Articles | Volume 15, issue 2
27 Jan 2022
Research article | 27 Jan 2022
Rainfall retrieval algorithm for commercial microwave links: stochastic calibration
Wagner Wolff et al.
No articles found.
Femke A. Jansen, Remko Uijlenhoet, Cor M. J. Jacobs, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2875–2898,Short summary
We studied the controls on open water evaporation with a focus on Lake IJssel, the Netherlands, by analysing eddy covariance observations over two summer periods at two locations at the borders of the lake. Wind speed and the vertical vapour pressure gradient can explain most of the variation in observed evaporation, which is in agreement with Dalton's model. We argue that the distinct characteristics of inland waterbodies need to be taken into account when parameterizing their evaporation.
Ruben Imhoff, Claudia Brauer, Klaas-Jan van Heeringen, Hidde Leijnse, Aart Overeem, Albrecht Weerts, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4061–4080,Short summary
Significant biases in real-time radar rainfall products limit the use for hydrometeorological forecasting. We introduce CARROTS (Climatology-based Adjustments for Radar Rainfall in an OperaTional Setting), a set of fixed bias reduction factors to correct radar rainfall products and to benchmark other correction algorithms. When tested for 12 Dutch basins, estimated rainfall and simulated discharges with CARROTS generally outperform those using the operational mean field bias adjustments.
Simone Gelsinari, Valentijn R. N. Pauwels, Edoardo Daly, Jos van Dam, Remko Uijlenhoet, Nicholas Fewster-Young, and Rebecca Doble
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2261–2277,Short summary
Estimates of recharge to groundwater are often driven by biophysical processes occurring in the soil column and, particularly in remote areas, are also always affected by uncertainty. Using data assimilation techniques to merge remotely sensed observations with outputs of numerical models is one way to reduce this uncertainty. Here, we show the benefits of using such a technique with satellite evapotranspiration rates and coupled hydrogeological models applied to a semi-arid site in Australia.
Jolijn van Engelenburg, Erik van Slobbe, Adriaan J. Teuling, Remko Uijlenhoet, and Petra Hellegers
Drink. Water Eng. Sci., 14, 1–43,Short summary
This study analysed the impact of extreme weather events, water quality deterioration, and a growing drinking water demand on the sustainability of drinking water supply in the Netherlands. The results of the case studies were compared to sustainability issues for drinking water supply that are experienced worldwide. This resulted in a set of sustainability characteristics describing drinking water supply on a local scale in terms of hydrological, technical, and socio-economic characteristics.
Thomas C. van Leth, Hidde Leijnse, Aart Overeem, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1797–1815,Short summary
We present a method of using collocated microwave link instruments to estimate the average size distribution of raindrops along a path of several kilometers. Our method is validated using simulated fields as well as five laser disdrometers installed along a path. We also present preliminary results from an experimental setup measuring at 26 and 38 GHz along a 2.2 km path. We show that a retrieval on the basis of microwave links can be highly accurate, provided the base power level is stable.
Adrien Guyot, Jayaram Pudashine, Alain Protat, Remko Uijlenhoet, Valentijn R. N. Pauwels, Alan Seed, and Jeffrey P. Walker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4737–4761,Short summary
We characterised for the first time the rainfall microphysics for Southern Hemisphere temperate latitudes. Co-located instruments were deployed to provide information on the sampling effect and spatio-temporal variabilities at micro scales. Substantial differences were found across the instruments, increasing with increasing values of the rain rate. Specific relations for reflectivity–rainfall are presented together with related uncertainties for drizzle and stratiform and convective rainfall.
Joost Buitink, Remko Uijlenhoet, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1593–1609,Short summary
This study describes how the spatial resolution of hydrological models affects the model results. The high-resolution model allowed for more spatial variability than the low-resolution model. As a result, the low-resolution model failed to capture most variability that was simulated with the high-resolution model. This has implications for the interpretation of results carried out at coarse resolutions, as they may fail to represent the local small-scale variability.
Bart van Osnabrugge, Remko Uijlenhoet, and Albrecht Weerts
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1453–1467,Short summary
A correct estimate of the amount of future precipitation is the most important factor in making a good streamflow forecast, but evaporation is also an important component that determines the discharge of a river. However, in this study for the Rhine River we found that evaporation forecasts only give an almost negligible improvement compared to methods that use statistical information on climatology for a 10-day streamflow forecast. This is important to guide research on low flow forecasts.
Tjitske J. Geertsema, Adriaan J. Teuling, Remko Uijlenhoet, Paul J. J. F. Torfs, and Antonius J. F. Hoitink
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5599–5613,Short summary
This study investigate the processes and effects of simultaneous flood peaks at a lowland confluence. The flood peaks are analyzed with the relatively new dynamic time warping method, which offers a robust means of tracing flood waves in discharge time series at confluences. The time lag between discharge peaks in the main river and its lowland tributaries is small compared to the wave duration; therefore the exact timing of discharge peaks may be little relevant to flood risk.
Thomas C. van Leth, Aart Overeem, Hidde Leijnse, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4645–4669,Short summary
We present a campaign to address several error sources associated with rainfall estimates from microwave links in cellular communication networks. The set-up consists of three co-located links, complemented with reference instruments. We investigate events covering different attenuating phenomena: Rainfall, solid precipitation, temperature, fog, antenna wetting due to rain or dew, and clutter.
Manuel F. Rios Gaona, Aart Overeem, Timothy H. Raupach, Hidde Leijnse, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4465–4476,Short summary
Rainfall estimates from commercial microwave links were obtained for the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil). The results show the potential of such networks as complementary rainfall measurements for more robust networks (e.g. radars, gauges, satellites).
Lieke A. Melsen, Nans Addor, Naoki Mizukami, Andrew J. Newman, Paul J. J. F. Torfs, Martyn P. Clark, Remko Uijlenhoet, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1775–1791,Short summary
Long-term hydrological predictions are important for water management planning, but are also prone to uncertainty. This study investigates three sources of uncertainty for long-term hydrological predictions in the US: climate models, hydrological models, and hydrological model parameters. Mapping the results revealed spatial patterns in the three sources of uncertainty: different sources of uncertainty dominate in different regions.
Joost Buitink, Remko Uijlenhoet, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We compared the hydrological response simulated at two different spatial resolutions. The low resolution model was not able to simulate the complex response as was simulated with the high resolution model. The low resolution model underestimated the anomalies when compared with the high resolution model. This has implications on the interpretation of global scale impact studies (low resolution) on local or regional scales (high resolution).
Matthew F. McCabe, Matthew Rodell, Douglas E. Alsdorf, Diego G. Miralles, Remko Uijlenhoet, Wolfgang Wagner, Arko Lucieer, Rasmus Houborg, Niko E. C. Verhoest, Trenton E. Franz, Jiancheng Shi, Huilin Gao, and Eric F. Wood
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3879–3914,Short summary
We examine the opportunities and challenges that technological advances in Earth observation will present to the hydrological community. From advanced space-based sensors to unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based distributed networks, these emergent systems are set to revolutionize our understanding and interpretation of hydrological and related processes.
Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Martyn Clark, Luis Samaniego, Niko E. C. Verhoest, Tim van Emmerik, Remko Uijlenhoet, Kevin Achieng, Trenton E. Franz, and Ross Woods
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3701–3713,Short summary
In this synthesis of hydrologic scaling and similarity, we assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modeling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological hypotheses. We call upon the community to develop a focused effort towards a fourth paradigm for hydrology.
Martyn P. Clark, Marc F. P. Bierkens, Luis Samaniego, Ross A. Woods, Remko Uijlenhoet, Katrina E. Bennett, Valentijn R. N. Pauwels, Xitian Cai, Andrew W. Wood, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3427–3440,Short summary
The diversity in hydrologic models has led to controversy surrounding the “correct” approach to hydrologic modeling. In this paper we revisit key modeling challenges on requirements to (1) define suitable model equations, (2) define adequate model parameters, and (3) cope with limitations in computing power. We outline the historical modeling challenges, summarize modeling advances that address these challenges, and define outstanding research needs.
Hidayat Hidayat, Adriaan J. Teuling, Bart Vermeulen, Muh Taufik, Karl Kastner, Tjitske J. Geertsema, Dinja C. C. Bol, Dirk H. Hoekman, Gadis Sri Haryani, Henny A. J. Van Lanen, Robert M. Delinom, Roel Dijksma, Gusti Z. Anshari, Nining S. Ningsih, Remko Uijlenhoet, and Antonius J. F. Hoitink
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2579–2594,Short summary
Hydrological prediction is crucial but in tropical lowland it is difficult, considering data scarcity and river system complexity. This study offers a view of the hydrology of two tropical lowlands in Indonesia. Both lowlands exhibit the important role of upstream wetlands in regulating the flow downstream. We expect that this work facilitates a better prediction of fire-prone conditions in these regions.
Lotte de Vos, Hidde Leijnse, Aart Overeem, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 765–777,Short summary
Recent developments have made it possible to easily crowdsource meteorological measurements from automatic personal weather stations worldwide. This has offered free access to rainfall ground measurements at spatial and temporal resolutions far exceeding those of national operational sensor networks, especially in cities. This paper is the first step to make optimal use of this promising source of rainfall measurements and identify challenges for future implementation for urban applications.
Anne F. Van Loon, Kerstin Stahl, Giuliano Di Baldassarre, Julian Clark, Sally Rangecroft, Niko Wanders, Tom Gleeson, Albert I. J. M. Van Dijk, Lena M. Tallaksen, Jamie Hannaford, Remko Uijlenhoet, Adriaan J. Teuling, David M. Hannah, Justin Sheffield, Mark Svoboda, Boud Verbeiren, Thorsten Wagener, and Henny A. J. Van Lanen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3631–3650,Short summary
In the Anthropocene, drought cannot be viewed as a natural hazard independent of people. Drought can be alleviated or made worse by human activities and drought impacts are dependent on a myriad of factors. In this paper, we identify research gaps and suggest a framework that will allow us to adequately analyse and manage drought in the Anthropocene. We need to focus on attribution of drought to different drivers, linking drought to its impacts, and feedbacks between drought and society.
C. Z. van de Beek, H. Leijnse, P. Hazenberg, and R. Uijlenhoet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3837–3850,Short summary
Quantitative precipitation estimation using weather radar is affected by many sources of error. This study is an attempt to separate and quantify sources of error very close to the radar. A 3-day event is analyzed using radar, rain gauge and disdrometer data. Without correction, the radar severely underestimates the total rain amount by more than 50 %. After correction for the errors, a good match with rain gauge measurements is found, with 5 to 8 % difference.
Lieke Melsen, Adriaan Teuling, Paul Torfs, Massimiliano Zappa, Naoki Mizukami, Martyn Clark, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2207–2226,Short summary
In this study we investigated the sensitivity of a large-domain hydrological model for spatial and temporal resolution. We evaluated the results on a mesoscale catchment in Switzerland. Our results show that the model was hardly sensitive for the spatial resolution, which implies that spatial variability is likely underestimated. Our results provide a motivation to improve the representation of spatial variability in hydrological models in order to increase their credibility on a smaller scale.
Aart Overeem, Hidde Leijnse, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2425–2444,Short summary
Microwave links in commercial cellular communication networks hold a promise for areal rainfall monitoring and could complement rainfall estimates from ground-based weather radars, rain gauges, and satellites. It has been shown that country-wide rainfall maps can be derived from the signal attenuations of microwave links in such a network. Here we give a detailed description of the employed rainfall retrieval algorithm and the corresponding code, which is freely provided at GitHub.
Lieke A. Melsen, Adriaan J. Teuling, Paul J. J. F. Torfs, Remko Uijlenhoet, Naoki Mizukami, and Martyn P. Clark
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1069–1079,Short summary
A meta-analysis on 192 peer-reviewed articles reporting applications of a land surface model in a distributed way reveals that the spatial resolution at which the model is applied has increased over the years, while the calibration and validation time interval has remained unchanged. We argue that the calibration and validation time interval should keep pace with the increase in spatial resolution in order to resolve the processes that are relevant at the applied spatial resolution.
M. F. Rios Gaona, A. Overeem, H. Leijnse, and R. Uijlenhoet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3571–3584,Short summary
Commercial cellular networks are built for telecommunication purposes. These kinds of networks have lately been used to obtain rainfall maps at country-wide scales. From previous studies, we now quantify the uncertainties associated with such maps. To do so, we divided the sources or error into two categories: from microwave link measurements and from mapping. It was found that the former is the source that contributes the most to the overall error in rainfall maps from microwave link network.
O. Rakovec, A. H. Weerts, J. Sumihar, and R. Uijlenhoet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2911–2924,Short summary
This is the first analysis of the asynchronous ensemble Kalman filter in hydrological forecasting. The results of discharge assimilation into a hydrological model for the catchment show that including past predictions and observations in the filter improves model forecasts. Additionally, we show that elimination of the strongly non-linear relation between soil moisture and assimilated discharge observations from the model update becomes beneficial for improved operational forecasting.
C. C. Brauer, P. J. J. F. Torfs, A. J. Teuling, and R. Uijlenhoet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4007–4028,
C. C. Brauer, A. J. Teuling, P. J. J. F. Torfs, and R. Uijlenhoet
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2313–2332,
A. I. Gevaert, A. J. Teuling, R. Uijlenhoet, S. B. DeLong, T. E. Huxman, L. A. Pangle, D. D. Breshears, J. Chorover, J. D. Pelletier, S. R. Saleska, X. Zeng, and P. A. Troch
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3681–3692,
Related subject area
Subject: Others (Wind, Precipitation, Temperature, etc.) | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Validation and IntercomparisonsScan strategies for wind profiling with Doppler lidar – an large-eddy simulation (LES)-based evaluationExploiting Aeolus level-2b winds to better characterize atmospheric motion vector bias and uncertaintyComparison of global UV irradiance measurements between a BTS CCD-array and a Brewer spectroradiometersModelling the spectral shape of continuous-wave lidar measurements in a turbulent wind tunnelThree-way calibration checks using ground-based, ship-based, and spaceborne radarsInter-comparison of wind measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer and the lower troposphere with Aeolus and a ground-based coherent Doppler lidar network over ChinaTowards operational multi-GNSS tropospheric products at GFZ PotsdamValidation of Aeolus Level 2B wind products using wind profilers, ground-based Doppler wind lidars, and radiosondes in JapanMonitoring the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) short-wave infrared (SWIR) module instrument stability using desert sitesInter-comparison of ABL height estimates from different profiling sensors and models in the framework of HyMeX-SOP1Evaluating the use of Aeolus satellite observations in the regional numerical weather prediction (NWP) model Harmonie–AromeInterpreting estimated observation error statistics of weather radar measurements using the ICON-LAM-KENDA systemValidation of Aeolus winds using ground-based radars in Antarctica and in northern SwedenIntercomparison review of IPWV retrieved from INSAT-3DR sounder, GNSS and CAMS reanalysis dataSensitivity of Aeolus HLOS winds to temperature and pressure specification in the L2B processorAirborne lidar observations of wind, water vapor, and aerosol profiles during the NASA Aeolus calibration and validation (Cal/Val) test flight campaignImproved method of estimating temperatures at meteor peak heightsError analyses of a multistatic meteor radar system to obtain a three-dimensional spatial-resolution distributionValidation of wind measurements of two mesosphere–stratosphere–troposphere radars in northern Sweden and in AntarcticaPerformance evaluation of multiple satellite rainfall products for Dhidhessa River Basin (DRB), EthiopiaA 2-year intercomparison of continuous-wave focusing wind lidar and tall mast wind measurements at CabauwUsing machine learning to model uncertainty for water vapor atmospheric motion vectorsValidation of pure rotational Raman temperature data from the Raman Lidar for Meteorological Observations (RALMO) at PayerneFlywheel calibration of a continuous-wave coherent Doppler wind lidarValidation of the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) surface UV radiation productImprovement of numerical weather prediction model analysis during fog conditions through the assimilation of ground-based microwave radiometer observations: a 1D-Var studyValidation of Aeolus wind products above the Atlantic OceanCommercial microwave links as a tool for operational rainfall monitoring in Northern ItalyInter-calibration of nine UV sensing instruments over Antarctica and Greenland since 1980Inter-calibrating SMMR brightness temperatures over continental surfacesValidating HY-2A CMR precipitable water vapor using ground-based and shipborne GNSS observationsRetrieval of lower-order moments of the drop size distribution using CSU-CHILL X-band polarimetric radar: a case studyGradient boosting machine learning to improve satellite-derived column water vapor measurement errorEvaluation of the 15-year ROM SAF monthly mean GPS radio occultation climate data recordConsistency and structural uncertainty of multi-mission GPS radio occultation recordsFirst validation of Aeolus wind observations by airborne Doppler wind lidar measurementsIntercomparison of wind observations from the European Space Agency's Aeolus satellite mission and the ALADIN Airborne DemonstratorCalibration and validation of the Polarimetric Radio Occultation and Heavy Precipitation experiment aboard the PAZ satelliteAutomatic quality control of the Meteosat First Generation measurementsConcurrent satellite and ground-based lightning observations from the Optical Lightning Imaging Sensor (ISS-LIS), the low-frequency network Meteorage and the SAETTA Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) in the northwestern Mediterranean regionUsing ground radar overlaps to verify the retrieval of calibration bias estimates from spaceborne platformsA geometry-dependent surface Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity product for UV–Vis retrievals – Part 2: Evaluation over open oceanOn the zero-level offset in the GOSAT TANSO-FTS O2 A band and the quality of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF): comparison of SIF between GOSAT and OCO-2Evaluation of GPM-DPR precipitation estimates with WegenerNet gauge dataA study of a two-dimensional scanned lunar image for Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) geometric calibrationMultistatic meteor radar observations of gravity-wave–tidal interaction over southern AustraliaA geometry-dependent surface Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity product for UV–Vis retrievals – Part 1: Evaluation over land surfaces using measurements from OMI at 466 nmRetrieval of convective available potential energy from INSAT-3D measurements: comparison with radiosonde data and their spatial–temporal variationsLidar temperature series in the middle atmosphere as a reference data set – Part 2: Assessment of temperature observations from MLS/Aura and SABER/TIMED satellitesPotential of INSAT-3D sounder-derived total precipitable water product for weather forecast
Charlotte Rahlves, Frank Beyrich, and Siegfried Raasch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2839–2856,Short summary
Lidars can measure the wind profile in the lower part of the atmosphere, provided that the wind field is horizontally uniform and does not change during the time of the measurement. These requirements are mostly not fulfilled in reality, and the lidar wind measurement will thus hold a certain error. We investigate different strategies for lidar wind profiling using a lidar simulator implemented in a numerical simulation of the wind field. Our findings can help to improve wind measurements.
Katherine E. Lukens, Kayo Ide, Kevin Garrett, Hui Liu, David Santek, Brett Hoover, and Ross N. Hoffman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2719–2743,Short summary
Winds that are crucial to weather forecasting derived from two different techniques – tracking satellite images (AMVs) and direct measurement of molecular and aerosol motions by Doppler lidar (Aeolus satellite winds) – are compared. We find that AMVs and Aeolus winds are highly correlated. Aeolus Mie-cloudy winds have great potential value as a comparison standard for AMVs. Larger differences are found in the Southern Hemisphere related to higher wind speed and higher vertical variation in wind.
Carmen González, José M. Vilaplana, José A. Bogeat, and Antonio Serrano
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Monitoring UV radiation is of great importance as it can have harmful effects on the biosphere. Array spectroradiometers are increasingly used to measure UV as they are more versatile than scanning spectroradiometers. In this study, the long-term performance of the BTS-2048-UV-S-WP array spectroradiometer has been assessed. The results show that the BTS can reliably measure both the UV index and UV radiation in the 300–360 nm range. Moreover, the BTS was stable and showed no seasonal behavior.
Marijn Floris van Dooren, Anantha Padmanabhan Kidambi Sekar, Lars Neuhaus, Torben Mikkelsen, Michael Hölling, and Martin Kühn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1355–1372,Short summary
The remote sensing technique lidar is widely used for wind speed measurements for both industrial and academic applications. Lidars can measure wind statistics accurately but cannot fully capture turbulent fluctuations in the high-frequency range, since they are partly filtered out. This paper therefore investigates the turbulence spectrum measured by a continuous-wave lidar and analytically models the lidar's measured spectrum with a Lorentzian filter function and a white noise term.
Alain Protat, Valentin Louf, Joshua Soderholm, Jordan Brook, and William Ponsonby
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 915–926,Short summary
This study uses collocated ship-based, ground-based, and spaceborne radar observations to validate the concept of using the GPM spaceborne radar observations to calibrate national weather radar networks to the accuracy required for operational severe weather applications such as rainfall and hail nowcasting.
Songhua Wu, Kangwen Sun, Guangyao Dai, Xiaoye Wang, Xiaoying Liu, Bingyi Liu, Xiaoquan Song, Oliver Reitebuch, Rongzhong Li, Jiaping Yin, and Xitao Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 131–148,Short summary
During the VAL-OUC campaign, we established a coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) network over China to verify the Level 2B (L2B) products from Aeolus. By the simultaneous wind measurements with CDLs at 17 stations, the L2B products from Aeolus are compared with those from CDLs. To our knowledge, the VAL-OUC campaign is the most extensive so far between CDLs and Aeolus in the lower troposphere for different atmospheric scenes. The vertical velocity impact on the HLOS retrieval from Aeolus is evaluated.
Karina Wilgan, Galina Dick, Florian Zus, and Jens Wickert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 21–39,Short summary
The assimilation of GNSS data in weather models has a positive impact on the forecasts. The impact is still limited due to using only the GPS zenith direction parameters. We calculate and validate more advanced tropospheric products from three satellite systems: the US American GPS, Russian GLONASS and European Galileo. The quality of all the solutions is comparable; however, combining more GNSS systems enhances the observations' geometry and improves the quality of the weather forecasts.
Hironori Iwai, Makoto Aoki, Mitsuru Oshiro, and Shoken Ishii
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7255–7275,Short summary
The first space-based Doppler wind lidar on board the Aeolus satellite was launched on 22 August 2018 to obtain global horizontal wind profiles. In this study, wind profilers, ground-based coherent Doppler wind lidars, and GPS radiosondes were used to validate the quality of Aeolus Level 2B wind products over Japan during three different periods. The results show that Aeolus can measure the horizontal winds over Japan accurately.
Tim A. van Kempen, Filippo Oggionni, and Richard M. van Hees
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6711–6722,Short summary
Validation of the instrument stability of the TROPOMI-SWIR module is done by monitoring a group of very stable and remote locations in the Saharan and Arabian deserts. These results confirm the excellent stability and lack of degradation of the TROPOMI-SWIR module derived from the internal calibration sources. The method was done for the first time on a spectrometer in the short-wave infrared and ensures TROPOMI-SWIR can be used for atmospheric research for years to come.
Donato Summa, Fabio Madonna, Noemi Franco, Bendetto De Rosa, and Paolo Di Girolamo
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH) has an important impact on meteorology. However, the complexity of the phenomena occurring within the ABL and the influence of advection and local accumulation processes often prevents an unambiguous determination of the ABLH. The paper reports results from an inter-comparison effort involving different sensors/techniques to measure the ABLH. Correlations between the ABLH and other atmospheric variables are also assessed.
Susanna Hagelin, Roohollah Azad, Magnus Lindskog, Harald Schyberg, and Heiner Körnich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5925–5938,Short summary
In this paper we study the impact of using wind observations from the Aeolus satellite, which provides wind speed profiles globally, in our numerical weather prediction system using a regional model covering the Nordic countries. The wind speed profiles from Aeolus are assimilated by the model, and we see that they have an impact on both the model analysis and forecast, though given the relatively few observations available the impact is often small.
Yuefei Zeng, Tijana Janjic, Yuxuan Feng, Ulrich Blahak, Alberto de Lozar, Elisabeth Bauernschubert, Klaus Stephan, and Jinzhong Min
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5735–5756,Short summary
Observation errors (OEs) of radar measurements are correlated. The Desroziers method has been often used to estimate statistics of OE in data assimilation. However, the resulting statistics consist of contributions from different sources and are difficult to interpret. Here, we use an approach based on samples for truncation error to approximate the representation error due to unresolved scales and processes (RE) and compare its statistics with OE statistics estimated by the Desroziers method.
Evgenia Belova, Sheila Kirkwood, Peter Voelger, Sourav Chatterjee, Karathazhiyath Satheesan, Susanna Hagelin, Magnus Lindskog, and Heiner Körnich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5415–5428,Short summary
Wind measurements from two radars (ESRAD in Arctic Sweden and MARA at the Indian Antarctic station Maitri) are compared with lidar winds from the ESA satellite Aeolus, for July–December 2019. The aim is to check if Aeolus data processing is adequate for the sunlit conditions of polar summer. Agreement is generally good with bias in Aeolus winds < 1 m/s in most circumstances. The exception is a large bias (7 m/s) when the satellite has crossed a sunlit Antarctic ice cap before passing MARA.
Ramashray Yadav, Ram Kumar Giri, and Virendra Singh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4857–4877,Short summary
We performed an intercomparison of seasonal and annual studies of retrievals of integrated precipitable water vapor (IPWV) carried out by INSAT-3DR satellite-borne infrared radiometer sounding and CAMS reanalysis data with ground-based Indian GNSS data. The magnitude and sign of the bias of INSAT-3DR and CAMS with respect to GNSS IPWV differs from station to station and season to season. A statistical evaluation of the collocated data sets was done to improve day-to-day weather forecasting.
Matic Šavli, Vivien Pourret, Christophe Payan, and Jean-François Mahfouf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4721–4736,Short summary
The ESA's Aeolus satellite wind retrieval is provided through a series of processors. It depends on the temperature and pressure specification, which, however, are not measured by the satellite. The numerical weather predicted values are used instead, but these are erroneous. This article studies the sensitivity of the wind retrieval by introducing errors in temperature and pressure. This has been found to be small for Aeolus but is expected to be more crucial for future missions.
Kristopher M. Bedka, Amin R. Nehrir, Michael Kavaya, Rory Barton-Grimley, Mark Beaubien, Brian Carroll, James Collins, John Cooney, G. David Emmitt, Steven Greco, Susan Kooi, Tsengdar Lee, Zhaoyan Liu, Sharon Rodier, and Gail Skofronick-Jackson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4305–4334,Short summary
This paper demonstrates the Doppler Aerosol WiNd (DAWN) lidar and High Altitude Lidar Observatory (HALO) measurement capabilities across a range of atmospheric conditions, compares DAWN and HALO measurements with Aeolus satellite Doppler wind lidar to gain an initial perspective of Aeolus performance, and discusses how atmospheric dynamic processes can be resolved and better understood through simultaneous observations of wind, water vapour, and aerosol profile observations.
Emranul Sarkar, Alexander Kozlovsky, Thomas Ulich, Ilkka Virtanen, Mark Lester, and Bernd Kaifler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4157–4169,Short summary
The biasing effect in meteor radar temperature has been a pressing issue for the last 2 decades. This paper has addressed the underlying reasons for such a biasing effect on both theoretical and experimental grounds. An improved statistical method has been developed which allows atmospheric temperatures at around 90 km to be measured with meteor radar in an independent way such that any subsequent bias correction or calibration is no longer required.
Wei Zhong, Xianghui Xue, Wen Yi, Iain M. Reid, Tingdi Chen, and Xiankang Dou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3973–3988,
Evgenia Belova, Peter Voelger, Sheila Kirkwood, Susanna Hagelin, Magnus Lindskog, Heiner Körnich, Sourav Chatterjee, and Karathazhiyath Satheesan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2813–2825,Short summary
We validate horizontal wind measurements at altitudes of 0.5–14 km made with atmospheric radars: ESRAD located near Kiruna in the Swedish Arctic and MARA at the Indian research station Maitri in Antarctica, by comparison with radiosondes, the regional model HARMONIE-AROME and the ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis. Good agreement was found in general, and radar bias and uncertainty were estimated. These radars are planned to be used for validation of winds measured by lidar by the ESA satellite Aeolus.
Gizachew Kabite Wedajo, Misgana Kebede Muleta, and Berhan Gessesse Awoke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2299–2316,Short summary
Satellite rainfall estimates (SREs) are alternative data sources for data-scarce basins. However, the accuracy of the products is plagued by multiple sources of errors. Therefore, SREs should be evaluated for particular basins before being used for other applications. The results of the study showed that CHIRPS2 and IMERG6 estimated rainfall and predicted hydrologic simulations well for Dhidhessa River Basin, which shows remote sensing technology could improve hydrologic studies.
Steven Knoop, Fred C. Bosveld, Marijn J. de Haij, and Arnoud Apituley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2219–2235,Short summary
Doppler wind lidars are laser-based remote sensing instruments that measure the wind up to a few hundred metres or even a few kilometres. Their data can improve weather models and help forecasters. To investigate their accuracy and required meteorological conditions, we have carried out a 2-year measurement campaign of a wind lidar at our Cabauw test site and made a comparison with cup anemometers and wind vanes at several levels in a 213 m tall meteorological mast.
Joaquim V. Teixeira, Hai Nguyen, Derek J. Posselt, Hui Su, and Longtao Wu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1941–1957,Short summary
Wind-tracking algorithms produce atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) by tracking satellite observations. Accurately characterizing the uncertainties in AMVs is essential in assimilating them into data assimilation models. We develop a machine-learning-based approach for error characterization which involves Gaussian mixture model clustering and random forest using a simulation dataset of water vapor, AMVs, and true winds. We show that our method improves on existing AMV error characterizations.
Giovanni Martucci, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Ludovic Renaud, Gonzague Romanens, S. Mahagammulla Gamage, Maxime Hervo, Pierre Jeannet, and Alexander Haefele
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1333–1353,Short summary
This article presents a validation of 1.5 years of pure rotational temperature data measured by the Raman lidar RALMO installed at the MeteoSwiss station of Payerne. The statistical results are in terms of bias and standard deviation with respect to two well-established radiosounding systems. The statistics are divided into daytime (bias = 0.28 K, SD = 0.62±0.03 K) and nighttime (bias = 0.29 K, SD = 0.66±0.06 K). The lidar temperature profiles are applied to cloud supersaturation studies.
Anders Tegtmeier Pedersen and Michael Courtney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 889–903,Short summary
This paper suggests and describes a method for calibrating wind lidars using a rotating flywheel. An uncertainty analysis shows that a standard uncertainty of 0.1 % can be achieved, with the main contributor being the width of the laser beam which is in agreement with experimental results. The method can potentially lower the calibration uncertainty of wind lidars, which today is often based on cup anemometers, and thus lead to better wind assessments and perhaps more widespread use.
Kaisa Lakkala, Jukka Kujanpää, Colette Brogniez, Nicolas Henriot, Antti Arola, Margit Aun, Frédérique Auriol, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Germar Bernhard, Veerle De Bock, Maxime Catalfamo, Christine Deroo, Henri Diémoz, Luca Egli, Jean-Baptiste Forestier, Ilias Fountoulakis, Katerina Garane, Rosa Delia Garcia, Julian Gröbner, Seppo Hassinen, Anu Heikkilä, Stuart Henderson, Gregor Hülsen, Bjørn Johnsen, Niilo Kalakoski, Angelos Karanikolas, Tomi Karppinen, Kevin Lamy, Sergio F. León-Luis, Anders V. Lindfors, Jean-Marc Metzger, Fanny Minvielle, Harel B. Muskatel, Thierry Portafaix, Alberto Redondas, Ricardo Sanchez, Anna Maria Siani, Tove Svendby, and Johanna Tamminen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6999–7024,Short summary
The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) satellite was launched on 13 October 2017 to provide the atmospheric composition for atmosphere and climate research. Ground-based data from 25 sites located in Arctic, subarctic, temperate, equatorial and Antarctic areas were used for the validation of the TROPOMI surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product. For most sites 60 %–80 % of TROPOMI data was within ± 20 % of ground-based data.
Pauline Martinet, Domenico Cimini, Frédéric Burnet, Benjamin Ménétrier, Yann Michel, and Vinciane Unger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6593–6611,Short summary
Each year large human and economical losses are due to fog episodes. However, fog forecasts remain quite inaccurate, partly due to a lack of observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. The benefit of ground-based microwave radiometers has been investigated and has demonstrated their capability of significantly improving the initial state of temperature and liquid water content profiles in current numerical weather prediction models, paving the way for improved fog forecasts in the future.
Holger Baars, Alina Herzog, Birgit Heese, Kevin Ohneiser, Karsten Hanbuch, Julian Hofer, Zhenping Yin, Ronny Engelmann, and Ulla Wandinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6007–6024,Short summary
A first validation for the European satellite Aeolus is presented. Aeolus is the first satellite that can actively measure horizontal wind profiles from space. Radiosonde launches on board the German research vessel Polarstern have been utilized to validate Aeolus observations over the Atlantic Ocean, a region where almost no other reference measurements are available. It is shown that Aeolus is able to measure accurately atmospheric winds and thus may significantly improve weather forecasts.
Giacomo Roversi, Pier Paolo Alberoni, Anna Fornasiero, and Federico Porcù
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5779–5797,Short summary
The microwave signal travelling between two antennas of the commercial mobile backhaul network is strongly attenuated by rainfall. The open-source RAINLINK algorithm extracts rainfall rate maps, processing the attenuation data recorded by the transmission system. In this work, we applied RAINLINK to 357 Vodafone links in northern Italy and compared the outputs with the operational rain products of the local weather service (Arpae), outlining pros and cons and discussing error structure.
Clark J. Weaver, Pawan K. Bhartia, Dong L. Wu, Gordon J. Labow, and David E. Haffner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5715–5723,Short summary
Currently, we do not know whether clouds will accelerate or moderate climate. We look to the past and ask whether cloudiness has changed over the last 4 decades. Using a suite of nine satellite instruments, we need to ensure that the first satellite, which was launched in 1980 and died in 1991, observed the same measurement as the eight other satellite instruments used in the record. If the instruments were measuring length and observing a 1.00 m long stick, they would all see 0.99 to 1.01 m.
Samuel Favrichon, Carlos Jimenez, and Catherine Prigent
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5481–5490,Short summary
Long-term monitoring of satellite-derived variables is necessary for a better understanding of the evolution of Earth parameters at global scale. However different instruments' observations used over the years need to be inter-calibrated with each other to provide meaningful information. This paper describes how a linear correction can improve the observations from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer over continental surfaces to be more consistent with more recent radiometers.
Zhilu Wu, Yanxiong Liu, Yang Liu, Jungang Wang, Xiufeng He, Wenxue Xu, Maorong Ge, and Harald Schuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4963–4972,Short summary
The HY-2A calibration microwave radiometer (CMR) water vapor product is validated using ground-based GNSS observations along the coastline and shipborne GNSS observations over the Indian Ocean. The validation result shows that HY-2A CMR PWV agrees well with ground-based GNSS PWV, with 2.67 mm in rms within 100 km and an RMS of 1.57 mm with shipborne GNSS for the distance threshold of 100 km. Ground-based GNSS and shipborne GNSS agree with HY-2A CMR well.
Viswanathan Bringi, Kumar Vijay Mishra, Merhala Thurai, Patrick C. Kennedy, and Timothy H. Raupach
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4727–4750,Short summary
The raindrop size distribution and its moments are fundamental in many areas, such as radar measurement of rainfall using polarimetry and numerical modeling of the microphysical processes of rain formation and evolution. We develop a technique which uses advanced radar measurements and complete drop size distributions using two collocated instruments to retrieve the lower-order moments such as total drop concentration and rain water content. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept using a case study.
Allan C. Just, Yang Liu, Meytar Sorek-Hamer, Johnathan Rush, Michael Dorman, Robert Chatfield, Yujie Wang, Alexei Lyapustin, and Itai Kloog
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4669–4681,Short summary
A flexible machine-learning model was fit to explain the differences between estimates of water vapor from satellites versus ground stations in Northeastern USA. We use nine variables derived from the satellite acquisition and ground characteristics to explain this measurement error. Our results showed overall good agreement, but data from the Terra satellite were drifting too high in recent summers. Our model reduces measurement error and works well in new locations in the northeast.
Hans Gleisner, Kent B. Lauritsen, Johannes K. Nielsen, and Stig Syndergaard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3081–3098,Short summary
Data from GPS radio occultation (RO) instruments aboard a series of satellites have been reprocessed by the ROM SAF. We describe the monthly mean RO climate data records (CDRs) and the methods for removing sampling errors. The quality of the CDRs is evaluated, with a focus on systematic differences between satellite missions. Between 8 and 30 km, the data quality and the inter-mission differences are small enough to allow the generation of combined multi-mission data records starting in 2001.
Andrea K. Steiner, Florian Ladstädter, Chi O. Ao, Hans Gleisner, Shu-Peng Ho, Doug Hunt, Torsten Schmidt, Ulrich Foelsche, Gottfried Kirchengast, Ying-Hwa Kuo, Kent B. Lauritsen, Anthony J. Mannucci, Johannes K. Nielsen, William Schreiner, Marc Schwärz, Sergey Sokolovskiy, Stig Syndergaard, and Jens Wickert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2547–2575,Short summary
High-quality observations are critically important for monitoring the Earth’s changing climate. We provide information on the consistency and long-term stability of observations from GPS radio occultation (RO). We assess, for the first time, RO records from multiple RO missions and all major RO data providers. Our results quantify where RO can be used for reliable trend assessment and confirm its climate quality.
Benjamin Witschas, Christian Lemmerz, Alexander Geiß, Oliver Lux, Uwe Marksteiner, Stephan Rahm, Oliver Reitebuch, and Fabian Weiler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2381–2396,Short summary
Aeolus, the first ever wind lidar in space, has been providing wind profiles on a global scale since its launch. In order to validate the quality of Aeolus wind observations, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) recently performed two airborne campaigns over central Europe deploying two different Doppler wind lidars. A total of 10 satellite underflights were performed and used to validate the early-stage wind data product of Aeolus by means of collocated airborne wind lidar observations.
Oliver Lux, Christian Lemmerz, Fabian Weiler, Uwe Marksteiner, Benjamin Witschas, Stephan Rahm, Alexander Geiß, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2075–2097,Short summary
This work reports on the first airborne validation campaign of ESA’s Earth Explorer mission Aeolus, conducted in central Europe during the commissioning phase in November 2018. After presenting the methodology used to compare the data sets from the satellite, the airborne wind lidar and the ECWMF model, the wind results from the underflights performed are analyzed and discussed, providing a first assessment of the accuracy and precision of the preliminary Aeolus wind data.
Ramon Padullés, Chi O. Ao, F. Joseph Turk, Manuel de la Torre Juárez, Byron Iijima, Kuo Nung Wang, and Estel Cardellach
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1299–1313,Short summary
In this study we thoroughly address the calibration and validation of the new polarimetric radio occultation (PRO) observables. These represent an innovative way to obtain vertical profiles of precipitation along with thermodynamic observations of the same scene. First we perform the on-orbit calibration of the measurement. Then, we show how the PRO observables are sensitive to the presence and intensity of rain by looking for coincident precipitation measurements from independent missions.
Freek Liefhebber, Sarah Lammens, Paul W. G. Brussee, André Bos, Viju O. John, Frank Rüthrich, Jacobus Onderwaater, Michael G. Grant, and Jörg Schulz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1167–1179,Short summary
The paper addresses the need for automatic quality control of a whole series of Earth observation (EO) time series extending a period of over 40 years. Such a dataset is valuable and may provide important information about trends related to geo-physical processes. Furthermore, as the dataset is that large, there is a need to completely automate the processes, as otherwise the effort would become impracticable. The result is a system with a high probability of detection and low false alarm rate.
Felix Erdmann, Eric Defer, Olivier Caumont, Richard J. Blakeslee, Stéphane Pédeboy, and Sylvain Coquillat
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 853–875,Short summary
This article compares lightning observations from an optical sensor onboard the International Space Station to two ground-based networks using different radio frequencies. The location and timing of coincident flashes agree well for the three instruments. Differences exist for the detected number of flashes and the characteristics. Small flashes in particular are not always detected by all three instruments. About half of the flashes at altitudes below 10 km are not seen by the satellite sensor.
Irene Crisologo and Maik Heistermann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 645–659,Short summary
Archives of radar observations often suffer from errors, one of which is calibration. However, it is possible to correct them after the fact by using satellite radars as a calibration reference. We propose improvements to this calibration method by considering factors that affect the data quality, such that poor quality data gets filtered out in the bias calculation by assigning weights. We also show that the bias can be interpolated in time even for days when there are no satellite data.
Zachary Fasnacht, Alexander Vasilkov, David Haffner, Wenhan Qin, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay Krotkov, Andrew M. Sayer, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6749–6769,Short summary
The anisotropy of Earth's surface reflection plays an important role in satellite-based retrievals of cloud, aerosol, and trace gases. Most current ultraviolet and visible satellite retrievals utilize climatological surface reflectivity databases that do not account for surface anisotropy. The GLER concept was introduced to account for such features. Here we evaluate GLER for water surfaces by comparing with OMI measurements and show that it captures these surface anisotropy features.
Haruki Oshio, Yukio Yoshida, and Tsuneo Matsunaga
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6721–6735,Short summary
We investigate the radiance offset in the O2 A band of GOSAT spectrometer and quality of the offset-corrected solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF). An analysis of temporal variation of the offset suggests that the radiometric sensitivity of the spectrometer changed after switching the optics path selector in January 2015. Comparisons at multiple spatial scales show good agreement between GOSAT SIF and OCO-2 SIF, which supports the consistency among the present satellite SIF data.
Martin Lasser, Sungmin O, and Ulrich Foelsche
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5055–5070,Short summary
This paper evaluates the rain rate estimates from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's radar instrument by comparing them to the data of the WegenerNet, a local-scale high-resolution network of meteorological stations. Our results show that the GPM-DPR estimates basically match with the WegenerNet measurements, but absolute quantities are biased.
Jun Zhou and Hu Yang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4983–4992,Short summary
Evaluating the on-orbit geolocation accuracy of the ATMS is of great importance. The widely used Earth-target-dependent methods are crippled by the strong atmospheric absorption at sounding channels and cloud contamination at window channels. To solve these issues, this study developed a geolocation evaluation algorithm based on a unique 2-D lunar scan dataset captured by the ATMS during a NOAA-20 pitch-over maneuver operation. The results are validated by the coastline inflection point method.
Andrew John Spargo, Iain Murray Reid, and Andrew David MacKinnon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4791–4812,Short summary
We simulate the ability of a recently installed multistation meteor detection radar to measure characteristics of turbulence in the Earth's lower ionosphere. After verifying that it performs reasonably well, we use the radar's data to study an interaction between turbulence and tidal effects. We performed the study because no one has yet applied a multistation radar to this problem before and because multistation radars like this are becoming increasingly common worldwide.
Wenhan Qin, Zachary Fasnacht, David Haffner, Alexander Vasilkov, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay Krotkov, Bradford Fisher, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3997–4017,Short summary
Satellite observations depend on Sun and view angles due to anisotropy of the Earth's atmosphere and surface reflection. But most of the ultraviolet and visible cloud, aerosol, and trace-gas algorithms utilize surface reflectivity databases that do not account for surface anisotropy. We create a surface database using the GLER concept which adequately accounts for surface anisotropy, validate it with independent satellite data, and provide a simple implementation to the current algorithms.
Uriya Veerendra Murali Krishna, Subrata Kumar Das, Kizhathur Narasimhan Uma, and Govindan Pandithurai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 777–790,Short summary
Convective available potential energy (CAPE) is an indicator of the occurrence of extreme weather. For the first time over India, this study estimated CAPE from high spatial–temporal resolution measurements of the geostationary satellite, INSAT-3D. INSAT-3D estimates that CAPE reasonably represents the radiosonde CAPE. This study allows the atmospheric science community to select the best available dataset for their use in nowcasting and making severe weather warnings based on numerical models.
Robin Wing, Alain Hauchecorne, Philippe Keckhut, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Sergey Khaykin, and Emily M. McCullough
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6703–6717,Short summary
We have compared 2433 nights of OHP lidar temperatures (2002–2018) to temperatures derived from the satellites SABER and MLS. We have found a winter stratopause cold bias in the satellite measurements with respect to the lidar (−6 K for SABER and −17 K for MLS), a summer mesospheric warm bias for SABER (6 K near 60 km), and a vertically structured bias for MLS (−4 to 4 K). We have corrected the satellite data based on the lidar-determined stratopause height and found a significant improvement.
Shailesh Parihar, Ashim Kumar Mitra, Mrutyunjay Mohapatra, and Rajjev Bhatla
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6003–6012,Short summary
This paper is based on operational work carried out at IMD, New Delhi using the INSAT-3D satellite-derived sounder product TPW for weather events such as rainfall and thunderstorms. The INSAT-3D TPW has been used by forecasters as well as many other users over the last 2 years. This work mainly brings out an in-depth validation with in situ ground measurement data as well as a GNSS system for its suitability in weather prediction. This paper can be utilized operationally for weather purposes.
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The existing infrastructure for cellular communication is promising for ground-based rainfall remote sensing. Rain-induced signal attenuation is used in dedicated algorithms for retrieving rainfall depth along commercial microwave links (CMLs) between cell phone towers. This processing is a source of many uncertainties about input data, algorithm structures, parameters, CML network, and local climate. Application of a stochastic optimization method leads to improved CML rainfall estimates.
The existing infrastructure for cellular communication is promising for ground-based rainfall...