Articles | Volume 8, issue 12
21 Dec 2015
Research article | 21 Dec 2015
An analytical system for stable isotope analysis on carbon monoxide using continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry
S. L. Pathirana et al.
M. E. Popa, M. K. Vollmer, A. Jordan, W. A. Brand, S. L. Pathirana, M. Rothe, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2105–2123,
Hossein Maazallahi, Antonio Delre, Charlotte Scheutz, Anders M. Fredenslund, Stefan Schwietzke, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Measurement methods are increasingly deployed to verify reported methane emissions of gas leaks. This study describes unique advantages and limitations of three methods. Two methods are rapidly deployed, but uncertainties and biases exist for some leak locations. In contrast, the suction method could accurately determine leak rates in principle. However, this method, which provides data for the German emission inventory, creates an overall low-bias in our study due to non-random site selection.
Stephen M. Platt, Øystein Hov, Torunn Berg, Knut Breivik, Sabine Eckhardt, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Rebecca Fisher, Georg Hansen, Hans-Christen Hansson, Jost Heintzenberg, Ove Hermansen, Dominic Heslin-Rees, Kim Holmén, Stephen Hudson, Roland Kallenborn, Radovan Krejci, Terje Krognes, Steinar Larssen, David Lowry, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Chris Lunder, Euan Nisbet, Pernilla B. Nizzetto, Ki-Tae Park, Christina A. Pedersen, Katrine Aspmo Pfaffhuber, Thomas Röckmann, Norbert Schmidbauer, Sverre Solberg, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Tove Svendby, Peter Tunved, Kjersti Tørnkvist, Carina van der Veen, Stergios Vratolis, Young Jun Yoon, Karl Espen Yttri, Paul Zieger, Wenche Aas, and Kjetil Tørseth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3321–3369,Short summary
Here we detail the history of the Zeppelin Observatory, a unique global background site and one of only a few in the high Arctic. We present long-term time series of up to 30 years of atmospheric components and atmospheric transport phenomena. Many of these time series are important to our understanding of Arctic and global atmospheric composition change. Finally, we discuss the future of the Zeppelin Observatory and emerging areas of future research on the Arctic atmosphere.
Roland Vernooij, Ulrike Dusek, Maria Elena Popa, Peng Yao, Anupam Shaikat, Chenxi Qiu, Patrik Winiger, Carina van der Veen, Thomas Callum Eames, Natasha Ribeiro, and Guido R. van der Werf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2871–2890,Short summary
Landscape fires are a major source of greenhouse gases and aerosols, particularly in sub-tropical savannas. Stable carbon isotopes in emissions can be used to trace the contribution of C3 plants (e.g. trees or shrubs) and C4 plants (e.g. savanna grasses) to greenhouse gases and aerosols if the process is well understood. This helps us to link individual vegetation types to emissions, identify biomass burning emissions in the atmosphere, and improve the reconstruction of historic fire regimes.
Juhi Nagori, Narcisa Nechita-Bândă, Sebastian Oscar Danielache, Masumi Shinkai, Thomas Röckmann, and Maarten Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
The sulfur isotopes (32S and 34S) were studied to understand the sources, sinks and processes of carbonyl sulphide (COS) in the atmosphere. COS is an important source of sulfur aerosol in the stratosphere (SSA). Few measurements of COS and SSA exist, but with our 1D model, we were able to match them and show the importance of COS to sulfate formation. Moreover, we are able to highlight some important processes for the COS budget and where measurements may fill a gap in current knowledge.
Malika Menoud, Carina van der Veen, Dave Lowry, Julianne M. Fernandez, Semra Bakkaloglu, James L. France, Rebecca E. Fisher, Hossein Maazallahi, Mila Stanisavljević, Jarosław Nęcki, Katarina Vinkovic, Patryk Łakomiec, Janne Rinne, Piotr Korbeń, Martina Schmidt, Sara Defratyka, Camille Yver-Kwok, Truls Andersen, Huilin Chen, and Thomas Röckmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Emission sources of methane (CH4) can be distinguished with measurements of CH4 stable isotopes. We present new measurements of isotope signatures of various CH4 sources in Europe, mainly anthropogenic, sampled from 2017 to 2020. The present database also contains the most recent update of the global signature dataset from the literature. The dataset improves CH4 source attribution and the understanding of the global CH4 budget.
Truls Andersen, Marcel de Vries, Jaroslaw Necki, Justyna Swolkien, Malika Menoud, Thomas Röckmann, Anke Roiger, Andreas Fix, Wouter Peters, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland is one of the hot spots of methane emissions in Europe. Using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), we performed atmospheric measurements of methane concentrations downwind of five ventilation shafts in this region and determined the emission rates from the individual shafts. We found a strong correlation between quantified shaft-averaged emission rates and hourly inventory data, which also allows us to estimate the methane emissions from the entire region.
Malika Menoud, Carina van der Veen, Jaroslaw Necki, Jakub Bartyzel, Barbara Szénási, Mila Stanisavljević, Isabelle Pison, Philippe Bousquet, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13167–13185,Short summary
Using measurements of methane isotopes in ambient air and a 3D atmospheric transport model, in Krakow, Poland, we mainly detected fossil-fuel-related sources, coming from coal mining in Silesia and from the use of natural gas in the city. Emission inventories report large emissions from coal mine activity in Silesia, which is in agreement with our measurements. However, methane sources in the urban area of Krakow related to the use of fossil fuels might be underestimated in the inventories.
Xinyi Lu, Stephen J. Harris, Rebecca E. Fisher, James L. France, Euan G. Nisbet, David Lowry, Thomas Röckmann, Carina van der Veen, Malika Menoud, Stefan Schwietzke, and Bryce F. J. Kelly
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10527–10555,Short summary
Many coal seam gas (CSG) facilities in the Surat Basin, Australia, are adjacent to other sources of methane, including agricultural, urban, and natural seeps. This makes it challenging to estimate the amount of methane being emitted into the atmosphere from CSG facilities. This research demonstrates that measurements of the carbon and hydrogen stable isotopic composition of methane can distinguish between and apportion methane emissions from CSG facilities, cattle, and many other sources.
Max Thomas, Johannes C. Laube, Jan Kaiser, Samuel Allin, Patricia Martinerie, Robert Mulvaney, Anna Ridley, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, and Emmanuel Witrant
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6857–6873,Short summary
CFC gases are destroying the Earth's life-protecting ozone layer. We improve understanding of CFC destruction by measuring the isotopic fingerprint of the carbon in the three most abundant CFCs. These are the first such measurements in the main region where CFCs are destroyed – the stratosphere. We reconstruct the atmospheric isotope histories of these CFCs back to the 1950s by measuring air extracted from deep snow and using a model. The model and the measurements are generally consistent.
Hossein Maazallahi, Julianne M. Fernandez, Malika Menoud, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, Zachary D. Weller, Stefan Schwietzke, Joseph C. von Fischer, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14717–14740,Short summary
Methane accounts for ∼ 25 % of current climate warming. The current lack of methane measurements is a barrier for tracking major sources, which are key for near-term climate mitigation. We use mobile measurements to identify and quantify methane emission sources in Utrecht (NL) and Hamburg (DE) with a focus on natural gas pipeline leaks. The measurements resulted in fixing the major leaks by the local utility, but coordinated efforts are needed at national levels for further emission reductions.
Joram J. D. Hooghiem, Maria Elena Popa, Thomas Röckmann, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Ines Tritscher, Rolf Müller, Rigel Kivi, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13985–14003,Short summary
Wildfires release a large quantity of pollutants that can reach the stratosphere through pyro-convection events. In September 2017, a stratospheric plume was accidentally sampled during balloon soundings in northern Finland. The source of the plume was identified to be wildfire smoke based on in situ measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and stable isotope analysis of CO. Furthermore, the age of the plume was estimated using backwards transport modelling to be ~24 d, with its origin in Canada.
Alina Fiehn, Julian Kostinek, Maximilian Eckl, Theresa Klausner, Michał Gałkowski, Jinxuan Chen, Christoph Gerbig, Thomas Röckmann, Hossein Maazallahi, Martina Schmidt, Piotr Korbeń, Jarosław Neçki, Pawel Jagoda, Norman Wildmann, Christian Mallaun, Rostyslav Bun, Anna-Leah Nickl, Patrick Jöckel, Andreas Fix, and Anke Roiger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12675–12695,Short summary
A severe reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is necessary to fulfill the Paris Agreement. We use aircraft- and ground-based in situ observations of trace gases and wind speed from two flights over the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, for independent emission estimation. The derived methane emission estimates are within the range of emission inventories, carbon dioxide estimates are in the lower range and carbon monoxide emission estimates are slightly higher than emission inventory values.
Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Patrizia Ney, Oscar Hartogensis, Hugo de Boer, Kevin van Diepen, Dzhaner Emin, Geiske de Groot, Anne Klosterhalfen, Matthias Langensiepen, Maria Matveeva, Gabriela Miranda-García, Arnold F. Moene, Uwe Rascher, Thomas Röckmann, Getachew Adnew, Nicolas Brüggemann, Youri Rothfuss, and Alexander Graf
Biogeosciences, 17, 4375–4404,Short summary
The CloudRoots field experiment has obtained an open comprehensive observational data set that includes soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to investigate the interactions between a heterogeneous land surface and its overlying atmospheric boundary layer, including the rapid perturbations of clouds in evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate that in order to understand and represent diurnal variability, we need to measure and model processes from the leaf to the landscape scales.
Johannes C. Laube, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, Karina E. Adcock, Bianca Baier, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Huilin Chen, Elise S. Droste, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Pauli Heikkinen, Andrew J. Hind, Rigel Kivi, Alexander Lojko, Stephen A. Montzka, David E. Oram, Steve Randall, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, Colm Sweeney, Max Thomas, Elinor Tuffnell, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9771–9782,Short summary
We demonstrate that AirCore technology, which is based on small low-cost balloons, can provide access to trace gas measurements such as CFCs at ultra-low abundances. This is a new way to quantify ozone-depleting, and related, substances in the stratosphere, which is largely inaccessible to aircraft. We show two potential uses: (a) tracking the stratospheric circulation, which is predicted to change, and (b) assessing three common meteorological reanalyses driving a global stratospheric model.
Getachew Agmuas Adnew, Thijs L. Pons, Gerbrand Koren, Wouter Peters, and Thomas Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 17, 3903–3922,Short summary
We measured the effect of photosynthesis, the largest flux in the carbon cycle, on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 at the leaf level during gas exchange using three plant species. The main factors that limit the impact of land vegetation on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 are identified, characterized and discussed. The effect of photosynthesis on the isotopic composition of CO2 is commonly quantified as discrimination (ΔA).
Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Hossein Maazallahi, Andreas Forstmaier, Dominik Winkler, Magdalena E. G. Hofmann, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3683–3696,Short summary
We demonstrate for the first time that large festivals can be significant methane sources, though they are not included in emission inventories. We combined in situ measurements with a Gaussian plume model to determine the Oktoberfest emissions and show that they are not due solely to human biogenic emissions, but are instead primarily fossil fuel related. Our study provides the foundation to develop reduction policies for such events and new pathways to mitigate fossil fuel methane emissions.
Stefan Lossow, Charlotta Högberg, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Gabriele P. Stiller, Ralf Bauer, Kaley A. Walker, Sylvia Kellmann, Andrea Linden, Michael Kiefer, Norbert Glatthor, Thomas von Clarmann, Donal P. Murtagh, Jörg Steinwagner, Thomas Röckmann, and Roland Eichinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 287–308,
Marco de Bruine, Maarten Krol, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, and Thomas Röckmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5177–5196,Short summary
An aerosol scheme with multiple aerosol species is introduced in the Dutch Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulation model (DALES) and focused to simulate the feedback of aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) on the aerosol population. Cloud aerosol processing is found to be sensitive to the numerical method, while removal by precipitation is more stable. How ACI increases or decreases the mean aerosol size depends on the balance between the evaporation of clouds/rain and ultimate removal by precipitation.
Iris N. Dekker, Sander Houweling, Sudhanshu Pandey, Maarten Krol, Thomas Röckmann, Tobias Borsdorff, Jochen Landgraf, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3433–3445,Short summary
During November 2017, very high pollution levels were measured in the northern part of India. In this study, satellite (TROPOMI) data and model (WRF) data on carbon monoxide (CO) are studied to investigate the main sources of the CO pollution over the Indo-Gangetic Plain. We found that residential and commercial combustion was a much more important source of CO than the post-monsoon crop burning during this period. Meteorology was found important in the accumulation and ventilation of CO.
Dušan Materić, Elke Ludewig, Kangming Xu, Thomas Röckmann, and Rupert Holzinger
The Cryosphere, 13, 297–307,
Marco de Bruine, Maarten Krol, Twan van Noije, Philippe Le Sager, and Thomas Röckmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1443–1465,Short summary
Precipitation evaporation (PE) and subsequent aerosol resuspension (AR) are currently ignored or implemented only crudely in GCMs. This research introduces PE to Earth system model EC-Earth and explores ways to treat AR and the impact on global aerosol burden. Simple 1:1 scaling of AR with PE leads to an increase (+8 to 15.9 %). Taking into account raindrop size distribution and/or accounting for in-rain aerosol processing decreases aerosol burden -1.5 to 6.2 % and -10 to -11 %, respectively.
Karina E. Adcock, Claire E. Reeves, Lauren J. Gooch, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, Matthew J. Ashfold, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Charles Chou, Paul J. Fraser, Ray L. Langenfelds, Norfazrin Mohd Hanif, Simon O'Doherty, David E. Oram, Chang-Feng Ou-Yang, Siew Moi Phang, Azizan Abu Samah, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, and Johannes C. Laube
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4737–4751,
Emma Leedham Elvidge, Harald Bönisch, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Andreas Engel, Paul J. Fraser, Eileen Gallacher, Ray Langenfelds, Jens Mühle, David E. Oram, Eric A. Ray, Anna R. Ridley, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, Ray F. Weiss, and Johannes C. Laube
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3369–3385,Short summary
Chemical species measured in stratospheric air can be used as proxies for stratospheric circulation changes which cannot be measured directly. A range of tracers is important to understand changing stratospheric dynamics. We demonstrate the suitability of PFCs and HFCs as tracers and support recent work that reduces the current stratospheric lifetime of SF6. Updates to policy-relevant parameters (e.g. stratospheric lifetime) linked to this change are provided for O3-depleting substances.
Taku Umezawa, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Thomas Röckmann, Carina van der Veen, Stanley C. Tyler, Ryo Fujita, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, Todd Sowers, Jochen Schmitt, Michael Bock, Jonas Beck, Hubertus Fischer, Sylvia E. Michel, Bruce H. Vaughn, John B. Miller, James W. C. White, Gordon Brailsford, Hinrich Schaefer, Peter Sperlich, Willi A. Brand, Michael Rothe, Thomas Blunier, David Lowry, Rebecca E. Fisher, Euan G. Nisbet, Andrew L. Rice, Peter Bergamaschi, Cordelia Veidt, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1207–1231,Short summary
Isotope measurements are useful for separating different methane sources. However, the lack of widely accepted standards and calibration methods for stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of methane in air has caused significant measurement offsets among laboratories. We conducted worldwide interlaboratory comparisons, surveyed the literature and assessed them systematically. This study may be of help in future attempts to harmonize data sets of isotopic composition of atmospheric methane.
Iris N. Dekker, Sander Houweling, Ilse Aben, Thomas Röckmann, Maarten Krol, Sara Martínez-Alonso, Merritt N. Deeter, and Helen M. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14675–14694,Short summary
This study estimates carbon monoxide emissions from the city of Madrid using MOPITT satellite data. There are two methods used and reviewed in this paper: a method that can only estimate a trend in the emission and a newly developed method that also includes model data from WRF to quantify the emissions. We find Madrid CO emissions to be lower by 48 % for 2002 and by 17 % for 2006 compared with the EdgarV4.2 emission inventory, but uncertainty (20 to 50 %) remains.
Carl Meusinger, Ulrike Dusek, Stephanie M. King, Rupert Holzinger, Thomas Rosenørn, Peter Sperlich, Maxime Julien, Gerald S. Remaud, Merete Bilde, Thomas Röckmann, and Matthew S. Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6373–6391,Short summary
Isotope studies can constrain budgets of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that is pivotal to air pollution and climate. SOA from α-pinene ozonolysis was found to be enriched in 13C relative to the precursor. The observed difference in 13C between the gas and particle phases may arise from isotope-dependent changes in branching ratios. Alternatively, some gas-phase products involve carbon atoms from highly enriched and depleted sites, giving a non-kinetic origin to the observed fractionations.
Célia J. Sapart, Natalia Shakhova, Igor Semiletov, Joachim Jansen, Sönke Szidat, Denis Kosmach, Oleg Dudarev, Carina van der Veen, Matthias Egger, Valentine Sergienko, Anatoly Salyuk, Vladimir Tumskoy, Jean-Louis Tison, and Thomas Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 14, 2283–2292,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean, especially the Siberian shelves, overlays large areas of subsea permafrost that is degrading. We show that methane with a biogenic origin is emitted from this permafrost. At locations where bubble plumes have been observed, methane can escape oxidation in the surface sediment and rapidly migrate through the very shallow water column of this region to escape to the atmosphere, generating a positive radiative feedback.
Markella Prokopiou, Patricia Martinerie, Célia J. Sapart, Emmanuel Witrant, Guillaume Monteil, Kentaro Ishijima, Sophie Bernard, Jan Kaiser, Ingeborg Levin, Thomas Blunier, David Etheridge, Ed Dlugokencky, Roderik S. W. van de Wal, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4539–4564,Short summary
Nitrous oxide is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with an increasing mole fraction. To understand its natural and anthropogenic sources we employ isotope measurements. Results show that while the N2O mole fraction increases, its heavy isotope content decreases. The isotopic changes observed underline the dominance of agricultural emissions especially at the early part of the record, whereas in the later decades the contribution from other anthropogenic sources increases.
Ulrike Dusek, Regina Hitzenberger, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Magdalena Kistler, Harro A. J. Meijer, Sönke Szidat, Lukas Wacker, Rupert Holzinger, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3233–3251,Short summary
Measurements of the radioactive carbon isotope 14C allow to identify the sources of aerosol carbon. We report an extensive 14C source apportionment record in the Netherlands with samples covering a whole year. We discovered that long-range transport has a large influence on aerosol carbon levels. Fossil fuel carbon is least influenced by long-range transport and more regional in origin. Biomass burning seems to be a minor source of aerosol carbon in the Netherlands.
Bastiaan Jonkheid, Thomas Röckmann, Norbert Glatthor, Christof Janssen, Gabriele Stiller, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 6069–6079,
Dorota Janina Mrozek, Carina van der Veen, Magdalena E. G. Hofmann, Huilin Chen, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5607–5620,Short summary
Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS) is a device to collect and to store the stratospheric profile of air collected with an AirCore (Karion et al., 2010) in numerous sub-samples. The sub-samples (each of 25 mL at ambient temperature and pressure) can be later introduced to the continuous flow systems to measure for example the isotopic composition of CO2. The performance of the coupled system is demonstrated for a set of air samples from an AirCore flight in November 2014 near Sodankylä, Finland.
Beatriz Sayuri Oyama, Maria de Fátima Andrade, Pierre Herckes, Ulrike Dusek, Thomas Röckmann, and Rupert Holzinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14397–14408,Short summary
Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities; hence, the study was performed in São Paulo city, where light- (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) run on different fuels. We find that organic aerosol emission from LDVs and HDVs is a complex process involving oxidation of fuel constituents, NOx chemistry, and condensation of unburned fuel hydrocarbons on new or existing particles. The obtained emission patterns can be used to study processing of young aerosol in Brazil.
Matthias Egger, Peter Kraal, Tom Jilbert, Fatimah Sulu-Gambari, Célia J. Sapart, Thomas Röckmann, and Caroline P. Slomp
Biogeosciences, 13, 5333–5355,Short summary
By combining detailed geochemical analyses with diagenetic modeling, we provide new insights into how methane dynamics may strongly overprint burial records of iron, sulfur and phosphorus in marine systems subject to changes in organic matter loading or water column salinity. A better understanding of these processes will improve our ability to read ancient sediment records and thus to predict the potential consequences of global warming and human-enhanced inputs of nutrients to the ocean.
Thomas Röckmann, Simon Eyer, Carina van der Veen, Maria E. Popa, Béla Tuzson, Guillaume Monteil, Sander Houweling, Eliza Harris, Dominik Brunner, Hubertus Fischer, Giulia Zazzeri, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, Willi A. Brand, Jaroslav M. Necki, Lukas Emmenegger, and Joachim Mohn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10469–10487,Short summary
A dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS) and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS)-based technique were deployed at the Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (CESAR) in the Netherlands and performed in situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly) measurements for a period of more than 5 months, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD.
Peter Sperlich, Nelly A. M. Uitslag, Jürgen M. Richter, Michael Rothe, Heike Geilmann, Carina van der Veen, Thomas Röckmann, Thomas Blunier, and Willi A. Brand
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3717–3737,Short summary
Isotope measurements in atmospheric CH4 are performed since more than 3 decades. However, standard gases to harmonize global measurements are not available to this day. We designed two methods to calibrate a suite of 8 CH4 gases with a wide range in isotopic composition to the VPDB and VSMOW scales with high precision and accuracy. Synthetic air mixtures with ~2 ppm of calibrated CH4 can be provided to the community by the ISOLAB of the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry in Jena, Germany.
Sudhanshu Pandey, Sander Houweling, Maarten Krol, Ilse Aben, Frédéric Chevallier, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Luciana V. Gatti, Emanuel Gloor, John B. Miller, Rob Detmers, Toshinobu Machida, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5043–5062,Short summary
This study investigates the constraint provided by measurements of Xratio (XCH4/XCO2) from space on surface fluxes of CH4 and CO2. We apply the ratio inversion method described in Pandey et al. (2015) to Xratio retrievals from the GOSAT with the TM5-4DVAR inverse modeling system, to constrain the surface fluxes of CH4 and CO2 for 2009 and 2010. The results are compared to proxy CH4 inversions using model-derived-XCO2 mixing ratios from CarbonTracker and MACC.
S. Eyer, B. Tuzson, M. E. Popa, C. van der Veen, T. Röckmann, M. Rothe, W. A. Brand, R. Fisher, D. Lowry, E. G. Nisbet, M. S. Brennwald, E. Harris, C. Zellweger, L. Emmenegger, H. Fischer, and J. Mohn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 263–280,Short summary
We present a newly developed field-deployable, autonomous platform simultaneously measuring the three most abundant isotopologues of methane using mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The instrument consists of a compact quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS) coupled to a preconcentration unit, called TRace gas EXtractor (TREX). The performance of this new in situ technique was investigated during a 2-week measurement campaign and compared to other techniques.
N. Bândă, M. Krol, M. van Weele, T. van Noije, P. Le Sager, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 195–214,Short summary
We quantify the processes responsible for methane growth rate variability in the period 1990 to 1995, a period with variations in climate and radiation due to the Pinatubo eruption. We find significant contributions from changes in the methane emission from wetlands, and in the methane removal by OH caused by stratospheric aerosols, by the decrease in temperature and water vapour, by stratospheric ozone depletion and by changes in emissions of CO and NMVOC.
S. Walter, A. Kock, T. Steinhoff, B. Fiedler, P. Fietzek, J. Kaiser, M. Krol, M. E. Popa, Q. Chen, T. Tanhua, and T. Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 13, 323–340,Short summary
Oceans are a source of H2, an indirect greenhouse gas. Measurements constraining the temporal and spatial patterns of oceanic H2 emissions are sparse and although H2 is assumed to be produced mainly biologically, direct evidence for biogenic marine production was lacking. By analyzing the H2 isotopic composition (δD) we were able to constrain the global H2 budget in more detail, verify biogenic production and point to additional sources. We also showed that current models are reasonably working.
Q. Chen, M. E. Popa, A. M. Batenburg, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13003–13021,Short summary
We investigated soil production and uptake of H2 and associated isotope effects. Uptake and emission of H2 occurred simultaneously at all sampling sites, with strongest emission where N2 fixing legume was present. The fractionation constant during soil uptake was about 0.945 and it did not show positive correlation with deposition velocity. The isotopic composition of H2 emitted from soil with legume was about -530‰, which is less deuterium-depleted than isotope equilibrium between H2O and H2.
S. Pandey, S. Houweling, M. Krol, I. Aben, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8615–8629,Short summary
This study attempts to determine the feasibility of a new assimilation method of satellite measurements of CH4 and CO2 for optimization of their surface fluxes in a synthetic environment. Instead of their absolute concentrations, we assimilate the ratios of their concentrations (CH4/CO2) in our inversion. Doing so helps us to reduce the effect of atmospheric scattering on the measurements in our system. However, assimilation of the ratios makes the inversion non-linear.
K. Ishijima, M. Takigawa, K. Sudo, S. Toyoda, N. Yoshida, T. Röckmann, J. Kaiser, S. Aoki, S. Morimoto, S. Sugawara, and T. Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We developed an atmospheric N2O isotopocule model based on a chemistry-coupled atmospheric general circulation model and a simple method to optimize the model, and estimated the isotopic signatures of surface sources at the hemispheric scale. Data obtained from ground-based observations, measurements of firn air, and balloon and aircraft flights were used to optimize the long-term trends, interhemispheric gradients, and photolytic fractionation, respectively, in the model.
S. J. Allin, J. C. Laube, E. Witrant, J. Kaiser, E. McKenna, P. Dennis, R. Mulvaney, E. Capron, P. Martinerie, T. Röckmann, T. Blunier, J. Schwander, P. J. Fraser, R. L. Langenfelds, and W. T. Sturges
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6867–6877,Short summary
Stratospheric ozone protects life on Earth from harmful UV-B radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are man-made compounds which act to destroy this barrier. This paper presents (1) the first measurements of the stratospheric δ(37Cl) of CFCs -11 and -113; (2) the first quantification of long-term trends in the tropospheric δ(37Cl) of CFCs -11, -12 and -113. This study provides a better understanding of source and sink processes associated with these destructive compounds.
F. A. Stap, O. P. Hasekamp, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1287–1301,Short summary
We present the capability of an aerosol retrieval algorithm, intended for multi-angle, multi-wavelength photopolarimetric measurements, to intrinsically screen for sub-pixel liquid water cloud contamination. The screening is based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The algorithm has been applied to a synthetic data set of partially clouded scenes and (non-cloud-screened) POLDER3/PARASOL observations.
S. J. Sutanto, G. Hoffmann, R. A. Scheepmaker, J. Worden, S. Houweling, K. Yoshimura, I. Aben, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 999–1019,
D. J. Mrozek, C. van der Veen, M. Kliphuis, J. Kaiser, A. A. Wiegel, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 811–822,Short summary
Our analytical system is a promising tool for investigating the triple oxygen isotope composition of CO2 from stratospheric air samples of volumes 100ml and smaller. The method is designed for measuring air samples with CO2 mole fractions between 360 and 400ppm, and it is the first fully automated analytical system that uses CeO2 as the isotope exchange medium.
S. J. Sutanto, B. van den Hurk, P. A. Dirmeyer, S. I. Seneviratne, T. Röckmann, K. E. Trenberth, E. M. Blyth, J. Wenninger, and G. Hoffmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2815–2827,
U. Dusek, M. Monaco, M. Prokopiou, F. Gongriep, R. Hitzenberger, H. A. J. Meijer, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1943–1955,
R. L. Thompson, K. Ishijima, E. Saikawa, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, P. K. Patra, P. Bergamaschi, F. Chevallier, E. Dlugokencky, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, S. O'Doherty, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, P. B. Krummel, A. Vermeulen, Y. Tohjima, A. Jordan, L. Haszpra, M. Steinbacher, S. Van der Laan, T. Aalto, F. Meinhardt, M. E. Popa, J. Moncrieff, and P. Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6177–6194,
A. J. van Beelen, G. J. H. Roelofs, O. P. Hasekamp, J. S. Henzing, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5969–5987,
O. Peltola, A. Hensen, C. Helfter, L. Belelli Marchesini, F. C. Bosveld, W. C. M. van den Bulk, J. A. Elbers, S. Haapanala, J. Holst, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Nemitz, T. Röckmann, A. T. Vermeulen, and I. Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 11, 3163–3186,
S. Houweling, M. Krol, P. Bergamaschi, C. Frankenberg, E. J. Dlugokencky, I. Morino, J. Notholt, V. Sherlock, D. Wunch, V. Beck, C. Gerbig, H. Chen, E. A. Kort, T. Röckmann, and I. Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3991–4012,
B. Ringeval, S. Houweling, P. M. van Bodegom, R. Spahni, R. van Beek, F. Joos, and T. Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 11, 1519–1558,
M. E. Popa, M. K. Vollmer, A. Jordan, W. A. Brand, S. L. Pathirana, M. Rothe, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2105–2123,
D. Helmig, V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, E. Witrant, T. Röckmann, A. Zuiderweg, R. Holzinger, J. Hueber, C. Thompson, J. W. C. White, W. Sturges, A. Baker, T. Blunier, D. Etheridge, M. Rubino, and P. Tans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1463–1483,
F. A. Haumann, A. M. Batenburg, G. Pieterse, C. Gerbig, M. C. Krol, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9401–9413,
M. von Hobe, S. Bekki, S. Borrmann, F. Cairo, F. D'Amato, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ebersoldt, M. Ebert, C. Emde, I. Engel, M. Ern, W. Frey, S. Genco, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, G. Günther, E. Hösen, L. Hoffmann, V. Homonnai, C. R. Hoyle, I. S. A. Isaksen, D. R. Jackson, I. M. Jánosi, R. L. Jones, K. Kandler, C. Kalicinsky, A. Keil, S. M. Khaykin, F. Khosrawi, R. Kivi, J. Kuttippurath, J. C. Laube, F. Lefèvre, R. Lehmann, S. Ludmann, B. P. Luo, M. Marchand, J. Meyer, V. Mitev, S. Molleker, R. Müller, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, Y. Orsolini, T. Peter, K. Pfeilsticker, C. Piesch, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, F. D. Pope, F. Ravegnani, M. Rex, M. Riese, T. Röckmann, B. Rognerud, A. Roiger, C. Rolf, M. L. Santee, M. Scheibe, C. Schiller, H. Schlager, M. Siciliani de Cumis, N. Sitnikov, O. A. Søvde, R. Spang, N. Spelten, F. Stordal, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, A. Ulanovski, J. Ungermann, S. Viciani, C. M. Volk, M. vom Scheidt, P. von der Gathen, K. Walker, T. Wegner, R. Weigel, S. Weinbruch, G. Wetzel, F. G. Wienhold, I. Wohltmann, W. Woiwode, I. A. K. Young, V. Yushkov, B. Zobrist, and F. Stroh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9233–9268,
P. Sperlich, C. Buizert, T. M. Jenk, C. J. Sapart, M. Prokopiou, T. Röckmann, and T. Blunier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2027–2041,
J. Schmitt, B. Seth, M. Bock, C. van der Veen, L. Möller, C. J. Sapart, M. Prokopiou, T. Sowers, T. Röckmann, and H. Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1425–1445,
S. Walter, A. Kock, and T. Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 10, 3391–3403,
J. C. Laube, A. Keil, H. Bönisch, A. Engel, T. Röckmann, C. M. Volk, and W. T. Sturges
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2779–2791,
N. Bândă, M. Krol, M. van Weele, T. van Noije, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2267–2281,
M. van den Broeke, P. Smeets, J. Ettema, C. van der Veen, R. van de Wal, and J. Oerlemans
The Cryosphere, 2, 179–189,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: Laboratory Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsIdentification, monitoring, and reaction kinetics of reactive trace species using time-resolved mid-infrared quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy: development, characterisation, and initial results for the CH2OO Criegee intermediateAir pollution monitoring: development of ammonia (NH3) dynamic reference gas mixtures at nanomoles per mole levels to improve the lack of traceability of measurementsFormaldehyde and glyoxal measurement deploying a selected ion flow tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS)Fragmentation inside proton-transfer-reaction-based mass spectrometers limits the detection of ROOR and ROOH peroxidesMULTICHARME: a modified Chernin-type multi-pass cell designed for IR and THz long-path absorption measurements in the CHARME atmospheric simulation chamberSilicone tube humidity generatorA source for the continuous generation of pure and quantifiable HONO mixturesMeasurement of Enantiomer Ratios for Five Monoterpenes From Six Conifer Species by Cartridge Tube-Based Passive Sampling Adsorption/Thermal Desorption (ps-ATD)Photochemical method for removing methane interference for improved gas analysisA simulation chamber for absorption spectroscopy in planetary atmospheresOzone Reactivity Measurement of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound EmissionsAn automated system for trace gas flux measurements from plant foliage and other plant compartmentsSimultaneous measurement of δ13C, δ18O and δ17O of atmospheric CO2 – performance assessment of a dual-laser absorption spectrometerMeasurement of iodine species and sulfuric acid using bromide chemical ionization mass spectrometersA method for resolving changes in atmospheric He ∕ N2 as an indicator of fossil fuel extraction and stratospheric circulationApplication of chemical derivatization techniques combined with chemical ionization mass spectrometry to detect stabilized Criegee intermediates and peroxy radicals in the gas phaseAtomic emission detector with gas chromatographic separation and cryogenic pre-concentration (CryoTrap–GC–AED) for atmospheric trace gas measurementsNew technique for high-precision, simultaneous measurements of CH4, N2O and CO2 concentrations; isotopic and elemental ratios of N2, O2 and Ar; and total air content in ice cores by wet extractionHigh-precision laser spectrometer for multiple greenhouse gas analysis in 1 mL air from ice core samplesA thermal-dissociation–cavity ring-down spectrometer (TD-CRDS) for the detection of organic nitrates in gas and particle phasesInterference from alkenes in chemiluminescent NOx measurementsCalibration of an airborne HOx instrument using the All Pressure Altitude-based Calibrator for HOx Experimentation (APACHE)Measurement of ammonia, amines and iodine compounds using protonated water cluster chemical ionization mass spectrometryAn instrument for in situ measurement of total ozone reactivityPortable calibrator for NO based on the photolysis of N2O and a combined NO2∕NO∕O3 source for field calibrations of air pollution monitorsA new instrument for time-resolved measurement of HO2 radicalsInvestigation of adsorption and desorption behavior of small-volume cylinders and its relevance for atmospheric trace gas analysisTowards an understanding of surface effects: testing of various materials in a small volume measurement chamber and its relevance for atmospheric trace gas analysisStability of halocarbons in air samples stored in stainless- steel canistersHigh-precision atmospheric oxygen measurement comparisons between a newly built CRDS analyzer and existing measurement techniquesCharacterisation of the transfer of cluster ions through an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer with hexapole ion guidesAddition of fast gas chromatography to selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry for analysis of individual monoterpenes in mixturesMeasurements of delays of gas-phase compounds in a wide variety of tubing materials due to gas–wall interactionsEffects of gas–wall interactions on measurements of semivolatile compounds and small polar moleculesCharacterization of a commercial lower-cost medium-precision non-dispersive infrared sensor for atmospheric CO2 monitoring in urban areasEvaluating the performance of five different chemical ionization techniques for detecting gaseous oxygenated organic speciesCavity-enhanced photoacoustic sensor based on a whispering-gallery-mode diode laserUsing collision-induced dissociation to constrain sensitivity of ammonia chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NH4+ CIMS) to oxygenated volatile organic compoundsA broadband cavity-enhanced spectrometer for atmospheric trace gas measurements and Rayleigh scattering cross sections in the cyan region (470–540 nm)Large-volume air sample system for measuring 34S∕32S isotope ratio of carbonyl sulfideNew and improved infrared absorption cross sections for trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11)Experiments with CO2-in-air reference gases in high-pressure aluminum cylindersPreflight calibration of the Chinese Environmental Trace Gases Monitoring Instrument (EMI)Production of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from trace contaminants during isoprene oxidationPreparation and analysis of zero gases for the measurement of trace VOCs in air monitoringA steady-state continuous flow chamber for the study of daytime and nighttime chemistry under atmospherically relevant NO levelsOptical characterisation of three reference Dobsons in the ATMOZ Project – verification of G. M. B. Dobson's original specificationsA new photometric ozone reference in the Huggins bands: the absolute ozone absorption cross section at the 325 nm HeCd laser wavelengthAssessing the degree of plug flow in oxidation flow reactors (OFRs): a study on a potential aerosol mass (PAM) reactorEffects of gas–wall partitioning in Teflon tubing and instrumentation on time-resolved measurements of gas-phase organic compounds
Zara S. Mir, Matthew Jamieson, Nicholas R. Greenall, Paul W. Seakins, Mark A. Blitz, and Daniel Stone
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2875–2887,Short summary
In this work we describe the development and characterisation of an experiment using laser flash photolysis coupled with time-resolved mid-infrared (mid-IR) quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectroscopy, with initial results reported for measurements of the infrared spectrum, kinetics, and product yields for the reaction of the CH2OO Criegee intermediate with SO2. This work has significance for the identification and measurement of reactive trace species in complex systems.
Tatiana Macé, Maitane Iturrate-Garcia, Céline Pascale, Bernhard Niederhauser, Sophie Vaslin-Reimann, and Christophe Sutour
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2703–2718,Short summary
LNE developed, with the company 2M PROCESS, a gas reference generator to dynamically generate NH3 reference gas mixtures in the air at very low fractions between 1 and 400 nmol/mol. The procedure defined by LNE for calibrating NH3 analyzers used for monitoring air quality guarantees relative expanded uncertainties lower than 2 % for this measurement range. The results of a comparison organized between METAS and LNE allowed the validation of LNE's reference generator and calibration procedure.
Antonia G. Zogka, Manolis N. Romanias, and Frederic Thevenet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2001–2019,Short summary
We emphasize the application of SIFT-MS to detect two important atmospheric pollutants, i.e., formaldehyde (FM) and glyoxal (GL). FM and GL are secondary products formed by volatile organic compound oxidation in indoor and outdoor environments and play a key role in air quality and climate. We show that SIFT-MS is able to monitor these species selectively and in real time, overcoming the limitations of other, classical analytical techniques used to monitor these species in the atmosphere.
Haiyan Li, Thomas Golin Almeida, Yuanyuan Luo, Jian Zhao, Brett B. Palm, Christopher D. Daub, Wei Huang, Claudia Mohr, Jordan E. Krechmer, Theo Kurtén, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1811–1827,Short summary
This work evaluated the potential for PTR-based mass spectrometers to detect ROOR and ROOH peroxides both experimentally and through computations. Laboratory experiments using a Vocus PTR observed only noisy signals of potential dimers during α-pinene ozonolysis and a few small signals of dimeric compounds during cyclohexene ozonolysis. Quantum chemical calculations for model ROOR and ROOH systems showed that most of these peroxides should fragment partially following protonation.
Jean Decker, Éric Fertein, Jonas Bruckhuisen, Nicolas Houzel, Pierre Kulinski, Bo Fang, Weixiong Zhao, Francis Hindle, Guillaume Dhont, Robin Bocquet, Gaël Mouret, Cécile Coeur, and Arnaud Cuisset
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1201–1215,Short summary
We present a multiple pass system developed for the CHamber for Atmospheric Reactivity and Metrology of the Environment. This multi-pass cell allows monitoring of atmospheric species at trace levels by high-resolution spectroscopy with long interaction path lengths in the IR and for the first time in the terahertz range. Interesting prospects are highlighted in this frequency domain, such as a high degree of selectivity or the possibility to monitor in real-time atmospheric processes.
Robert F. Berg, Nicola Chiodo, and Eric Georgin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 819–832,Short summary
We made a humidity generator that adds water vapor to a flowing gas. Its range of humidity is useful for calibrating balloon-borne probes to the Earth's stratosphere. The generator’s novel feature is a saturator that comprises 5 m of silicone tubing immersed in water. The length was enough to ensure that the saturator’s output was independent of the dimensions and permeability of the tube. This simple, low-cost design provides an accuracy that is acceptable for many applications.
Guillermo Villena and Jörg Kleffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 627–637,Short summary
A continuous source for the generation of pure HONO mixtures was developed and characterized, which is based on the Henry's law solubility of HONO in acidic aqueous solutions. The source shows a fast time response and an excellent long-term stability and can be easily adjusted to HONO mixing ratios in the range 0.05–500 ppb. A general equation based on Henry's law is developed, whereby the HONO concentration of the source can be absolutely calculated with an accuracy of better than 10 %.
Ying Wang, Wentai Luo, Todd N. Rosenstiel, and James F. Pankow
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
A rapid, sensitive, and precise analytical method was developed for measuring the fractional amounts of the (−) and (+) forms of chiral enantiomeric forms of monoterpenes in air containing biogenic plant emissions. The method uses passive air sampling onto adsorption/thermal desorption (ATD) gas sampling cartridge tubes followed by automatable thermal desorption onto a chiral gas chromatography (GC) column, followed by detection with mass spectrometry (MS).
Merve Polat, Jesper Baldtzer Liisberg, Morten Krogsbøll, Thomas Blunier, and Matthew S. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 8041–8067,Short summary
We have designed a process for removing methane from a gas stream so that nitrous oxide can be measured without interference. These are both key long-lived greenhouse gases frequently studied in relation to ice cores, plants, water treatment and so on. However, many researchers are not aware of the problem of methane interference, and in addition there have not been good methods available for solving the problem. Here we present and evaluate such a method.
Marcel Snels, Stefania Stefani, Angelo Boccaccini, David Biondi, and Giuseppe Piccioni
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7187–7197,Short summary
A novel simulation chamber, PASSxS (Planetary Atmosphere Simulation System for Spectroscopy), has been developed for absorption measurements with a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and possibly a cavity ring-down (CRD) spectrometer, with a sample temperature ranging from 100 K up to 550 K, while the pressure of the gas can be varied up to 60 bar. These temperature and pressure ranges cover a significant part of the planetary atmospheres in the solar system and possibly extrasolar planets.
Detlev Helmig, Alex Guenther, Jacques Hueber, Ryan Daly, Jeong-Hoo Park, Anssi Liikanen, and Arnaud P. Praplan
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
This research demonstrates a new method for determination of the chemical reactivity of organic volatile compounds that are emitted from the leaves and needles of trees. These measurements allow elucidating if and how much of these emissions and their associated reactivity are captured and quantified by currently applicable chemical analysis methods.
Lukas Kohl, Markku Koskinen, Tatu Polvinen, Salla Tenhovirta, Kaisa Rissanen, Marjo Patama, Alessandro Zanetti, and Mari Pihlatie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4445–4460,Short summary
We present ShoTGa-FluMS, a measurement system designed for continuous and automated measurements of trace gas and volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes from plant shoots. ShoTGa-FluMS uses transparent shoot enclosures equipped with cooling elements, automatically replaces fixated CO2, and removes transpired water from the enclosure, thus solving multiple technical problems that have so far prevented automated plant shoot trace gas flux measurements.
Pharahilda M. Steur, Hubertus A. Scheeren, Dave D. Nelson, J. Barry McManus, and Harro A. J. Meijer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4279–4304,Short summary
For understanding the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2, measurement of stable isotopes has proven to be highly valuable. We present a new method using laser absorption spectroscopy to simultaneously conduct measurements of three CO2 isotopes, directly on dry-air samples. This new method reduces sample preparation time significantly, compared to the conventional method in which measurements are conducted on pure CO2, and avoids measurement biases introduced by CO2 extraction.
Mingyi Wang, Xu-Cheng He, Henning Finkenzeller, Siddharth Iyer, Dexian Chen, Jiali Shen, Mario Simon, Victoria Hofbauer, Jasper Kirkby, Joachim Curtius, Norbert Maier, Theo Kurtén, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Matti Rissanen, Rainer Volkamer, Yee Jun Tham, Neil M. Donahue, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4187–4202,Short summary
Atmospheric iodine species are often short-lived with low abundance and have thus been challenging to measure. We show that the bromide chemical ionization mass spectrometry, compatible with both the atmospheric pressure and reduced pressure interfaces, can simultaneously detect various gas-phase iodine species. Combining calibration experiments and quantum chemical calculations, we quantify detection sensitivities to HOI, HIO3, I2, and H2SO4, giving detection limits down to < 106 molec. cm-3.
Benjamin Birner, William Paplawsky, Jeffrey Severinghaus, and Ralph F. Keeling
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2515–2527,Short summary
The atmospheric helium-to-nitrogen ratio is a promising indicator for circulation changes in the upper atmosphere and fossil fuel burning by humans. We present a very precise analysis method to determine changes in the helium-to-nitrogen ratio of air samples. The method relies on stabilizing the gas flow to a mass spectrometer and continuous removal of reactive gases. These advances enable new insights and monitoring possibilities for anthropogenic and natural processes.
Alexander Zaytsev, Martin Breitenlechner, Anna Novelli, Hendrik Fuchs, Daniel A. Knopf, Jesse H. Kroll, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2501–2513,Short summary
We have developed an online method for speciated measurements of organic peroxy radicals and stabilized Criegee intermediates using chemical derivatization combined with chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Chemical derivatization prevents secondary radical reactions and eliminates potential interferences. Comparison between our measurements and results from numeric modeling shows that the method can be used for the quantification of a wide range of atmospheric radicals and intermediates.
Einar Karu, Mengze Li, Lisa Ernle, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1817–1831,Short summary
A gas measurement device was developed to measure trace gases (ppt level) in the air based on an atomic emission detector. It combines a cryogenic pre-concentrator (CryoTrap), a gas chromatograph (GC), and a new high-resolution atomic emission detector (AED). The CryoTrap–GC–AED instrumental setup, limits of detection, and elemental performance are presented and discussed. Two measurement case studies are reported: one in a Finnish boreal forest and the other based on an aircraft campaign.
Ikumi Oyabu, Kenji Kawamura, Kyotaro Kitamura, Remi Dallmayr, Akihiro Kitamura, Chikako Sawada, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Ross Beaudette, Anaïs Orsi, Satoshi Sugawara, Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Shuji Aoki, and Takakiyo Nakazawa
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6703–6731,Short summary
Air in polar ice cores provides information on past atmosphere and climate. We present a new method for simultaneously measuring eight gases (CH4, N2O and CO2 concentrations; isotopic ratios of N2 and O2; elemental ratios between N2, O2 and Ar; and total air content) from single ice-core samples with high precision.
Bernhard Bereiter, Béla Tuzson, Philipp Scheidegger, André Kupferschmid, Herbert Looser, Lars Mächler, Daniel Baggenstos, Jochen Schmitt, Hubertus Fischer, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6391–6406,Short summary
The record of past greenhouse gas composition from ice cores is crucial for our understanding of global climate change. Deciphering this archive requires highly accurate and spatially resolved analysis of the very small amount of gas that is trapped in the ice. This is achieved with a mid-IR laser absorption spectrometer that provides simultaneous, high-precision measurements of CH4, N2O, CO2, and δ13C(CO2) and which will be coupled to a quantitative sublimation extraction method.
Natalie I. Keehan, Bellamy Brownwood, Andrey Marsavin, Douglas A. Day, and Juliane L. Fry
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6255–6269,Short summary
This paper describes a new instrument (a thermal-dissociation–cavity ring-down spectrometer, TD-CRDS) for the measurement of key atmospheric gaseous and particle-phase molecules containing the nitrate functional group. Several operational considerations affecting the measurements are described, as well as several characterization experiments comparing the TD-CRDS measurements to analogous measurements from other instruments. Examples are given using a TD-CRDS for ambient and laboratory studies.
Mohammed S. Alam, Leigh R. Crilley, James D. Lee, Louisa J. Kramer, Christian Pfrang, Mónica Vázquez-Moreno, Milagros Ródenas, Amalia Muñoz, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5977–5991,Short summary
We report on the interference arising in measurements of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the presence of a range of alkenes in sampled air when using the most widespread air quality monitoring technique for chemiluminescence detection. Interferences of up to 11 % are reported, depending upon the alkene present and conditions used. Such interferences may be of substantial importance for the interpretation of ambient NOx data, particularly for high volatile organic compound and low NOx environments.
Daniel Marno, Cheryl Ernest, Korbinian Hens, Umar Javed, Thomas Klimach, Monica Martinez, Markus Rudolf, Jos Lelieveld, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2711–2731,Short summary
In this study, a calibration device for OH and HO2 instruments is characterized at pressures of 275 to 1000 mbar, allowing instrument pressure sensitivity to be quantified to an accuracy of 22 % (1σ). Computational fluid dynamic simulations supporting the understanding of interactions between generated HOx and the instrument inlet led to enhanced determination of factors affecting instrument sensitivity.
Joschka Pfeifer, Mario Simon, Martin Heinritzi, Felix Piel, Lena Weitz, Dongyu Wang, Manuel Granzin, Tatjana Müller, Steffen Bräkling, Jasper Kirkby, Joachim Curtius, and Andreas Kürten
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2501–2522,Short summary
Ammonia is an important atmospheric trace gas that affects secondary aerosol formation and, together with sulfuric acid, the formation of new particles. A measurement technique is presented that uses high-resolution mass spectrometry and protonated water clusters for the ultrasensitive detection of ammonia at single-digit parts per trillion by volume levels. The instrument is further capable of measuring amines and a suite of iodine compounds at sub-parts per trillion by volume levels.
Roberto Sommariva, Louisa J. Kramer, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1655–1670,Short summary
Ozone is a key atmospheric pollutant formed through chemical processing of natural and anthropogenic emissions and removed by reaction with organic compounds emitted by plants. We describe a new instrument – the
Total Ozone Reactivity Systemor TORS – that measures the total loss of ozone in the troposphere. The objective of the TORS instrument is to provide an estimate of the organic compounds emitted by plants which are not measured and thus to improve our understanding of the ozone budget.
John W. Birks, Andrew A. Turnipseed, Peter C. Andersen, Craig J. Williford, Stanley Strunk, Brian Carpenter, and Christine A. Ennis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1001–1018,Short summary
We describe a portable calibration source of nitric oxide (NO) based on the photolysis of nitrous oxide. Combining this with a previous photolytic ozone (O3) source yields a calibrator that produces known mixing ratios of NO, O3, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2); NO2 is produced by the reaction of NO with O3. This portable NO2/NO/O3 calibration source requires no external gas cylinders and can be used as a standard to calibrate O3 and NOx air pollution monitors in the field.
Thomas H. Speak, Mark A. Blitz, Daniel Stone, and Paul W. Seakins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 839–852,Short summary
OH and HO2 radicals are important trace constituents of the atmosphere that are closely coupled via several types of reaction. This paper describes a new laboratory method to simultaneously determine OH kinetics and HO2 yields from chemical processes. The instrument also provides some time resolution on HO2 detection allowing one to separate HO2 produced from the target reaction from HO2 arising from secondary chemistry. Examples of applications are presented.
Ece Satar, Peter Nyfeler, Bernhard Bereiter, Céline Pascale, Bernhard Niederhauser, and Markus Leuenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 101–117,Short summary
Good-quality measurements of atmospheric trace gases are only possible with regular calibrations and stable measurements from the standard cylinders. This study investigates instabilities due to surface effects on newly built aluminum and steel cylinders. We present measurements over a set of temperature and pressure ranges for the amount fractions of CO2, CO, CH4 and H2O using a commercial and a novel laser spectroscopic analyzer.
Ece Satar, Peter Nyfeler, Céline Pascale, Bernhard Niederhauser, and Markus Leuenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 119–130,Short summary
To ensure the best preparation and measurement conditions for trace gases, usage of coated materials is in demand in gas metrology and atmospheric measurement communities. In this article, the previously introduced aluminum measurement chamber is used to investigate materials such as glass, aluminum, copper, brass, steel and three different commercially available coatings. Our measurements focus on temperature and pressure dependencies for the species CO2, CO, CH4 and H2O using a CRDS analyzer.
Tanja J. Schuck, Ann-Katrin Blank, Elisa Rittmeier, Jonathan Williams, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Andreas Engel, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 73–84,Short summary
Air sample collection aboard aircraft is a tool to measure atmospheric trace gas mixing ratios at altitude. We present results on the stability of 28 halocarbons during storage of air samples collected in stainless-steel flasks inside an automated air sampling unit which is part of the CARIBIC instrument package. Selected fluorinated compounds grew during the experiments while short-lived compounds were depleted. Individual substances were additionally influenced by high mixing ratios of ozone.
Tesfaye A. Berhanu, John Hoffnagle, Chris Rella, David Kimhak, Peter Nyfeler, and Markus Leuenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6803–6826,Short summary
Accurate measurement of variations in atmospheric O2 can provide useful information about atmospheric, biospheric, and oceanic processes, which is a challenge for existing measurement techniques. Here, we introduce a newly built high-precision, stable CRDS analyzer (Picarro G2207) that can measure O2 mixing ratios with a short-term precision of < 1 ppm and only requires calibration every 12 h. Measurements from tower and mountain sites are also presented.
Markus Leiminger, Stefan Feil, Paul Mutschlechner, Arttu Ylisirniö, Daniel Gunsch, Lukas Fischer, Alfons Jordan, Siegfried Schobesberger, Armin Hansel, and Gerhard Steiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5231–5246,Short summary
We introduce an alternative type of atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (APi-TOF) with the main difference of using hexapole instead of quadrupole ion guides. The transfer of cluster ions through the hexapoles was characterised with focus on transmission efficiency, mass range and fragmentation of cluster ions. At the CERN CLOUD experiment we compared the performance of the ioniAPi-TOF with a standard quadrupole APi-TOF under controlled conditions.
Michal Lacko, Nijing Wang, Kristýna Sovová, Pavel Pásztor, and Patrik Španěl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4965–4982,Short summary
The soft chemical ionization analytical technique of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, was enhanced by a fast GC pre-separation unit to identify individual isomers. Experiments were carried out with two GC columns, MXT-1 and MXT-Volatiles, using two reagent ions, H3O+ and NO+, on monoterpene samples (an artificial mixture and coniferous needles). Analyses of product ion ratios allowed for quantification of multiple monoterpenes in partially separated chromatograms.
Benjamin L. Deming, Demetrios Pagonis, Xiaoxi Liu, Douglas A. Day, Ranajit Talukdar, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joost A. de Gouw, Jose L. Jimenez, and Paul J. Ziemann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3453–3461,Short summary
Losses or measurement delays of gas-phase compounds sampled through tubing are important to atmospheric science. Here we characterize 14 tubing materials by measuring the effects on step changes in organic compound concentration. We find that polymeric tubings exhibit absorptive partitioning behaviour while glass and metal tubings show adsorptive partitioning. Adsorptive materials impart complex humidity, concentration, and VOC–VOC interaction dependencies that absorptive tubings do not.
Xiaoxi Liu, Benjamin Deming, Demetrios Pagonis, Douglas A. Day, Brett B. Palm, Ranajit Talukdar, James M. Roberts, Patrick R. Veres, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joel A. Thornton, Joost A. de Gouw, Paul J. Ziemann, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3137–3149,Short summary
Delays or losses of gases in sampling tubing and instrumental surfaces due to surface interactions can lead to inaccurate quantification. By sampling with several chemical ionization mass spectrometers and six tubing materials, we quantify delays of semivolatile organic compounds and small polar gases. Delay times generally increase with decreasing volatility or increasing polarity and also depend on materials. The method and results will inform inlet material selection and instrumental design.
Emmanuel Arzoumanian, Felix R. Vogel, Ana Bastos, Bakhram Gaynullin, Olivier Laurent, Michel Ramonet, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2665–2677,Short summary
We tested commercial lower-cost CO2 sensors in laboratory and field studies to see if they can measure atmospheric CO2 mole fractions with less than 1 ppm bias (with monthly calibration), to allow continuous urban CO2 monitoring. We find that the sensors' CO2 readings are influenced by temperature, atmospheric pressure and water vapour content, but this can be corrected for by adding sensors (T, p, RH) and carefully calibrating each sensor against a high-precision instrument.
Matthieu Riva, Pekka Rantala, Jordan E. Krechmer, Otso Peräkylä, Yanjun Zhang, Liine Heikkinen, Olga Garmash, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2403–2421,Short summary
The impact of aerosol particles on climate and air quality remains poorly understood due to multiple factors. One of the current limitations is the incomplete understanding of the contribution of oxygenated species, formed from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to aerosol formation. Taking advantage of recent mass spectrometric developments, we have evaluated and compared the capability of multiple state-of-the-art mass spectrometers to detect a wide variety of oxygenated VOCs.
Yufeng Pan, Lei Dong, Hongpeng Wu, Weiguang Ma, Lei Zhang, Wangbao Yin, Liantuan Xiao, Suotang Jia, and Frank K. Tittel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1905–1911,Short summary
Photoacoustic spectroscopy has one important advantage: its sensitivity is proportional to the excitation light power and thus the performance of PAS-based sensors can benefit from a high excitation light power. We developed a cavity-enhanced photoacoustic sensor in which a photoacoustic cell was placed into a high-finesse optical cavity. A signal gain factor of 166 was observed. For C2H2 detection, a 1σ detection limit of 0.45 ppmV was obtained at atmospheric pressure with a 1 s averaging time.
Alexander Zaytsev, Martin Breitenlechner, Abigail R. Koss, Christopher Y. Lim, James C. Rowe, Jesse H. Kroll, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1861–1870,Short summary
We present the development of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer which can be operated with either ammonium (NH4+) or hydronium (H3O+) as the reagent ion. We describe a mass spectrometric voltage scanning procedure based on collision-induced dissociation that allows us to determine the stability of detected ammonium–organic ions and hence constrain the sensitivity of the instrument to a wide range of organic compounds that cannot be calibrated directly.
Nick Jordan, Connie Z. Ye, Satyaki Ghosh, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Steven S. Brown, and Hans D. Osthoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1277–1293,Short summary
A new spectrometer to measure abundances of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide and iodine is described. The spectrometer uses a light-emitting diode between 470 and 540 nm and two highly reflective mirrors to yield an effective absorption path of 6.3 km. We remeasured scattering cross sections of common atmospheric gases in the cyan region and present sample NO2 measurements that agreed with those made with a laser-based instrument.
Kazuki Kamezaki, Shohei Hattori, Enno Bahlmann, and Naohiro Yoshida
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1141–1154,Short summary
Knowledge related to sulfur isotopic composition of carbonyl sulfide (OCS or COS), the most abundant atmospheric sulfur species, remains scarce. We present a new sampling system for collecting approx. 10 nmol of OCS from ambient air coupled with a purification system. The system presented herein is useful for application of sulfur isotopic compositions for investigation of OCS sources and sinks in the troposphere to elucidate its cycle and its contribution to background stratospheric sulfate.
Jeremy J. Harrison
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5827–5836,Short summary
CFC-11 is a stratospheric-ozone-depleting molecule which is banned under the Montreal Protocol but still present in the atmosphere due to its long lifetime. Using infrared limb sounders on satellite platforms to monitor its concentration crucially requires accurate laboratory spectroscopic data. This paper describes a new high-resolution infrared absorption cross-section dataset for remote-sensing purposes; this improves upon the one currently available in the HITRAN and GEISA databases.
Michael F. Schibig, Duane Kitzis, and Pieter P. Tans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5565–5586,Short summary
For long-term monitoring of CO2 in the atmosphere it is crucial that standard reference gas mixtures stored in high-pressure aluminum cylinders, used to calibrate global measurements, remain stable over their whole time of use. This study finds a reproducible small enrichment as a cylinder is emptied at a low-flow rate, as well as somewhat larger and variable effects when a cylinder is emptied using a high-flow rate.
Min Jie Zhao, Fu Qi Si, Hai Jin Zhou, Shi Mei Wang, Yu Jiang, and Wen Qing Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5403–5419,Short summary
EMI is a nadir-viewing wide-field imaging spectrometer aiming to quantify the global distribution of tropospheric and stratospheric trace gases. The spectral range is 240–710 nm, with the spectral resolution 0.3–0.5 nm. The preflight accuracy of wavelength calibration is less than 0.05 nm; the accuracy of radiance calibration is less than 5 %. The obtained calibration key data are used for the L1b processor. In-orbit wavelength/radiometric calibration is used to monitor performance changes.
Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Lukas Fischer, Bernhard Mentler, Martin Heinritzi, Mario Simon, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4763–4773,Short summary
During new particle formation (NPF) studies from pure isoprene oxidation in the CLOUD chamber at CERN we observed unexpected ion signals. We identified two origins of these signals: first secondary association reactions of protonated isoprene with isoprene within the PTR3 reaction chamber and, second, polymerization of isoprene inside the gas bottle. In order to study NPF from pure isoprene oxidation we had to install a cryogenic trap in the isoprene inlet line to remove polymerized isoprene.
Jennifer Englert, Anja Claude, Alessia Demichelis, Stefan Persijn, Annarita Baldan, Jianrong Li, Christian Plass-Duelmer, Katja Michl, Erasmus Tensing, Rina Wortman, Yousra Ghorafi, Maricarmen Lecuna, Guido Sassi, Maria Paola Sassi, and Dagmar Kubistin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3197–3203,Short summary
For volatile organic compound (VOC) observations, zero gases free of VOC traces are essential for the characterisation of the measurement devices and procedures, for instrument operation as well as for calibrations. Three gas purifiers were tested for their removal efficiency of VOCs following a standardised procedure. Results show that not all purification methods removed VOCs from the zero gas and that a gas purifier needs to be tested before its intended application in the field.
Xuan Zhang, John Ortega, Yuanlong Huang, Stephen Shertz, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, and John J. Orlando
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2537–2551,Short summary
We present the development and characterization of the NCAR Atmospheric Simulation Chamber, which is operated in steady state continuous flow mode for simulating atmospheric daytime and nighttime chemistry over chemical regimes not accessible in traditional static chamber experiments. We focus on establishing an
intermediate NOregime characterized by a constant steady-state NO level ranging from tens of ppt to a few ppb in the chamber.
Ulf Köhler, Saulius Nevas, Glen McConville, Robert Evans, Marek Smid, Martin Stanek, Alberto Redondas, and Fritz Schönenborn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1989–1999,Short summary
Laboratory investigations of optical characteristics of three standard Dobsons provide real wavelength settings and slit functions. These parameters were compared with the original values given in the manuals. The differences between real and nominal values are not too large, but their application will in any case improve the quality of the total ozone column measurements in the global network. This improvement was the main objective of the ATMOZ project funding these activities.
Christof Janssen, Hadj Elandaloussi, and Julian Gröbner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1707–1723,Short summary
Monitoring ozone layer recovery at a rate of few percent per decade requires dedicated instrumentation and spectroscopic data of the highest quality. Highly accurate absorption cross sections of ozone are rare, especially in the important UV region between 300 and 340 nm. Our measurement provides the first reference point with permil level of accuracy in this range. Interestingly, our value is lower than currently used data. This might resolve an inconsistency between UV and IR measurements.
Dhruv Mitroo, Yujian Sun, Daniel P. Combest, Purushottam Kumar, and Brent J. Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1741–1756,Short summary
In light of the widespread use of chemical reactors that simulate daytime atmospheric chemistry, a more critical analysis of the engineering behind new ones is needed. This work seeks to evaluate the geometry and flow dynamics inside a novel reactor, the potential aerosol mass (PAM) reactor, to help researchers tailor its use based upon what chemistry is investigated.
Demetrios Pagonis, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joost de Gouw, Jose L. Jimenez, and Paul J. Ziemann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4687–4696,Short summary
Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate gas-wall partitioning of atmospheric organic compounds in Teflon tubing and inside an instrument used to monitor concentrations. Rapid partitioning caused time delays in instrument response that vary with tubing length and diameter, flow rate, and compound volatility. Tubing delay times of seconds to hours were described using a model that also included effects of instrument surfaces. The results can enable better design of air sampling systems.
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CO is established as an important indirect greenhouse gas, as it is the major sink for the OH∙. We have developed a fully automated system for the determination of δ13C and δ18O in atmospheric CO. The blank signal of the Schütze reagent is 1-3 % of the typical sample size. The repeatability is 0.1 ‰ for δ13C and 0.2 ‰ for δ18O. The analytical repeatability for the mole fraction is ~0.7 nmol mol-1 for 100 mL of ambient air (185.4 nmol mol-1 of CO). A single measurement is performed in 18 min.
CO is established as an important indirect greenhouse gas, as it is the major sink for the...