Articles | Volume 16, issue 5
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
New methods for the calibration of optical resonators: integrated calibration by means of optical modulation (ICOM) and narrow-band cavity ring-down (NB-CRD)
Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, INF 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
now at: Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, INF 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Airyx GmbH, Justus-von-Liebig-Str. 14, 69214 Eppelheim, Germany
Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, INF 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Airyx GmbH, Justus-von-Liebig-Str. 14, 69214 Eppelheim, Germany
Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, INF 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Airyx GmbH, Justus-von-Liebig-Str. 14, 69214 Eppelheim, Germany
Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, INF 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Airyx GmbH, Justus-von-Liebig-Str. 14, 69214 Eppelheim, Germany
No articles found.
Simon Warnach, Holger Sihler, Christian Borger, Nicole Bobrowski, Steffen Beirle, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5537–5573,Short summary
BrO inside volcanic gas plumes but can be used in combination with SO2 to characterize the volcanic property and its activity state. High-quality satellite observations can provide a global inventory of this important quantity. This paper investigates how to accurately detect BrO inside volcanic plumes from the satellite UV spectrum. A sophisticated novel non-volcanic background correction scheme is presented, and systematic errors including cross-interference with formaldehyde are minimized.
Markus Knoll, Martin Penz, Hannes Juchem, Christina Schmidt, Denis Pöhler, and Alexander Bergmann
Exhaust emissions from combustion-based vehicles are negatively affecting human health and our environment. In particular, a small share (< 20 %) of poorly maintained or tampered vehicles are responsible for the majority (60–90 %) of traffic-related emissions. The emissions from vehicles are currently not properly monitored during their lifetime. We present a roadside measurement technique, called point sampling, which can be used to monitor vehicle emissions throughout their life cycle.
Udo Frieß, Karin Kreher, Richard Querel, Holger Schmithüsen, Dan Smale, Rolf Weller, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3207–3232,Short summary
Reactive bromine compounds, emitted by the sea ice during polar spring, play an important role in the atmospheric chemistry of the coastal regions of Antarctica. We investigate the sources and impacts of reactive bromine in detail using many years of measurements at two Antarctic sites located at opposite sides of the Antarctic continent. Using a multitude of meteorological observations, we were able to identify the main triggers and source regions for reactive bromine in Antarctica.
Maximilian Herrmann, Moritz Schöne, Christian Borger, Simon Warnach, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Platt, and Eva Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13495–13526,Short summary
Ozone depletion events (ODEs) are a common occurrence in the boundary layer during Arctic spring. Ozone is depleted by bromine species in an autocatalytic reaction cycle. Previous modeling studies assumed an infinite bromine source at the ground. An alternative emission scheme is presented in which a finite amount of bromide in the snow is tracked over time. The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to study ODEs in the Arctic from February to May 2019.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Harlass, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, José L. Gómez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5877–5924,Short summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport, and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Udo Frieß, Robert Spurr, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2077–2098,Short summary
MAX-DOAS is a widely used measurement technique for the remote detection of atmospheric aerosol and trace gases. It relies on the analysis of ultra-violet and visible radiation spectra of skylight. To date, information contained in the skylight's polarisation state has not been utilised. On the basis of synthetic data, we carried out sensitivity analyses to assess the potential of polarimetry for MAX-DOAS applications.
Leon Kuhn, Jonas Kuhn, Thomas Wagner, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1395–1414,Short summary
We present a novel instrument for imaging measurements of NO2 with high spatiotemporal resolution based on gas correlation spectroscopy, called the GCS NO2 camera. The instrument works by placing two gas cells (cuvettes) in front of two photosensor arrays, one filled with air and one filled with a high concentration of NO2, acting as a non-dispersive spectral filter. NO2 images are then generated on the basis of the signal ratio of the two channels in the spectral region of 430–445 nm.
Jonas Kuhn, Nicole Bobrowski, Thomas Wagner, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7873–7892,Short summary
We propose spectrograph implementations using Fabry–Pérot interferometers for atmospheric trace gas remote sensing. Compared with widely used grating spectrographs, we find substantial light throughput and mobility advantages for high resolving powers. Besides lowering detection limits and increasing the spatial and temporal resolution of many atmospheric trace gas measurements, this approach might enable remote sensing of further important gases such as tropospheric OH radicals.
Ulrich Platt, Thomas Wagner, Jonas Kuhn, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6867–6883,Short summary
Absorption spectroscopy of scattered sunlight is extremely useful for the analysis of atmospheric trace gas distributions. A central parameter for the achievable sensitivity of spectroscopic instruments is the light throughput, which can be enhanced in a number of ways. We present new ideas and considerations of how instruments could be optimized. Particular emphasis is on arrays of massively parallel instruments. Such arrays can reduce the size and weight of instruments by orders of magnitude.
Kai Krause, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Denis Pöhler, Andreas Weigelt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5791–5807,Short summary
Ships are an important source of key pollutants. Usually, these are measured aboard the ship or on the coast using in situ instruments. This study shows how active optical remote sensing can be used to measure ship emissions and how to determine emission rates of individual ships out of those measurements. These emission rates are valuable input for the assessment of the influence of shipping emissions in regions close to the shipping lanes.
Florian Dinger, Timo Kleinbek, Steffen Dörner, Nicole Bobrowski, Ulrich Platt, Thomas Wagner, Martha Ibarra, and Eveling Espinoza
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9367–9404,Short summary
Monitoring magnitude or chemical composition of volcanic gas emissions can help to forecast volcanic eruptions and provides empirical data on the impact of volcanoes on the chemistry in the local and global atmosphere. This study reports and discusses continuous time series of the sulfur and bromine emission fluxes of Masaya from 2014 to 2020. We observed an annual cyclicity in the BrO / SO2 molar ratio, possibly caused by the annual variability in the atmospheric humidity.
Maximilian Herrmann, Holger Sihler, Udo Frieß, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Platt, and Eva Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7611–7638,Short summary
Time-dependent 3D numerical simulations of tropospheric bromine release and ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the Arctic polar spring of 2009 are compared to observations. Simulation results agree well with the observations at both Utqiaġvik, Alaska, and at Summit, Greenland. In a parameter study, different settings for the bromine release mechanism are evaluated. An enhancement of the bromine release mechanism improves the agreement regarding the occurrence of ODEs with the observations.
Santiago Arellano, Bo Galle, Fredy Apaza, Geoffroy Avard, Charlotte Barrington, Nicole Bobrowski, Claudia Bucarey, Viviana Burbano, Mike Burton, Zoraida Chacón, Gustavo Chigna, Christian Joseph Clarito, Vladimir Conde, Fidel Costa, Maarten De Moor, Hugo Delgado-Granados, Andrea Di Muro, Deborah Fernandez, Gustavo Garzón, Hendra Gunawan, Nia Haerani, Thor H. Hansteen, Silvana Hidalgo, Salvatore Inguaggiato, Mattias Johansson, Christoph Kern, Manne Kihlman, Philippe Kowalski, Pablo Masias, Francisco Montalvo, Joakim Möller, Ulrich Platt, Claudia Rivera, Armando Saballos, Giuseppe Salerno, Benoit Taisne, Freddy Vásconez, Gabriela Velásquez, Fabio Vita, and Mathieu Yalire
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1167–1188,Short summary
This study presents a dataset of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from 2005–2017. Measurements were obtained by Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) scanning differential optical absorption spectrometer (ScanDOAS) instruments at 32 volcanoes and processed using a standardized procedure. We show statistics of volcanic gas emissions under a variety of conditions and compare them with averages derived from measurements from space and historical inventories.
Christopher Fuchs, Jonas Kuhn, Nicole Bobrowski, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 295–307,Short summary
We present first measurements of volcanic SO2 emissions with a novel imaging technique for atmospheric trace gases in the UV and visible spectral range. Periodic spectral Fabry–Pérot interferometer transmission features are matched to differential absorption cross sections of the investigated trace gas, yielding high selectivity and sensitivity. The technique can be extended to measure many other trace gases with high spatio-temporal resolution.
Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Carlos Alberti, Marc Allaart, Arnoud Apituley, Alkis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Stijn Berkhout, Kristof Bognar, Tim Bösch, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Mirjam den Hoed, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Martina M. Friedrich, Arnoud Frumau, Lou Gast, Clio Gielen, Laura Gomez-Martín, Nan Hao, Arjan Hensen, Bas Henzing, Christian Hermans, Junli Jin, Karin Kreher, Jonas Kuhn, Johannes Lampel, Ang Li, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Olga Puentedura, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Elena Spinei, Deborah Stein Zweers, Kimberly Strong, Daan Swart, Frederik Tack, Martin Tiefengraber, René van der Hoff, Michel van Roozendael, Tim Vlemmix, Jan Vonk, Thomas Wagner, Yang Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Matthias Wiegner, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1–35,Short summary
Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is a ground-based remote sensing measurement technique that derives atmospheric aerosol and trace gas vertical profiles from skylight spectra. In this study, consistency and reliability of MAX-DOAS profiles are assessed by applying nine different evaluation algorithms to spectral data recorded during an intercomparison campaign in the Netherlands and by comparing the results to colocated supporting observations.
Yang Wang, Arnoud Apituley, Alkiviadis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Nuria Benavent, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Henning Finkenzeller, Martina M. Friedrich, Udo Frieß, David Garcia-Nieto, Laura Gómez-Martín, François Hendrick, Andreas Hilboll, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Theodore K. Koenig, Karin Kreher, Vinod Kumar, Aleksandra Kyuberis, Johannes Lampel, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Oleg L. Polyansky, Oleg Postylyakov, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Stefan Schmitt, Xin Tian, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Michel Van Roozendael, Rainer Volkamer, Zhuoru Wang, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5087–5116,
Jianzhong Ma, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Junli Jin, Siyang Cheng, Junrang Guo, Zhanfeng Zhang, Jianqiong Wang, Peng Liu, Guoqing Zhang, Janis Pukite, Johannes Lampel, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6973–6990,Short summary
We made ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements at the Mt. Waliguan WMO GAW global baseline station (WLG) in the Tibetan Plateau during the years 2012–2015. We retrieve the differential slant column densities (dSCDs) of NO2, SO2, HCHO, and BrO from measured spectra at different elevation angles. Mixing ratios of these trace gases in the background troposphere over WLG are derived based on these dSCDs at a 1° elevation angle and the TRACY-2 radiative transfer model simulations.
Karin Kreher, Michel Van Roozendael, Francois Hendrick, Arnoud Apituley, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Udo Frieß, Andreas Richter, Thomas Wagner, Johannes Lampel, Nader Abuhassan, Li Ang, Monica Anguas, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Henning Finkenzeller, David Garcia-Nieto, Clio Gielen, Laura Gómez-Martín, Nan Hao, Bas Henzing, Jay R. Herman, Christian Hermans, Syedul Hoque, Hitoshi Irie, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Junaid Khayyam Butt, Fahim Khokhar, Theodore K. Koenig, Jonas Kuhn, Vinod Kumar, Cheng Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Abhishek K. Mishra, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro-Comas, Mareike Ostendorf, Andrea Pazmino, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Manuel Pinharanda, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Oleg Postylyakov, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Vinayak Sinha, Elena Spinei, Kimberly Strong, Frederik Tack, Xin Tian, Martin Tiefengraber, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Jeroen van Gent, Rainer Volkamer, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Shanshan Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua H. Xie, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2169–2208,Short summary
In September 2016, 36 spectrometers from 24 institutes measured a number of key atmospheric pollutants during an instrument intercomparison campaign (CINDI-2) at Cabauw, the Netherlands. Here we report on the outcome of this intercomparison exercise. The three major goals were to characterise the differences between the participating instruments, to define a robust methodology for performance assessment, and to contribute to the harmonisation of the measurement settings and retrieval methods.
Ulrich Platt and Jonas Kuhn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6259–6272,Short summary
Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by absorption spectroscopy are frequently supported by recording the amount of trace gas in absorption cells. These are typically small glass (or quartz) cylinders containing the gas to be studied. Here we show in the example of NO2-absorption cells that the effective amount of gas seen by the instrument can deviate greatly from expected values (by orders of magnitude in severe cases). Some suggestions for improving the situation are discussed.
Maximilian Herrmann, Le Cao, Holger Sihler, Ulrich Platt, and Eva Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10161–10190,Short summary
The oscillations of tropospheric ODEs in the Arctic spring is studied numerically. After the termination of an ODE, the reactive bromine is deposited onto aerosols/the snow surface, and the ozone may regenerate. The replenished ozone is available for the next autocatalytic bromine release, leading to the oscillation of an ODE. Its dependence on the NOx mixing ratio, the inversion layer strength, the ambient temperature, the aerosol density, and the solar radiation is investigated.
Jan-Marcus Nasse, Philipp G. Eger, Denis Pöhler, Stefan Schmitt, Udo Frieß, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4149–4169,Short summary
We present several changes to the setup of long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) instruments, including the application of a laser-driven light source, a modified coupling of the measurement signal between components, improved stray-light suppression, and better signal homogenization measures. These changes reduce detection limits of typical trace-gas species by a factor of 3–4 compared to previous setups and enable automated long-term observations in Antarctica.
Martin Horbanski, Denis Pöhler, Johannes Lampel, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3365–3381,Short summary
ICAD allows a precise in situ measurement of gases like NO2 in a relatively simple and compact setup. The main advantage in comparison to most other optical methods is that it does not require a stable total light intensity. This allows a simpler and mobile instrument setup and additionally it features no observed cross-interferences. We validated the high quality for an ICAD NO2 instrument in different inter-comparisons with a detection limit of 0.02 ppbv.
Florian Dinger, Stefan Bredemeyer, Santiago Arellano, Nicole Bobrowski, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Solid Earth, 10, 725–740,Short summary
Evidence for tidal impacts on volcanism have been gathered by numerous empirical studies. This paper elucidates whether a causal link from the tidal forces to a variation in the volcanic degassing can be traced analytically. We model the response of a simplified magmatic system to the local tidal gravity variations, find that the tide-induced dynamics may significantly alter the bubble coalescence rate, and discuss the consequences for volcanic degassing behaviour.
Thomas Wagner, Steffen Beirle, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Steffen Dörner, Caroline Fayt, Udo Frieß, David García-Nieto, Clio Gielen, David González-Bartolome, Laura Gomez, François Hendrick, Bas Henzing, Jun Li Jin, Johannes Lampel, Jianzhong Ma, Kornelia Mies, Mónica Navarro, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Olga Puentedura, Janis Puķīte, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Reza Shaiganfar, Holger Sihler, Michel Van Roozendael, Yang Wang, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2745–2817,Short summary
In this study the consistency between MAX-DOAS measurements and radiative transfer simulations of the atmospheric O4 absorption is investigated. The study is based on measurements (2 selected days during the MADCAT campaign) as well as synthetic spectra. The uncertainties of all relevant aspects (spectral retrieval and radiative transfer simulations) are quantified. For one of the selected days, measurements and simulations do not agree within their uncertainties.
Umar Javed, Dagmar Kubistin, Monica Martinez, Jan Pollmann, Markus Rudolf, Uwe Parchatka, Andreas Reiffs, Jim Thieser, Gerhard Schuster, Martin Horbanski, Denis Pöhler, John N. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1461–1481,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) affects the concentration of key species like ozone, hydroxyl radical, and nitrate radical in the atmosphere. In situ, direct, and interference-free NO2 measurements are important for validating our understanding of NOx chemistry related to ozone formation and the radical loss process. This article describes the important features and performance of a newly developed NO2 instrument during a field intercomparison.
Jonas Kuhn, Ulrich Platt, Nicole Bobrowski, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 735–747,Short summary
We study a novel remote-sensing technique for atmospheric trace gases absorbing in the UV and visible spectral range. Using Fabry–Perot interferometers with a spectral transmission matched to the trace gas's spectral absorption allows for imaging trace gases with high sensitivity and selectivity. The thereby achieved high spatio-temporal resolution enables the study of small-scale and dynamic processes in the atmosphere. We present sample calculations and a proof-of-concept study.
Tim Bösch, Vladimir Rozanov, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Alexei Rozanov, Folkard Wittrock, Alexis Merlaud, Johannes Lampel, Stefan Schmitt, Marijn de Haij, Stijn Berkhout, Bas Henzing, Arnoud Apituley, Mirjam den Hoed, Jan Vonk, Martin Tiefengraber, Moritz Müller, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6833–6859,Short summary
A new MAX-DOAS profiling algorithm for aerosols and trace gases was developed. The performance of this novel algorithm was tested with the help of synthetic data and measurements from the CINDI-2 campaign in Cabauw, the Netherlands, in 2016.
Ying Zhu, Ka Lok Chan, Yun Fat Lam, Martin Horbanski, Denis Pöhler, Johannes Boll, Ivo Lipkowitsch, Sheng Ye, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6719–6734,Short summary
The paper presents an investigation of spatio-temporal variability of street-level NO2 in Hong Kong using mobile cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and long-path DOAS. Measurements were conducted in December 2010 and March 2017. A significant decreasing trend in on-road NO2 was found by comparing measurements taken in 2010 and 2017. Influences of changes in bus companies' operation strategies can also be observed from the measured NO2 concentration maps.
Stephen Broccardo, Klaus-Peter Heue, David Walter, Christian Meyer, Alexander Kokhanovsky, Ronald van der A, Stuart Piketh, Kristy Langerman, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2797–2819,Short summary
Measurements of nitrogen dioxide, known to originate from industrial and automotive combustion sources, have been made from space for two decades. Successive generations of instrument bring improvements in ground-pixel resolution; however features in the atmosphere are known to be smaller than what the satellites can resolve. Measurements of urban and industrial areas using a high-resolution airborne instrument allow the impact of the satellite's relatively low resolution to be evaluated.
David W. T. Griffith, Denis Pöhler, Stefan Schmitt, Samuel Hammer, Sanam N. Vardag, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1549–1563,Short summary
Measurements of atmospheric trace gases over an open path complement in situ measurements by spatial averaging. This paper describes the first open-path measurements of CO2, CH4 and other trace gases by near-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. The measurements were made in Heidelberg, Germany, for 4 months in 2014 over a 1.5 km path and compared to in situ measurements made at one end of the path. The experiment setup and methods (and the comparisons of open path to in situ) are described.
Steffen Beirle, Johannes Lampel, Yang Wang, Kornelia Mies, Steffen Dörner, Margherita Grossi, Diego Loyola, Angelika Dehn, Anja Danielczok, Marc Schröder, and Thomas Wagner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 449–468,Short summary
We present time series of the global distribution of water vapor over more than 2 decades based on satellite measurements from different sensors. A particular focus is the consistency amongst the different sensors to avoid jumps from one instrument to another. This is reached by applying robust and simple retrieval settings consistently. The resulting
Climateproduct allows the study of the temporal evolution of water vapor over the last 20 years on a global scale.
Florian Dinger, Nicole Bobrowski, Simon Warnach, Stefan Bredemeyer, Silvana Hidalgo, Santiago Arellano, Bo Galle, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Solid Earth, 9, 247–266,Short summary
We monitored the bromine monoxide-to-sulfur dioxide molar ratio in the effusive gas plume of Cotopaxi volcano in order to gain insight into the geological processes which control the pressure regime of the volcanic system. We observed a conspicuous periodic pattern with a periodicity of about 2 weeks, which significantly correlates with the Earth tidal forcing. Our results support a possible Earth tidal impact on volcanic activity, in particular for the Cotopaxi eruption 2015.
Christoph Kleinschmitt, Olivier Boucher, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2769–2786,Short summary
We use a state-of-the-art stratospheric aerosol model to study geoengineering through stratospheric sulfur injections. We find that the efficiency may decrease more drastically for larger injections than previously estimated and that injections at higher altitude are not more effective. This study may provide additional evidence that this proposed geoengineering technique is still more complicated, probably less effective, and may implicate stronger side effects than initially thought.
Johannes Lampel, Johannes Zielcke, Stefan Schmitt, Denis Pöhler, Udo Frieß, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1671–1683,Short summary
Previous publications on the absorptions of the oxygen dimer O2–O2 (or short: O4) list absorption peaks at 328 nm and 419 nm, for which no spectrally resolved literature cross sections are available. As these absorptions potentially influence the spectral retrieval of various other trace gases, their shape and magnitude need to be quantified. We approximate the absorption peaks at 328 nm and 419 nm by their respective neighboring absorption peaks to estimate their magnitude and peak wavelength.
Johannes Lampel, Yang Wang, Andreas Hilboll, Steffen Beirle, Holger Sihler, Janis Puķīte, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4819–4831,Short summary
Experience of differential atmospheric absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) shows that a spectral shift between measurement and reference spectrum is frequently required in order to achieve optimal fit results. The shift is often attributed to temporal instabilities of the instrument but implicitly solved the problem of the tilt effect discussed in this paper. The tilt effect results from the finite resolution of the measurements and amounts to 2 pm for the example data set.
Yang Wang, Steffen Beirle, Francois Hendrick, Andreas Hilboll, Junli Jin, Aleksandra A. Kyuberis, Johannes Lampel, Ang Li, Yuhan Luo, Lorenzo Lodi, Jianzhong Ma, Monica Navarro, Ivan Ortega, Enno Peters, Oleg L. Polyansky, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Olga Puentedura, Michel Van Roozendael, André Seyler, Jonathan Tennyson, Rainer Volkamer, Pinhua Xie, Nikolai F. Zobov, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3719–3742,Short summary
Slant column densities of nitrous acid (HONO) derived from different MAX-DOAS instruments and retrieval software are systematically compared for the first time during the Multi Axis DOAS – Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) campaign held at MPIC in Mainz, Germany, from June to October 2013. Through the inter-comparisons and sensitivity studies we quantified the uncertainties in the DOAS fits of HONO from different sources and concluded a recommended setting.
Christoph Kleinschmitt, Olivier Boucher, Slimane Bekki, François Lott, and Ulrich Platt
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3359–3378,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosols play an important role in the climate system by affecting the Earth's radiative budget. In this article we present the newly developed LMDZ-S3A model and assess its performance against observations in periods of low and high aerosol loading. The model may serve as a tool to study the climate impacts of volcanic eruptions, as well as the deliberate injection of aerosols into the stratosphere, which has been proposed as a method of geoengineering to abate global warming.
William R. Simpson, Peter K. Peterson, Udo Frieß, Holger Sihler, Johannes Lampel, Ulrich Platt, Chris Moore, Kerri Pratt, Paul Shepson, John Halfacre, and Son V. Nghiem
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9291–9309,Short summary
We investigated Arctic atmospheric bromine chemistry during March–April 2012 to improve understanding of the role of sea ice and cracks in sea ice (leads) in this phenomenon. We find that leads vertically redistribute reactive bromine but that open/re-freezing leads are not major direct reactive halogen sources. Surface ozone depletion affects the vertical distribution and amount of reactive halogens, and aerosol particles are necessary but not sufficient to maintain reactive bromine aloft.
Peter K. Peterson, Denis Pöhler, Holger Sihler, Johannes Zielcke, Stephan General, Udo Frieß, Ulrich Platt, William R. Simpson, Son V. Nghiem, Paul B. Shepson, Brian H. Stirm, Suresh Dhaniyala, Thomas Wagner, Dana R. Caulton, Jose D. Fuentes, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7567–7579,Short summary
High-spatial-resolution aircraft measurements in the Arctic showed the sustained transport of reactive bromine in a lofted layer via heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles. This process provides an explanation for free tropospheric reactive bromine and the significant spatial extent of satellite-observed bromine monoxide. The knowledge gained herein improves our understanding of the fate and transport of atmospheric pollutants in the Arctic.
Yang Wang, Steffen Beirle, Johannes Lampel, Mariliza Koukouli, Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Ang Li, Dexia Wu, Pinhua Xie, Cheng Liu, Michel Van Roozendael, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5007–5033,Short summary
A long-term MAX-DOAS measurement from 2011 to 2014 was operated in Wuxi, part of the most industrialized area of the Yangtze River delta region of China. The tropospheric VCDs and vertical profiles of NO2, SO2 and HCHO derived from the MAX-DOAS are used to validate the products derived from OMI and GOME-2A/B by different scientific teams (daily- and bimonthly-averaged data). We investigate the effects of clouds, aerosols and a priori profile shapes on satellite retrievals of tropospheric VCDs.
Angelika Klein, Peter Lübcke, Nicole Bobrowski, Jonas Kuhn, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 979–987,Short summary
While measuring sulfur dioxide fluxes in volcanic plumes with a UV-sensitive camera, the wind direction can influence the retrieved fluxes. If the volcanic plume is tilted in the field of view of the camera, it can lead to over- or underestimations of the determined fluxes. This paper presents a method to deal with such a circumstance. Additionally, it provides the possibility to determine the wind direction of the plume directly from the image time series themselves.
Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, André Seyler, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, Tim Bösch, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Theano Drosoglou, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Yugo Kanaya, Xiaoyi Zhao, Kimberly Strong, Johannes Lampel, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore Koenig, Ivan Ortega, Olga Puentedura, Mónica Navarro-Comas, Laura Gómez, Margarita Yela González, Ankie Piters, Julia Remmers, Yang Wang, Thomas Wagner, Shanshan Wang, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, David García-Nieto, Carlos A. Cuevas, Nuria Benavent, Richard Querel, Paul Johnston, Oleg Postylyakov, Alexander Borovski, Alexander Elokhov, Ilya Bruchkouski, Haoran Liu, Cheng Liu, Qianqian Hong, Claudia Rivera, Michel Grutter, Wolfgang Stremme, M. Fahim Khokhar, Junaid Khayyam, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 955–978,Short summary
This work is about harmonization of differential optical absorption spectroscopy retrieval codes, which is a remote sensing technique widely used to derive atmospheric trace gas amounts. The study is based on ground-based measurements performed during the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany, in summer 2013. In total, 17 international groups working in the field of the DOAS technique participated in this study.
Holger Sihler, Peter Lübcke, Rüdiger Lang, Steffen Beirle, Martin de Graaf, Christoph Hörmann, Johannes Lampel, Marloes Penning de Vries, Julia Remmers, Ed Trollope, Yang Wang, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 881–903,Short summary
This paper presents the independent and simple IFR method to retrieve the FOV of an instrument, i.e. the two-dimensional sensitivity distribution. IFR relies on correlated measurements featuring a higher spatial resolution and was applied to two satellite instruments, GOME-2 and OMI, and a DOAS instrument integrated in an SO2 camera. Our results confirm the commonly applied FOV distributions. IFR is applicable for verification exercises as well as degradation monitoring in the field.
Steffen Beirle, Johannes Lampel, Christophe Lerot, Holger Sihler, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 581–598,Short summary
We propose to parameterize the instrumental spectral response function (ISRF) as a "super-Gaussian", which can reproduce a variety of shapes, from point-hat to boxcar shape, by just adding one parameter to the "classical" Gaussian. In addition, the super-Gaussian allows for a straightforward parametrization of the effect of ISRF changes.
Yang Wang, Johannes Lampel, Pinhua Xie, Steffen Beirle, Ang Li, Dexia Wu, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2189–2215,Short summary
The air pollution in the Yangtze River delta (YRD), the largest economic region in China, threatens the health of the inhabitants in this region. A long-term MAX-DOAS observation in Wuxi, China (belonging to YRD), is used to characterize vertical distributions (VD) of the aerosols and the precursor trace gases in the boundary to identify the dominating sources. The results are valuable for further validation of satellite products and chemical transport modelings.
Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Herrmann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, and Rahul A. Zaveri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2103–2162,Short summary
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3 is an important interaction between anthropogenic and natural emissions. This review results from a June 2015 workshop and includes the recent literature on kinetics, mechanisms, organic aerosol yields, and heterogeneous chemistry; advances in analytical instrumentation; the current state NO3-BVOC chemistry in atmospheric models; and critical needs for future research in modeling, field observations, and laboratory studies.
Johannes Lampel, Denis Pöhler, Oleg L. Polyansky, Aleksandra A. Kyuberis, Nikolai F. Zobov, Jonathan Tennyson, Lorenzo Lodi, Udo Frieß, Yang Wang, Steffen Beirle, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1271–1295,Short summary
Water vapour is known to absorb radiation from the microwave region to the blue part of the visible spectrum. Ab initio approaches to model individual absorption lines of the gaseous water molecule predict absorption lines until its dissociation limit at 243 nm. We present first evidence of water vapour absorption near 363 nm from field measurements using data from multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and long-path (LP)-DOAS measurements.
Peter Lübcke, Johannes Lampel, Santiago Arellano, Nicole Bobrowski, Florian Dinger, Bo Galle, Gustavo Garzón, Silvana Hidalgo, Zoraida Chacón Ortiz, Leif Vogel, Simon Warnach, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5677–5698,Short summary
We evaluated spectra from a scanning spectrometer network for the monitoring of volcanic gas emissions using a modelled background spectrum. Statistical methods were applied in order to improve the quality of the spectroscopic evaluation. We used this technique to assess the robustness of standard retrievals at two volcanos: Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Tungurahua (Ecuador).
Christoph Hörmann, Holger Sihler, Steffen Beirle, Marloes Penning de Vries, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13015–13034,Short summary
We present 10 years of bromine monoxide (BrO) satellite observations by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over the Rann of Kutch salt marsh. The measurements reveal a typical seasonal cycle of BrO with maximum concentrations during April/May. The results indicate that the Rann of Kutch is probably one of the strongest natural point sources of reactive bromine compounds outside the polar regions and is thought to have a significant impact on local and regional ozone chemistry.
Helmke Hepach, Birgit Quack, Susann Tegtmeier, Anja Engel, Astrid Bracher, Steffen Fuhlbrügge, Luisa Galgani, Elliot L. Atlas, Johannes Lampel, Udo Frieß, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12219–12237,Short summary
We present surface seawater measurements of bromo- and iodocarbons, which are involved in numerous atmospheric processes such as tropospheric and stratospheric ozone chemistry, from the highly productive Peruvian upwelling. By combining trace gas measurements, characterization of organic matter and phytoplankton species, and tropospheric modelling, we show that large amounts of iodocarbons produced from the pool of organic matter may contribute strongly to local tropospheric iodine loading.
Erna Frins, Reza Shaiganfar, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
Standard methods like in-situ measurements can hardly register NOx (= NO + NO2) emissions from aircrafts during take-off, when engines run at high load and thus an important amount of fuel is consumed and most of the harmful emissions are produced . The goal of this work is to show that it is possible to measure aircraft emissions generated during take-off (and initial part of the climb) by a remote spectroscopic method like automobile – based – Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS).
Le Cao, Ulrich Platt, Chenggang Wang, Nianwen Cao, and Qing Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
A snowpack module which represents the mass transfer between the ambient air and the snowpack is implemented in a box model, aiming to clarify the influences of the snowpack on the ozone depletion events (ODEs) and the associated bromine explosion in the springtime of Arctic. The size of snow grains, volume fraction of the liquid-like layer (LLL), and the rate of the mass exchange between the snow interstitial air and the snow particles are shown to be critical parameters.
N. Sobanski, M. J. Tang, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, D. Pöhler, H. Fischer, W. Song, C. Sauvage, J. Williams, J. Fachinger, F. Berkes, P. Hoor, U. Platt, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4867–4883,Short summary
The nitrate radical (NO3) is an important nocturnal oxidant. By measuring NO3, its precursors (nitrogen dioxide and ozone) and several trace gases with which it reacts, we examined the chemical and meteorological factors influencing the lifetime of NO3 at a semi-rural mountain site. Unexpectedly long lifetimes, approaching 1 h, were observed on several nights and were associated with a low-lying residual layer. We discuss the role of other reactions that convert NO2 to NO3.
J. Thieser, G. Schuster, J. Schuladen, G. J. Phillips, A. Reiffs, U. Parchatka, D. Pöhler, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 553–576,Short summary
We report on the use of thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy to detect NO2, peroxy nitrates and alkyl nitrates. We present both laboratory studies that characterise the chemical formation and loss of NO2 in the heated inlets and also result from a first field deployment.
J. Lampel, D. Pöhler, J. Tschritter, U. Frieß, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4329–4346,Short summary
In recent updates of the HITRAN water vapour H2O spectroscopic compilation covering the blue spectral region (here 394–-480 nm) significant changes for the absorption bands at 416 and 426 nm were reported. In order to investigate the consistency of the different cross sections calculated from these compilations, H2O vapour column density ratios for different spectral intervals were retrieved from long-path and multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy measurements.
K. D. Custard, C. R. Thompson, K. A. Pratt, P B. Shepson, J. Liao, L. G. Huey, J. J. Orlando, A. J. Weinheimer, E. Apel, S. R. Hall, F. Flocke, L. Mauldin, R. S. Hornbrook, D. Pöhler, S. General, J. Zielcke, W. R. Simpson, U. Platt, A. Fried, P. Weibring, B. C. Sive, K. Ullmann, C. Cantrell, D. J. Knapp, and D. D. Montzka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10799–10809,
J. Lampel, U. Frieß, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3767–3787,Short summary
In remote sensing applications, such as differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), atmospheric scattering processes need to be considered. Inelastic scattering on air molecules can lead to filling-in of absorption lines. The contribution of rotational Raman scattering is typically corrected for. The magnitude of vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) is known from theory and agrees with our first DOAS observations of this effect. Its impact on trace-gas measurements of NO2 is discussed.
J. Gliß, N. Bobrowski, L. Vogel, D. Pöhler, and U. Platt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5659–5681,
P. K. Peterson, W. R. Simpson, K. A. Pratt, P. B. Shepson, U. Frieß, J. Zielcke, U. Platt, S. J. Walsh, and S. V. Nghiem
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2119–2137,Short summary
We developed methods to measure the vertical distribution of bromine monoxide, a gas that oxidizes pollutants, above sea ice based upon MAX-DOAS observations from Barrow, Alaska, and find that atmospheric stability exerts a strong control on BrO's vertical distribution. Specifically, more stable (temperature inversion) situations result in BrO being closer to the ground while more neutral (not inverted) atmospheres allow BrO to ascend further aloft and grow to larger column abundance.
J. Kuhn, N. Bobrowski, P. Lübcke, L. Vogel, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3705–3715,
S. General, D. Pöhler, H. Sihler, N. Bobrowski, U. Frieß, J. Zielcke, M. Horbanski, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, W. R. Simpson, K. Weber, C. Fischer, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3459–3485,
K.-P. Heue, H. Riede, D. Walter, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Wagner, U. Frieß, U. Platt, A. Zahn, G. Stratmann, and H. Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6621–6642,
P. Lübcke, N. Bobrowski, S. Arellano, B. Galle, G. Garzón, L. Vogel, and U. Platt
Solid Earth, 5, 409–424,
S. Bleicher, J. C. Buxmann, R. Sander, T. P. Riedel, J. A. Thornton, U. Platt, and C. Zetzsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
L. Cao, H. Sihler, U. Platt, and E. Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3771–3787,
C. Liu, S. Beirle, T. Butler, P. Hoor, C. Frankenberg, P. Jöckel, M. Penning de Vries, U. Platt, A. Pozzer, M. G. Lawrence, J. Lelieveld, H. Tost, and T. Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1717–1732,
D. J. Hoch, J. Buxmann, H. Sihler, D. Pöhler, C. Zetzsch, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 199–214,
R. M. Varma, S. M. Ball, T. Brauers, H.-P. Dorn, U. Heitmann, R. L. Jones, U. Platt, D. Pöhler, A. A. Ruth, A. J. L. Shillings, J. Thieser, A. Wahner, and D. S. Venables
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3115–3130,
C. Hörmann, H. Sihler, N. Bobrowski, S. Beirle, M. Penning de Vries, U. Platt, and T. Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4749–4781,
H.-P. Dorn, R. L. Apodaca, S. M. Ball, T. Brauers, S. S. Brown, J. N. Crowley, W. P. Dubé, H. Fuchs, R. Häseler, U. Heitmann, R. L. Jones, A. Kiendler-Scharr, I. Labazan, J. M. Langridge, J. Meinen, T. F. Mentel, U. Platt, D. Pöhler, F. Rohrer, A. A. Ruth, E. Schlosser, G. Schuster, A. J. L. Shillings, W. R. Simpson, J. Thieser, R. Tillmann, R. Varma, D. S. Venables, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1111–1140,
K. Großmann, U. Frieß, E. Peters, F. Wittrock, J. Lampel, S. Yilmaz, J. Tschritter, R. Sommariva, R. von Glasow, B. Quack, K. Krüger, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3363–3378,
P. Lübcke, N. Bobrowski, S. Illing, C. Kern, J. M. Alvarez Nieves, L. Vogel, J. Zielcke, H. Delgado Granados, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 677–696,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsEffect of land–sea air mass transport on spatiotemporal distributions of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios over the southern Yellow SeaHYPHOP: a tool for high-altitude, long-range monitoring of hydrogen peroxide and higher organic peroxides in the atmospherePortable, low-cost samplers for distributed sampling of atmospheric gasesSI-traceable validation of a laser spectrometer for balloon-borne measurements of water vapor in the upper atmosphereField evaluation of low-cost electrochemical air quality gas sensors under extreme temperature and relative humidity conditionsA novel, cost-effective analytical method for measuring high-resolution vertical profiles of stratospheric trace gases using a gas chromatograph coupled with an electron capture detectorEthylene oxide monitor with part-per-trillion precision for in situ measurementsDevelopment of an automated pump-efficiency measuring system for ozonesondes utilizing an airbag-type flowmeterShort-term variability of atmospheric helium revealed through a cryo-enrichment methodUsing tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy for ambient hydrogen chloride detection: HCl-TILDASA modular field system for near-surface, vertical profiling of the atmospheric composition in harsh environments using cavity ring-down spectroscopyField comparison of two novel open-path instruments that measure dry deposition and emission of ammonia using flux-gradient and eddy covariance methodsDevelopment of multi-channel whole-air sampling equipment onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle for investigating volatile organic compounds' vertical distribution in the planetary boundary layerElectrochemical sensors on board a Zeppelin NT: in-flight evaluation of low-cost trace gas measurementsEvaluating the performance of a Picarro G2207-i analyser for high-precision atmospheric O2 measurementsAirborne flux measurements of ammonia over the southern Great Plains using chemical ionization mass spectrometryOptical receiver characterizations and corrections for ground-based and airborne measurements of spectral actinic flux densitiesDevelopment and validation of a new in situ technique to measure total gaseous chlorine in airTrue eddy accumulation – Part 1: Solutions to the problem of non-vanishing mean vertical wind velocityTrue eddy accumulation – Part 2: Theory and experiment of the short-time eddy accumulation methodChemical ionization mass spectrometry utilizing ammonium ions (NH4+ CIMS) for measurements of organic compounds in the atmosphereDirect measurement of N2O5 heterogeneous uptake coefficients on ambient aerosols via an aerosol flow tube system: design, characterization and performanceOnline measurements of cycloalkanes based on NO+ chemical ionization in proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS)Intercomparison of in situ measurements of ambient NH3: instrument performance and application under field conditionsA lightweight broadband cavity-enhanced spectrometer for NO2 measurement on uncrewed aerial vehiclesOn the development of a new prototype PTR-ToF-MS instrument and its application to the detection of atmospheric aminesLow-complexity methods to mitigate the impact of environmental variables on low-cost UAS-based atmospheric carbon dioxide measurementsComparison of airborne measurements of NO, NO2, HONO, NOy, and CO during FIREX-AQDevelopment of a broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for simultaneous measurements of ambient NO3, NO2, and H2OImprovements of a low-cost CO2 commercial nondispersive near-infrared (NDIR) sensor for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) atmospheric mapping applicationsDevelopment and testing of a novel sulfur dioxide sondeTemperature-dependent sensitivity of iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometersA quadcopter unmanned aerial system (UAS)-based methodology for measuring biomass burning emission factorsAir quality observations onboard commercial and targeted Zeppelin flights in Germany – a platform for high-resolution trace-gas and aerosol measurements within the planetary boundary layerPerformance of open-path lasers and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic systems in agriculture emissions researchMetrology for low-cost CO2 sensors applications: the case of a steady-state through-flow (SS-TF) chamber for CO2 fluxes observationsA relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) LOPAP system for flux measurements of nitrous acid (HONO)Fill dynamics and sample mixing in the AirCoreIRIS analyser assessment reveals sub-hourly variability of isotope ratios in carbon dioxide at Baring Head, New Zealand's atmospheric observatory in the Southern OceanA versatile vacuum ultraviolet ion source for reduced pressure bipolar chemical ionization mass spectrometryDesign and characterization of a semi-open dynamic chamber for measuring biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plantsFirst eddy covariance flux measurements of semi-volatile organic compounds with the PTR3-TOF-MSAn unmanned aerial vehicle sampling platform for atmospheric water vapor isotopes in polar environmentsNovel approach to observing system simulation experiments improves information gain of surface–atmosphere field measurementsUAS Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS) – a versatile instrument for trace gas measurements on airborne platformsModification of a conventional photolytic converter for improving aircraft measurements of NO2 via chemiluminescenceBromine speciation in volcanic plumes: new in situ derivatization LC-MS method for the determination of gaseous hydrogen bromide by gas diffusion denuder samplingApplication of a mobile laboratory using a selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) for characterisation of volatile organic compounds and atmospheric trace gasesDevelopment of a laser-photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of nitrous acid and hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphereCalibration and assessment of electrochemical low-cost sensors in remote alpine harsh environments
Jiaxin Li, Kunpeng Zang, Yi Lin, Yuanyuan Chen, Shuo Liu, Shanshan Qiu, Kai Jiang, Xuemei Qing, Haoyu Xiong, Haixiang Hong, Shuangxi Fang, Honghui Xu, and Yujun Jiang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4757–4768,Short summary
Based on observed data of CO2 and CH4 and meteorological parameters over the Yellow Sea in November 2012 and June 2013, a data process and quality control method was optimized and established to filter the data influenced by multiple factors. Spatial and seasonal variations in CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios were mainly controlled by the East Asian Monsoon, while the influence of air–sea exchange was slight.
Zaneta Hamryszczak, Antonia Hartmann, Dirk Dienhart, Sascha Hafermann, Bettina Brendel, Rainer Königstedt, Uwe Parchatka, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4741–4756,Short summary
Hydroperoxide measurements improve the understanding of atmospheric oxidation processes. We introduce an instrumental setup for airborne measurements. The aim of the work is the characterization of the measurement method with emphasis on interferences impacting instrumental uncertainty. Technical and physical challenges do not critically impact the instrumental performance. The instrument resolves dynamic processes, such as convective transport, as shown based on the CAFE-Brazil campaign.
James F. Hurley, Alejandra Caceres, Deborah F. McGlynn, Mary E. Tovillo, Suzanne Pinar, Roger Schürch, Ksenia Onufrieva, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4681–4692,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have a wide range of sources and impacts on environments and human health that make them spatially, temporally, and chemically varied. Current methods lack the ability to collect samples in ways that provide spatial and chemical resolution without complex, costly instrumentation. We describe and validate a low-cost, portable VOC sampler and demonstrate its utility in collecting distributed coordinated samples.
Simone Brunamonti, Manuel Graf, Tobias Bühlmann, Céline Pascale, Ivan Ilak, Lukas Emmenegger, and Béla Tuzson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4391–4407,Short summary
The abundance of water vapor (H2O) in the upper atmosphere has a significant impact on the rate of global warming. We developed a new lightweight spectrometer (ALBATROSS) for H2O measurements aboard meteorological balloons. Here, we assess the accuracy and precision of ALBATROSS using metrology-grade reference gases. The results demonstrate the exceptional potential of mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy as a new reference method for in situ measurements of H2O in the upper atmosphere.
Roubina Papaconstantinou, Marios Demosthenous, Spyros Bezantakos, Neoclis Hadjigeorgiou, Marinos Costi, Melina Stylianou, Elli Symeou, Chrysanthos Savvides, and George Biskos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3313–3329,Short summary
In this paper, we investigate the performance of low-cost electrochemical gas sensors. We carried out yearlong measurements at a traffic air quality monitoring station, where the low-cost sensors were collocated with reference instruments and exposed to highly variable environmental conditions with extremely high temperatures and low relative humidity (RH). Sensors provide measurements that exhibit increasing errors and decreasing correlations as temperature increases and RH decreases.
Jianghanyang Li, Bianca C. Baier, Fred Moore, Tim Newberger, Sonja Wolter, Jack Higgs, Geoff Dutton, Eric Hintsa, Bradley Hall, and Colm Sweeney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2851–2863,Short summary
Monitoring a suite of trace gases in the stratosphere will help us better understand the stratospheric circulation and its impact on the earth's radiation balance. However, such measurements are rare and usually expensive. We developed an instrument that can measure stratospheric trace gases using a low-cost sampling platform (AirCore). The results showed expected agreement with aircraft measurements, demonstrating this technique provides a low-cost and robust way to observe the stratosphere.
Tara I. Yacovitch, Christoph Dyroff, Joseph R. Roscioli, Conner Daube, J. Barry McManus, and Scott C. Herndon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1915–1921,Short summary
Ethylene oxide is a toxic, carcinogenic compound used in the medical and bulk sterilization industry. Here we describe a precise and fast laser-based ethylene oxide monitor. We report months-long concentrations at a Massachusetts site, and we show how they suggest a potential emission source 35 km away. This source, and another, is confirmed by driving the instrument downwind of the sites, where concentrations were tens to tens of thousands of times greater than background levels.
Tatsumi Nakano and Takashi Morofuji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1583–1595,Short summary
We have developed a system that can automatically measure the pump efficiency of the ECC-type ozonesonde. Operational measurement for 13 years by this system revealed that the efficiency fluctuates in each and slightly increases over time. Those can affect the estimation of total ozone amount by up to 4 %. This result indicates that it is necessary to understand the tendency of the pump correction factor of each ozonesonde in order to detect the actual atmospheric change with high accuracy.
Benjamin Birner, Eric Morgan, and Ralph F. Keeling
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1551–1561,Short summary
Atmospheric variations of helium (He) and CO2 are strongly linked due to the co-release of both gases from natural-gas burning. This implies that atmospheric He measurements may be a potentially powerful tool for verifying reported anthropogenic natural-gas usage. Here, we present the development and initial results of a novel measurement system of atmospheric He that paves the way for establishing a global monitoring network in the future.
John W. Halfacre, Jordan Stewart, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, Christoph Dyroff, Tara I. Yacovitch, Michael Flynn, Stephen J. Andrews, Steven S. Brown, Patrick R. Veres, and Pete M. Edwards
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1407–1429,Short summary
This study details a new sampling method for the optical detection of hydrogen chloride (HCl). HCl is an important atmospheric reservoir for chlorine atoms, which can affect nitrogen oxide cycling and the lifetimes of volatile organic compounds and ozone. However, HCl has a high affinity for interacting with surfaces, thereby preventing fast, quantitative measurements. The sampling technique in this study minimizes these surface interactions and provides a high-quality measurement of HCl.
Andrew W. Seidl, Harald Sodemann, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 769–790,Short summary
It is challenging to make field measurements of stable water isotopes in the Arctic. To this end, we present a modular stable-water-isotope analyzer profiling system. The system operated for a 2-week field campaign on Svalbard during the Arctic winter. We evaluate the system’s performance and analyze any potential impact that the field conditions might have had on the isotopic measurements and the system's ability to resolve isotope gradients in the lowermost layer of the atmosphere.
Daan Swart, Jun Zhang, Shelley van der Graaf, Susanna Rutledge-Jonker, Arjan Hensen, Stijn Berkhout, Pascal Wintjen, René van der Hoff, Marty Haaima, Arnoud Frumau, Pim van den Bulk, Ruben Schulte, Margreet van Zanten, and Thomas van Goethem
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 529–546,Short summary
During a 5-week comparison campaign, we tested two set-ups to measure half hourly ammonia fluxes. The eddy covariance and flux gradient systems showed very similar results when the upwind terrain was both homogeneous and free of obstacles. We discuss the technical performance and practical limitations of both systems. Measurements from these instruments can facilitate the study of processes behind ammonia deposition, an important contributor to eutrophication and acidificationin natural areas.
Suding Yang, Xin Li, Limin Zeng, Xuena Yu, Ying Liu, Sihua Lu, Xiaofeng Huang, Dongmei Zhang, Haibin Xu, Shuchen Lin, Hefan Liu, Miao Feng, Danlin Song, Qinwen Tan, Jinhui Cui, Lifan Wang, Ying Chen, Wenjie Wang, Haijiong Sun, Mengdi Song, Liuwei Kong, Yi Liu, Linhui Wei, Xianwu Zhu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 501–512,Short summary
Vertical observation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is essential to study the spatial distribution and evolution patterns of VOCs in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). This paper describes multi-channel whole-air sampling equipment onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for near-continuous VOC vertical observation. Vertical profiles of VOCs and trace gases during the evolution of the PBL in south-western China have been successfully obtained by deploying the newly developed UAV system.
Tobias Schuldt, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Christian Wesolek, Franz Rohrer, Benjamin Winter, Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Ralf Tillmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 373–386,Short summary
We report in situ measurements of air pollutant concentrations within the planetary boundary layer on board a Zeppelin NT in Germany. We highlight the in-flight evaluation of electrochemical sensors that were installed inside a hatch box located on the bottom of the Zeppelin. Results from this work emphasize the potential of these sensors for other in situ airborne applications, e.g., on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
Leigh S. Fleming, Andrew C. Manning, Penelope A. Pickers, Grant L. Forster, and Alex J. Etchells
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 387–401,Short summary
Measurements of atmospheric O2 can help constrain the carbon cycle processes and quantify fossil fuel CO2 emissions; however, measurement of atmospheric O2 is very challenging, and existing analysers are complex systems to build and maintain. We have tested a new O2 analyser (Picarro Inc. G2207-i) in the laboratory and at Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory. We have found that the G2207-i does not perform as well as an existing O2 analyser from Sable Systems Inc.
Siegfried Schobesberger, Emma L. D'Ambro, Lejish Vettikkat, Ben H. Lee, Qiaoyun Peng, David M. Bell, John E. Shilling, Manish Shrivastava, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome Fast, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 247–271,Short summary
We present a new, highly sensitive technique for measuring atmospheric ammonia, an important trace gas that is emitted mainly by agriculture. We deployed the instrument on an aircraft during research flights over rural Oklahoma. Due to its fast response, we could analyze correlations with turbulent winds and calculate ammonia emissions from nearby areas at 1 to 2 km resolution. We observed high spatial variability and point sources that are not resolved in the US National Emissions Inventory.
Birger Bohn and Insa Lohse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 209–233,Short summary
Optical receivers for solar spectral actinic radiation are designed for angle-independent sensitivities within a hemisphere. Remaining imperfections can be compensated for by receiver-specific corrections based on laboratory characterizations and radiative transfer calculations of spectral radiance distributions. The corrections cover a wide range of realistic atmospheric conditions and were applied to ground-based and airborne measurements in a wavelength range 280–660 nm.
Teles C. Furlani, RenXi Ye, Jordan Stewart, Leigh R. Crilley, Peter M. Edwards, Tara F. Kahan, and Cora J. Young
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 181–193,Short summary
This study describes a new technique to measure total gaseous chlorine, which is the sum of gas-phase chlorine-containing chemicals. The method converts any chlorine-containing molecule to hydrogen chloride that can be detected in real time using a cavity ring-down spectrometer. The new method was validated through laboratory experiments, as well as by making measurements of ambient outdoor air and indoor air during cleaning with a chlorine-based cleaner.
Anas Emad and Lukas Siebicke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 29–40,Short summary
The true eddy accumulation (TEA) method enables measuring atmospheric exchange with slow-response gas analyzers. TEA is formulated assuming ideal conditions with a zero mean vertical wind velocity during the averaging interval. This core assumption is rarely valid under field conditions. Here, we extend the TEA equation to accommodate nonideal conditions. The new equation allows constraining the systematic error term in the measured fluxes and the possibility to minimize or remove it.
Anas Emad and Lukas Siebicke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 41–55,Short summary
A new micrometeorological method to measure atmospheric exchange is proposed, and a prototype sampler is evaluated. The new method, called short-time eddy accumulation, is a variant of the eddy accumulation method, which is suited for use with slow gas analyzers. The new method enables adaptive time-varying accumulation intervals, which brings many advantages to flux measurements such as an improved dynamic range and the ability to run eddy accumulation in a continuous flow-through mode.
Lu Xu, Matthew M. Coggon, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Jessica B. Gilman, Michael A. Robinson, Martin Breitenlechner, Aaron Lamplugh, John D. Crounse, Paul O. Wennberg, J. Andrew Neuman, Gordon A. Novak, Patrick R. Veres, Steven S. Brown, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7353–7373,Short summary
We describe the development and operation of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer using an ammonium–water cluster (NH4+·H2O) as a reagent ion. NH4+·H2O is a highly versatile reagent ion for measurements of a wide range of oxygenated organic compounds. The major product ion is the cluster with NH4+ produced via ligand-switching reactions. The instrumental sensitivities of analytes depend on the binding energy of the analyte–NH4+ cluster; sensitivities can be estimated using voltage scanning.
Xiaorui Chen, Haichao Wang, Tianyu Zhai, Chunmeng Li, and Keding Lu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7019–7037,Short summary
N2O5 is an important reservoir of atmospheric nitrogen, on whose interface reaction ambient particles can largely influence the fate of nitrogen oxides and air quality. In this study, we develop an approach to enable the reactions of N2O5 on ambient particles directly in a tube reactor, deriving the reaction rates with high accuracy by means of a chemistry model. Its successful application helps complement the data scarcity and to fill the knowledge gap between laboratory and field results.
Yubin Chen, Bin Yuan, Chaomin Wang, Sihang Wang, Xianjun He, Caihong Wu, Xin Song, Yibo Huangfu, Xiao-Bing Li, Yijia Liao, and Min Shao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6935–6947,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrate that selective online measurements of cycloalkanes can be achieved using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry with NO+ chemical ionization (NO+ PTR-ToF-MS), with fast response and low detection limits. Applications of this method in both urban air and emission sources will be shown.
Marsailidh M. Twigg, Augustinus J. C. Berkhout, Nicholas Cowan, Sabine Crunaire, Enrico Dammers, Volker Ebert, Vincent Gaudion, Marty Haaima, Christoph Häni, Lewis John, Matthew R. Jones, Bjorn Kamps, John Kentisbeer, Thomas Kupper, Sarah R. Leeson, Daiana Leuenberger, Nils O. B. Lüttschwager, Ulla Makkonen, Nicholas A. Martin, David Missler, Duncan Mounsor, Albrecht Neftel, Chad Nelson, Eiko Nemitz, Rutger Oudwater, Celine Pascale, Jean-Eudes Petit, Andrea Pogany, Nathalie Redon, Jörg Sintermann, Amy Stephens, Mark A. Sutton, Yuk S. Tang, Rens Zijlmans, Christine F. Braban, and Bernhard Niederhauser
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6755–6787,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) gas in the atmosphere impacts the environment, human health, and, indirectly, climate. Historic NH3 monitoring was labour intensive, and the instruments were complicated. Over the last decade, there has been a rapid technology development, including “plug-and-play” instruments. This study is an extensive field comparison of the currently available technologies and provides evidence that for routine monitoring, standard operating protocols are required for datasets to be comparable.
Caroline C. Womack, Steven S. Brown, Steven J. Ciciora, Ru-Shan Gao, Richard J. McLaughlin, Michael A. Robinson, Yinon Rudich, and Rebecca A. Washenfelder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6643–6652,Short summary
We present a new miniature instrument to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. NO2 contributes to the formation of pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, and its concentration can vary widely near sources. We developed this lightweight (3.05 kg) low-power (<35 W) instrument to measure NO2 on uncrewed aircraft vehicles (UAVs) and demonstrate that it has the accuracy and precision needed for atmospheric field measurements.
Alexander Håland, Tomáš Mikoviny, Elisabeth Emilie Syse, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6297–6307,Short summary
PTR-MS is widely used in atmospheric sciences for the detection of non-methane organic trace gases. The two most widely used types of PTR-MS instruments differ in their ion source and drift tube design. We herein present a new prototype PTR-MS instrument that hybridizes these designs and combines a conventional hollow cathode glow discharge ion source with a focusing ion–molecule reactor. We also show how this new instrument performs in detecting atmospheric amines.
Gustavo Britto Hupsel de Azevedo, Bill Doyle, Christopher A. Fiebrich, and David Schvartzman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5599–5618,Short summary
Strong changes in pressure, temperature, and humidity occur when small scientific aircraft ascend through the atmosphere to measure carbon dioxide. These strong changes can produce errors in the carbon dioxide measurements. To avoid these errors, we present a low-cost and simple correction method. This low-complexity method allows more researchers to study atmospheric carbon dioxide, reducing entry barriers in this field.
Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, J. Andrew Neuman, Steven S. Brown, Hannah M. Allen, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Matthew M. Coggon, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Hongyu Guo, Hannah A. Halliday, Thomas F. Hanisco, Christopher D. Holmes, L. Gregory Huey, Jose L. Jimenez, Aaron D. Lamplugh, Young Ro Lee, Jakob Lindaas, Richard H. Moore, Benjamin A. Nault, John B. Nowak, Demetrios Pagonis, Pamela S. Rickly, Michael A. Robinson, Andrew W. Rollins, Vanessa Selimovic, Jason M. St. Clair, David Tanner, Krystal T. Vasquez, Patrick R. Veres, Carsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Caroline C. Womack, Lu Xu, Kyle J. Zarzana, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4901–4930,Short summary
Understanding fire emission impacts on the atmosphere is key to effective air quality management and requires accurate measurements. We present a comparison of airborne measurements of key atmospheric species in ambient air and in fire smoke. We show that most instruments performed within instrument uncertainties. In some cases, further work is needed to fully characterize instrument performance. Comparing independent measurements using different techniques is important to assess their accuracy.
Woohui Nam, Changmin Cho, Begie Perdigones, Tae Siek Rhee, and Kyung-Eun Min
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4473–4487,Short summary
We describe our vibration-resistant instrument for measuring ambient NO3, NO2, and H2O based on cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy. By simultaneous retrieval of H2O with the other species using a measured H2O absorption spectrum, direct quantifications among all species are possible without any pre-treatment for H2O. Our instrument achieves the effective light path to ~101.5 km, which allows the sensitive measurements of NO3 and NO2 as 1.41 pptv and 6.92 ppbv (1σ) in 1 s.
Yunsong Liu, Jean-Daniel Paris, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Panayiota Antoniou, Christos Constantinides, Maximilien Desservettaz, Christos Keleshis, Olivier Laurent, Andreas Leonidou, Carole Philippon, Panagiotis Vouterakos, Pierre-Yves Quéhé, Philippe Bousquet, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4431–4442,Short summary
This paper details laboratory-based and field developments of a cost-effective and compacted UAV CO2 sensor system to address the challenge of measuring CO2 with sufficient precision and acquisition frequency. We assess its performance extensively through laboratory and field tests and provide a case study in an urban area (Nicosia, Cyprus). We therefore expect that this portable system will be widely used for measuring CO2 emission and distribution in natural or urban environments.
Subin Yoon, Alexander Kotsakis, Sergio L. Alvarez, Mark G. Spychala, Elizabeth Klovenski, Paul Walter, Gary Morris, Ernesto Corrales, Alfredo Alan, Jorge A. Diaz, and James H. Flynn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4373–4384,Short summary
SO2 is adverse to human health and the environment. A single SO2 sonde was developed to provide direct SO2 measurement with a greater vertical extent, a lower limit of detection, and less uncertainty relative to the previous dual-sonde method. The single sonde was tested in the field near volcanoes and anthropogenic sources where the sonde measured SO2 ranging from 0.5 to 940 ppb. This lighter-weight payload can be a great candidate to attach to small drones and unmanned aerial vehicles.
Michael A. Robinson, J. Andrew Neuman, L. Gregory Huey, James M. Roberts, Steven S. Brown, and Patrick R. Veres
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4295–4305,Short summary
Iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is commonly used in atmospheric chemistry laboratory studies and field campaigns. Deployment of the NOAA iodide CIMS instrument in the summer of 2021 indicated a significant and overlooked temperature dependence of the instrument sensitivity. This work explores which analytes are influenced by this phenomena. Additionally, we recommend controls to reduce this effect for future field deployments.
Roland Vernooij, Patrik Winiger, Martin Wooster, Tercia Strydom, Laurent Poulain, Ulrike Dusek, Mark Grosvenor, Gareth J. Roberts, Nick Schutgens, and Guido R. van der Werf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4271–4294,Short summary
Landscape fires are a substantial emitter of greenhouse gases and aerosols. Previous studies have indicated savanna emission factors to be highly variable. Improving fire emission estimates, and understanding future climate- and human-induced changes in fire regimes, requires in situ measurements. We present a drone-based method that enables the collection of a large amount of high-quality emission factor measurements that do not have the biases of aircraft or surface measurements.
Ralf Tillmann, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Franz Rohrer, Benjamin Winter, Christian Wesolek, Tobias Schuldt, Anne C. Lange, Philipp Franke, Elmar Friese, Michael Decker, Robert Wegener, Morten Hundt, Oleg Aseev, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3827–3842,Short summary
We report in situ measurements of air pollutant concentrations within the planetary boundary layer on board a Zeppelin in Germany. The low costs of commercial flights provide an affordable and efficient method to improve our understanding of changes in emissions in space and time. The experimental setup expands the capabilities of this platform and provides insights into primary and secondary pollution observations and planetary boundary layer dynamics which determine air quality significantly.
Mei Bai, Zoe Loh, David W. T. Griffith, Debra Turner, Richard Eckard, Robert Edis, Owen T. Denmead, Glenn W. Bryant, Clare Paton-Walsh, Matthew Tonini, Sean M. McGinn, and Deli Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3593–3610,Short summary
The open-path laser (OPL) and open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) are used in agricultural research, but their error in emissions research has not been the focus of studies. We conducted trace gas release trials and herd and paddock emission studies to compare their applicability and performance. The OP-FTIR has better stability in stable conditions than OPL. The CH4 OPL accurately detects the low background level of CH4, but the NH3 OPL only detects background values >10 ppbv.
Roger Curcoll, Josep-Anton Morguí, Armand Kamnang, Lídia Cañas, Arturo Vargas, and Claudia Grossi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2807–2818,Short summary
Low-cost air enquirer kits, including CO2 and environmental parameter sensors, have been designed, built, and tested in a new steady-state through-flow chamber for simultaneous measurements of CO2 fluxes in soil and CO2 concentrations in air. A CO2 calibration and multiparametric fitting reduced the total uncertainty of CO2 concentration by 90 %. This system allows continuous measurement of CO2 fluxes and CO2 ambient air, with low cost (EUR 1200), low energy demand (<5 W), and low maintenance.
Lisa von der Heyden, Walter Wißdorf, Ralf Kurtenbach, and Jörg Kleffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1983–2000,Short summary
A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system based on the LOPAP technique for the quantification of vertical fluxes of nitrous acid (HONO) was developed and tested in a field campaign. Typical diurnal variations of the HONO fluxes were observed with low, partly negative fluxes during night-time and higher positive fluxes around noon. The highest correlation of the HONO flux was observed with the product of the NO2 photolysis frequency and the NO2 concentration.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1903–1916,Short summary
The AirCore collects a continuous air sample in a long tube that can be read later when the captured air is slowly pushed through an analyzer. Much of the variation of gas composition encountered during collection is preserved, like having up to ~ 100 separate air samples. This is illustrated through examples of actual flights, and the analysis algorithm is described. The AirCore provides access to air as high as the mid stratosphere, enabling validation for satellite air composition soundings.
Peter Sperlich, Gordon W. Brailsford, Rowena C. Moss, John McGregor, Ross J. Martin, Sylvia Nichol, Sara Mikaloff-Fletcher, Beata Bukosa, Magda Mandic, C. Ian Schipper, Paul Krummel, and Alan D. Griffiths
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1631–1656,Short summary
We tested an in situ analyser for carbon and oxygen isotopes in atmospheric CO2 at Baring Head, New Zealand’s observatory for Southern Ocean baseline air. The analyser was able to resolve regional signals of the terrestrial carbon cycle, although the analysis of small events was limited by analytical uncertainty. Further improvement of the instrument performance would be desirable for the robust analysis of distant signals and to resolve the small variability in Southern Ocean baseline air.
Martin Breitenlechner, Gordon A. Novak, J. Andrew Neuman, Andrew W. Rollins, and Patrick R. Veres
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1159–1169,Short summary
We coupled a new ion source to a commercially available state-of-the-art trace gas analyzer. The instrument is particularly well suited for conducting high-altitude observations, addressing the challenges of low ambient pressures and a complex sample matrix. The new instrument and ion source provides significant advantages to more traditional modes of operation, without sacrificing the sensitivity and flexibility of this technique.
Jianqiang Zeng, Yanli Zhang, Huina Zhang, Wei Song, Zhenfeng Wu, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 79–93,Short summary
The emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from plant leaves is an essential part of biosphere–atmosphere interactions. Here we demonstrate how a dynamic chamber for measuring branch-scale BVOC emissions could be characterized both in the lab for adsorptive losses and in the field for ambient–enclosure environmental differences. The results also imply emission factors for terpenes might be underestimated if measured using dynamic chambers without certified transfer efficiencies.
Lukas Fischer, Martin Breitenlechner, Eva Canaval, Wiebke Scholz, Marcus Striednig, Martin Graus, Thomas G. Karl, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 8019–8039,Short summary
Ecosystems emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are then oxidized in the atmosphere, contributing to ozone and secondary aerosol formation. While flux measurements of BVOCs are state of the art, flux measurements of the less volatile oxidation products are difficult to achieve due to inlet losses. Here we present first flux measurements, utilizing a novel PTR3 instrument in combination with a specially designed wall-less inlet we put on top of the Hyytiälä tower in Finland.
Kevin S. Rozmiarek, Bruce H. Vaughn, Tyler R. Jones, Valerie Morris, William B. Skorski, Abigail G. Hughes, Jack Elston, Sonja Wahl, Anne-Katrine Faber, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7045–7067,Short summary
We have designed an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sampling platform for operation in extreme polar environments that is capable of sampling atmospheric water vapor for subsequent measurement of water isotopes. During flight, we measure location, temperature, humidity, and pressure to determine the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using algorithms, allowing for strategic decision-making by the pilot to collect samples in glass flasks contained in the nose cone of the UAV.
Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Sreenath Paleri, Matthias Sühring, Brian J. Butterworth, Christopher Florian, Matthias Mauder, David M. Plummer, Luise Wanner, Ke Xu, and Ankur R. Desai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6929–6954,Short summary
The key points are the following. (i) Integrative observing system design can multiply the information gain of surface–atmosphere field measurements. (ii) Catalyzing numerical simulations and first-principles machine learning open up observing system simulation experiments to novel applications. (iii) Use cases include natural climate solutions, emission inventory validation, urban air quality, and industry leak detection.
Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, Dale F. Hurst, Geoff S. Dutton, Bradley D. Hall, J. David Nance, Ben R. Miller, Stephen A. Montzka, Laura P. Wolton, Audra McClure-Begley, James W. Elkins, Emrys G. Hall, Allen F. Jordan, Andrew W. Rollins, Troy D. Thornberry, Laurel A. Watts, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Thomas B. Ryerson, Bruce C. Daube, Yenny Gonzalez Ramos, Roisin Commane, Gregory W. Santoni, Jasna V. Pittman, Steven C. Wofsy, Eric Kort, Glenn S. Diskin, and T. Paul Bui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6795–6819,Short summary
We built UCATS to study atmospheric chemistry and transport. It has measured trace gases including CFCs, N2O, SF6, CH4, CO, and H2 with gas chromatography, as well as ozone and water vapor. UCATS has been part of missions to study the tropical tropopause; transport of air into the stratosphere; greenhouse gases, transport, and chemistry in the troposphere; and ozone chemistry, on both piloted and unmanned aircraft. Its design, capabilities, and some results are shown and described here.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Uwe Parchatka, Ivan Tadic, Birger Bohn, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Hartwig Harder, Flora Kluge, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Florian Obersteiner, Martin Zöger, Raphael Doerich, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6759–6776,Short summary
NO2 plays a central role in atmospheric photochemical processes and requires accurate measurements. This research presents NO2 data obtained via chemiluminescence using a photolytic converter from airborne studies around Cabo Verde and laboratory investigations. We show the limits and error-proneness of a conventional blue light converter in aircraft measurements affected by humidity and NO levels and suggest the use of an alternative quartz converter for more reliable results.
Alexandra Gutmann, Nicole Bobrowski, Marcello Liotta, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6395–6406,Short summary
Motivated by a special interest in bromine chemistry in volcanic plumes, the study presented here describes a new method for the quantitative collection of gaseous hydrogen bromide in gas diffusion denuders. The hydrogen bromide reacted during sampling with appropriate epoxides applied to the denuder walls. The denuder sampling assembly was successfully deployed in the volcanic plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua.
Rebecca L. Wagner, Naomi J. Farren, Jack Davison, Stuart Young, James R. Hopkins, Alastair C. Lewis, David C. Carslaw, and Marvin D. Shaw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6083–6100,Short summary
We describe the use of a selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) in a mobile laboratory to provide on-road, high spatial and temporal measurements of CO2, CH4, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gases. Results are presented that highlight the potential of this platform for developing characterisation methods of different emissions sources in complex urban areas.
Brandon Bottorff, Emily Reidy, Levi Mielke, Sebastien Dusanter, and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6039–6056,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important source of hydroxyl (OH) radicals, the primary oxidant in the atmosphere. Accurate measurements of HONO are thus important to understand the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. A new instrument capable of measuring atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) with high sensitivity is presented, utilizing laser photofragmentation of ambient HONO and subsequent detection of the OH radical fragment.
Federico Dallo, Daniele Zannoni, Jacopo Gabrieli, Paolo Cristofanelli, Francescopiero Calzolari, Fabrizio de Blasi, Andrea Spolaor, Dario Battistel, Rachele Lodi, Warren Raymond Lee Cairns, Ann Mari Fjæraa, Paolo Bonasoni, and Carlo Barbante
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6005–6021,Short summary
Our work showed how the adoption of low-cost technology could be useful in environmental research and monitoring. We focused our work on tropospheric ozone, but we also showed how to make a general purpose low-cost sensing system which may be adapted and optimised to be used in many other case studies. Given the importance of providing quality data, we put a lot of effort in the sensor's calibration, and we believe that our results show how to exploit the potential of the low-cost technology.
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Optical resonators enhance the light path in compact instruments, thereby improving their sensitivity. Determining the established path length in the instrument is a prerequisite for the accurate determination of trace gas concentrations but can be a significant complication in the use of such resonators. Here we show two calibration techniques which are relatively simple and free of consumables but still provide accurate calibrations. This facilitates the use of optical resonators.
Optical resonators enhance the light path in compact instruments, thereby improving their...