Articles | Volume 15, issue 22
23 Nov 2022
Research article | 23 Nov 2022
New method to determine black carbon mass size distribution
Weilun Zhao et al.
No articles found.
Juan Hong, Min Tang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Nan Ma, Shaowen Zhu, Shaobin Zhang, Xihao Pan, Linhong Xie, Guo Li, Uwe Kuhn, Chao Yan, Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Yao He, Wanyun Xu, Runlong Cai, Yaqing Zhou, Zhibin Wang, Guangsheng Zhou, Bin Yuan, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Comprehensive investigation of the characteristics of new particle formation events was conducted at a rural site in the North China Plain (NCP) of China during the wintertime of 2018 by covering the particle number size distribution down to sub-3 nm. Potential mechanisms for NPF under current environment was explored, followed by further discussion on the factors governing the occurring of NPF at this rural site compared with other regions (e.g. urban areas) in NCP.
Liang Yuan and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Chemical compositions variy between and within particles due to the complex sources and aging processes, causing particle-to-particle heterogeneity in aerosol hygroscopicity, which is of great importance to aerosol climatic and environmental effects. This study proposes an algorithm to quantify the heterogeneity from in-situ measurements, providing a framework for merging observation into numerical model to investigate how the heterogeneity influences aerosol impacts on climate and environment.
Xurong Wang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Maria Prass, Christopher Pöhlker, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Paulo Artaxo, Jianwei Gu, Ning Yang, Xiajie Yang, Jiangchuan Tao, Juan Hong, Nan Ma, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In this work, with optimized particle mass size distribution, we well captured observed AOD and coarse aerosol concentrations over source and/or receptor regions, demonstrating the well performance in simulating the export of African dust towards the Amazon Basin. In addition to the factors controlling the trans-Atlantic transport of African dust, the study also investigated the impact of African dust over the Amazon Basin including the nutrient inputs associated with dust deposition.
Lizi Tang, Min Hu, Dongjie Shang, Xin Fang, Janjiong Mao, Wanyun Xu, Jiacheng Zhou, Weixiong Zhao, Yaru Wang, Chong Zhang, Yingjie Zhang, Jianlin Hu, Limin Zeng, Chunxiang Ye, Song Guo, and Zhijun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
There was an evident distinction in the frequencies of NPF events at Nam Co station in the Tibetan Plateau with 15 % in pre-monsoon season and 80 % in monsoon season. The frequent NPF events in monsoon season resulted from the higher concentration of organic vapours, which was brought from northeast India by the strong southerly monsoon. It had increased significantly the amount of aerosol and CCN compared with those in pre-monsoon season, which may markedly affect the earth's radiation balance.
Gang Zhao, Tianyi Tan, Shuya Hu, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Zhijun Wu, Song Guo, Jing Zheng, Wenfei Zhu, Mengren Li, Limin Zeng, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10861–10873,Short summary
Black carbon is the second strongest absorbing component in the atmosphere that exerts warming effects on climate. One critical challenge in quantifying the ambient black carbon's radiative effects is addressing the BC microphysical properties. In this study, the microphysical properties of the aged and fresh BC particles are synthetically analyzed under different atmospheres. The measurement results can be further used in models to help constrain the uncertainties of the BC radiative effects.
Ting Lei, Hang Su, Nan Ma, Ulrich Pöschl, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We investigate the hygroscopic behavior of levoglucosan and D-glucose nanoparticles using a nano-HTDMA. There is a weak size dependence of hygroscopic growth factor of levoglucosan and D-glucose with diameters down to 20 nm, while a strong size dependence of the hygroscopic growth factor of D-glucose has been clearly observed in the size range from 6 to 20 nm. The use of the DKA method leads to good agreement with hygroscopic growth factor of glucose nanoparticles with diameters down to 6 nm.
Kai Song, Song Guo, Yuanzheng Gong, Daqi Lv, Yuan Zhang, Zichao Wan, Tianyu Li, Wenfei Zhu, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Ruizhe Shen, Sihua Lu, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9827–9841,Short summary
Emissions from four typical Chinese domestic cooking and fried chicken using four kinds of oils were investigated to illustrate the impact of cooking style and oil. Of the estimated SOA, 10.2 %–32.0 % could be explained by S/IVOC oxidation. Multiway principal component analysis (MPCA) emphasizes the importance of the unsaturated fatty acid-alkadienal volatile product mechanism (oil autoxidation) accelerated by the cooking and heating procedure.
Najin Kim, Hang Su, Nan Ma, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We propose a multiple charging correction algorithm for BS2-CCN system which can obtain the aerosol hygroscopicity and CCN activity with a high time resolution. Unlike existing algorithms, the correction algorithm aims at deriving the true value of activation fraction at each particle size. The meaningful differences between corrected and original κ values (single hygroscopicity parameter) emphasize the importance of correction algorithm for ambient aerosol measurement.
Jiaxing Sun, Yele Sun, Conghui Xie, Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Zhe Wang, Lei Li, Xubing Du, Fugui Huang, Yan Li, Zhijie Li, Xiaole Pan, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7619–7630,Short summary
We analyzed the chemical composition and mixing state of BC-containing particles at urban and rural sites in winter in the North China Plain and evaluated their impact on light absorption enhancement. BC was dominantly mixed with organic carbon, nitrate, and sulfate, and the mixing state evolved significantly as a function of relative humidity (RH) at both sites. The absorption enhancement depended strongly on coated secondary inorganic aerosol and was up to ~1.3–1.4 during aging processes.
Cuiqi Zhang, Zhijun Wu, Jingchuan Chen, Jie Chen, Lizi Tang, Wenfei Zhu, Xiangyu Pei, Shiyi Chen, Ping Tian, Song Guo, Limin Zeng, Min Hu, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7539–7556,Short summary
The immersion ice nucleation effectiveness of aerosols from multiple sources in the urban environment remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that the immersion ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentration increased dramatically during a dust event in an urban atmosphere. Pollutant aerosols, including inorganic salts formed through secondary transformation (SIA) and black carbon (BC), might not act as effective INPs under mixed-phase cloud conditions.
Shidong Fan and Ying Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7331–7351,Short summary
We investigated the mechanisms by which marine-emitted halogens influence the OH radical, which is not considered in air quality forecasting model systems. The atmospheric OH radical has a complicated response to halogen emissions by species through both physical and chemical processes. Over ocean, inorganic iodine is the controlling species and chemistry is more important. Over land, the physics of sea salt aerosols are more important. The mechanism is applicable to other circumstances.
Yuanzheng Gong, Kai Song, Song Guo, Daqi Lv, Yuan Zhang, Zichao Wan, Wenfei Zhu, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Ruizhe Shen, Sihua Lu, Shuangde Li, and Yunfa Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Herein we applied thermal desorption comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TD-GCxGC-MS) for synchronous analysis of gaseous and particulate organics emitted from cooking fumes. With a systematic 4-step qualitative procedure and precise quantitative and semi-quantitative method, 170 and 352 compounds from C2 (acetic acids) – C30 (squalene) occupying 95 % and 90 % of the total ion current for gaseous and particulate samples were identified and quantified.
Haoran Zhang, Nan Li, Keqin Tang, Hong Liao, Chong Shi, Cheng Huang, Hongli Wang, Song Guo, Min Hu, Xinlei Ge, Mindong Chen, Zhenxin Liu, Huan Yu, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5495–5514,Short summary
We developed a new algorithm with low economic/technique costs to identify primary and secondary components of PM2.5. Our model was shown to be reliable by comparison with different observation datasets. We systematically explored the patterns and changes in the secondary PM2.5 pollution in China at large spatial and time scales. We believe that this method is a promising tool for efficiently estimating primary and secondary PM2.5, and has huge potential for future PM mitigation.
Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Song Guo, Misti Levy Zamora, Pengfei Tian, Qiong Su, Yuemeng Ji, Jiayun Zhao, Mario Gomez-Hernandez, Min Hu, and Renyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4951–4967,Short summary
Severe regional haze events, which are characterized by exceedingly high levels of fine particulate matter (PM), occur frequently in many developing countries (such as China and India), with profound implications for human health, weather, and climate. Our work establishes a synthetic view for the dominant regional features during severe haze events, unraveling rapid in situ PM production and inefficient transport, both of which are amplified by atmospheric stagnation.
Jingnan Shi, Juan Hong, Nan Ma, Qingwei Luo, Yao He, Hanbing Xu, Haobo Tan, Qiaoqiao Wang, Jiangchuan Tao, Yaqing Zhou, Shuang Han, Long Peng, Linhong Xie, Guangsheng Zhou, Wanyun Xu, Yele Sun, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4599–4613,Short summary
In this study, we investigated the hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols at a rural site in the North China Plain during the winter of 2018, using a HTDMA and a CV-ToF-ACSM. We observed differences in aerosol hygroscopicity during two distinct episodes with different primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation processes. These results provide an improved understanding of the complex influence of sources and aerosol evolution processes on their hygroscopicity.
Shuang Han, Juan Hong, Qingwei Luo, Hanbing Xu, Haobo Tan, Qiaoqiao Wang, Jiangchuan Tao, Yaqing Zhou, Long Peng, Yao He, Jingnan Shi, Nan Ma, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3985–4004,Short summary
We present the hygroscopicity of 23 organic species with different physicochemical properties using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) and compare the results with previous studies. Based on the hygroscopicity parameter κ, the influence of different physicochemical properties that potentially drive hygroscopicity, such as the functionality, water solubility, molar volume, and O : C ratio of organics, are examined separately.
Ying Li, Xiangjun Zhao, Xuejiao Deng, and Jinhui Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3861–3873,Short summary
This study finds a new phenomenon of weak wind deepening (WWD) associated with the peripheral circulation of typhoon and gives the influence mechanism of WWD on its contribution to daily variation during sustained ozone episodes. The WWD provides the premise for pollution accumulation in the whole PBL and continued enhancement of ground-level ozone via vertical mixing processes. These findings could benefit the daily daytime ozone forecast in the PRD region and other areas.
Xiajie Yang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Nan Ma, Weiwei Hu, Yang Gao, Zhijiong Huang, Junyu Zheng, Bin Yuan, Ning Yang, Jiangchuan Tao, Juan Hong, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3743–3762,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem model with additional anthropogenic and biomass burning chlorine emissions combined with updated parameterizations for N2O5 ＋ Cl chemistry to investigate the impacts of chlorine chemistry on air quality in China. Our study not only significantly improves the model's performance but also demonstrates the importance of non-sea-salt chlorine sources as well as an appropriate parameterization for N2O5 ＋ Cl chemistry to the impact of chlorine chemistry in China.
Yaqing Zhou, Nan Ma, Qiaoqiao Wang, Zhibin Wang, Chunrong Chen, Jiangchuan Tao, Juan Hong, Long Peng, Yao He, Linhong Xie, Shaowen Zhu, Yuxuan Zhang, Guo Li, Wanyun Xu, Peng Cheng, Uwe Kuhn, Guangsheng Zhou, Pingqing Fu, Qiang Zhang, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2029–2047,Short summary
This study characterizes size-resolved particle effective densities and their evolution associated with emissions and aging processes in a rural area of the North China Plain. Particle effective density exhibits a high-frequency bimodal distribution, and two density modes exhibit opposite trends with increasing particle size. SIA and BC mass fractions are key factors of particle effective density, and a value of 0.6 g cm−3 is appropriate to represent BC effective density in bulk particles.
Gang Zhao, Tianyi Tan, Yishu Zhu, Min Hu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18055–18063,Short summary
In this study, the black carbon (BC) mixing state index (χ) is developed to quantify the dispersion of ambient black carbon aerosol mixing states based on binary systems of BC and other non-black carbon components. We demonstrate that the BC light absorption enhancement increases with χ for the same MR, which indicates that χ can be employed as a factor to constrain the light absorption enhancement of ambient BC.
Najin Kim, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Mira L. Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Thomas F. Mentel, Ovid O. Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6991–7005,Short summary
A broad supersaturation scanning CCN (BS2-CCN) system, in which particles are exposed to a range of supersaturation simultaneously, can measure a broad range of CCN activity distribution with a high time resolution. We describe how the BS2-CCN system can be effectively calibrated and which factors can affect the calibration curve. Intercomparison experiments between typical DMA-CCN and BS2-CCN measurements to evaluate the BS2-CCN system showed high correlation and good agreement.
Zirui Zhang, Wenfei Zhu, Min Hu, Kefan Liu, Hui Wang, Rongzhi Tang, Ruizhe Shen, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Hongming Xu, Shijin Shuai, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Jiayun Li, Yuesi Wang, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15221–15237,Short summary
We comprehensively investigated the mass growth potential, oxidation degree, formation pathway, and mass spectra features of typical urban-lifestyle secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) including vehicle SOAs and cooking SOAs. The mass spectra we acquired could provide necessary references to estimate the mass fractions of vehicle and cooking SOAs in the atmosphere, which would greatly decrease the uncertainty in air quality evaluation and health risk assessment in urban areas.
Wenfei Zhu, Song Guo, Zirui Zhang, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Zheng Chen, Ruizhe Shen, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Kefan Liu, Rongzhi Tang, Yi Liu, Shengrong Lou, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Shijin Shuai, Hongming Xu, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Min Hu, Francesco Canonaco, and Andre S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15065–15079,Short summary
The experiments of primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from urban lifestyle sources (cooking and vehicles) were conducted. The mass spectral features of primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA were characterized by using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. This work, for the first time, establishes the vehicle and cooking SOA source profiles and can be further used as source constraints in the OA source apportionment in the ambient atmosphere.
Helmi Uusitalo, Jenni Kontkanen, Ilona Ylivinkka, Ekaterina Ezhova, Anastasiia Demakova, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Denisovich Belan, Denis Davydov, Nan Ma, Tuukka Petäjä, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markku Kulmala, and Tuomo Nieminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Characteristics of formation of atmospheric aerosol at four boreal forest sites in Finland and Russian Siberia was analyzed. Our results provide information on the governing processes of atmospheric aerosol formation in the boreal forest area, which a substantial part of the continental biosphere. Aerosol formation was occurring less frequently at Siberian than in Finnish sites, which was affected by the lower particle growth rates and higher loss rates in Siberia.
Jie Qiu, Wangshu Tan, Gang Zhao, Yingli Yu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4879–4891,Short summary
Considering nephelometers' major problems of a nonideal Lambertian light source and angle truncation, a new correction method based on a machine learning model is proposed. Our method has the advantage of obtaining data with high accuracy while achieving self-correction, which means that researchers can get more accurate scattering coefficients without the need for additional observation data. This method provides a more precise estimation of the aerosol’s direct radiative forcing.
Gang Zhao, Yishu Zhu, Zhijun Wu, Taomou Zong, Jingchuan Chen, Tianyi Tan, Haichao Wang, Xin Fang, Keding Lu, Chunsheng Zhao, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9995–10004,Short summary
New particle formation is thought to contribute half of the global cloud condensation nuclei. We find that the new particle formation is more likely to happen in the upper boundary layer than that at the ground, which can be partially explained by the aerosol–radiation interaction. Our study emphasizes the influence of aerosol–radiation interaction on the NPF.
Tianyi Tan, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Gang Zhao, Dongjie Shang, Jing Zheng, Yanhong Qin, Mengren Li, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Song Guo, and Zhijun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8499–8510,Short summary
Every year in the pre-monsoon season, the black carbon (BC) aerosols originated from biomass burning in southern Asia are easily transported to the Tibetan Plateau (TP) by the convenience of westerly wind. This study reveals that the BC aerosols in the aged biomass burning plumes strongly enhance the total light absorption over the TP, and the aging process during the long-range transport will further strengthen the radiative heating of those BC aerosols.
Kai Song, Song Guo, Haichao Wang, Ying Yu, Hui Wang, Rongzhi Tang, Shiyong Xia, Yuanzheng Gong, Zichao Wan, Daqi Lv, Rui Tan, Wenfei Zhu, Ruizhe Shen, Xin Li, Xuena Yu, Shiyi Chen, Liming Zeng, and Xiaofeng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7917–7932,Short summary
Nitrated phenols (NPs) are crucial components of brown carbon. To comprehend the constitutes and sources of NPs in winter of Beijing, their concentrations were measured by a CI-LToF-MS. The secondary formation process was simulated by a box model. NPs were mainly influenced by primary emissions and regional transport. Primary emitted phenol rather than benzene oxidation was crucial in the heavy pollution episode in Beijing. This provides more insight into pollution control strategies of NPs.
Weiqi Xu, Masayuki Takeuchi, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Conghui Xie, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3693–3705,Short summary
Here we developed a method for estimation of particulate organic nitrates (pON) from the measurements of a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a thermodenuder based on the volatility differences between inorganic nitrate and pON. The results generally had improvements in reducing negative values due to the influences of a high concentration of inorganic nitrate and a constant ratio of NO+ to NO2+ of organic nitrates (RON).
Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Yele Sun, Wanyun Xu, Yanyan Zhang, Yao He, Qingwei Luo, Linhong Xie, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7409–7427,Short summary
The mechanism of secondary aerosol (SA) formation can be affected by relative humidity (RH) and has different influences on the particle CCN activity under different RH conditions. In the North China Plain, we find different responses of CCN activity and enhancements of CCN number concentration to SA formation under different RH conditions. In addition, variations of aerosol mixing state due to SA formation contribute some of the largest uncertainties in predicting CCN number concentration.
Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Ying Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Eleni Karnezi, Spyros N. Pandis, Conghui Xie, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Jiang Zhu, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5463–5476,Short summary
Here aerosol volatility and viscosity at a rural site (Gucheng) and an urban site (Beijing) in the North China Plain (NCP) were investigated in summer and winter. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) in winter in the NCP is more volatile than that in summer due to enhanced primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. We also found that OA existed mainly as a solid in winter in Beijing but as semisolids in Beijing in summer and Gucheng in winter.
Rongzhi Tang, Quanyang Lu, Song Guo, Hui Wang, Kai Song, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kefan Liu, Ruizhe Shen, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Spiro D. Jorga, Zhou Zhang, Wenbin Zhang, Shijin Shuai, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2569–2583,Short summary
We performed chassis dynamometer experiments to investigate the emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from an on-road Chinese gasoline vehicle. High IVOC emission factors (EFs) and distinct volatility distribution were recognized. Our results indicate that vehicular IVOCs contribute significantly to SOA, implying the importance of reducing IVOCs when making air pollution control policies in urban areas of China.
Weilun Zhao, Wangshu Tan, Gang Zhao, Chuanyang Shen, Yingli Yu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1319–1331,
Chuanyang Shen, Gang Zhao, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1293–1301,Short summary
Aerosol hygroscopicity measured by the humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) is affected by multiply charged particles from two aspects: (1) number contribution and (2) the weakening effect. An algorithm is proposed to do the multi-charge correction and applied to a field measurement. Results show that the difference between corrected and measured size-resolved κ can reach 0.05, highlighting that special attention needs to be paid to the multi-charge effect when using HTDMA.
Chuanyang Shen, Gang Zhao, Weilun Zhao, Ping Tian, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1375–1388,Short summary
Submicron particles larger than 300 nm dominate the aerosol light extinction and mass concentration in the urban environment. Aerosol hygroscopic properties extended to 600 nm were investigated at an urban site. Our results find that there exists a large fraction of a less hygroscopic group above 300 nm, and the hygroscopicity in this size range is enhanced significantly with the development of pollution levels. The hygroscopicity variation contributes greatly to the low visibility.
Christian Mark Garcia Salvador, Rongzhi Tang, Michael Priestley, Linjie Li, Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Michael Le Breton, Wenfei Zhu, Limin Zeng, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Min Hu, Song Guo, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1389–1406,Short summary
High-frequency online measurement of gas- and particle-phase nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) at a rural site in China, heavily influenced by biomass burning events, enabled the analysis of the production pathway of NACs, including an explanation of strong persistence in the daytime. The contribution of secondary processes was significant, even during the dominant wintertime influence of primary emissions, suggesting the important role of regional secondary chemistry, i.e. photochemical smog.
Chaomin Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Sihang Wang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Wei Chen, Chenshuo Ye, Wenjie Wang, Yele Sun, Chen Wang, Shan Huang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, Suxia Yang, Shenyang Zhang, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Zhanyi Zhang, Bin Jiang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14123–14138,Short summary
We utilized a novel online mass spectrometry method to measure the total concentration of higher alkanes at each carbon number at two different sites in China, allowing us to take into account SOA contributions from all isomers for higher alkanes. We found that higher alkanes account for significant fractions of SOA formation at the two sites. The contributions are comparable to or even higher than single-ring aromatics, the most-recognized SOA precursors in urban air.
Guo Li, Hang Su, Nan Ma, Guangjie Zheng, Uwe Kuhn, Meng Li, Thomas Klimach, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6053–6065,Short summary
Aerosol acidity plays an important role in regulating the chemistry, health, and ecological effect of aerosol particles. However, a direct measurement of aerosol pH is very challenging because of its fast transition and equilibrium with adjacent environments. Therefore, most early studies have to use modeled pH, resulting in intensive debates about model uncertainties. Here we developed an optimized approach to measure aerosol pH by using pH-indicator papers combined with RGB-based colorimetry.
Ting Lei, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Thomas Tuch, Xin Wang, Zhibin Wang, Mira Pöhlker, Maofa Ge, Weigang Wang, Eugene Mikhailov, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5551–5567,Short summary
We present the design of a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) apparatus that enables high accuracy and precision in hygroscopic growth measurements of aerosol nanoparticles with diameters less than 10 nm. We further introduce comprehensive methods for system calibration and validation of the performance of the system. We then study the size dependence of the deliquescence and the efflorescence of aerosol nanoparticles for sizes down to 6 nm.
Wei Tao, Hang Su, Guangjie Zheng, Jiandong Wang, Chao Wei, Lixia Liu, Nan Ma, Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11729–11746,Short summary
We simulated the thermodynamic and multiphase reactions in aerosol water during a wintertime haze event over the North China Plain. It was found that aerosol pH exhibited a strong spatiotemporal variability, and multiple oxidation pathways were predominant for particulate sulfate formation in different locations. Sensitivity tests further showed that ammonia, crustal particles, and dissolved transition metal ions were important factors for multiphase chemistry during haze episodes.
Jinhui Gao, Ying Li, Bin Zhu, Bo Hu, Lili Wang, and Fangwen Bao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10831–10844,Short summary
Light extinction of aerosols can decease surface ozone mainly via reducing photochemical production of ozone. However, it also leads to high levels of ozone aloft being entrained down to the surface which partly counteracts the reduction in surface ozone. The impact of aerosols is more sensitive to local ozone, which suggests that while controlling the levels of aerosols, controlling the local ozone precursors is an effective way to suppress the increase of ozone over China at present.
Jia Sun, Wolfram Birmili, Markus Hermann, Thomas Tuch, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Fabian Rasch, Thomas Müller, Alexander Schladitz, Susanne Bastian, Gunter Löschau, Josef Cyrys, Jianwei Gu, Harald Flentje, Björn Briel, Christoph Asbach, Heinz Kaminski, Ludwig Ries, Ralf Sohmer, Holger Gerwig, Klaus Wirtz, Frank Meinhardt, Andreas Schwerin, Olaf Bath, Nan Ma, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7049–7068,Short summary
To evaluate the effectiveness of emission mitigation policies, we evaluated the trends of the size-resolved particle number concentrations and equivalent black carbon mass concentration at 16 observational sites for various environments in Germany (2009–2018). Overall, significant decrease trends are found for most of the parameters and sites. This study suggests that a combination of emission mitigation policies can effectively improve the air quality on large spatial scales such as in Germany.
Jian Zhang, Lei Liu, Liang Xu, Qiuhan Lin, Hujia Zhao, Zhibin Wang, Song Guo, Min Hu, Dantong Liu, Zongbo Shi, Dao Huang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5355–5372,Short summary
Northeast China faces severe air pollution in regional haze in wintertime. In this study, we revealed a contrasting formation mechanism of two typical haze events: Haze-I was induced by adverse meteorological conditions together with residential coal burning emissions; Haze-II was caused by agricultural biomass waste burning. In particular, we observed large numbers of tar balls as the primary brown carbon in northeast China.
Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Jeannine Ditas, Florian Ditas, Christiane Schulz, Marco Aurélio Franco, Qiaoqiao Wang, Tobias Donth, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Joel Brito, Yafang Cheng, Maximilian Dollner, Johannes W. Kaiser, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Ovid O. Krüger, Daniel Fütterer, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Luiz A. T. Machado, Jing Ming, Fernando G. Morais, Hauke Paulsen, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Johannes Schneider, Hang Su, Bernadett Weinzierl, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4757–4785,Short summary
Biomass burning smoke from African savanna and grassland is transported across the South Atlantic Ocean in defined layers within the free troposphere. The combination of in situ aircraft and ground-based measurements aided by satellite observations showed that these layers are transported into the Amazon Basin during the early dry season. The influx of aged smoke, enriched in black carbon and cloud condensation nuclei, has important implications for the Amazonian aerosol and cloud cycling.
Quan Liu, Dantong Liu, Qian Gao, Ping Tian, Fei Wang, Delong Zhao, Kai Bi, Yangzhou Wu, Shuo Ding, Kang Hu, Jiale Zhang, Deping Ding, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3931–3944,Short summary
We present a series of aircraft-based in situ measurements of aerosol chemical components and size distributions over the North China Plain, and the hygroscopicity is derived from aerosol chemical composition. These results reveal the vertical characteristics of aerosol hygroscopicity, and we investigated their impacts on optical properties and activation under different moisture and pollution conditions over this polluted region.
Ping Tian, Dantong Liu, Delong Zhao, Chenjie Yu, Quan Liu, Mengyu Huang, Zhaoze Deng, Liang Ran, Yunfei Wu, Shuo Ding, Kang Hu, Gang Zhao, Chunsheng Zhao, and Deping Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2603–2622,Short summary
This study paints a full picture of the evolution of vertical characteristics of aerosol optical properties and shortwave heating impacts of carbonaceous aerosols during different stages of pollution events over the Beijing region and highlights the increased contribution of brown carbon absorption, especially at higher levels, during pollution.
Yu Wang, Ying Chen, Zhijun Wu, Dongjie Shang, Yuxuan Bian, Zhuofei Du, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Rong Su, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Patrick Schlag, Thorsten Hohaus, Aristeidis Voliotis, Keding Lu, Limin Zeng, Chunsheng Zhao, M. Rami Alfarra, Gordon McFiggans, Alfred Wiedensohler, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Yuanhang Zhang, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2161–2175,Short summary
Severe haze events, with high particulate nitrate (pNO3−) burden, frequently prevail in Beijing. In this study, we demonstrate a mutual-promotion effect between aerosol water uptake and pNO3− formation backed up by theoretical calculations and field observations throughout a typical pNO3−-dominated haze event in Beijing wintertime. This self-amplified mutual-promotion effect between aerosol water content and particulate nitrate can rapidly deteriorate air quality and degrade visibility.
Ye Kuang, Yao He, Wanyun Xu, Pusheng Zhao, Yafang Cheng, Gang Zhao, Jiangchuan Tao, Nan Ma, Hang Su, Yanyan Zhang, Jiayin Sun, Peng Cheng, Wenda Yang, Shaobin Zhang, Cheng Wu, Yele Sun, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 865–880,Short summary
A new method was developed to calculate hygroscopicity parameter κ of organic aerosols (κOA) based on aerosol light-scattering measurements and bulk aerosol chemical-composition measurements. Derived high-time-resolution κOA varied in a wide range (near 0 to 0.25), and the organic aerosol oxidation degree significantly impacts variations in κOA. Distinct diurnal variation in κOA is found, and its relationship with oxygenated organic aerosol is discussed.
Misti Levy Zamora, Jianfei Peng, Min Hu, Song Guo, Wilmarie Marrero-Ortiz, Dongjie Shang, Jing Zheng, Zhuofei Du, Zhijun Wu, and Renyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14329–14338,Short summary
Severe haze formation in Beijing during wintertime is attributed to explosive secondary aerosol formation including particle nucleation and subsequent particle growth. Organic matter is responsible for producing nucleation mode particles, while secondary organic and inorganic components jointly contribute to the high aerosol mass during haze episodes. High levels of gaseous precursors and stagnant air mass are responsible for fast secondary aerosol formation.
Gang Zhao, Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Chuanyang Shen, Yingli Yu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13175–13188,Short summary
Characteristics of the black carbon size distribution (BCMSD) are studied by using our developed measurement system. Results show that the BCMSDs have two modes and the mean peak diameters are 150 nm and 503 nm, respectively. The coarser mode varies significantly under different pollution conditions, which gives rise to significant variation in aerosol bulk optical properties. Our study reveals that the BCMSD as well as the mixing state in estimating aerosol radiative forcing matters.
Gang Zhao, Tianyi Tan, Weilun Zhao, Song Guo, Ping Tian, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12875–12885,Short summary
Traditionally, the real part of the refractive index (RRI) of ambient aerosols is calculated by their chemical components. In this study, we demonstrate that the RRI is highly related to effective density rather than chemical components using field measurements. For the first time, a parameterization scheme for ambient aerosol RRI using effective density is proposed. This simple scheme is more reliable and ready to use in the calculation of aerosol optics and radiation.
Meng Li, Hang Su, Guo Li, Nan Ma, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10981–11011,Short summary
Aerosols and the ground provide two kinds of surfaces for multiphase reactions in the planetary boundary layer. However, the relative importance of these two surfaces for gas uptake has not been quantified. We compare the uptake fluxes of aerosols and the ground surface for reactive trace gases under various conditions. More studies regarding O3 uptake on liquid organic aerosols and H2O2 uptakes on various aerosols are needed considering their potential important roles in atmospheric chemistry.
Wanyun Xu, Ye Kuang, Chunsheng Zhao, Jiangchuan Tao, Gang Zhao, Yuxuan Bian, Wen Yang, Yingli Yu, Chuanyang Shen, Linlin Liang, Gen Zhang, Weili Lin, and Xiaobin Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10557–10570,Short summary
The study of HONO, the primary source of OH radicals, is crucial for atmospheric photochemistry and heterogeneous chemistry. Heterogeneous NO2 conversion was shown to be one of the missing sources of HONO on the North China Plain, but the reaction path is still under debate. In this work, evidence was found that NH3 was the key factor that promoted the hydrolysis of NO2, leading to the explosive growth of HONO and nitrate, suggesting that NH3 emission control measures are urgently needed.
Wangshu Tan, Gang Zhao, Yingli Yu, Chengcai Li, Jian Li, Ling Kang, Tong Zhu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3825–3839,Short summary
A new method to retrieve CCN number concentrations using multiwavelength Raman lidars is proposed. The method implements hygroscopic enhancements of backscatter and extinction with relative humidity to represent particle hygroscopicity. The retrieved CCN number concentrations are in good agreement with theoretical calculated values. Sensitivity tests indicate that retrieval error in CCN arises mostly from uncertainties in extinction coefficients and RH profiles.
Gang Zhao, Weilun Zhao, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3541–3550,Short summary
A new method is proposed to retrieve the size-resolved real part of the refractive index (RRI). The main principle of deriving the RRI is measuring the scattering intensity by a single-particle soot photometer of a size-selected aerosol. This method is validated by a series of calibration experiments using the components of the known RI. The retrieved size-resolved RRI covers a wide range, from 200 nm to 450 nm, with uncertainty of less than 0.02.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Yuchen Wang, Jing Zheng, Dongjie Shang, Yudong Yang, Ying Liu, Xiao Li, Rongzhi Tang, Wenfei Zhu, Zhuofei Du, Yusheng Wu, Song Guo, Zhijun Wu, Shengrong Lou, Mattias Hallquist, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7649–7665,Short summary
Nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs), an important fraction in brown carbon, were comprehensively characterized in Beijing. The oxidation of anthropogenic VOCs represented more dominant sources of NACs than biomass burning. A transition of NO2 from low- to high-NOx regimes was observed. The contribution of aqueous-phase pathways to NAC formation increased at elevated RH. This work highlights secondary formation of NACs and influence factors in high NOx–anthropogenic VOC-dominated urban atmospheres.
Guo Li, Yafang Cheng, Uwe Kuhn, Rongjuan Xu, Yudong Yang, Hannah Meusel, Zhibin Wang, Nan Ma, Yusheng Wu, Meng Li, Jonathan Williams, Thorsten Hoffmann, Markus Ammann, Ulrich Pöschl, Min Shao, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2209–2232,Short summary
VOCs play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. Emission and deposition on soil have been suggested as important sources and sinks of atmospheric trace gases. The exchange characteristics and heterogeneous chemistry of VOCs on soil, however, are not well understood. We used a newly designed differential coated-wall flow tube system to investigate the long-term variability of bidirectional air–soil exchange of 13 VOCs at ambient air conditions of an urban background site in Beijing.
Dongjie Shang, Min Hu, Jing Zheng, Yanhong Qin, Zhuofei Du, Mengren Li, Jingyao Fang, Jianfei Peng, Yusheng Wu, Sihua Lu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15687–15703,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) activities have a great impact on the particle number size distribution in the upper troposphere of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), which could affect regional and global climate. We found that the cloud condensation nuclei concentration was 2–8 times higher during BB influenced periods than during clean periods on the TP. An unexpectedly low new particle formation frequency was found in clean atmosphere on the TP, due to low concentrations of anthropogenic precursors, i.e., SO2.
Michael Le Breton, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, David Simpson, Yujue Wang, John Johansson, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Haichao Wang, Qianyun Liu, Chak Chan, Tao Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Priestley, Carl J. Percival, Dudley E. Shallcross, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13013–13030,Short summary
We apply state-of-the-art chemical characterization to determine the chloride radical production in Beijing via measurement of inorganic halogens at a semi-rural site. The high concentration of inorganic halogens, namely nitryl chloride, enables the production of chlorinated volatile organic compounds which are measured in both the gas and particle phases simultaneously. This enables the secondary production of aerosols via chlorine oxidation to be directly observed in ambient air.
Jorge Saturno, Bruna A. Holanda, Christopher Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Qiaoqiao Wang, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Jeannine Ditas, Thorsten Hoffmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Tobias Könemann, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Jing Ming, Hauke Paulsen, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Patrick Schlag, Hang Su, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Yuxuan Zhang, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12817–12843,Short summary
Biomass burning emits light-absorbing aerosol particles that warm the atmosphere. One of them is the primarily emitted black carbon, which strongly absorbs radiation in the visible and UV spectral regions. Another one is the so-called brown carbon, a fraction of organic aerosol particles that are able to absorb radiation, especially in the UV spectral region. The contribution of both kinds of aerosol particles to light absorption over the Amazon rainforest is studied in this paper.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Song Guo, Yuchen Wang, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Wenfei Zhu, Rongzhi Tang, Xiao Li, Ying Liu, Michael Le Breton, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Yusheng Wu, Zhijun Wu, Yu Song, Shengrong Lou, Mattias Hallquist, and Jianzhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10693–10713,Short summary
The overall characteristics and concentrations of organosulfates (OSs) and nitrooxy-OSs (NOSs) were determined in summer in Beijing. This study provided direct observational evidence that OSs form via acid-catalyzed aqueous-phase reactions in the presence of acidic sulfate aerosols, and monoterpene NOSs form via nighttime NO3 oxidation. Using OSs and NOSs as examples, this work highlights the formation pathways of SOA via anthropogenic–biogenic interactions and organic–inorganic reactions.
Michael Le Breton, Yujue Wang, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Marianne Glasius, Thomas J. Bannan, Qianyun Liu, Chak K. Chan, Carl J. Percival, Wenfei Zhu, Shengrong Lou, David Topping, Yuchen Wang, Jianzhen Yu, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10355–10371,Short summary
This paper utilizes a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer measuring gas and particle-phase organosulfates (OS) simultaneously during a field campaign in Beijing, China, and highlights how high time frequency online measurements enable a detailed analysis of dominant production mechanisms. We find that high aerosol acidity, organic precursor concentration and relative humidity promote the production of OS. The thermogram desorption reveals the potential for semi-volatile gas-phase OS.
Haichao Wang, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Zhijun Wu, Dongjie Shang, Zhaofeng Tan, Yujue Wang, Michael Le Breton, Shengrong Lou, Mingjin Tang, Yusheng Wu, Wenfei Zhu, Jing Zheng, Limin Zeng, Mattias Hallquist, Min Hu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9705–9721,Short summary
N2O5, ClNO2, and particulate nitrate were measured simultaneously in Beijing, China, in 2016. The elevated N2O5 uptake coefficient and ClNO2 yield were determined, which suggest fast N2O5 uptake in Beijing. We highlight that the NO3 oxidation in nocturnal VOC degradation is efficient, with fast formation of organic nitrates. More studies are needed to investigate NO3–N2O5 chemistry and its contribution to secondary organic aerosol formation.
Gang Zhao, Chunsheng Zhao, Ye Kuang, Yuxuan Bian, Jiangchuan Tao, Chuanyang Shen, and Yingli Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9049–9060,Short summary
The aerosol asymmetry factor (g) is one of the most important factors for assessing direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) and remote sensing. So far, few studies have focused on the measurements and parameterization of g. Our study shows that relative humidity has significant impacts on g and DARF due to aerosol hygroscopic growth. For the first time, a novel method based on measurements from the humidified nephelometer system is proposed to calculate g accurately with high time resolution.
Ye Kuang, Chun Sheng Zhao, Gang Zhao, Jiang Chuan Tao, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, and Yu Xuan Bian
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2967–2982,Short summary
Aerosol water has become an important topic recently because of its implications for multiphase secondary aerosol formation during severe haze events in Asia. This is a timely paper on this topic; a novel method is proposed to calculate ambient aerosol liquid water contents based only on measurements of a three-wavelength humidified nephelometer system. The advantage of this method is that this technique can provide continuous measurements of the changing ambient conditions.
Rongzhi Tang, Zepeng Wu, Xiao Li, Yujue Wang, Dongjie Shang, Yao Xiao, Mengren Li, Limin Zeng, Zhijun Wu, Mattias Hallquist, Min Hu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4055–4068,Short summary
We used CMB and the tracer yield method to apportion organic sources in Beijing. Vehicular emissions served as the dominant source, and the contributions of all the other primary sources decreased. One interesting result is that in contrast to the SOA from other regions in the world where biogenic SOA was dominant, anthropogenic SOA was the major contributor to SOA, implying that deducting anthropogenic VOC emissions is an efficient way to reduce SOA in Beijing.
Jing Li, Chengcai Li, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3289–3298,Short summary
Our study investigates the long-term trends of extreme aerosol pollution in China over the past ~ 30 years. In the 1980s, an overall positive trend is found throughout China with the extreme trend exceeding the mean trend, except for Northwest China and the North China Plain. In the 1990s, the extreme trends continued to dominate in the south while they yield to the mean trend in the north. After 2000, the extreme trend became weaker than the mean trend overall.
Jiangchuan Tao, Chunsheng Zhao, Ye Kuang, Gang Zhao, Chuanyang Shen, Yingli Yu, Yuxuan Bian, and Wanyun Xu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 895–906,Short summary
Existing chamber technologies for direct measurements of number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN) are sophisticated and expensive. In this paper, a new method is proposed to calculate NCCN based only on measurements of a humidified nephelometer system which have accounted for influences of both aerosol size and aerosol hygroscopicity on NCCN calculation. This new method makes NCCN measurements more convenient and is capable of obtaining NCCN at lower supersaturations.
Gang Zhao, Chunsheng Zhao, Ye Kuang, Jiangchuan Tao, Wangshu Tan, Yuxuan Bian, Jing Li, and Chengcai Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12133–12143,Short summary
In this paper, influences of aerosol hygroscopic growth on the lidar ratio are studied. Results indicate that both the magnitude and vertical structures of the retrieved aerosol extinction coefficient (σext) profile from lidar signals are significantly biased. This study proposes a feasible method for reducing the bias of retrieving the σext profile and this method can be implemented in operational retrieval of the aerosol σext profile and for pollution monitoring.
Jianfei Peng, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Yinhui Wang, Jing Zheng, Wenbin Zhang, Yudong Yang, Yanhong Qin, Rong Zheng, Yao Xiao, Yusheng Wu, Sihua Lu, Zhijun Wu, Song Guo, Hongjun Mao, and Shijin Shuai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10743–10752,Short summary
Through an environmental chamber approach, we find that a small increase in aromatic content in gasoline fuel will result in a large enhancement in the secondary organic aerosol formation from vehicle exhaust. The higher emissions of both monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic organic compounds from the high-aromatic fuel played an essential role. Our findings highlight the importance of more stringent regulation of gasoline aromatic content for air quality in urban areas.
Qingfeng Guo, Min Hu, Song Guo, Zhijun Wu, Jianfei Peng, and Yusheng Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10395–10403,Short summary
To characterize primary emissions over the eastern coast of China, a series of field campaigns were conducted. The high loadings of both BC and CO implied severe anthropogenic pollution over the areas. The slopes between BC and CO at different areas revealed the vehicular emission as the common source and the distinct fuel structures between North and South China. The comparisons of slopes and correlation coefficient among these areas can indicate the aging extent of BC at the macroscopic level.
Jianfei Peng, Min Hu, Song Guo, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Jing Zheng, Jun Zheng, Limin Zeng, Min Shao, Yusheng Wu, Don Collins, and Renyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10333–10348,Short summary
Rapid growth of BC particles was observed in Beijing using a new outdoor chamber, with an average growth rate of 26 ± 11 nm h−1. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounted for more than 90 % of the coating mass. The hygroscopic growth factor of BC particles increased to 1.06–1.08 upon ageing. The κ (kappa) values for BC particles were calculated as only 0.035, indicating that initial photochemical ageing of BC particles does not appreciably alter the particle hygroscopicity in Beijing.
Wei Hu, Min Hu, Wei-Wei Hu, Jing Zheng, Chen Chen, Yusheng Wu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9979–10000,Short summary
Seasonal changes in chemical compositions, sources, and evolution for submicron aerosols in the megacity Beijing were investigated based on high-resolution AMS measurements. Carbonaceous fraction (OA+BC) constituted over 50 % of PM1 in autumn due to primary emissions, while SNA contributed 60 % to PM1 in other seasons. Secondary components (OOA+SNA) contributed ~ 60–80 % to PM1, suggesting that secondary formation played an important role in PM pollution. OA was in a relatively high oxidation state.
Yuxuan Bian, Chunsheng Zhao, Wanyun Xu, Gang Zhao, Jiangchuan Tao, and Ye Kuang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2313–2322,Short summary
Aerosol phase function is crucial for understanding the climate effects of aerosols. So far, there is a lack of instruments for measuring the aerosol phase function directly and accurately in laboratory studies and in situ measurements. A novel portable instrument with high angular range and resolution named
charge-coupled device-laser aerosol detective system(CCD-LADS) has been developed and validated for the measurement of the phase function of ambient aerosols in this study.
Jing Zheng, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Zhaoheng Gong, Yanhong Qin, Jingyao Fang, Fangting Gu, Mengren Li, Jianfei Peng, Jie Li, Yuqia Zhang, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Yusheng Wu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6853–6864,Short summary
By monitoring aerosol properties as a function of high-resolution chemical composition, this study sheds light on the evolution processes of particles in the Tibetan Plateau background environment during the pre-monsoon season. A positive matrix factorization analysis integrated with a mesoscale meteorological model clearly shows that the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau was affected by air pollutants transported from active biomass burning areas in South Asia.
Ye Kuang, Chunsheng Zhao, Jiangchuan Tao, Yuxuan Bian, Nan Ma, and Gang Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6651–6662,Short summary
A novel approach is proposed in this research to derive the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter based only on measurements from a humidified nephelometer system without any additional information about particle number size distribution and black carbon. New findings in this research can bridge the gap between κ-Köhler theory and the aerosol light-scattering enhancement factor and will make the humidified nephelometer system more convenient when it comes to aerosol hygroscopicity research.
Zhibin Wang, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Eugene Mikhailov, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
Ying Chen, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Ralf Wolke, Stephan Nordmann, Stephanie Schüttauf, Liang Ran, Birgit Wehner, Wolfram Birmili, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Qing Mu, Stefan Barthel, Gerald Spindler, Bastian Stieger, Konrad Müller, Guang-Jie Zheng, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12081–12097,Short summary
Sea salt aerosol (SSA) is important for primary and secondary aerosols on a global scale. During 10–20 September 2013, the SSA mass concentration was overestimated by a factor of 8–20 over central Europe by WRF-Chem model, stem from the uncertainty of its emission scheme. This could facilitate the coarse-mode nitrate formation (~ 140 % but inhibit the fine-mode nitrate formation (~−20 %). A special long-range transport mechanism could broaden this influence of SSA to a larger downwind region.
Nan Ma, Chunsheng Zhao, Jiangchuan Tao, Zhijun Wu, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Johannes Größ, Hongjian Liu, Yuxuan Bian, Ye Kuang, Monique Teich, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Min Hu, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8593–8607,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is one of main sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. Based on in situ measurements, we found that CCN activity of newly formed particles largely differs in different NPF events. It is therefore difficult to find a simple parameterization of CCN activity for NPF events. Using a fixed size-resolved activation ratio curve or critical diameter is very likely to result in large biases up to 50 % in the calculated NCCN during NPF events.
Y. Kuang, C. S. Zhao, J. C. Tao, and N. Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5761–5772,Short summary
In this paper, it is found that the diurnal variations of single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry factor (g) for ambient aerosol are both evident and far different from those of dry state aerosol in the North China Plain (NCP. The diurnal changes of SSA and g have significant impacts on the estimation of daily average direct aerosol radiative effect (DARE) at the top of the atmosphere. In addition, several suggestions are proposed to improve the accurate prediction of DARE in the NCP.
J. Huang, H. Liu, J. H. Crawford, C. Chan, D. B. Considine, Y. Zhang, X. Zheng, C. Zhao, V. Thouret, S. J. Oltmans, S. C. Liu, D. B. A. Jones, S. D. Steenrod, and M. R. Damon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5161–5179,Short summary
High ozone concentrations (up to 94.7ppbv) were frequently observed at an altitude of ~1.5--2km over Beijing during April--May 2005. Ozone due to Asian anthropogenic pollution made major contributions to the observed ozone enhancements. These enhancements typically occurred under southerly wind and warmer conditions. An earlier onset of the Asian summer monsoon would cause more ozone enhancement events in the lower troposphere over the North China Plain in late spring and early summer.
J. C. Tao, C. S. Zhao, N. Ma, and P. F. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12055–12067,
G. Q. Fu, W. Y. Xu, R. F. Yang, J. B. Li, and C. S. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11949–11958,
J. F. Peng, M. Hu, Z. B. Wang, X. F. Huang, P. Kumar, Z. J. Wu, S. Guo, D. L. Yue, D. J. Shang, Z. Zheng, and L. Y. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10249–10265,
J. Chen, C. S. Zhao, N. Ma, and P. Yan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8105–8118,
W. Y. Xu, C. S. Zhao, L. Ran, W. L. Lin, P. Yan, and X. B. Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7757–7768,
Y. X. Bian, C. S. Zhao, N. Ma, J. Chen, and W. Y. Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6417–6426,
N. Ma, W. Birmili, T. Müller, T. Tuch, Y. F. Cheng, W. Y. Xu, C. S. Zhao, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6241–6259,
H. J. Liu, C. S. Zhao, B. Nekat, N. Ma, A. Wiedensohler, D. van Pinxteren, G. Spindler, K. Müller, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2525–2539,
S. Guo, M. Hu, Q. Guo, X. Zhang, J. J. Schauer, and R. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8303–8314,
Z. Z. Deng, C. S. Zhao, N. Ma, L. Ran, G. Q. Zhou, D. R. Lu, and X. J. Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6227–6237,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsSource apportionment of black carbon and combustion-related CO2 for the determination of source-specific emission factorsCAMP: an instrumented platform for balloon-borne aerosol particle studies in the lower atmosphereThe realization of autonomous, aircraft-based, real-time aerosol mass spectrometry in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphereA study on the performance of low-cost sensors for source apportionment at an urban background siteA dual-wavelength photothermal aerosol absorption monitor: design, calibration and performanceA high-transmission axial ion mobility classifier for mass–mobility measurements of atmospheric ionsDesign, characterization, and first field deployment of a novel aircraft-based aerosol mass spectrometer combining the laser ablation and flash vaporization techniquesAn instrument for direct measurement of emissions: cooling tower exampleThe Aerosol Research Observation Station (AEROS)Laser imaging nephelometer for aircraft deploymentA new method to quantify particulate sodium and potassium salts (nitrate, chloride, and sulfate) by thermal desorption aerosol mass spectrometryEvaluating the PurpleAir monitor as an aerosol light scattering instrumentUndersizing of aged African biomass burning aerosol by an ultra-high-sensitivity aerosol spectrometerEvaluation methods for low-cost particulate matter sensorsSimulation-aided characterization of a versatile water-based condensation particle counter for atmospheric airborne researchDevelopment of an in situ dual-channel thermal desorption gas chromatography instrument for consistent quantification of volatile, intermediate-volatility and semivolatile organic compoundsAssessment of online water-soluble brown carbon measuring systems for aircraft samplingCharacterizing the performance of a POPS miniaturized optical particle counter when operated on a quadcopter droneA low-cost monitor for simultaneous measurement of fine particulate matter and aerosol optical depth – Part 3: Automation and design improvementsRapid measurement of RH-dependent aerosol hygroscopic growth using a humidity-controlled fast integrated mobility spectrometer (HFIMS)Detection of ship plumes from residual fuel operation in emission control areas using single-particle mass spectrometryHighly time-resolved characterization of carbonaceous aerosols using a two-wavelength Sunset thermal–optical carbon analyzerCaptive Aerosol Growth and Evolution (CAGE) chamber system to investigate particle growth due to secondary aerosol formationDesign and characterization of a new oxidation flow reactor for laboratory and long-term ambient studiesA reel-down instrument system for profile measurements of water vapor, temperature, clouds, and aerosol beneath constant-altitude scientific balloonsAirborne extractive electrospray mass spectrometry measurements of the chemical composition of organic aerosolA semicontinuous study on the ecotoxicity of atmospheric particles using a versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES): development and field characterizationA novel rocket-borne ion mass spectrometer with large mass range: instrument description and first-flight resultsDetailed characterization of the CAPS single-scattering albedo monitor (CAPS PMssa) as a field-deployable instrument for measuring aerosol light absorption with the extinction-minus-scattering methodNew in situ aerosol hyperspectral optical measurements over 300–700 nm – Part 1: Spectral Aerosol Extinction (SpEx) instrument field validation during the KORUS-OC cruiseNew in situ aerosol hyperspectral optical measurements over 300–700 nm – Part 2: Extinction, total absorption, water- and methanol-soluble absorption observed during the KORUS-OC cruiseContinuous online monitoring of ice-nucleating particles: development of the automated Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC-Auto)Evaluation of optical particulate matter sensors under realistic conditions of strong and mild urban pollutionOptimizing the detection, ablation, and ion extraction efficiency of a single-particle laser ablation mass spectrometer for application in environments with low aerosol particle concentrationsMeasurements of PM2.5 with PurpleAir under atmospheric conditionsDevelopment and application of a mass closure PM2.5 composition online monitoring systemImproved chloride quantification in quadrupole aerosol chemical speciation monitors (Q-ACSMs)Application of TXRF in monitoring trace metals in particulate matter and cloud waterA new optical-based technique for real-time measurements of mineral dust concentration in PM10 using a virtual impactorMIMiX: a Multipurpose In situ Microreactor system for X-ray microspectroscopy to mimic atmospheric aerosol processingApplication of an O-ring pinch device as a constant-pressure inlet (CPI) for airborne samplingResolving the size of ice-nucleating particles with a balloon deployable aerosol sampler: the SHARKSimultaneous measurements of the relative-humidity-dependent aerosol light extinction, scattering, absorption, and single-scattering albedo with a humidified cavity-enhanced albedometerFlow-induced errors in airborne in situ measurements of aerosols and cloudsDevelopment of a new nanoparticle sizer equipped with a 12-channel multi-port differential mobility analyzer and multi-condensation particle countersReal-time pollen monitoring using digital holographyEffect of aerosol composition on the performance of low-cost optical particle counter correction factorsIncrease of the particle hit rate in a laser single-particle mass spectrometer by pulse delayed extraction technologyAerosol measurement methods to quantify spore emissions from fungi and cryptogamic covers in the AmazonThe Universal Cloud and Aerosol Sounding System (UCASS): a low-cost miniature optical particle counter for use in dropsonde or balloon-borne sounding systems
Balint Alfoldy, Asta Gregorič, Matic Ivančič, Irena Ježek, and Martin Rigler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 135–152,Short summary
Atmospheric concentrations and source apportionment (SA) of black carbon (BC) and CO2 were determined in an urban environment during a heating season. BC particles were attributed to two major sources: traffic and heating. The BC SA was implemented by an Aethalometer model used for the SA of CO2 supposing that the source-specific CO2 components are correlated with the corresponding BC. Source-specific emission factors were determined as a ratio of corresponding BC and CO2 components.
Christian Pilz, Sebastian Düsing, Birgit Wehner, Thomas Müller, Holger Siebert, Jens Voigtländer, and Michael Lonardi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6889–6905,Short summary
Tethered balloon observations are highly valuable for aerosol studies in the lowest part of the atmosphere. This study presents a newly developed platform called CAMP with four aerosol instruments for balloon-borne measurements in the Arctic. Laboratory characterizations and evaluations of the instruments and results of a first field deployment are shown. A case study highlights CAMP's capabilities and the importance of airborne aerosol studies for interpretation of ground-based observations.
Antonis Dragoneas, Sergej Molleker, Oliver Appel, Andreas Hünig, Thomas Böttger, Markus Hermann, Frank Drewnick, Johannes Schneider, Ralf Weigel, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5719–5742,Short summary
The ERICA is a specially designed aerosol particle mass spectrometer for in situ, real-time chemical composition analysis of aerosols. It can operate completely autonomously, in the absence of an instrument operator. Its design has enabled its operation under harsh conditions, like those experienced in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, aboard unpressurized high-altitude research aircraft. The instrument has successfully participated in several aircraft operations around the world.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, David C. S. Beddows, Ajit Singh, Molly Haugen, Sebastián Diez, Pete M. Edwards, Adam Boies, Roy M. Harrison, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4047–4061,Short summary
In the last decade, low-cost sensors have revolutionised the field of air quality monitoring. This paper extends the ability of low-cost sensors to not only measure air pollution, but also to understand where the pollution comes from. This "source apportionment" is a critical step in air quality management to allow for the mitigation of air pollution. The techniques developed in this paper have the potential for great impact in both research and industrial applications.
Luka Drinovec, Uroš Jagodič, Luka Pirker, Miha Škarabot, Mario Kurtjak, Kristijan Vidović, Luca Ferrero, Bradley Visser, Jannis Röhrbein, Ernest Weingartner, Daniel M. Kalbermatter, Konstantina Vasilatou, Tobias Bühlmann, Celine Pascale, Thomas Müller, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3805–3825,Short summary
A new photothermal interferometer (PTAAM-2λ) for artefact-free determination of the aerosol absorption coefficient at two wavelengths is presented. The instrument is calibrated with NO2 and polydisperse nigrosin, resulting in very low uncertainties of the absorption coefficients: 4 % at 532 nm and 6 % at 1064 nm. The instrument’s performance makes the PTAAM-2λ a strong candidate for reference measurements of the aerosol absorption coefficient.
Markus Leiminger, Lukas Fischer, Sophia Brilke, Julian Resch, Paul Martin Winkler, Armin Hansel, and Gerhard Steiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3705–3720,Short summary
We developed an axial ion mobility classifier coupled to an atmospheric-pressure interface time-of-flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometer to measure size-segregated atmospheric ions. We characterize the performance of the novel instrument with bipolar-electrospray-generated ion mobility standards and compare the results with CFD simulations and a simplified numerical particle-tracking model. Ultimately, we report first mass–mobility measurements of atmospheric ions in Innsbruck, Austria.
Andreas Hünig, Oliver Appel, Antonis Dragoneas, Sergej Molleker, Hans-Christian Clemen, Frank Helleis, Thomas Klimach, Franziska Köllner, Thomas Böttger, Frank Drewnick, Johannes Schneider, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2889–2921,Short summary
We have serially combined the two well-established methods for in situ real-time measurement of fine particle chemical composition, the single-particle laser ablation method and the flash evaporation with electron impact ionization method, into a novel instrument. Here we present the design; instrument characteristics, as derived from laboratory and field measurements; and results from the first field deployment during the 2017 StratoClim aircraft campaign.
Christopher D. Wallis, Mason D. Leandro, Patrick Y. Chuang, and Anthony S. Wexler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2547–2556,Short summary
Measuring emissions from stacks requires techniques to address a broad range of conditions and measurement challenges. Here we describe an instrument package held by a crane above a stack to characterize both wet droplet and dried aerosol emissions from cooling tower spray drift in situ. The instrument package characterizes the velocity, size distribution, and concentration of the wet droplet emissions and the mass concentration and elemental composition of the dried PM2.5 and PM10 emissions.
Karin Ardon-Dryer, Mary C. Kelley, Xia Xueting, and Yuval Dryer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2345–2360,Short summary
The Aerosol Research Observation Station (AEROS) located in West Texas was designed to continuously measure atmospheric particles, including different particulate matter sizes, total particle number concentration, and size distribution. This article provides a description of AEROS as well as an intercomparison of the different instruments using laboratory and atmospheric particles, showing similar concentration as well to distinguish between various pollution events (natural vs. anthropogenic).
Adam T. Ahern, Frank Erdesz, Nicholas L. Wagner, Charles A. Brock, Ming Lyu, Kyra Slovacek, Richard H. Moore, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, and Daniel M. Murphy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1093–1105,Short summary
Particles in the atmosphere play a significant role in climate change by scattering light back into space, reducing the amount of energy available to be absorbed by greenhouse gases. We built a new instrument to measure what direction light is scattered by particles, e.g., wildfire smoke. This is important because, depending on the angle of the sun, some particles scatter light into space (cooling the planet), but some light is also scattered towards the Earth (not cooling the planet).
Yuya Kobayashi and Nobuyuki Takegawa
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 833–844,Short summary
We propose a new method to quantify particulate sodium and potassium salts (nitrate, chloride, and sulfate) by using a refractory aerosol thermal desorption mass spectrometer (rTDMS). The combination of a graphite particle collector and a carbon dioxide laser enables high desorption temperature. Laboratory experiments showed that major ion signals originating from sodium or potassium salts were clearly detected, associated with the increase in the desorption temperature by laser heating.
James R. Ouimette, William C. Malm, Bret A. Schichtel, Patrick J. Sheridan, Elisabeth Andrews, John A. Ogren, and W. Patrick Arnott
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 655–676,Short summary
We show that the low-cost PurpleAir sensor can be characterized as a cell-reciprocal nephelometer. At two very different locations (Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii and the Table Mountain rural site in Colorado), the PurpleAir measurements are highly correlated with the submicrometer aerosol scattering coefficient measured by a research-grade integrating nephelometer. These results imply that, with care, PurpleAir data may be used to evaluate climate and air quality models.
Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Amie Dobracki, Nikolai Smirnow, and Arthur J. Sedlacek III
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7381–7404,Short summary
Small particles in the air have important effects on visibility, clouds, and human health. For the ORACLES project we got a new particle sizing instrument that is fast, works over the most important particle sizes, and avoids some of the issues that plague other optical particle sizers. Unfortunately it sees some particles much smaller than they really are, likely because they heat up and evaporate. We show a crude correction and speculate why these particles heat up much more than expected.
Jeffrey K. Bean
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7369–7379,Short summary
Understanding and improving the quality of data generated from low-cost air quality sensors are crucial steps in using these sensors. This work investigates how averaging time, choice of reference instrument, and the observation of higher pollutant concentrations can impact the perceived performance of low-cost sensors in an evaluation. The influence of these factors should be considered when comparing one sensor to another or determining if a sensor can produce data that fit a specific need.
Fan Mei, Steven Spielman, Susanne Hering, Jian Wang, Mikhail S. Pekour, Gregory Lewis, Beat Schmid, Jason Tomlinson, and Maynard Havlicek
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7329–7340,Short summary
This study focuses on understanding a versatile water-based condensation particle counter (vWCPC 3789) performance under various ambient pressure conditions (500–1000 hPa). A vWCPC has the advantage of avoiding health and safety concerns. However, its performance characterization under low pressure is rare but crucial for ensuring successful airborne deployment. This paper provides advanced knowledge of operating a vWCPC 3789 to capture the spatial variations of atmospheric aerosols.
Rebecca A. Wernis, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Robert J. Weber, Yutong Liang, John Jayne, Susanne Hering, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6533–6550,Short summary
cTAG is a new scientific instrument that measures concentrations of organic chemicals in the atmosphere. cTAG is the first instrument capable of measuring small, light chemicals as well as heavier chemicals and everything in between on a single detector, every hour. In this work we explain how cTAG works and some of the tests we performed to verify that it works properly and reliably. We also present measurements of alkanes that suggest they have three dominant sources in a Bay Area suburb.
Linghan Zeng, Amy P. Sullivan, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Teresa L. Campos, Joseph M. Katich, Ezra Levin, Michael A. Robinson, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6357–6378,Short summary
Three online systems for measuring water-soluble brown carbon are compared. A mist chamber and two different particle-into-liquid samplers were deployed on separate research aircraft targeting wildfires and followed a similar detection method using a long-path liquid waveguide with a spectrometer to measure the light absorption from 300 to 700 nm. Detection limits, signal hysteresis and other sampling issues are compared, and further improvements of these liquid-based systems are provided.
Zixia Liu, Martin Osborne, Karen Anderson, Jamie D. Shutler, Andy Wilson, Justin Langridge, Steve H. L. Yim, Hugh Coe, Suresh Babu, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Paquita Zuidema, Tao Huang, Jack C. H. Cheng, and James Haywood
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6101–6118,Short summary
This paper first validates the performance of an advanced aerosol observation instrument POPS against a reference instrument and examines any biases introduced by operating it on a quadcopter drone. The results show the POPS performs relatively well on the ground. The impact of the UAV rotors on the POPS is small at low wind speeds, but when operating under higher wind speeds, larger discrepancies occur. It appears that the POPS measures sub-micron aerosol particles more accurately on the UAV.
Eric A. Wendt, Casey Quinn, Christian L'Orange, Daniel D. Miller-Lionberg, Bonne Ford, Jeffrey R. Pierce, John Mehaffy, Michael Cheeseman, Shantanu H. Jathar, David H. Hagan, Zoey Rosen, Marilee Long, and John Volckens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6023–6038,Short summary
Fine particulate matter air pollution is one of the leading contributors to adverse health outcomes on the planet. Here, we describe the design and validation of a low-cost, compact, and autonomous instrument capable of measuring particulate matter levels directly, via mass sampling, and optically, via mass and sunlight extinction measurements. We demonstrate the instrument's accuracy relative to reference measurements and its potential for community-level sampling.
Jiaoshi Zhang, Steven Spielman, Yang Wang, Guangjie Zheng, Xianda Gong, Susanne Hering, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5625–5635,Short summary
In this study, we present a newly developed instrument, the humidity-controlled fast integrated mobility spectrometer (HFIMS), for fast measurements of aerosol hygroscopic growth. The HFIMS can measure the distributions of particle hygroscopic growth factors at six diameters from 35 to 265 nm under five RH levels from 20 to 85 % within 25 min. The HFIMS significantly advances our capability of characterizing the hygroscopic growth of atmospheric aerosols over a wide range of relative humidities.
Johannes Passig, Julian Schade, Robert Irsig, Lei Li, Xue Li, Zhen Zhou, Thomas Adam, and Ralf Zimmermann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4171–4185,Short summary
Ships are major sources of air pollution; however, monitoring of ship emissions outside harbours is a challenging task. We optimized single-particle mass spectrometry (SPMS) for the detection of bunker fuel emissions and demonstrate the detection of individual ship plumes from more than 10 km in distance. The approach works independently of background air pollution and also when ships use exhaust-cleaning scrubbers. We discuss the potential and limits of SPMS-based monitoring of ship plumes.
Mengying Bao, Yan-Lin Zhang, Fang Cao, Yu-Chi Lin, Yuhang Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Wenqi Zhang, Meiyi Fan, Feng Xie, Robert Cary, Joshua Dixon, and Lihua Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4053–4068,Short summary
We introduce a two-wavelength method for brown C measurements with a modified Sunset carbon analyzer. We defined the enhanced concentrations and gave the possibility of providing an indicator of brown C. Compared with the strong local sources of organic and elemental C, we found that differences in EC mainly originated from regional transport. Biomass burning emissions significantly contributed to high differences in EC concentrations during the heavy biomass burning periods.
Candice L. Sirmollo, Don R. Collins, Jordan M. McCormick, Cassandra F. Milan, Matthew H. Erickson, James H. Flynn, Rebecca J. Sheesley, Sascha Usenko, Henry W. Wallace, Alexander A. T. Bui, Robert J. Griffin, Matthew Tezak, Sean M. Kinahan, and Joshua L. Santarpia
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3351–3370,Short summary
The newly developed portable 1 m3 CAGE chamber systems were characterized using data acquired during a 2-month field study in 2016 in a forested area north of Houston, TX, USA. Concentrations of several oxidant and organic compounds measured in the chamber were found to closely agree with those calculated with a zero-dimensional model. By tracking the modes of injected monodisperse particles, a pattern change was observed for hourly averaged growth rates between late summer and early fall.
Ningjin Xu and Don R. Collins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2891–2906,Short summary
Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) are frequently used to study atmospheric chemistry and aerosol formation by accelerating by up to 10 000 times the reactions that can take hours, days, or even weeks in the atmosphere. Here we present the design and evaluation of a new all-Teflon OFR. The computational, laboratory, and field use data we present demonstrate that the PFA OFR is suitable for a range of applications, including the study of rapidly changing ambient concentrations.
Lars E. Kalnajs, Sean M. Davis, J. Douglas Goetz, Terry Deshler, Sergey Khaykin, Alex St. Clair, Albert Hertzog, Jerome Bordereau, and Alexey Lykov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2635–2648,Short summary
This work introduces a novel instrument system for high-resolution atmospheric profiling, which lowers and retracts a suspended instrument package beneath drifting long-duration balloons. During a 100 d circumtropical flight, the instrument collected over a hundred 2 km profiles of temperature, water vapor, clouds, and aerosol at 1 m resolution, yielding unprecedented geographic sampling and vertical resolution measurements of the tropical tropopause layer.
Demetrios Pagonis, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Hongyu Guo, Douglas A. Day, Melinda K. Schueneman, Wyatt L. Brown, Benjamin A. Nault, Harald Stark, Kyla Siemens, Alex Laskin, Felix Piel, Laura Tomsche, Armin Wisthaler, Matthew M. Coggon, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Hannah S. Halliday, Jordan E. Krechmer, Richard H. Moore, David S. Thomson, Carsten Warneke, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1545–1559,Short summary
We describe the airborne deployment of an extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-MS). The instrument provides a quantitative 1 Hz measurement of the chemical composition of organic aerosol up to altitudes of 7 km, with single-compound detection limits as low as 50 ng per standard cubic meter.
Xiaona Shang, Ling Li, Xinlian Zhang, Huihui Kang, Guodong Sui, Gehui Wang, Xingnan Ye, Hang Xiao, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1037–1045,Short summary
Oxidative stress can be used to evaluate not only adverse health effects but also adverse ecological effects. However, little research uses eco-toxicological assay to assess the risks posed by particle matter to non-human biomes. One important reason might be that the concentration of toxic components of atmospheric particles is far below the high detection limit of eco-toxic measurement. To solve the rapid detection problem, we extended a VACES for ecotoxicity aerosol measurement.
Joan Stude, Heinfried Aufmhoff, Hans Schlager, Markus Rapp, Frank Arnold, and Boris Strelnikov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 983–993,Short summary
In this paper we describe the instrument ROMARA and show data from the first flight on a research rocket. On the way through the atmosphere, the instrument detects positive and negative, natural occurring ions before returning back to ground. ROMARA was successfully launched together with other instruments into a special radar echo. We detected typical, light ions of positive and negative charge and heavy negative ions, but no heavy positive ions.
Rob L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Benjamin T. Brem, Martin Irwin, Michele Bertò, Rosaria E. Pileci, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Bas Henzing, Marcel M. Moerman, Fengshan Liu, Thomas Müller, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 819–851,Short summary
Extinction-minus-scattering is an important method for measuring aerosol light absorption, but its application in the field presents a number of challenges. A recently developed instrument based on this method – the CAPS PMssa – has the potential to overcome some of these challenges. We present a compilation of theory, lab measurements, and field examples to characterize this instrument and show the conditions under which it can deliver reliable absorption measurements for atmospheric aerosols.
Carolyn E. Jordan, Ryan M. Stauffer, Brian T. Lamb, Charles H. Hudgins, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Gregory L. Schuster, Richard H. Moore, Ewan C. Crosbie, Edward L. Winstead, Bruce E. Anderson, Robert F. Martin, Michael A. Shook, Luke D. Ziemba, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Claire E. Robinson, Chelsea A. Corr, and Maria A. Tzortziou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 695–713,Short summary
First field data from a custom-built in situ instrument measuring hyperspectral (300–700 nm, 0.8 nm resolution) ambient atmospheric aerosol extinction are presented. The advantage of this capability is that it can be directly linked to other in situ techniques that measure physical and chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Second-order polynomials provided a better fit to the data than traditional power law fits, yielding greater discrimination among distinct ambient aerosol populations.
Carolyn E. Jordan, Ryan M. Stauffer, Brian T. Lamb, Michael Novak, Antonio Mannino, Ewan C. Crosbie, Gregory L. Schuster, Richard H. Moore, Charles H. Hudgins, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Edward L. Winstead, Bruce E. Anderson, Robert F. Martin, Michael A. Shook, Luke D. Ziemba, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Claire E. Robinson, Chelsea A. Corr, and Maria A. Tzortziou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 715–736,Short summary
In situ measurements of ambient atmospheric aerosol hyperspectral (300–700 nm) optical properties (extinction, total absorption, water- and methanol-soluble absorption) were observed around the Korean peninsula. Such in situ observations provide a direct link between ambient aerosol optical properties and their physicochemical properties. The benefit of hyperspectral measurements is evident as simple mathematical functions could not fully capture the observed spectral detail of ambient aerosols.
Cyril Brunner and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 269–293,Short summary
Subvisual microscopic particles in the atmosphere are needed to act as seeds for cloud droplets or ice crystals to form. The microscopic particles, called ice-nucleating particles (INPs), form ice crystals and are rare, and their properties are not well understood, in part because measuring them is challenging and time consuming, and to date has not been automated. Here, we present the first online instrument that can continuously and autonomously measure INP concentration at 243 K.
Adnan Masic, Dzevad Bibic, Boran Pikula, Almir Blazevic, Jasna Huremovic, and Sabina Zero
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6427–6443,Short summary
Optical-based particulate matter sensors offer some advantages: price (especially low-cost sensors), time and space resolution, but they are less accurate than reference instruments. Understanding their performance and limitations is crucial for wider adoption. This is a case study for strong and mild air pollution done in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina. Tested optical sensors were found to be generally acceptable in this study, but proper calibration is required for getting reliable data.
Hans-Christian Clemen, Johannes Schneider, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Franziska Köllner, Andreas Hünig, Florian Rubach, Stephan Mertes, Heike Wex, Frank Stratmann, André Welti, Rebecca Kohl, Fabian Frank, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5923–5953,Short summary
We improved the efficiency of a single-particle mass spectrometer with a newly developed aerodynamic lens system, delayed ion extraction, and better electric shielding. The new components result in significantly improved particle analysis and sample statistics. This is particularly important for measurements of low-number-density particles, such as ice-nucleating particles, and for aircraft-based measurements at high altitudes or where high temporal and spatial resolution is required.
Karin Ardon-Dryer, Yuval Dryer, Jake N. Williams, and Nastaran Moghimi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5441–5458,Short summary
The PurpleAir PA-II is a low-cost sensor for monitoring changes in the concentrations of particulate matter of various sizes. This study examined the behaviour of multiple PA-II units in four locations in the USA under atmospheric conditions when exposed to a variety of pollutants and different PM2.5 concentrations. The PA-II unit is a promising tool for measuring PM2.5 concentrations and identifying relative concentration changes, as long as the PA-II PM2.5 values can be corrected.
Cui-Ping Su, Xing Peng, Xiao-Feng Huang, Li-Wu Zeng, Li-Ming Cao, Meng-Xue Tang, Yao Chen, Bo Zhu, Yishi Wang, and Ling-Yan He
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5407–5422,Short summary
Online instruments have been widely applied for the measurement of PM2.5 and its chemical components; however, these instruments have a major shortcoming in terms of the limited number (or lack) of species in field measurements. To this end, a new mass closure PM2.5 online-integrated system was developed and applied in this work to achieve more comprehensive information on chemical species in PM2.5, thus providing a powerful tool for PM2.5 long-term daily measurement and source apportionment.
Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Dongyu S. Wang, Philip Croteau, Katarzyna Styszko, Jarosław Nęcki, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5293–5301,Short summary
Some quadrupole aerosol chemical speciation monitors (Q-ACSMs) have had issues with the quantification of particulate chloride, resulting in apparent negative chloride concentrations. We can show that this is due to the different behavior of Cl+ and HCl+, and we present a correction for the more accurate quantification of chloride. The correction can be applied to measurements in environments where the particulate chloride is dominated by NH4Cl.
Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nabil Deabji, Sayf El Islam Barcha, Ibrahim Ouchen, El Mehdi Elbaramoussi, Rajaa Cherkaoui El Moursli, Mimoun Harnafi, Souad El Hajjaji, Abdelwahid Mellouki, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4773–4790,Short summary
As air quality monitoring networks often sample aerosol particles on quartz filters, the development and applicability of analytical methods with quartz filters are becoming important. In this study different filter preparation methods (e.g., baking, acid digestion) were investigated for quantifying trace metals on quartz and polycarbonate filters, and cloud water using the total reflection X-Ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique, with low detection limits of about 0.3 ng cm−3 for some elements.
Luka Drinovec, Jean Sciare, Iasonas Stavroulas, Spiros Bezantakos, Michael Pikridas, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Bojana Višić, Maja Remškar, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3799–3813,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust influences Earth's radiative budget, has adverse health effects, and affects regulatory PM10 concentrations. We present a highly time resolved online technique for quantification of mineral dust concentration in ambient air. The technique uses a virtual impactor to concentrate coarse particles, where absorption is then measured using a filter photometer. The method was tested in the field at a regional background site on Cyprus.
Jan-David Förster, Christian Gurk, Mark Lamneck, Haijie Tong, Florian Ditas, Sarah S. Steimer, Peter A. Alpert, Markus Ammann, Jörg Raabe, Markus Weigand, Benjamin Watts, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3717–3729,Short summary
A gas flow system coupled with a microreactor for X-ray microspectroscopy is presented. Its core objective is to mimic the atmospheric processing of aerosol particles under laboratory conditions in a controlled gas-phase environment and allow in situ observations with high spatial and chemical resolution. We here emphasize its analytical capabilities and show initial results from hydration–dehydration experiments and the observation of water ice at low temperature and high relative humidity.
Sergej Molleker, Frank Helleis, Thomas Klimach, Oliver Appel, Hans-Christian Clemen, Antonis Dragoneas, Christian Gurk, Andreas Hünig, Franziska Köllner, Florian Rubach, Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3651–3660,Short summary
A novel constant-pressure-inlet design for use in airborne aerosol particle mass spectrometry – an aerodynamic lens focuses aerosol particles into a vacuum chamber – is presented. The pressure of a few hectopascals at the lens is precisely controlled over a large flight altitude range up to 21 km. The constant pressure is achieved by changing the inner diameter of a properly scaled flexible O-ring acting as a critical orifice. Particle transmission at various inlet pressures is characterized.
Grace C. E. Porter, Sebastien N. F. Sikora, Michael P. Adams, Ulrike Proske, Alexander D. Harrison, Mark D. Tarn, Ian M. Brooks, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2905–2921,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles affect cloud development, lifetime, and radiative properties. Hence it is important to know the abundance of INPs throughout the atmosphere. Here we present the development and application of a radio-controlled payload capable of collecting size-resolved aerosol from a tethered balloon for the primary purpose of offline INP analysis. Test data are presented from four locations: southern Finland, northern England, Svalbard, and southern England.
Jiacheng Zhou, Xuezhe Xu, Weixiong Zhao, Bo Fang, Qianqian Liu, Yuanqing Cai, Weijun Zhang, Dean S. Venables, and Weidong Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2623–2634,Short summary
We report the first demonstration of a humidified cavity-enhanced albedometer (H-CEA) that combines a broadband cavity-enhanced aerosol albedometer with a humidigraph system for simultaneous and accurate measurements of multiple optical hygroscopic parameters (f(RH)ext,scat,abs,ω) at λ = 532 nm. The instrument is suitable for operating under high RH-conditions and has sampling advantages over independent measurements of different parameters with different instruments.
Antonio Spanu, Maximilian Dollner, Josef Gasteiger, T. Paul Bui, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1963–1987,Short summary
This study investigates how the airflow around wing-mounted instruments on fast-flying aircraft affects aerosol and cloud measurements. It combines airborne data with numerical simulations and shows that particle speed, particle concentration, and shape of water droplets are modified by the airflow. The proposed correction strategy for optical particle counters and optical array probes considers airflow effects and significantly reduces errors of derived ambient aerosol and cloud properties.
Hong Ku Lee, Handol Lee, and Kang-Ho Ahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1551–1562,Short summary
We developed a nanoparticle sizer (NPS), consisting of a multi-port differential mobility analyzer (MP-DMA) with 12 sampling ports and multi-condensation particle counters (M-CPCs) for fast measurement of particle size distribution. The NPS can successfully capture the changes in particle size distribution under fast-changing particle concentration conditions. In this study, particle emissions from cooking activity are analyzed as an exemplary real-world application.
Eric Sauvageat, Yanick Zeder, Kevin Auderset, Bertrand Calpini, Bernard Clot, Benoît Crouzy, Thomas Konzelmann, Gian Lieberherr, Fiona Tummon, and Konstantina Vasilatou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1539–1550,Short summary
We present the first validation of the only operational automatic pollen monitoring system based on holography, the Swisens Poleno. The device produces real-time images of coarse aerosols, and by applying a machine learning algorithm we identify a range of pollen taxa with accuracy >90 %. The device was further validated in controlled chamber experiments to verify the counting ability and the performance of additional fluorescence measurements, which can further be used in pollen identification.
Leigh R. Crilley, Ajit Singh, Louisa J. Kramer, Marvin D. Shaw, Mohammed S. Alam, Joshua S. Apte, William J. Bloss, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, Pingqing Fu, Weiqi Fu, Shahzad Gani, Michael Gatari, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Alastair C. Lewis, David Ng'ang'a, Yele Sun, Rachel C. W. Whitty, Siyao Yue, Stuart Young, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1181–1193,Short summary
There is considerable interest in using low-cost optical particle counters (OPCs) for particle mass measurements; however, there is no agreed upon method with respect to calibration. Here we exploit a number of datasets globally to demonstrate that particle composition and relative humidity are the key factors affecting measured concentrations from a low-cost OPC, and we present a simple correction methodology that corrects for this influence.
Ying Chen, Viacheslav Kozlovskiy, Xubing Du, Jinnuo Lv, Sergei Nikiforov, Jiajun Yu, Alexander Kolosov, Wei Gao, Zhen Zhou, Zhengxu Huang, and Lei Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 941–949,Short summary
Ion delayed extraction technique in single particle mass spectrometry has been found to improve the mass resolution of instruments. Through further research, it was found that it can improve the aerosol particle detection efficiency because it can eliminate the influence of the electrical field on the charged aerosol trajectory so that more effective data can be obtained in a short time in laboratory or field atmospheric aerosol research, especially in low-concentration aerosol sample analysis.
Nina Löbs, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Sebastian Brill, David Walter, Florian Ditas, Marta de Oliveira Sá, Alessandro C. de Araújo, Leonardo R. de Oliveira, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Stefan Wolff, Meike Piepenbring, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, and Bettina Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 153–164,Short summary
Bioaerosols are considered to play a relevant role in atmospheric processes, but their sources, properties, and spatiotemporal distribution in the atmosphere are not yet well characterized. Measurement data on the release of fungal spores under natural conditions are also sparse. Here, we present an experimental approach to analyze and quantify the spore release from fungi and other spore-producing organisms under natural and laboratory conditions.
Helen R. Smith, Zbigniew Ulanowski, Paul H. Kaye, Edwin Hirst, Warren Stanley, Richard Kaye, Andreas Wieser, Chris Stopford, Maria Kezoudi, Joseph Girdwood, Richard Greenaway, and Robert Mackenzie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6579–6599,Short summary
The Universal Cloud and Aerosol Sounding System (UCASS) is a low-cost miniature optical particle counter (OPC) capable of sizing particles in the size range 0.4–40 μm. The open-geometry design makes the instrument suitable for deployment on balloon-borne sounding systems, dropsonde systems or as part of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Laboratory and field experiments show good agreement with reference instruments in a range of cloudy and dusty environments.
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A new method to determine black carbon mass size distribution (BCMSD) was proposed using the size-resolved absorption coefficient measured by an aerodynamic aerosol classifier in tandem with an aethalometer. This new method fills the gap in the high-time-resolution measurement of BCMSD ranging from upper submicron particle sizes to larger than 1 µm. This method can be applied to field measurement of BCMSD extensively for better understanding BC aging and better estimating the BC climate effect.
A new method to determine black carbon mass size distribution (BCMSD) was proposed using the...