Articles | Volume 7, issue 1
Research article 27 Jan 2014
Research article | 27 Jan 2014
An instrument for measurements of BrO with LED-based Cavity-Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy
D. J. Hoch et al.
No articles found.
Jonas Kuhn, Nicole Bobrowski, Thomas Wagner, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7873–7892,Short summary
We propose spectrograph implementations using Fabry–Pérot interferometers for atmospheric trace gas remote sensing. Compared with widely used grating spectrographs, we find substantial light throughput and mobility advantages for high resolving powers. Besides lowering detection limits and increasing the spatial and temporal resolution of many atmospheric trace gas measurements, this approach might enable remote sensing of further important gases such as tropospheric OH radicals.
Ulrich Platt, Thomas Wagner, Jonas Kuhn, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6867–6883,Short summary
Absorption spectroscopy of scattered sunlight is extremely useful for the analysis of atmospheric trace gas distributions. A central parameter for the achievable sensitivity of spectroscopic instruments is the light throughput, which can be enhanced in a number of ways. We present new ideas and considerations of how instruments could be optimized. Particular emphasis is on arrays of massively parallel instruments. Such arrays can reduce the size and weight of instruments by orders of magnitude.
Leon Kuhn, Jonas Kuhn, Thomas Wagner, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We present a novel instrument for imaging measurements of NO2 with high spatio-temporal resolution based on Gas Correlation Spectroscopy, called the GCS NO2 camera. The instrument works by placing two gas cells (cuvettes) in front of two photosensor arrays, one filled with air and one filled with a high concentration of NO2, acting as a non-dispersive spectral filter. NO2 images are then generated on the basis of the signal ratio of the two channels in the spectral region of 430–445 nm.
Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Udo Frieß, Robert Spurr, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
MAX-DOAS is a widely-used measurement technique for the remote detection of atmospheric aerosol and trace gases. It relies on the analysis of ultra-violet and visible radiation spectra of skylight. To date, information contained in the skylight's polarisation state has not been utilised. On the basis of synthetic data we carried out sensitivity analyses to assess the potential of polarimetry for MAX-DOAS applications.
Kai Krause, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Denis Pöhler, Andreas Weigelt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5791–5807,Short summary
Ships are an important source of key pollutants. Usually, these are measured aboard the ship or on the coast using in situ instruments. This study shows how active optical remote sensing can be used to measure ship emissions and how to determine emission rates of individual ships out of those measurements. These emission rates are valuable input for the assessment of the influence of shipping emissions in regions close to the shipping lanes.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Klausner, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, Jose L. Gomez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John Phillip Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in-situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Martin John Osborne, Johannes de Leeuw, Claire Witham, Anja Schmidt, Frances Beckett, Nina Kristiansen, Joelle Buxmann, Cameron Saint, Ellsworth J. Welton, Javier Fochesatto, Ana R. Gomes, Ulrich Bundke, Andreas Petzold, Franco Marenco, and Jim Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Using the Met Office NAME dispersion model, supported by satellite and ground based remote sensing observations, we describe the dispersion of aerosols from the 2019 Raikoke eruption and the concurrent wild fires in Alberta Canada. We show how the synergy of dispersion modelling and multiple observation sources allowed observers in the London VAAC to arrive at a more complete picture of the aerosol loading at altitudes commonly used by aviation.
Florian Dinger, Timo Kleinbek, Steffen Dörner, Nicole Bobrowski, Ulrich Platt, Thomas Wagner, Martha Ibarra, and Eveling Espinoza
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9367–9404,Short summary
Monitoring magnitude or chemical composition of volcanic gas emissions can help to forecast volcanic eruptions and provides empirical data on the impact of volcanoes on the chemistry in the local and global atmosphere. This study reports and discusses continuous time series of the sulfur and bromine emission fluxes of Masaya from 2014 to 2020. We observed an annual cyclicity in the BrO / SO2 molar ratio, possibly caused by the annual variability in the atmospheric humidity.
Holger Sihler, Steffen Beirle, Steffen Dörner, Marloes Gutenstein-Penning de Vries, Christoph Hörmann, Christian Borger, Simon Warnach, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3989–4031,Short summary
MICRU is an algorithm for the retrieval of effective cloud fractions (CFs) from satellite measurements. CFs describe the amount of clouds, which have a significant impact on the vertical sensitivity profile of trace gases like NO2 and HCHO. MICRU retrieves small CFs with an accuracy of 0.04 over the entire satellite swath. It features an empirical surface reflectivity model accounting for physical anisotropy (BRDF, sun glitter) and instrumental effects. MICRU is also applicable to imager data.
Maximilian Herrmann, Holger Sihler, Udo Frieß, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Platt, and Eva Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7611–7638,Short summary
Time-dependent 3D numerical simulations of tropospheric bromine release and ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the Arctic polar spring of 2009 are compared to observations. Simulation results agree well with the observations at both Utqiaġvik, Alaska, and at Summit, Greenland. In a parameter study, different settings for the bromine release mechanism are evaluated. An enhancement of the bromine release mechanism improves the agreement regarding the occurrence of ODEs with the observations.
Santiago Arellano, Bo Galle, Fredy Apaza, Geoffroy Avard, Charlotte Barrington, Nicole Bobrowski, Claudia Bucarey, Viviana Burbano, Mike Burton, Zoraida Chacón, Gustavo Chigna, Christian Joseph Clarito, Vladimir Conde, Fidel Costa, Maarten De Moor, Hugo Delgado-Granados, Andrea Di Muro, Deborah Fernandez, Gustavo Garzón, Hendra Gunawan, Nia Haerani, Thor H. Hansteen, Silvana Hidalgo, Salvatore Inguaggiato, Mattias Johansson, Christoph Kern, Manne Kihlman, Philippe Kowalski, Pablo Masias, Francisco Montalvo, Joakim Möller, Ulrich Platt, Claudia Rivera, Armando Saballos, Giuseppe Salerno, Benoit Taisne, Freddy Vásconez, Gabriela Velásquez, Fabio Vita, and Mathieu Yalire
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1167–1188,Short summary
This study presents a dataset of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from 2005–2017. Measurements were obtained by Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) scanning differential optical absorption spectrometer (ScanDOAS) instruments at 32 volcanoes and processed using a standardized procedure. We show statistics of volcanic gas emissions under a variety of conditions and compare them with averages derived from measurements from space and historical inventories.
Christopher Fuchs, Jonas Kuhn, Nicole Bobrowski, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 295–307,Short summary
We present first measurements of volcanic SO2 emissions with a novel imaging technique for atmospheric trace gases in the UV and visible spectral range. Periodic spectral Fabry–Pérot interferometer transmission features are matched to differential absorption cross sections of the investigated trace gas, yielding high selectivity and sensitivity. The technique can be extended to measure many other trace gases with high spatio-temporal resolution.
Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Carlos Alberti, Marc Allaart, Arnoud Apituley, Alkis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Stijn Berkhout, Kristof Bognar, Tim Bösch, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Mirjam den Hoed, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Martina M. Friedrich, Arnoud Frumau, Lou Gast, Clio Gielen, Laura Gomez-Martín, Nan Hao, Arjan Hensen, Bas Henzing, Christian Hermans, Junli Jin, Karin Kreher, Jonas Kuhn, Johannes Lampel, Ang Li, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Olga Puentedura, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Elena Spinei, Deborah Stein Zweers, Kimberly Strong, Daan Swart, Frederik Tack, Martin Tiefengraber, René van der Hoff, Michel van Roozendael, Tim Vlemmix, Jan Vonk, Thomas Wagner, Yang Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Matthias Wiegner, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1–35,Short summary
Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is a ground-based remote sensing measurement technique that derives atmospheric aerosol and trace gas vertical profiles from skylight spectra. In this study, consistency and reliability of MAX-DOAS profiles are assessed by applying nine different evaluation algorithms to spectral data recorded during an intercomparison campaign in the Netherlands and by comparing the results to colocated supporting observations.
Christian Borger, Steffen Beirle, Steffen Dörner, Holger Sihler, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2751–2783,Short summary
We present a total column water vapour (TCWV) retrieval analysing measurements from S-5P/TROPOMI in the visible blue spectral range. The retrieval can well capture the global water vapour distribution with similar sensitivity over the land and ocean and agrees well with various reference data sets within the estimated TCWV uncertainties of typically around 10 %–20 %.
Karin Kreher, Michel Van Roozendael, Francois Hendrick, Arnoud Apituley, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Udo Frieß, Andreas Richter, Thomas Wagner, Johannes Lampel, Nader Abuhassan, Li Ang, Monica Anguas, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Henning Finkenzeller, David Garcia-Nieto, Clio Gielen, Laura Gómez-Martín, Nan Hao, Bas Henzing, Jay R. Herman, Christian Hermans, Syedul Hoque, Hitoshi Irie, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Junaid Khayyam Butt, Fahim Khokhar, Theodore K. Koenig, Jonas Kuhn, Vinod Kumar, Cheng Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Abhishek K. Mishra, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro-Comas, Mareike Ostendorf, Andrea Pazmino, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Manuel Pinharanda, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Oleg Postylyakov, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Vinayak Sinha, Elena Spinei, Kimberly Strong, Frederik Tack, Xin Tian, Martin Tiefengraber, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Jeroen van Gent, Rainer Volkamer, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Shanshan Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua H. Xie, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2169–2208,Short summary
In September 2016, 36 spectrometers from 24 institutes measured a number of key atmospheric pollutants during an instrument intercomparison campaign (CINDI-2) at Cabauw, the Netherlands. Here we report on the outcome of this intercomparison exercise. The three major goals were to characterise the differences between the participating instruments, to define a robust methodology for performance assessment, and to contribute to the harmonisation of the measurement settings and retrieval methods.
Ulrich Platt and Jonas Kuhn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6259–6272,Short summary
Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by absorption spectroscopy are frequently supported by recording the amount of trace gas in absorption cells. These are typically small glass (or quartz) cylinders containing the gas to be studied. Here we show in the example of NO2-absorption cells that the effective amount of gas seen by the instrument can deviate greatly from expected values (by orders of magnitude in severe cases). Some suggestions for improving the situation are discussed.
Maximilian Herrmann, Le Cao, Holger Sihler, Ulrich Platt, and Eva Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10161–10190,Short summary
The oscillations of tropospheric ODEs in the Arctic spring is studied numerically. After the termination of an ODE, the reactive bromine is deposited onto aerosols/the snow surface, and the ozone may regenerate. The replenished ozone is available for the next autocatalytic bromine release, leading to the oscillation of an ODE. Its dependence on the NOx mixing ratio, the inversion layer strength, the ambient temperature, the aerosol density, and the solar radiation is investigated.
Jan-Marcus Nasse, Philipp G. Eger, Denis Pöhler, Stefan Schmitt, Udo Frieß, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4149–4169,Short summary
We present several changes to the setup of long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) instruments, including the application of a laser-driven light source, a modified coupling of the measurement signal between components, improved stray-light suppression, and better signal homogenization measures. These changes reduce detection limits of typical trace-gas species by a factor of 3–4 compared to previous setups and enable automated long-term observations in Antarctica.
Martin Horbanski, Denis Pöhler, Johannes Lampel, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3365–3381,Short summary
ICAD allows a precise in situ measurement of gases like NO2 in a relatively simple and compact setup. The main advantage in comparison to most other optical methods is that it does not require a stable total light intensity. This allows a simpler and mobile instrument setup and additionally it features no observed cross-interferences. We validated the high quality for an ICAD NO2 instrument in different inter-comparisons with a detection limit of 0.02 ppbv.
Florian Dinger, Stefan Bredemeyer, Santiago Arellano, Nicole Bobrowski, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Solid Earth, 10, 725–740,Short summary
Evidence for tidal impacts on volcanism have been gathered by numerous empirical studies. This paper elucidates whether a causal link from the tidal forces to a variation in the volcanic degassing can be traced analytically. We model the response of a simplified magmatic system to the local tidal gravity variations, find that the tide-induced dynamics may significantly alter the bubble coalescence rate, and discuss the consequences for volcanic degassing behaviour.
Thomas Wagner, Steffen Beirle, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Steffen Dörner, Caroline Fayt, Udo Frieß, David García-Nieto, Clio Gielen, David González-Bartolome, Laura Gomez, François Hendrick, Bas Henzing, Jun Li Jin, Johannes Lampel, Jianzhong Ma, Kornelia Mies, Mónica Navarro, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Olga Puentedura, Janis Puķīte, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Reza Shaiganfar, Holger Sihler, Michel Van Roozendael, Yang Wang, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2745–2817,Short summary
In this study the consistency between MAX-DOAS measurements and radiative transfer simulations of the atmospheric O4 absorption is investigated. The study is based on measurements (2 selected days during the MADCAT campaign) as well as synthetic spectra. The uncertainties of all relevant aspects (spectral retrieval and radiative transfer simulations) are quantified. For one of the selected days, measurements and simulations do not agree within their uncertainties.
Martin Osborne, Florent F. Malavelle, Mariana Adam, Joelle Buxmann, Jaqueline Sugier, Franco Marenco, and Jim Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3557–3578,Short summary
In this paper we present an analysis of the unusual
red skyevent that occurred over the UK on 15 and 16 October 2017. We use measurements from the Met Office operational lidar and sun-photometer network, as well as other data and model output, to show that the event was caused by the passage of ex-hurricane Ophelia which transported unusual amounts of dust from the Sahara to the UK as well as smoke from forest fires in Portugal.
Umar Javed, Dagmar Kubistin, Monica Martinez, Jan Pollmann, Markus Rudolf, Uwe Parchatka, Andreas Reiffs, Jim Thieser, Gerhard Schuster, Martin Horbanski, Denis Pöhler, John N. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1461–1481,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) affects the concentration of key species like ozone, hydroxyl radical, and nitrate radical in the atmosphere. In situ, direct, and interference-free NO2 measurements are important for validating our understanding of NOx chemistry related to ozone formation and the radical loss process. This article describes the important features and performance of a newly developed NO2 instrument during a field intercomparison.
Enno Bahlmann, Frank Keppler, Julian Wittmer, Markus Greule, Heinz Friedrich Schöler, Richard Seifert, and Cornelius Zetzsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1703–1719,Short summary
Chloromethane is the most important natural carrier of chlorine to the stratosphere. From a newly determined carbon isotope effect of −11.2 ‰ for the tropospheric loss of CH3Cl we derive a tropical rainforest CH3Cl source of 670 ± 200 Gg a−1, 60 % smaller than previous estimates. A revision of previous bottom-up estimates using above-ground biomass instead of rainforest area strongly supports this lower estimate. Our results suggest a large unknown tropical value of 1530 ± 200 Gg a−1.
Jonas Kuhn, Ulrich Platt, Nicole Bobrowski, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 735–747,Short summary
We study a novel remote-sensing technique for atmospheric trace gases absorbing in the UV and visible spectral range. Using Fabry–Perot interferometers with a spectral transmission matched to the trace gas's spectral absorption allows for imaging trace gases with high sensitivity and selectivity. The thereby achieved high spatio-temporal resolution enables the study of small-scale and dynamic processes in the atmosphere. We present sample calculations and a proof-of-concept study.
Ying Zhu, Ka Lok Chan, Yun Fat Lam, Martin Horbanski, Denis Pöhler, Johannes Boll, Ivo Lipkowitsch, Sheng Ye, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6719–6734,Short summary
The paper presents an investigation of spatio-temporal variability of street-level NO2 in Hong Kong using mobile cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and long-path DOAS. Measurements were conducted in December 2010 and March 2017. A significant decreasing trend in on-road NO2 was found by comparing measurements taken in 2010 and 2017. Influences of changes in bus companies' operation strategies can also be observed from the measured NO2 concentration maps.
Stephen Broccardo, Klaus-Peter Heue, David Walter, Christian Meyer, Alexander Kokhanovsky, Ronald van der A, Stuart Piketh, Kristy Langerman, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2797–2819,Short summary
Measurements of nitrogen dioxide, known to originate from industrial and automotive combustion sources, have been made from space for two decades. Successive generations of instrument bring improvements in ground-pixel resolution; however features in the atmosphere are known to be smaller than what the satellites can resolve. Measurements of urban and industrial areas using a high-resolution airborne instrument allow the impact of the satellite's relatively low resolution to be evaluated.
Frank Keppler, Enno Bahlmann, Markus Greule, Heinz Friedrich Schöler, Julian Wittmer, and Cornelius Zetzsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6625–6635,Short summary
Chloromethane is involved in stratospheric ozone depletion, but detailed knowledge of its global budget is missing. In this study stable hydrogen isotope analyses were performed to investigate the dominant loss process for atmospheric chloromethane with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. The findings might have significant implications for the use of stable isotope signatures in elucidation of global chloromethane cycling.
David W. T. Griffith, Denis Pöhler, Stefan Schmitt, Samuel Hammer, Sanam N. Vardag, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1549–1563,Short summary
Measurements of atmospheric trace gases over an open path complement in situ measurements by spatial averaging. This paper describes the first open-path measurements of CO2, CH4 and other trace gases by near-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. The measurements were made in Heidelberg, Germany, for 4 months in 2014 over a 1.5 km path and compared to in situ measurements made at one end of the path. The experiment setup and methods (and the comparisons of open path to in situ) are described.
Florian Dinger, Nicole Bobrowski, Simon Warnach, Stefan Bredemeyer, Silvana Hidalgo, Santiago Arellano, Bo Galle, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Solid Earth, 9, 247–266,Short summary
We monitored the bromine monoxide-to-sulfur dioxide molar ratio in the effusive gas plume of Cotopaxi volcano in order to gain insight into the geological processes which control the pressure regime of the volcanic system. We observed a conspicuous periodic pattern with a periodicity of about 2 weeks, which significantly correlates with the Earth tidal forcing. Our results support a possible Earth tidal impact on volcanic activity, in particular for the Cotopaxi eruption 2015.
Christoph Kleinschmitt, Olivier Boucher, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2769–2786,Short summary
We use a state-of-the-art stratospheric aerosol model to study geoengineering through stratospheric sulfur injections. We find that the efficiency may decrease more drastically for larger injections than previously estimated and that injections at higher altitude are not more effective. This study may provide additional evidence that this proposed geoengineering technique is still more complicated, probably less effective, and may implicate stronger side effects than initially thought.
Johannes Lampel, Johannes Zielcke, Stefan Schmitt, Denis Pöhler, Udo Frieß, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1671–1683,Short summary
Previous publications on the absorptions of the oxygen dimer O2–O2 (or short: O4) list absorption peaks at 328 nm and 419 nm, for which no spectrally resolved literature cross sections are available. As these absorptions potentially influence the spectral retrieval of various other trace gases, their shape and magnitude need to be quantified. We approximate the absorption peaks at 328 nm and 419 nm by their respective neighboring absorption peaks to estimate their magnitude and peak wavelength.
Johannes Lampel, Yang Wang, Andreas Hilboll, Steffen Beirle, Holger Sihler, Janis Puķīte, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4819–4831,Short summary
Experience of differential atmospheric absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) shows that a spectral shift between measurement and reference spectrum is frequently required in order to achieve optimal fit results. The shift is often attributed to temporal instabilities of the instrument but implicitly solved the problem of the tilt effect discussed in this paper. The tilt effect results from the finite resolution of the measurements and amounts to 2 pm for the example data set.
Christoph Kleinschmitt, Olivier Boucher, Slimane Bekki, François Lott, and Ulrich Platt
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3359–3378,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosols play an important role in the climate system by affecting the Earth's radiative budget. In this article we present the newly developed LMDZ-S3A model and assess its performance against observations in periods of low and high aerosol loading. The model may serve as a tool to study the climate impacts of volcanic eruptions, as well as the deliberate injection of aerosols into the stratosphere, which has been proposed as a method of geoengineering to abate global warming.
William R. Simpson, Peter K. Peterson, Udo Frieß, Holger Sihler, Johannes Lampel, Ulrich Platt, Chris Moore, Kerri Pratt, Paul Shepson, John Halfacre, and Son V. Nghiem
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9291–9309,Short summary
We investigated Arctic atmospheric bromine chemistry during March–April 2012 to improve understanding of the role of sea ice and cracks in sea ice (leads) in this phenomenon. We find that leads vertically redistribute reactive bromine but that open/re-freezing leads are not major direct reactive halogen sources. Surface ozone depletion affects the vertical distribution and amount of reactive halogens, and aerosol particles are necessary but not sufficient to maintain reactive bromine aloft.
Peter K. Peterson, Denis Pöhler, Holger Sihler, Johannes Zielcke, Stephan General, Udo Frieß, Ulrich Platt, William R. Simpson, Son V. Nghiem, Paul B. Shepson, Brian H. Stirm, Suresh Dhaniyala, Thomas Wagner, Dana R. Caulton, Jose D. Fuentes, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7567–7579,Short summary
High-spatial-resolution aircraft measurements in the Arctic showed the sustained transport of reactive bromine in a lofted layer via heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles. This process provides an explanation for free tropospheric reactive bromine and the significant spatial extent of satellite-observed bromine monoxide. The knowledge gained herein improves our understanding of the fate and transport of atmospheric pollutants in the Arctic.
Angelika Klein, Peter Lübcke, Nicole Bobrowski, Jonas Kuhn, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 979–987,Short summary
While measuring sulfur dioxide fluxes in volcanic plumes with a UV-sensitive camera, the wind direction can influence the retrieved fluxes. If the volcanic plume is tilted in the field of view of the camera, it can lead to over- or underestimations of the determined fluxes. This paper presents a method to deal with such a circumstance. Additionally, it provides the possibility to determine the wind direction of the plume directly from the image time series themselves.
Holger Sihler, Peter Lübcke, Rüdiger Lang, Steffen Beirle, Martin de Graaf, Christoph Hörmann, Johannes Lampel, Marloes Penning de Vries, Julia Remmers, Ed Trollope, Yang Wang, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 881–903,Short summary
This paper presents the independent and simple IFR method to retrieve the FOV of an instrument, i.e. the two-dimensional sensitivity distribution. IFR relies on correlated measurements featuring a higher spatial resolution and was applied to two satellite instruments, GOME-2 and OMI, and a DOAS instrument integrated in an SO2 camera. Our results confirm the commonly applied FOV distributions. IFR is applicable for verification exercises as well as degradation monitoring in the field.
Steffen Beirle, Johannes Lampel, Christophe Lerot, Holger Sihler, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 581–598,Short summary
We propose to parameterize the instrumental spectral response function (ISRF) as a "super-Gaussian", which can reproduce a variety of shapes, from point-hat to boxcar shape, by just adding one parameter to the "classical" Gaussian. In addition, the super-Gaussian allows for a straightforward parametrization of the effect of ISRF changes.
Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Herrmann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, and Rahul A. Zaveri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2103–2162,Short summary
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3 is an important interaction between anthropogenic and natural emissions. This review results from a June 2015 workshop and includes the recent literature on kinetics, mechanisms, organic aerosol yields, and heterogeneous chemistry; advances in analytical instrumentation; the current state NO3-BVOC chemistry in atmospheric models; and critical needs for future research in modeling, field observations, and laboratory studies.
Johannes Lampel, Denis Pöhler, Oleg L. Polyansky, Aleksandra A. Kyuberis, Nikolai F. Zobov, Jonathan Tennyson, Lorenzo Lodi, Udo Frieß, Yang Wang, Steffen Beirle, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1271–1295,Short summary
Water vapour is known to absorb radiation from the microwave region to the blue part of the visible spectrum. Ab initio approaches to model individual absorption lines of the gaseous water molecule predict absorption lines until its dissociation limit at 243 nm. We present first evidence of water vapour absorption near 363 nm from field measurements using data from multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and long-path (LP)-DOAS measurements.
Peter Lübcke, Johannes Lampel, Santiago Arellano, Nicole Bobrowski, Florian Dinger, Bo Galle, Gustavo Garzón, Silvana Hidalgo, Zoraida Chacón Ortiz, Leif Vogel, Simon Warnach, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5677–5698,Short summary
We evaluated spectra from a scanning spectrometer network for the monitoring of volcanic gas emissions using a modelled background spectrum. Statistical methods were applied in order to improve the quality of the spectroscopic evaluation. We used this technique to assess the robustness of standard retrievals at two volcanos: Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Tungurahua (Ecuador).
Christoph Hörmann, Holger Sihler, Steffen Beirle, Marloes Penning de Vries, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13015–13034,Short summary
We present 10 years of bromine monoxide (BrO) satellite observations by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over the Rann of Kutch salt marsh. The measurements reveal a typical seasonal cycle of BrO with maximum concentrations during April/May. The results indicate that the Rann of Kutch is probably one of the strongest natural point sources of reactive bromine compounds outside the polar regions and is thought to have a significant impact on local and regional ozone chemistry.
Erna Frins, Reza Shaiganfar, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
Standard methods like in-situ measurements can hardly register NOx (= NO + NO2) emissions from aircrafts during take-off, when engines run at high load and thus an important amount of fuel is consumed and most of the harmful emissions are produced . The goal of this work is to show that it is possible to measure aircraft emissions generated during take-off (and initial part of the climb) by a remote spectroscopic method like automobile – based – Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS).
Martin de Graaf, Holger Sihler, Lieuwe G. Tilstra, and Piet Stammes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3607–3618,Short summary
The shapes and sizes of the FoV from the OMI satellite instrument were determined with extensive lab tests but never verified after launch. Here, collocated measurements from MODIS, flying in formation, were used to find the most optimal shape of the OMI FoV. This shape is not quadrangular, as suggested by the provided corner coordinates of a pixel, but rather super-Gaussian shaped and overlapping with the FoV of neighbouring pixels.
Jan Zörner, Marloes Penning de Vries, Steffen Beirle, Holger Sihler, Patrick R. Veres, Jonathan Williams, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9457–9487,Short summary
We present a top-down approach to infer and quantify rain-induced emission pulses of nitrogen oxides from soils using satellite-borne measurements of NO2. We found strong enhancements of NO2 induced by the first intense precipitation after prolonged droughts in many semi-arid regions of the world, in particular in the Sahel. Apart from the clear first-day peak, NO2 VCDs are moderately enhanced compared to background over the following 2 weeks suggesting potential further emissions.
Le Cao, Ulrich Platt, Chenggang Wang, Nianwen Cao, and Qing Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
A snowpack module which represents the mass transfer between the ambient air and the snowpack is implemented in a box model, aiming to clarify the influences of the snowpack on the ozone depletion events (ODEs) and the associated bromine explosion in the springtime of Arctic. The size of snow grains, volume fraction of the liquid-like layer (LLL), and the rate of the mass exchange between the snow interstitial air and the snow particles are shown to be critical parameters.
Steffen Beirle, Christoph Hörmann, Patrick Jöckel, Song Liu, Marloes Penning de Vries, Andrea Pozzer, Holger Sihler, Pieter Valks, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2753–2779,
N. Sobanski, M. J. Tang, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, D. Pöhler, H. Fischer, W. Song, C. Sauvage, J. Williams, J. Fachinger, F. Berkes, P. Hoor, U. Platt, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4867–4883,Short summary
The nitrate radical (NO3) is an important nocturnal oxidant. By measuring NO3, its precursors (nitrogen dioxide and ozone) and several trace gases with which it reacts, we examined the chemical and meteorological factors influencing the lifetime of NO3 at a semi-rural mountain site. Unexpectedly long lifetimes, approaching 1 h, were observed on several nights and were associated with a low-lying residual layer. We discuss the role of other reactions that convert NO2 to NO3.
J. Thieser, G. Schuster, J. Schuladen, G. J. Phillips, A. Reiffs, U. Parchatka, D. Pöhler, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 553–576,Short summary
We report on the use of thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy to detect NO2, peroxy nitrates and alkyl nitrates. We present both laboratory studies that characterise the chemical formation and loss of NO2 in the heated inlets and also result from a first field deployment.
J. Lampel, D. Pöhler, J. Tschritter, U. Frieß, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4329–4346,Short summary
In recent updates of the HITRAN water vapour H2O spectroscopic compilation covering the blue spectral region (here 394–-480 nm) significant changes for the absorption bands at 416 and 426 nm were reported. In order to investigate the consistency of the different cross sections calculated from these compilations, H2O vapour column density ratios for different spectral intervals were retrieved from long-path and multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy measurements.
K. D. Custard, C. R. Thompson, K. A. Pratt, P B. Shepson, J. Liao, L. G. Huey, J. J. Orlando, A. J. Weinheimer, E. Apel, S. R. Hall, F. Flocke, L. Mauldin, R. S. Hornbrook, D. Pöhler, S. General, J. Zielcke, W. R. Simpson, U. Platt, A. Fried, P. Weibring, B. C. Sive, K. Ullmann, C. Cantrell, D. J. Knapp, and D. D. Montzka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10799–10809,
J. Lampel, U. Frieß, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3767–3787,Short summary
In remote sensing applications, such as differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), atmospheric scattering processes need to be considered. Inelastic scattering on air molecules can lead to filling-in of absorption lines. The contribution of rotational Raman scattering is typically corrected for. The magnitude of vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) is known from theory and agrees with our first DOAS observations of this effect. Its impact on trace-gas measurements of NO2 is discussed.
J. Gliß, N. Bobrowski, L. Vogel, D. Pöhler, and U. Platt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5659–5681,
P. K. Peterson, W. R. Simpson, K. A. Pratt, P. B. Shepson, U. Frieß, J. Zielcke, U. Platt, S. J. Walsh, and S. V. Nghiem
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2119–2137,Short summary
We developed methods to measure the vertical distribution of bromine monoxide, a gas that oxidizes pollutants, above sea ice based upon MAX-DOAS observations from Barrow, Alaska, and find that atmospheric stability exerts a strong control on BrO's vertical distribution. Specifically, more stable (temperature inversion) situations result in BrO being closer to the ground while more neutral (not inverted) atmospheres allow BrO to ascend further aloft and grow to larger column abundance.
J. Kuhn, N. Bobrowski, P. Lübcke, L. Vogel, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3705–3715,
S. General, D. Pöhler, H. Sihler, N. Bobrowski, U. Frieß, J. Zielcke, M. Horbanski, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, W. R. Simpson, K. Weber, C. Fischer, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3459–3485,
K.-P. Heue, H. Riede, D. Walter, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Wagner, U. Frieß, U. Platt, A. Zahn, G. Stratmann, and H. Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6621–6642,
P. Lübcke, N. Bobrowski, S. Arellano, B. Galle, G. Garzón, L. Vogel, and U. Platt
Solid Earth, 5, 409–424,
S. Bleicher, J. C. Buxmann, R. Sander, T. P. Riedel, J. A. Thornton, U. Platt, and C. Zetzsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
L. Cao, H. Sihler, U. Platt, and E. Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3771–3787,
C. Liu, S. Beirle, T. Butler, P. Hoor, C. Frankenberg, P. Jöckel, M. Penning de Vries, U. Platt, A. Pozzer, M. G. Lawrence, J. Lelieveld, H. Tost, and T. Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1717–1732,
R. M. Varma, S. M. Ball, T. Brauers, H.-P. Dorn, U. Heitmann, R. L. Jones, U. Platt, D. Pöhler, A. A. Ruth, A. J. L. Shillings, J. Thieser, A. Wahner, and D. S. Venables
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3115–3130,
T. Wagner, S. Beirle, H. Sihler, and K. Mies
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2593–2605,
A. Steffen, J. Bottenheim, A. Cole, T. A. Douglas, R. Ebinghaus, U. Friess, S. Netcheva, S. Nghiem, H. Sihler, and R. Staebler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7007–7021,
C. Hörmann, H. Sihler, N. Bobrowski, S. Beirle, M. Penning de Vries, U. Platt, and T. Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4749–4781,
H.-P. Dorn, R. L. Apodaca, S. M. Ball, T. Brauers, S. S. Brown, J. N. Crowley, W. P. Dubé, H. Fuchs, R. Häseler, U. Heitmann, R. L. Jones, A. Kiendler-Scharr, I. Labazan, J. M. Langridge, J. Meinen, T. F. Mentel, U. Platt, D. Pöhler, F. Rohrer, A. A. Ruth, E. Schlosser, G. Schuster, A. J. L. Shillings, W. R. Simpson, J. Thieser, R. Tillmann, R. Varma, D. S. Venables, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1111–1140,
K. Großmann, U. Frieß, E. Peters, F. Wittrock, J. Lampel, S. Yilmaz, J. Tschritter, R. Sommariva, R. von Glasow, B. Quack, K. Krüger, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3363–3378,
P. Lübcke, N. Bobrowski, S. Illing, C. Kern, J. M. Alvarez Nieves, L. Vogel, J. Zielcke, H. Delgado Granados, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 677–696,
S. Beirle, H. Sihler, and T. Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 661–675,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsDesign and characterization of a semi-open dynamic chamber for measuring biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plantsFirst eddy covariance flux measurements of semi-volatile organic compounds with the PTR3-TOF-MSAn unmanned aerial vehicle sampling platform for atmospheric water vapor isotopes in polar environmentsNovel approach to observing system simulation experiments improves information gain of surface–atmosphere field measurementsUAS Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS) – a versatile instrument for trace gas measurements on airborne platformsModification of a conventional photolytic converter for improving aircraft measurements of NO2 via chemiluminescenceBromine speciation in volcanic plumes: new in situ derivatization LC-MS method for the determination of gaseous hydrogen bromide by gas diffusion denuder samplingFill dynamics and sample mixing in the AirCoreApplication of a mobile laboratory using a selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) for characterisation of volatile organic compounds and atmospheric trace gasesDevelopment of a laser-photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of nitrous acid and hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphereCalibration and assessment of electrochemical low-cost sensors in remote alpine harsh environmentsIntercomparison of IBBCEAS, NitroMAC and FTIR analyses for HONO, NO2 and CH2O measurements during the reaction of NO2 with H2O vapour in the simulation chamber CESAMImpact of ozone and inlet design on the quantification of isoprene-derived organic nitrates by thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS)The Berkeley Environmental Air-quality and CO2 Network: field calibrations of sensor temperature dependence and assessment of network scale CO2 accuracyIodide CIMS and m∕z 62: the detection of HNO3 as NO3− in the presence of PAN, peroxyacetic acid and ozoneAirborne Mid-Infrared Cavity enhanced Absorption spectrometer (AMICA)Ethane measurement by Picarro CRDS G2201-i in laboratory and field conditions: potential and limitationsOn-line solid phase microextraction derivatization for the sensitive determination of multi-oxygenated volatile compounds in airThermal dissociation cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for measuring NO2, RO2NO2, and RONO2 in the atmosphereInternal consistency of the IAGOS ozone and carbon monoxide measurements for the last 25 yearsTesting the altitude attribution and vertical resolution of AirCore measurements with a new spiking methodIn situ observations of stratospheric HCl using three-mirror integrated cavity output spectroscopyLong-term NOx measurements in the remote marine tropical troposphereStudy on the measurement of isoprene by differential optical absorption spectroscopyAirborne measurements of oxygen concentration from the surface to the lower stratosphere and pole to poleImprovements to a laser-induced fluorescence instrument for measuring SO2 – impact on accuracy and precisionThe improved comparative reactivity method (ICRM): measurements of OH reactivity under high-NOx conditions in ambient airReal-world measurement and mechanical-analysis-based verification of NOx and CO2 emissions from an in-use heavy-duty vehicleAn improved method for atmospheric 14CO measurementsCharacterization of a chemical modulation reactor (CMR) for the measurement of atmospheric concentrations of hydroxyl radicals with a laser-induced fluorescence instrumentComparison of ozone measurement methods in biomass burning smoke: an evaluation under field and laboratory conditionsIn situ observations of greenhouse gases over Europe during the CoMet 1.0 campaign aboard the HALO aircraftCompact and lightweight mid-infrared laser spectrometer for balloon-borne water vapor measurements in the UTLSIntroducing the extended volatility range proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (EVR PTR-MS)Use of an unmanned aircraft system to quantify NOx emissions from a natural gas boilerStationary and portable multipollutant monitors for high-spatiotemporal-resolution air quality studies including online calibrationUnderstanding balloon-borne frost point hygrometer measurements after contamination by mixed-phase cloudsDevelopment of a small unmanned aircraft system to derive CO2 emissions of anthropogenic point sourcesAn in situ gas chromatograph with automatic detector switching between PTR- and EI-TOF-MS: isomer-resolved measurements of indoor airFacility level measurement of offshore oil and gas installations from a medium-sized airborne platform: method development for quantification and source identification of methane emissionsEvaluation and optimization of ICOS atmosphere station data as part of the labeling processOzone deposition to a coastal sea: comparison of eddy covariance observations with reactive air–sea exchange modelsA cavity-enhanced ultraviolet absorption instrument for high-precision, fast-time-response ozone measurementsMass spectrometric multiple soil-gas flux measurement system with a portable high-resolution mass spectrometer (MULTUM) coupled to an automatic chamber for continuous field observationsSimultaneous detection of atmospheric HONO and NO2 utilising an IBBCEAS system based on an iterative algorithmAutonomous airborne mid-infrared spectrometer for high-precision measurements of ethane during the NASA ACT-America studiesA novel injection technique: using a field-based quantum cascade laser for the analysis of gas samples derived from static chambersMeasurement of NOx and NOy with a thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer (TD-CRDS): instrument characterisation and first deploymentA compact QCL spectrometer for mobile, high-precision methane sensing aboard dronesA compact incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for trace detection of nitrogen oxides, iodine oxide and glyoxal at levels below parts per billion for field applications
Jianqiang Zeng, Yanli Zhang, Huina Zhang, Wei Song, Zhenfeng Wu, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 79–93,Short summary
The emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from plant leaves is an essential part of biosphere–atmosphere interactions. Here we demonstrate how a dynamic chamber for measuring branch-scale BVOC emissions could be characterized both in the lab for adsorptive losses and in the field for ambient–enclosure environmental differences. The results also imply emission factors for terpenes might be underestimated if measured using dynamic chambers without certified transfer efficiencies.
Lukas Fischer, Martin Breitenlechner, Eva Canaval, Wiebke Scholz, Marcus Striednig, Martin Graus, Thomas G. Karl, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 8019–8039,Short summary
Ecosystems emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are then oxidized in the atmosphere, contributing to ozone and secondary aerosol formation. While flux measurements of BVOCs are state of the art, flux measurements of the less volatile oxidation products are difficult to achieve due to inlet losses. Here we present first flux measurements, utilizing a novel PTR3 instrument in combination with a specially designed wall-less inlet we put on top of the Hyytiälä tower in Finland.
Kevin S. Rozmiarek, Bruce H. Vaughn, Tyler R. Jones, Valerie Morris, William B. Skorski, Abigail G. Hughes, Jack Elston, Sonja Wahl, Anne-Katrine Faber, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7045–7067,Short summary
We have designed an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sampling platform for operation in extreme polar environments that is capable of sampling atmospheric water vapor for subsequent measurement of water isotopes. During flight, we measure location, temperature, humidity, and pressure to determine the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using algorithms, allowing for strategic decision-making by the pilot to collect samples in glass flasks contained in the nose cone of the UAV.
Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Sreenath Paleri, Matthias Sühring, Brian J. Butterworth, Christopher Florian, Matthias Mauder, David M. Plummer, Luise Wanner, Ke Xu, and Ankur R. Desai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6929–6954,Short summary
The key points are the following. (i) Integrative observing system design can multiply the information gain of surface–atmosphere field measurements. (ii) Catalyzing numerical simulations and first-principles machine learning open up observing system simulation experiments to novel applications. (iii) Use cases include natural climate solutions, emission inventory validation, urban air quality, and industry leak detection.
Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, Dale F. Hurst, Geoff S. Dutton, Bradley D. Hall, J. David Nance, Ben R. Miller, Stephen A. Montzka, Laura P. Wolton, Audra McClure-Begley, James W. Elkins, Emrys G. Hall, Allen F. Jordan, Andrew W. Rollins, Troy D. Thornberry, Laurel A. Watts, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Thomas B. Ryerson, Bruce C. Daube, Yenny Gonzalez Ramos, Roisin Commane, Gregory W. Santoni, Jasna V. Pittman, Steven C. Wofsy, Eric Kort, Glenn S. Diskin, and T. Paul Bui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6795–6819,Short summary
We built UCATS to study atmospheric chemistry and transport. It has measured trace gases including CFCs, N2O, SF6, CH4, CO, and H2 with gas chromatography, as well as ozone and water vapor. UCATS has been part of missions to study the tropical tropopause; transport of air into the stratosphere; greenhouse gases, transport, and chemistry in the troposphere; and ozone chemistry, on both piloted and unmanned aircraft. Its design, capabilities, and some results are shown and described here.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Uwe Parchatka, Ivan Tadic, Birger Bohn, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Hartwig Harder, Flora Kluge, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Florian Obersteiner, Martin Zöger, Raphael Doerich, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6759–6776,Short summary
NO2 plays a central role in atmospheric photochemical processes and requires accurate measurements. This research presents NO2 data obtained via chemiluminescence using a photolytic converter from airborne studies around Cabo Verde and laboratory investigations. We show the limits and error-proneness of a conventional blue light converter in aircraft measurements affected by humidity and NO levels and suggest the use of an alternative quartz converter for more reliable results.
Alexandra Gutmann, Nicole Bobrowski, Marcello Liotta, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6395–6406,Short summary
Motivated by a special interest in bromine chemistry in volcanic plumes, the study presented here describes a new method for the quantitative collection of gaseous hydrogen bromide in gas diffusion denuders. The hydrogen bromide reacted during sampling with appropriate epoxides applied to the denuder walls. The denuder sampling assembly was successfully deployed in the volcanic plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua.
Pieter P. Tans
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The AirCore collects a continuous air sample in a long tube, which can be “read” later when the captured air is slowly pushed through an analyzer. Much of the variation of gas composition encountered during collection is preserved, like having up to ~100 separate air samples. This is illustrated through examples of actual flights, and the analysis algorithm is described. AirCore provides access to air as high as the mid-stratosphere, enabling validation for satellite air composition soundings.
Rebecca L. Wagner, Naomi J. Farren, Jack Davison, Stuart Young, James R. Hopkins, Alastair C. Lewis, David C. Carslaw, and Marvin D. Shaw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6083–6100,Short summary
We describe the use of a selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) in a mobile laboratory to provide on-road, high spatial and temporal measurements of CO2, CH4, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gases. Results are presented that highlight the potential of this platform for developing characterisation methods of different emissions sources in complex urban areas.
Brandon Bottorff, Emily Reidy, Levi Mielke, Sebastien Dusanter, and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6039–6056,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important source of hydroxyl (OH) radicals, the primary oxidant in the atmosphere. Accurate measurements of HONO are thus important to understand the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. A new instrument capable of measuring atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) with high sensitivity is presented, utilizing laser photofragmentation of ambient HONO and subsequent detection of the OH radical fragment.
Federico Dallo, Daniele Zannoni, Jacopo Gabrieli, Paolo Cristofanelli, Francescopiero Calzolari, Fabrizio de Blasi, Andrea Spolaor, Dario Battistel, Rachele Lodi, Warren Raymond Lee Cairns, Ann Mari Fjæraa, Paolo Bonasoni, and Carlo Barbante
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6005–6021,Short summary
Our work showed how the adoption of low-cost technology could be useful in environmental research and monitoring. We focused our work on tropospheric ozone, but we also showed how to make a general purpose low-cost sensing system which may be adapted and optimised to be used in many other case studies. Given the importance of providing quality data, we put a lot of effort in the sensor's calibration, and we believe that our results show how to exploit the potential of the low-cost technology.
Hongming Yi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Aline Gratien, Vincent Michoud, Edouard Pangui, Jean-Francois Doussin, and Weidong Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5701–5715,Short summary
HONO and NO2 play a crucial role in the atmospheric oxidation capacity that affects the regional air quality and global climate. Accurate measurements of HONO are challenging due to the drawback of existing detection methods. Calibration-free high-sensitivity direct, simultaneous measurements of NO2, HONO and CH2O with UV-IBBCEAS provide accurate and fast quantitative analysis of their concentration variation within their lifetime by intercomparison with NOx, FTIR and NitroMAC sensors.
Patrick Dewald, Raphael Dörich, Jan Schuladen, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5501–5519,Short summary
Organic nitrates generated from the reaction between isoprene and the nitrate radical (ISOP-NITs) were detected via their thermal dissociation in heated quartz inlets to nitrogen dioxide monitored by cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The temperature-dependent dissociation profiles of ISOP-NITs in the presence of ozone (O3) are broad in contrast to narrow profiles of common reference compounds. We demonstrate that this broadening is caused by O3-assisted reactions of ISOP-NITs on quartz surfaces.
Erin R. Delaria, Jinsol Kim, Helen L. Fitzmaurice, Catherine Newman, Paul J. Wooldridge, Kevin Worthington, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5487–5500,Short summary
The use of a dense network of low-cost CO2 sensors is an attractive option for measuring CO2 emissions in cities. However, these low-cost sensors are also subject to uncertainties. Here, we describe a novel method of field calibration for correcting temperature-related errors in the CO2 sensors deployed in the BEACO2N network. We show that with this temperature correction, we can achieve a sufficiently low network error to allow for the evaluation of CO2 emissions at a neighborhood scale.
Raphael Dörich, Philipp Eger, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5319–5332,Short summary
We demonstrate in laboratory experiments that the formation of IOx anions (formed in reactions of I− with O3) or acetate anions (formed e.g. by the reaction of I− with peracetic acid) results in unexpected sensitivity of an iodide chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (I-CIMS) to HNO3 at a mass-to-charge ratio of 62. This helps explain observations of apparent high daytime levels of N2O5. Airborne measurements using I-CIMS confirm these conclusions.
Corinna Kloss, Vicheith Tan, J. Brian Leen, Garrett L. Madsen, Aaron Gardner, Xu Du, Thomas Kulessa, Johannes Schillings, Herbert Schneider, Stefanie Schrade, Chenxi Qiu, and Marc von Hobe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5271–5297,Short summary
We describe the innovative analyzer
AMICAfor airborne trace gas measurements by infrared spectroscopy. Its design makes it robust and allows for sensitive measurements. AMICA has been used on two different aircraft for measuring gases including carbonyl sulfide, carbon monoxide and ozone. With fairly simple adaptions, AMICA can measure many stable trace gases that absorb light in the infrared.
Sara M. Defratyka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Camille Yver-Kwok, Daniel Loeb, James France, Jon Helmore, Nigel Yarrow, Valérie Gros, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5049–5069,Short summary
We consider the possibility of using the CRDS Picarro G2201-i instrument, originally designed for isotopic CH4 and CO2, for measurements of ethane : methane in near-source conditions. The work involved laboratory tests, a controlled release experiment and mobile measurements. We show the potential of determining ethane : methane with 50 ppb ethane uncertainty. The instrument can correctly estimate the ratio in CH4 enhancements of 1 ppm and more, as can be found at strongly emitting sites.
Esther Borrás, Luis A. Tortajada-Genaro, Milagro Ródenas, Teresa Vera, Thomas Speak, Paul Seakins, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, and Amalia Muñoz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4989–4999,Short summary
This work presents promising results in the characterization of specific atmospheric pollutants (oxygenated VOCs) present at very low but highly relevant concentrations. We carried out this research at EUPHORE facilities within the framework of the EUROCHAMP project. A new analytical method, with high robustness and precision, also clean in the use of solvents, low cost, and easily adaptable for use in mobile laboratories for air quality monitoring, is presented.
Chunmeng Li, Haichao Wang, Xiaorui Chen, Tianyu Zhai, Shiyi Chen, Xin Li, Limin Zeng, and Keding Lu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4033–4051,Short summary
We present a feasible instrument for the measurement of NO2, total peroxy nitrates (PNs, RO2NO2), and total alkyl nitrates (ANs, RONO2) in the atmosphere. The instrument samples sequentially from three channels at different temperature settings and then measures spectra using one cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer. The concentrations are determined by spectral fitting and corrected using the lookup table method conveniently. The instrument will promote the study of PNs and ANs.
Romain Blot, Philippe Nedelec, Damien Boulanger, Pawel Wolff, Bastien Sauvage, Jean-Marc Cousin, Gilles Athier, Andreas Zahn, Florian Obersteiner, Dieter Scharffe, Hervé Petetin, Yasmine Bennouna, Hannah Clark, and Valérie Thouret
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3935–3951,Short summary
A lack of information about temporal changes in measurement uncertainties is an area of concern for long-term trend studies of the key compounds which have a direct or indirect impact on climate change. The IAGOS program has measured O3 and CO within the troposphere and lower stratosphere for more than 25 years. In this study, we demonstrated that the IAGOS database can be treated as one continuous program and is therefore appropriate for studies of long-term trends.
Thomas Wagenhäuser, Andreas Engel, and Robert Sitals
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3923–3934,Short summary
AirCore samplers are increasingly deployed to weather balloons to collect continuous atmospheric samples. We introduce a technique that can be used in situ to evaluate different data processing methods that are required to derive vertical trace gas profiles from AirCore measurements after sample recovery. Results from two test flights with a specific AirCore configuration provide evidence for systematic deviations in altitude attribution for the upper levels, which can be empirically corrected.
Jordan Wilkerson, David S. Sayres, Jessica B. Smith, Norton Allen, Marco Rivero, Mike Greenberg, Terry Martin, and James G. Anderson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3597–3613,Short summary
The ozone layer in the stratosphere protects life from harmful UV light, but chlorine-based pollution threatens to damage it. We developed an instrument that couples a laser with highly reflective mirrors and advanced electronics to measure an important residue of this pollution: hydrogen chloride. Our instrument has an improved, more modern layout that we successfully tested in flight. This paves the way for future, advanced techniques that seek to evaluate the health of Earth’s ozone layer.
Simone T. Andersen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Beth S. Nelson, Luis Neves, Katie A. Read, Chris Reed, Martyn Ward, Matthew J. Rowlinson, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3071–3085,Short summary
NOx has been measured in remote marine air via chemiluminescence detection using two different methods for NO2 to NO photolytic conversion: (a) internal diodes and a reaction chamber made of Teflon-like barium-doped material, which causes a NO2 artefact, and (b) external diodes and a quartz photolysis cell. Once corrections are made for the artefact of (a), the two converters are shown to give comparable NO2 mixing ratios, giving confidence in the quantitative measurement of NOx at low levels.
Song Gao, Shanshan Wang, Chuanqi Gu, Jian Zhu, Ruifeng Zhang, Yanlin Guo, Yuhao Yan, and Bin Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2649–2657,
Britton B. Stephens, Eric J. Morgan, Jonathan D. Bent, Ralph F. Keeling, Andrew S. Watt, Stephen R. Shertz, and Bruce C. Daube
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2543–2574,Short summary
We describe methods used to make high-precision global-scale airborne measurements of atmospheric oxygen concentrations over a period of 20 years in order to study the global carbon cycle. Our techniques include an in situ vacuum ultraviolet absorption instrument and a pressure- and flow-controlled, cryogenically dried, glass flask sampler. We have deployed these instruments in 15 airborne research campaigns spanning from the Earth’s surface to the lower stratosphere and from pole to pole.
Pamela S. Rickly, Lu Xu, John D. Crounse, Paul O. Wennberg, and Andrew W. Rollins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2429–2439,Short summary
Key improvements have been made to an in situ laser-induced fluorescence instrument for measuring SO2 in polluted and pristine environments. Laser linewidth is reduced, rapid laser tuning is implemented, and fluorescence bandpass filters are optimized. These improvements have led to a 50 % reduction in instrument detection limit. The influence of aromatic compounds was also investigated and determined to not bias SO2 measurements.
Wenjie Wang, Jipeng Qi, Jun Zhou, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Sihang Wang, Suxia Yang, Jonathan Williams, Vinayak Sinha, and Min Shao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2285–2298,Short summary
We designed a new reactor for measurements of OH reactivity (i.e., OH radical loss frequency) based on the comparative reactivity method under high-NOx conditions, such as in cities. We performed a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the new reactor. The new reactor was used in the field and performed well in measuring OH reactivity in air influenced by upwind cities.
Hiroo Hata, Kazuo Kokuryo, Takehiko Ogata, Masahiko Kugata, Koichi Yanai, Megumi Okada, Chikage Funakubo, Minoru Yamazaki, and Junya Hoshi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2115–2126,Short summary
The authors conducted the measurement of real-world CO2 and NOx emissions from one heavy-duty vehicle. The results showed that NOx emissions increased in colder seasons because of the deactivation of after-treatment tools. We proposed an estimation model of vehicle emissions based on the classical mechanic theory. The model explained the emission behavior of CO2 and NOx well, and thus, we concluded that the proposed model will be applied to the evaluation of vehicular emission inventories.
Vasilii V. Petrenko, Andrew M. Smith, Edward M. Crosier, Roxana Kazemi, Philip Place, Aidan Colton, Bin Yang, Quan Hua, and Lee T. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2055–2063,Short summary
This paper presents an improved methodology for measurements of atmospheric concentration of carbon-14-containing carbon monoxide (14CO), as well as a 1-year dataset that demonstrates the methodology. Atmospheric 14CO concentration measurements are useful for improving the understanding of spatial and temporal variability of hydroxyl radical concentrations. Key improvements over prior methods include a greatly reduced air sample size and accurate procedural blank characterization.
Changmin Cho, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Hendrik Fuchs, Hans-Peter Dorn, Marvin Glowania, Frank Holland, Franz Rohrer, Vaishali Vardhan, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Anna Novelli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1851–1877,Short summary
This study describes the implementation and characterization of the chemical modulation reactor (CMR) used in the laser-induced fluorescence instrument of the Forschungszentrum Jülich. The CMR allows for interference-free OH radical measurement in ambient air. During a field campaign in a rural environment, the observed interference was mostly below the detection limit of the instrument and fully explained by the known ozone interference.
Russell W. Long, Andrew Whitehill, Andrew Habel, Shawn Urbanski, Hannah Halliday, Maribel Colón, Surender Kaushik, and Matthew S. Landis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1783–1800,Short summary
This manuscript details field and laboratory-based evaluations of ozone monitoring methods in smoke. UV photometry, the most widely used measurement method for ozone in ambient air, was shown to suffer from a severe positive interference when operated in the presence of smoke, while chemiluminescence-based methods were shown to be free of interferences. The results detailed in this paper will provide monitoring agencies with the tools needed to address smoke-related ozone measurement challenges.
Michał Gałkowski, Armin Jordan, Michael Rothe, Julia Marshall, Frank-Thomas Koch, Jinxuan Chen, Anna Agusti-Panareda, Andreas Fix, and Christoph Gerbig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1525–1544,Short summary
We present results of atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gases, performed over Europe in 2018 aboard German research aircraft HALO as part of the CoMet 1.0 (Carbon Dioxide and Methane Mission). In our analysis, we describe data quality, discuss observed mixing ratios and show an example of describing a regional methane source using stable isotopic composition based on the collected air samples. We also quantitatively compare our results to selected global atmospheric modelling systems.
Manuel Graf, Philipp Scheidegger, André Kupferschmid, Herbert Looser, Thomas Peter, Ruud Dirksen, Lukas Emmenegger, and Béla Tuzson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1365–1378,Short summary
Water vapor is the most important natural greenhouse gas. The accurate and frequent measurement of its abundance, especially in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), is technically challenging. We developed and characterized a mid-IR absorption spectrometer for highly accurate water vapor measurements in the UTLS. The instrument is sufficiently small and lightweight (3.9 kg) to be carried by meteorological balloons, which enables frequent and cost-effective soundings.
Felix Piel, Markus Müller, Klaus Winkler, Jenny Skytte af Sätra, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1355–1363,Short summary
Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) instruments are widely used in the atmospheric community for measuring organic trace substances in the Earth's atmosphere. Some of these substances
stickonto and slowly come off surfaces in the PTR-MS analyzer, which makes it impossible to measure rapid changes in the atmosphere. Herein, we present a new type of PTR-MS instrument with a specially treated surface that mitigates this problem.
Brian Gullett, Johanna Aurell, William Mitchell, and Jennifer Richardson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 975–981,Short summary
Aerial emission sampling of four natural gas boiler stack plumes was conducted using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) equipped with a lightweight sensor–sampling system for nitrogen oxide pollutant measurements. The results were compared to simultaneous measurements from the stacks using conventional gas extraction methods. The emission values between the two methods varied by less than 6 %, demonstrating the accuracy of UAS-based pollutant measurements against a known source concentration.
Colby Buehler, Fulizi Xiong, Misti Levy Zamora, Kate M. Skog, Joseph Kohrman-Glaser, Stefan Colton, Michael McNamara, Kevin Ryan, Carrie Redlich, Matthew Bartos, Brandon Wong, Branko Kerkez, Kirsten Koehler, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 995–1013,Short summary
In this paper we develop a stationary and portable low-cost multipollutant monitor capable of measuring a variety of human-health- and climate-related pollutants. While traditional reference instrumentation is sparsely spaced, these monitors can be deployed as a network to gain insight into the spatial and temporal variability within an urban setting, or in other targeted studies. We also implement an online calibration system to address long-term drift of sensors and adjust calibrations.
Teresa Jorge, Simone Brunamonti, Yann Poltera, Frank G. Wienhold, Bei P. Luo, Peter Oelsner, Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Bhupendra B. Singh, Susanne Körner, Ruud Dirksen, Manish Naja, Suvarna Fadnavis, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 239–268,Short summary
Balloon-borne frost point hygrometers are crucial for the monitoring of water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. We found that when traversing a mixed-phase cloud with big supercooled droplets, the intake tube of the instrument collects on its inner surface a high percentage of these droplets. The newly formed ice layer will sublimate at higher levels and contaminate the measurement. The balloon is also a source of contamination, but only at higher levels during the ascent.
Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Sven Krautwurst, Konstantin Gerilowski, Matthias Lindauer, Dagmar Kubistin, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 153–172,Short summary
CO2 measurements from a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) can provide a cost-effective way to complement and validate satellite-based measurements of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We introduce an sUAS which is capable of determining atmospheric CO2 mass fluxes from its own sensor data. We show results of validation flights at the ICOS atmospheric station in Steinkimmen and from demonstration flights downwind a CO2-emitting natural gas processing facility.
Megan S. Claflin, Demetrios Pagonis, Zachary Finewax, Anne V. Handschy, Douglas A. Day, Wyatt L. Brown, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jose L. Jimenez, Paul J. Ziemann, Joost de Gouw, and Brian M. Lerner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 133–152,Short summary
We have developed a field-deployable gas chromatograph with thermal desorption preconcentration and detector switching between two high-resolution mass spectrometers for in situ measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This system combines chromatography with both proton transfer and electron ionization to offer fast time response and continuous molecular speciation. This technique was applied during the 2018 ATHLETIC campaign to characterize VOC emissions in an indoor environment.
James L. France, Prudence Bateson, Pamela Dominutti, Grant Allen, Stephen Andrews, Stephane Bauguitte, Max Coleman, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Rebecca E. Fisher, Langwen Huang, Anna E. Jones, James Lee, David Lowry, Joseph Pitt, Ruth Purvis, John Pyle, Jacob Shaw, Nicola Warwick, Alexandra Weiss, Shona Wilde, Jonathan Witherstone, and Stuart Young
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 71–88,Short summary
Measuring emission rates of methane from installations is tricky, and it is even more so when those installations are located offshore. Here, we show the aircraft set-up and demonstrate an effective methodology for surveying emissions from UK and Dutch offshore oil and gas installations. We present example data collected from two campaigns to demonstrate the challenges and solutions encountered during these surveys.
Camille Yver-Kwok, Carole Philippon, Peter Bergamaschi, Tobias Biermann, Francescopiero Calzolari, Huilin Chen, Sebastien Conil, Paolo Cristofanelli, Marc Delmotte, Juha Hatakka, Michal Heliasz, Ove Hermansen, Kateřina Komínková, Dagmar Kubistin, Nicolas Kumps, Olivier Laurent, Tuomas Laurila, Irene Lehner, Janne Levula, Matthias Lindauer, Morgan Lopez, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, Per Marklund, Jean-Marc Metzger, Meelis Mölder, Stephen M. Platt, Michel Ramonet, Leonard Rivier, Bert Scheeren, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Paul Smith, Martin Steinbacher, Gabriela Vítková, and Simon Wyss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 89–116,Short summary
The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a pan-European research infrastructure which provides harmonized and high-precision scientific data on the carbon cycle and the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. All stations have to undergo a rigorous assessment before being labeled, i.e., receiving approval to join the network. In this paper, we present the labeling process for the ICOS atmospheric network through the 23 stations that were labeled between November 2017 and November 2019.
David C. Loades, Mingxi Yang, Thomas G. Bell, Adam R. Vaughan, Ryan J. Pound, Stefan Metzger, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6915–6931,Short summary
The loss of ozone to the sea surface was measured from the south coast of the UK and was found to be more rapid than previous observations over the open ocean. This is likely a consequence of different chemistry and biology in coastal environments. Strong winds appeared to speed up the loss of ozone. A better understanding of what influences ozone loss over the sea will lead to better model estimates of total ozone in the troposphere.
Reem A. Hannun, Andrew K. Swanson, Steven A. Bailey, Thomas F. Hanisco, T. Paul Bui, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6877–6887,Short summary
We have developed a cavity-enhanced absorption instrument to measure ozone in the atmosphere. The detection technique enables highly sensitive measurements in fast averaging times. The compact, robust instrument is suitable for operation in varied field environments, including aboard research aircraft. We have successfully flown the instrument and demonstrated its performance capabilities with measurements of ozone deposition rates over the coastal Pacific Ocean.
Noriko Nakayama, Yo Toma, Yusuke Iwai, Hiroshi Furutani, Toshinobu Hondo, Ryusuke Hatano, and Michisato Toyoda
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6657–6673,Short summary
We developed a field-deployable multiple soil-gas flux measurement system using a portable high-resolution mass spectrometer (MULTUM) combined with an automated flux chamber. The current system is capable of simultaneous quantification of O2, N2O, CH4, and CO2 concentrations every 2.5 min within a single sample, yielding hourly flux data. We applied the system to 5 d continuous soil–atmosphere field flux observations and interesting responses in N2O and CO2 upon rainfall events were observed.
Ke Tang, Min Qin, Wu Fang, Jun Duan, Fanhao Meng, Kaidi Ye, Helu Zhang, Pinhua Xie, Yabai He, Wenbin Xu, Jianguo Liu, and Wenqing Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6487–6499,Short summary
We present an improved instrument for the simultaneous detection of atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The robustness of the system is verified by simulating the influence of the relative change in light intensity on the measurement results. The instrument's capability to make fast high-sensitivity measurements of HONO and NO2 is of great significance for understanding the source of HONO and studying its role in atmospheric chemistry.
Petter Weibring, Dirk Richter, James G. Walega, Alan Fried, Joshua DiGangi, Hannah Halliday, Yonghoon Choi, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, Ben Miller, Kenneth J. Davis, Zachary Barkley, and Michael D. Obland
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6095–6112,Short summary
The present study describes an autonomously operated instrument for high-precision (20–40 parts per trillion in 1 s) measurements of ethane during actual airborne operations on a small aircraft platform (NASA's King Air B200). This paper discusses the dynamic nature of airborne performance due to various aircraft-induced perturbations, methods devised to identify such events, and solutions we have enacted to circumvent these perturbations.
Anne R. Wecking, Vanessa M. Cave, Lìyĭn L. Liáng, Aaron M. Wall, Jiafa Luo, David I. Campbell, and Louis A. Schipper
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5763–5777,Short summary
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a relevant greenhouse gas emitted from soils to the atmosphere. Human activities, e.g. intensive farming, have contributed to the increase in atmospheric N2O concentrations with time. Therefore, measurements of N2O are crucial to understanding climate change. Our study developed a new technique that enables N2O measurement at small (point) and large (paddock) scales by using a single analyser. Using this new method will accelerate and advance N2O measurements in future.
Nils Friedrich, Ivan Tadic, Jan Schuladen, James Brooks, Eoghan Darbyshire, Frank Drewnick, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5739–5761,Short summary
We present a new instrument for the measurement of NOx and NOy based on a combination of the thermal dissociation of NOy to NOx and cavity ring-down spectroscopic detection of NO2. It features a denuder to separate the contributions of gas-phase and particulate nitrates to NOy. We provide a detailed characterization of the instrument and briefly outline results from first deployments.
Béla Tuzson, Manuel Graf, Jonas Ravelid, Philipp Scheidegger, André Kupferschmid, Herbert Looser, Randulph Paulo Morales, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4715–4726,Short summary
We describe a lightweight (2 kg) mid-IR laser spectrometer for airborne, in situ atmospheric methane (CH4) measurements. The instrument, based on an open-path circular multipass cell, provides fast response (1 Hz) and sub-parts-per-billion precision. It can easily be mounted on a drone, giving access to highly resolved 4D (spatial and temporal) data. The performance was assessed during field deployments involving artificial CH4 releases and vertical concentration gradients in the PBL.
Albane Barbero, Camille Blouzon, Joël Savarino, Nicolas Caillon, Aurélien Dommergue, and Roberto Grilli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4317–4331,Short summary
In this paper, we present a compact, affordable and robust instrument for in situ measurements of different trace gases: NOx, IO, CHOCHO and O3 with very low detection limits. The device weighs 15 kg and has a total electrical power consumption of < 300 W. Its very low detection limits and its design make it suitable for field applications to address different questions such as how to better constrain the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and study the chemistry of highly reactive species.
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