the expected instrument performance is on par with that of OCO-2.
Yueting Zhou, Jianxin Liu, Songjie Guo, Gang Zhao, Weiguang Ma, Zhensong Cao, Lei Dong, Lei Zhang, Wangbao Yin, Yongqian Wu, Lianxuan Xiao, Ove Axner, and Suotang Jia
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1807–1814,Short summary
A relative weak transition of target gas is often selected to ensure a large optical depth in atmospheric lidar. Meanwhile, the laser frequency should be stabilized to the line center for valid detection. Sub-Doppler spectroscopy is the most suitable reference to obtain a high-quality frequency stabilization. In this paper, a novel universal sD NICE-OHMS instrumentation based on a f-SSM is reported, which has a potential application in the atmospheric lidar for different types of lasers.
Matthias Frey, Mahesh K. Sha, Frank Hase, Matthäus Kiel, Thomas Blumenstock, Roland Harig, Gregor Surawicz, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Kei Shiomi, Jonathan E. Franklin, Hartmut Bösch, Jia Chen, Michel Grutter, Hirofumi Ohyama, Youwen Sun, André Butz, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Dragos Ene, Debra Wunch, Zhensong Cao, Omaira Garcia, Michel Ramonet, Felix Vogel, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1513–1530,Short summary
In a 3.5-year long study, the long-term performance of a mobile EM27/SUN spectrometer, used for greenhouse gas observations, is checked with respect to a co-located reference spectrometer. We find that the EM27/SUN is stable on timescales of several years, qualifying it for permanent carbon cycle studies. The performance of an ensemble of 30 EM27/SUN spectrometers was also tested in the framework of the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) and found to be very uniform.
Jonas Kuhn, Ulrich Platt, Nicole Bobrowski, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 735–747,Short summary
We study a novel remote-sensing technique for atmospheric trace gases absorbing in the UV and visible spectral range. Using Fabry–Perot interferometers with a spectral transmission matched to the trace gas's spectral absorption allows for imaging trace gases with high sensitivity and selectivity. The thereby achieved high spatio-temporal resolution enables the study of small-scale and dynamic processes in the atmosphere. We present sample calculations and a proof-of-concept study.
Fernando Chouza, Thierry Leblanc, Mark Brewer, and Patrick Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 569–583,
Jeffery Langille, Daniel Letros, Adam Bourassa, Brian Solheim, Doug Degenstein, Fabien Dupont, Daniel Zawada, and Nick D. Lloyd
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 431–455,Short summary
The SHOW instrument is a prototype satellite concept that is being developed through collaboration between the University of Saskatchewan, the Canadian Space Agency, and ABB Inc. to provide high vertical resolution (< 200 m) measurements of UTLS water vapour with < 1 ppm accuracy. This paper presents suborbital measurements obtained during a demonstration flight aboard NASA's ER-2 aircraft. These measurements are validated through a comparison with coincident radiosonde measurements.
Betsy M. Farris, Guillaume P. Gronoff, William Carrion, Travis Knepp, Margaret Pippin, and Timothy A. Berkoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 363–370,Short summary
During the 2017 Ozone Water Land Environmental Transition Study (OWLETS), the Langley mobile ozone lidar system utilized a new small diameter receiver to improve the retrieval of near-surface signals from 0.1 to 1 km in altitude. This allowed for improved near-surface ozone concentration measurements, those most important to human health, while also measuring profiles up to stratospheric altitudes. OWLETS provided multiple instrument comparisons for validation of the system improvement.
Igor Veselovskii, Philippe Goloub, Qiaoyun Hu, Thierry Podvin, David N. Whiteman, Mikhael Korenskiy, and Eduardo Landulfo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 119–128,Short summary
Methane is currently the second most important greenhouse gas of anthropogenic origin (after carbon dioxide) and its concentration can be increased inside the boundary layer. So, the development of instruments for vertical profiling of the methane mixing ratio is an important task. We present the results of methane profiling in the lower troposphere using LILAS Raman lidar from the Lille University observatory platform (France).
Kevin B. Strawbridge, Michael S. Travis, Bernard J. Firanski, Jeffrey R. Brook, Ralf Staebler, and Thierry Leblanc
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6735–6759,Short summary
Environment and Climate Change Canada has recently developed a fully autonomous, mobile lidar system to simultaneously measure the vertical profile of tropospheric ozone, aerosol and water vapor from near the ground to altitudes reaching 10–15 km. These atmospheric constituents play an important role in climate, air quality, and human and ecosystem health. Using an autonomous multi-lidar approach provides a continuous dataset rich in information for atmospheric process studies.
Quintus Kleipool, Antje Ludewig, Ljubiša Babić, Rolf Bartstra, Remco Braak, Werner Dierssen, Pieter-Jan Dewitte, Pepijn Kenter, Robin Landzaat, Jonatan Leloux, Erwin Loots, Peter Meijering, Emiel van der Plas, Nico Rozemeijer, Dinand Schepers, Daniel Schiavini, Joost Smeets, Giuseppe Vacanti, Frank Vonk, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6439–6479,Short summary
This paper reports on the pre-launch calibration of the TROPOMI instrument on board ESA's Sentinel 5P satellite. This calibration is needed to convert the raw instrument digital data to physical quantities like Earth radiance and Sun irradiance. From these quantities atmospheric properties can be derived. The paper shows that the chosen approach to calibration and analysis was successful and that the achieved accuracy makes high-quality observations of the Earth's atmosphere feasible.
Anne Kleinert, Manfred Birk, Gaétan Perron, and Georg Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5657–5672,Short summary
We present the error budget for the calibrated and geolocated spectra of the MIPAS limb sounder which flew on the ENVISAT satellite from 2002 to 2012. The impact of the different error sources on the spectra is characterized in terms of spectral, vertical, and temporal correlation. The radiometric error is in the order of 1 to 2.4 %, the spectral accuracy is better than 0.3 ppm, and the line of sight accuracy at the tangent point is around 400 m. All errors are well within the requirements.
Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Sander Slijkhuis, Bernd Aberle, Diego Loyola, and Angelika Dehn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5237–5259,Short summary
We present a detailed analysis of the long-term performance of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on-board ERS-2, which provided measurements of atmospheric constituents for the 16-year period from 1995 to 2011. By means of various in-flight calibration parameters, we monitor the behavior and stability during the entire mission. Furthermore, we introduce the new homogenized level 1 product generated using the recently developed GOME Data Processor Version 5.1.
Neil Humpage, Hartmut Boesch, Paul I. Palmer, Andy Vick, Phil Parr-Burman, Martyn Wells, David Pearson, Jonathan Strachan, and Naidu Bezawada
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5199–5222,Short summary
We present an overview of the GreenHouse gas Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST) instrument, a novel shortwave infrared grating spectrometer designed for remote sensing of total column greenhouse gas concentrations from an aircraft. Using laboratory measurements we show that the GHOST design is able to achieve its science objectives. We conclude by describing GHOST's maiden flights on board the NASA Global Hawk UAV during CAST/ATTREX and show some of the initial results.
Richard M. van Hees, Paul J. J. Tol, Sidney Cadot, Matthijs Krijger, Stefan T. Persijn, Tim A. van Kempen, Ralph Snel, Ilse Aben, and Ruud W. M. Hoogeveen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3917–3933,
Anne Kleinert, Isabell Krisch, Jörn Ungermann, Albert Adibekyan, Berndt Gutschwager, and Christian Monte
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3871–3882,Short summary
This study investigates the required accuracy of radiometric calibration sources for remote sensing instruments to properly resolve decadal trends of climate relevant trace species like ozone, water vapor and temperature. The required temperature knowledge of the calibration source is in the order of 100 mK. This is demonstrated by a Monte Carlo simulation. The results are confirmed using real measurements acquired by the GLORIA instrument.
Monika Aggarwal, James Whiteway, Jeffrey Seabrook, Lawrence Gray, Kevin Strawbridge, Peter Liu, Jason O'Brien, Shao-Meng Li, and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3829–3849,Short summary
Aircraft-based laser remote sensing measurements of atmospheric aerosol and ozone were conducted to study air pollution from the oil sands extraction industry in northern Alberta. The ozone mixing ratio measured in the polluted boundary layer air was equal to or less than the background ozone mixing ratio. The lidar measurements detected a layer of forest fire smoke above the surface boundary layer in which the measured ozone mixing ratio was substantially greater than the background amount.
Alberto Redondas, Saulius Nevas, Alberto Berjón, Meelis-Mait Sildoja, Sergio Fabian León-Luis, Virgilio Carreño, and Daniel Santana-Díaz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3759–3768,Short summary
We present the wavelength calibration of the travelling reference Brewer spectrometer of the Regional Brewer Calibration Center for Europe at PTB in Braunschweig. We compare these results to those of the standard procedure for the wavelength calibration of the Brewer. The results of the laser-based calibrations reproduce those obtained by the standard operational methodology and show that there is a underestimation of 0.8 %, due the use of the parametrized slit functions.
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Curtis, A. and Kyle, P.: Geothermal point sources identified in a fumarolic ice cave on erebus volcano, antarctica using fiber optic distributed temperature sensing, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L16802, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL048272, 2011.
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Freifeld, B. M., Finsterle, S., Onstott, T. C., Toole, P., and Pratt, L. M.: Ground surface temperature reconstructions: Using in situ estimates for thermal conductivity acquired with a fiber-optic distributed thermal perturbation sensor, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L14309, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034762, 2008.
Hausner, M. B., Suárez, F., Glander, K. E., Van de Giesen, N., Selker, J. S., and Tyler, S. W.: Calibrating single-ended fiber-optic raman spectra distributed temperature sensing data, Sensors, 11, 10859–10879, https://doi.org/10.3390/s111110859, 2011.
Henderson, R. D., Day-Lewis, F. D., and Harvey C. F.: Investigation of aquifer-estuary interaction using wavelet analysis of fiber-optic temperature data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L06403, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036926, 2009.
Hoes, O., Schilperoort, R., Luxemburg, W., Clemens, F., and Van de Giesen, N.: Locating illicit connections in storm water sewers using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing, Water Res., 43, 5187–5197, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.08.020, 2009.
Jansen, J., Stive, P., Van de Giesen, N., Tyler, S., Steele-Dunne, S., and Williamson, L.: Estimating soil heat flux using distributed temperature sensing, in: IAHS Publ. 343, 140–144, 2011.
Keller, C. A., Huwald, H., Vollmer, M. K., Wenger, A., Hill, M., Parlange, M. B., and Reimann, S.: Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing for the determination of the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer height, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 143–149, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-143-2011, 2011.
Krause, S., Taylor, S. L., Weatherill, J., Haffenden, A., Levy, A., Cassidy, N. J., and Thomas, P. A.: Fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing for characterizing the impacts of vegetation coverage on thermal patterns in woodlands, Ecohydrology, 6, 754–764, https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1296, 2013.
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By using two cylindrical thermometers with different diameters, one can determine what temperature a zero diameter thermometer would have. Such a virtual thermometer would not be affected by solar heating and would take on the temperature of the surrounding air. We applied this principle to atmospheric temperature measurements with fiber optic cables using distributed temperature sensing (DTS). With two unshielded cable pairs, one black pair and one white pair, good results were obtained.
By using two cylindrical thermometers with different diameters, one can determine what...