Articles | Volume 8, issue 7
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Efficient photochemical generation of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides with ultraviolet light-emitting diodes
N. D. Rider
Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
Y. M. Taha
Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
C. A. Odame-Ankrah
Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
J. A. Huo
T. W. Tokarek
S. G. Moussa
Environment Canada, Air Quality Research Division, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3H 5T4, Canada
Environment Canada, Air Quality Research Division, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3H 5T4, Canada
No articles found.
Kevin D. Easterbrook, Mitchell A. Vona, Kiana Nayebi-Astaneh, Amanda M. Miller, and Hans D. Osthoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 311–322,Short summary
The trace gas peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN) is generated in photochemical smog, phytotoxic, a strong eye irritant, and possibly mutagenic. Here, its solubility and reactivity in water and in octanol were investigated using a bubble flow apparatus, yielding its Henry's law constant and octanol–water partition coefficient (Kow). The results allow the fate of PPN to be more accurately constrained in atmospheric chemical transport models, including its uptake on clouds, organic aerosol, and leaves.
Katherine L. Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Amy Leithead, Peter Brickell, Richard L. Mittermeier, Zachary Oldham, Cristian M. Mihele, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, Andrea Darlington, Mengistu Wolde, Daniel Thompson, Jack Chen, Debora Griffin, Ellen Eckert, Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12493–12523,Short summary
In this study, airborne measurements provided the most detailed characterization, to date, of boreal forest wildfire emissions. Measurements showed a large diversity of air pollutants expanding the volatility range typically reported. A large portion of organic species was unidentified, likely comprised of complex organic compounds. Aircraft-derived emissions improve wildfire chemical speciation and can support reliable model predictions of pollution from boreal forest wildfires.
Chong Han, Hongxing Yang, Kun Li, Patrick Lee, John Liggio, Amy Leithead, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10827–10839,Short summary
We presented yields and compositions of Si-containing SOAs generated from the reaction of cVMSs (D3–D6) with OH radicals. NOx played a negative role in cVMS SOA formation, while ammonium sulfate seeds enhanced D3–D5 SOA yields at short photochemical ages under high-NOx conditions. The aerosol mass spectra confirmed that the components of cVMS SOAs significantly relied on OH exposure. A global cVMS-derived SOA source strength was estimated in order to understand SOA formation potentials of cVMSs.
Debora Griffin, Chris A. McLinden, Enrico Dammers, Cristen Adams, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Carsten Warneke, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Kyle J. Zarzana, Jake P. Rowe, Rainer Volkamer, Christoph Knote, Natalie Kille, Theodore K. Koenig, Christopher F. Lee, Drew Rollins, Pamela S. Rickly, Jack Chen, Lukas Fehr, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Katherine Hayden, Cristian Mihele, Sumi N. Wren, John Liggio, Ayodeji Akingunola, and Paul Makar
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7929–7957,Short summary
Satellite-derived NOx emissions from biomass burning are estimated with TROPOMI observations. Two common emission estimation methods are applied, and sensitivity tests with model output were performed to determine the accuracy of these methods. The effect of smoke aerosols on TROPOMI NO2 columns is estimated and compared to aircraft observations from four different aircraft campaigns measuring biomass burning plumes in 2018 and 2019 in North America.
Sepehr Fathi, Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Andrea Darlington, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15461–15491,Short summary
We have investigated the accuracy of aircraft-based mass balance methodologies through computer model simulations of the atmosphere and air quality at a regional high-resolution scale. We have defined new quantitative metrics to reduce emission retrieval uncertainty by evaluating top-down mass balance estimates against the known simulated meteorology and input emissions. We also recommend methodologies and flight strategies for improved retrievals in future aircraft-based studies.
Konstantin Baibakov, Samuel LeBlanc, Keyvan Ranjbar, Norman T. O'Neill, Mengistu Wolde, Jens Redemann, Kristina Pistone, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, Tak W. Chan, Michael J. Wheeler, Leonid Nichman, Connor Flynn, and Roy Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10671–10687,Short summary
We find that the airborne measurements of the vertical extinction due to aerosols (aerosol optical depth, AOD) obtained in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) can significantly exceed ground-based values. This can have an effect on estimating the AOSR radiative impact and is relevant to satellite validation based on ground-based measurements. We also show that the AOD can marginally increase as the plumes are being transported away from the source and the new particles are being formed.
Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, Paul Makar, John Liggio, Samar G. Moussa, Ayodeji Akingunola, Robert McLaren, Ralf M. Staebler, Andrea Darlington, Jason O'Brien, Junhua Zhang, Mengistu Wolde, and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8377–8392,Short summary
We developed a method using aircraft measurements to determine lifetimes with respect to dry deposition for oxidized sulfur and nitrogen compounds over the boreal forest in Alberta, Canada. Atmospheric lifetimes were significantly shorter than derived from chemical transport models with differences related to modelled dry deposition velocities. The shorter lifetimes suggest models need to reassess dry deposition treatment and predictions of sulfur and nitrogen in the atmosphere and ecosystems.
Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, Tori N. Hass-Mitchell, Samar G. Moussa, Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Amy Leithead, Patrick Lee, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 255–267,Short summary
Forest fires are an important source of reactive organic gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. We analyzed organic aerosols collected from an aircraft above a boreal forest fire and reported an increasing contribution from compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur as the plume aged, with sulfide and ring-bound nitrogen functionality. Our results demonstrated chemistry that is important in biomass burning but also in urban/developing regions with high local nitrogen and sulfur emissions.
Nicholas J. Gingerysty and Hans D. Osthoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4159–4167,Short summary
The generation of clean calibration gases is critical for accurate ambient air measurements. Here, we describe a source of HONO vapour dynamically generated from reaction of HCl and NaNO2. The output was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermal-dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS) and was stable, tuneable, and > 95 % pure. We show how generation of unwanted side products (NO, NO2, and ClNO) can be avoided.
Zoë Y. W. Davis, Udo Frieß, Kevin B. Strawbridge, Monika Aggarwaal, Sabour Baray, Elijah G. Schnitzler, Akshay Lobo, Vitali E. Fioletov, Ihab Abboud, Chris A. McLinden, Jim Whiteway, Megan D. Willis, Alex K. Y. Lee, Jeff Brook, Jason Olfert, Jason O'Brien, Ralf Staebler, Hans D. Osthoff, Cristian Mihele, and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1129–1155,Short summary
Here, we evaluate a ground-based remote sensing method (MAX-DOAS) for measuring total pollutant loading and vertical profiles of pollution in the lower atmosphere by comparing our method to a variety of other measurement methods (lidar, sunphotometer, active DOAS, and aircraft measurements). Measurements were made in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Alberta, Canada. The complex dataset provided a rare opportunity to evaluate the performance of MAX-DOAS under varying atmospheric conditions.
Nick Jordan and Hans D. Osthoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 273–285,Short summary
We describe a new spectrometer for quantification of HONO and NO2 in ambient air, called HODOR. The instrument uses an LED and two highly reflective mirrors to increase the effective optical absorption path to ~6 km. The accuracy of concentration retrievals was validated using parallel measurements by a single wavelength cavity ring-down spectrometer of laboratory-generated gas mixtures. The instrument's precision suffices for quantification of HONO and NO2 in an urban environment.
Alex K. Y. Lee, Max G. Adam, John Liggio, Shao-Meng Li, Kun Li, Megan D. Willis, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Travis W. Tokarek, Charles A. Odame-Ankrah, Hans D. Osthoff, Kevin Strawbridge, and Jeffery R. Brook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12209–12219,Short summary
This work provides the first direct field evidence that anthropogenic organo-nitrate contributed up to half of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass that was freshly produced within the emission plumes of oil sands facilities in Alberta, Canada. The findings illustrate the central role of organo-nitrate in SOA production from the oil and gas industry, with relevance for other urban and industrial regions with significant intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) and NOx emissions.
Kun Li, John Liggio, Patrick Lee, Chong Han, Qifan Liu, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9715–9731,Short summary
A new oxidation flow reactor was developed and applied to study the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from precursors associated with oil-sands (OS) operations. The results reveal that the SOA yields from OS precursors are related to the volatilities of precursors and that open-pit mining is the main source of SOA formed from oil sands. In addition, cyclic alkanes are found to play an important role in SOA formation from oil-sands precursors.
Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Allan K. Bertram, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Aude Boivin-Rioux, Heiko Bozem, Julia Burkart, Rachel Y. W. Chang, Joannie Charette, Jai P. Chaubey, Robert J. Christensen, Ana Cirisan, Douglas B. Collins, Betty Croft, Joelle Dionne, Greg J. Evans, Christopher G. Fletcher, Martí Galí, Roya Ghahreman, Eric Girard, Wanmin Gong, Michel Gosselin, Margaux Gourdal, Sarah J. Hanna, Hakase Hayashida, Andreas B. Herber, Sareh Hesaraki, Peter Hoor, Lin Huang, Rachel Hussherr, Victoria E. Irish, Setigui A. Keita, John K. Kodros, Franziska Köllner, Felicia Kolonjari, Daniel Kunkel, Luis A. Ladino, Kathy Law, Maurice Levasseur, Quentin Libois, John Liggio, Martine Lizotte, Katrina M. Macdonald, Rashed Mahmood, Randall V. Martin, Ryan H. Mason, Lisa A. Miller, Alexander Moravek, Eric Mortenson, Emma L. Mungall, Jennifer G. Murphy, Maryam Namazi, Ann-Lise Norman, Norman T. O'Neill, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Lynn M. Russell, Johannes Schneider, Hannes Schulz, Sangeeta Sharma, Meng Si, Ralf M. Staebler, Nadja S. Steiner, Jennie L. Thomas, Knut von Salzen, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Megan D. Willis, Gregory R. Wentworth, Jun-Wei Xu, and Jacqueline D. Yakobi-Hancock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2527–2560,Short summary
The Arctic is experiencing considerable environmental change with climate warming, illustrated by the dramatic decrease in sea-ice extent. It is important to understand both the natural and perturbed Arctic systems to gain a better understanding of how they will change in the future. This paper summarizes new insights into the relationships between Arctic aerosol particles and climate, as learned over the past five or so years by a large Canadian research consortium, NETCARE.
Nick Jordan, Connie Z. Ye, Satyaki Ghosh, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Steven S. Brown, and Hans D. Osthoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1277–1293,Short summary
A new spectrometer to measure abundances of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide and iodine is described. The spectrometer uses a light-emitting diode between 470 and 540 nm and two highly reflective mirrors to yield an effective absorption path of 6.3 km. We remeasured scattering cross sections of common atmospheric gases in the cyan region and present sample NO2 measurements that agreed with those made with a laser-based instrument.
Travis W. Tokarek, Charles A. Odame-Ankrah, Jennifer A. Huo, Robert McLaren, Alex K. Y. Lee, Max G. Adam, Megan D. Willis, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Cristian Mihele, Andrea Darlington, Richard L. Mittermeier, Kevin Strawbridge, Katherine L. Hayden, Jason S. Olfert, Elijah G. Schnitzler, Duncan K. Brownsey, Faisal V. Assad, Gregory R. Wentworth, Alex G. Tevlin, Douglas E. J. Worthy, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Jeffrey R. Brook, and Hans D. Osthoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17819–17841,Short summary
Measurements of air pollutants at a ground site near Fort McKay in the Athabasca oil sands region in the summer of 2013 are presented. A large number of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) were observed; these molecules were shown previously to generate atmospheric particles downwind of the region. A principal component analysis was performed to identify major pollution source types, including which source(s) is(are) associated with IVOC emissions (e.g., freshly mined bitumen).
Sumi N. Wren, John Liggio, Yuemei Han, Katherine Hayden, Gang Lu, Cris M. Mihele, Richard L. Mittermeier, Craig Stroud, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, and Jeffrey R. Brook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16979–17001,Short summary
We made measurements from a mobile laboratory across a large urban area and determined fleet-average vehicle emission factors (EFs) for a suite of traffic-related air pollutants. We present the first real-world EFs for isocyanic acid (HNCO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and insight into their on-road variability. We find that vehicles may represent an important source of these air toxics at an urban scale. This work has implications for understanding population exposure to these species.
Emma L. Mungall, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Gregory R. Wentworth, Jennifer G. Murphy, Daniel Kunkel, Ellen Gute, David W. Tarasick, Sangeeta Sharma, Christopher J. Cox, Taneil Uttal, and John Liggio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10237–10254,Short summary
We measured gas-phase formic and acetic acid at Alert, Nunavut. These acids play an important role in cloud water acidity in remote environments, yet they are not well represented in chemical transport models, particularly in the Arctic. We observed high levels of formic and acetic acid under both cold, wet, and cloudy and warm, sunny, and dry conditions, suggesting that multiple sources significantly contribute to gas-phase concentrations of these species in the summer Arctic.
Youssef M. Taha, Matthew T. Saowapon, Faisal V. Assad, Connie Z. Ye, Xining Chen, Natasha M. Garner, and Hans D. Osthoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4109–4127,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides are commonly measured by selective thermal dissociation (TD) to NO2, which can be quantified by optical absorption. Quantification of peroxynitrates (RO2NO2) by TD methods, however, is challenging in ambient air since NO2 is usually more abundant than RO2NO2. Here, a method to boost the sensitivity of TD instruments by chemical amplification following addition of ~ 1 % ethane and ~ 1 ppm NO to the inlet is presented. Advantages and disadvantages of the new method are discussed.
Neda Amiri, Roya Ghahreman, Ofelia Rempillo, Travis W. Tokarek, Charles A. Odame-Ankrah, Hans D. Osthoff, and Ann-Lise Norman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7757–7780,
Hans D. Osthoff, Charles A. Odame-Ankrah, Youssef M. Taha, Travis W. Tokarek, Corinne L. Schiller, Donna Haga, Keith Jones, and Roxanne Vingarzan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6293–6315,Short summary
The nocturnal nitrogen oxides dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) and its heterogeneous uptake product nitryl chloride (ClNO2) can have profound impacts on air quality, yet their abundances and chemistry are only sparsely constrained by field measurements. Here, we present the first measurements of N2O5 and ClNO2 in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada. Concentrations were lower than have been observed elsewhere. Morning peaks indicate higher ClNO2 production above the measurement site.
John Liggio, Samar G. Moussa, Jeremy Wentzell, Andrea Darlington, Peter Liu, Amy Leithead, Katherine Hayden, Jason O'Brien, Richard L. Mittermeier, Ralf Staebler, Mengistu Wolde, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8411–8427,Short summary
The emission and formation of gaseous organic acids from the oil sands industry in Canada is explored through aircraft measurements directly over and downwind wind of industrial facilities. Results demonstrated that the formation of organic acids through atmospheric chemical reactions dominated over the direct emissions from mining activities but could not be explicitly modeled. The results highlight the need for improved understanding of photochemical mechanisms leading to these species.
Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Herrmann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, and Rahul A. Zaveri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2103–2162,Short summary
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3 is an important interaction between anthropogenic and natural emissions. This review results from a June 2015 workshop and includes the recent literature on kinetics, mechanisms, organic aerosol yields, and heterogeneous chemistry; advances in analytical instrumentation; the current state NO3-BVOC chemistry in atmospheric models; and critical needs for future research in modeling, field observations, and laboratory studies.
Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, Kenneth C. Aikin, Elliot L. Atlas, Paul D. Goldan, Martin Graus, Roger Hendershot, Gabriel A. Isaacman-VanWertz, Abigail Koss, William C. Kuster, Richard A. Lueb, Richard J. McLaughlin, Jeff Peischl, Donna Sueper, Thomas B. Ryerson, Travis W. Tokarek, Carsten Warneke, Bin Yuan, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 291–313,Short summary
Whole air sampling followed by analysis by gas chromatography is a common technique for characterization of trace volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. We describe a new automated gas chromatograph–mass spectrograph which uses a Stirling cooler for sample preconcentration at −165 °C without the need for a cryogen such as liquid nitrogen. We also discuss potential sources of artifacts from our electropolished stainless steel sampling system and present results from two field campaigns.
Yuemei Han, Craig A. Stroud, John Liggio, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13929–13944,Short summary
This study investigates the acidity effect on the yield and chemical composition of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol based on a series of laboratory experiments performed using a photochemical reaction chamber under high- and low-NOx conditions. We have found that the acidity effect largely depends on NOx level and the inorganic acidity has a significant role to play in determining various organic aerosol chemical properties such as mass yields, oxidation state, and organic nitrate content.
Maria Zatko, Joseph Erbland, Joel Savarino, Lei Geng, Lauren Easley, Andrew Schauer, Timothy Bates, Patricia K. Quinn, Bonnie Light, David Morison, Hans D. Osthoff, Seth Lyman, William Neff, Bin Yuan, and Becky Alexander
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13837–13851,Short summary
This manuscript presents chemical and optical observations collected in the air and snow during UBWOS2014 in eastern Utah. These observations are used to calculate fluxes of reactive nitrogen associated with snow nitrate photolysis. Snow-sourced reactive nitrogen fluxes are compared to reactive nitrogen emission inventories to find that snow-sourced reactive nitrogen is a minor contributor to the reactive nitrogen budget, and thus wintertime ground-level ozone formation, in the Uintah Basin.
Alex K. Y. Lee, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, W. Richard Leaitch, Shao-Meng Li, Steve J. Sjostedt, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, John Liggio, and Anne Marie Macdonald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6721–6733,Short summary
Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region in Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment. In particular, our observations provide insights into the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms between day and night.
Emma L. Mungall, Betty Croft, Martine Lizotte, Jennie L. Thomas, Jennifer G. Murphy, Maurice Levasseur, Randall V. Martin, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, John Liggio, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6665–6680,Short summary
Previous work has suggested that marine emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) could impact the Arctic climate through interactions with clouds. We made the first high-time-resolution measurements of summertime atmospheric DMS in the Canadian Arctic, and performed source sensitivity simulations. We found that regional marine sources dominated, but do not appear to be sufficient to explain our observations. Understanding DMS sources in the Arctic is necessary to model future climate in the region.
Bin Yuan, John Liggio, Jeremy Wentzell, Shao-Meng Li, Harald Stark, James M. Roberts, Jessica Gilman, Brian Lerner, Carsten Warneke, Rui Li, Amy Leithead, Hans D. Osthoff, Robert Wild, Steven S. Brown, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2139–2153,Short summary
We describe high-resolution measurements of nitrated phenols using a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS). Strong diurnal profiles were observed for nitrated phenols, with concentration maxima at night. Box model simulations were able to reproduce the measured nitrated phenols.
M. W. Shephard, C. A. McLinden, K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. Luo, S. G. Moussa, A. Leithead, J. Liggio, R. M. Staebler, A. Akingunola, P. Makar, P. Lehr, J. Zhang, D. K. Henze, D. B. Millet, J. O. Bash, L. Zhu, K. C. Wells, S. L. Capps, S. Chaliyakunnel, M. Gordon, K. Hayden, J. R. Brook, M. Wolde, and S.-M. Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5189–5211,Short summary
This study provides direct validations of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite retrieved profiles against coincident aircraft profiles of carbon monoxide, ammonia, methanol, and formic acid, all of which are of interest for air quality. The comparisons are performed over the Canadian oil sands region during an intensive field campaign in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for the Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM). Initial model evaluations are also provided.
Y. Liu, J. Liggio, R. Staebler, and S.-M. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13569–13584,Short summary
This work for the first time demonstrated that organonitrogen compounds (NOC) can be formed efficiently via the uptake of ammonia by newly formed secondary organic aerosol using a smog chamber equipped with a HR-ToF-AMS. Based on the measured kinetics, this study suggests that light absorption by NOC in atmospheric particles may be important in regions where the BC contribution is minimal and NOC from ammonia should be considered with respect to overall deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems.
L. Huang, S. L. Gong, M. Gordon, J. Liggio, R. Staebler, C. A. Stroud, G. Lu, C. Mihele, J. R. Brook, and C. Q. Jia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12631–12648,
Y. Liu, L. Huang, S.-M. Li, T. Harner, and J. Liggio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12195–12207,
T. W. Tokarek, J. A. Huo, C. A. Odame-Ankrah, D. Hammoud, Y. M. Taha, and H. D. Osthoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3263–3283,
Y. Liu, S.-M. Li, and J. Liggio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9201–9211,
M. Gordon, A. Vlasenko, R. M. Staebler, C. Stroud, P. A. Makar, J. Liggio, S.-M. Li, and S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9087–9097,
C. J. Young, R. A. Washenfelder, P. M. Edwards, D. D. Parrish, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, L. H. Mielke, H. D. Osthoff, C. Tsai, O. Pikelnaya, J. Stutz, P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, S. Griffith, S. Dusanter, P. S. Stevens, J. Flynn, N. Grossberg, B. Lefer, J. S. Holloway, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, E. L. Atlas, D. R. Blake, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3427–3440,
L. Ahlm, K. M. Shakya, L. M. Russell, J. C. Schroder, J. P. S. Wong, S. J. Sjostedt, K. L. Hayden, J. Liggio, J. J. B. Wentzell, H. A. Wiebe, C. Mihele, W. R. Leaitch, and A. M. Macdonald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3393–3407,
J. Liggio and S.-M. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2989–3002,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Validation and IntercomparisonsComparison of photoacoustic spectroscopy and cavity ring-down spectroscopy for ambient methane monitoring at HohenpeißenbergPerformance assessment of state-of-the-art and novel methods for remote compliance monitoring of sulphur emissions from shippingComparison of atmospheric CO, CO2 and CH4 measurements at the Schneefernerhaus and the mountain ridge at ZugspitzeIntercomparison of commercial analyzers for atmospheric ethane and methane observationsReal-time measurement of phase partitioning of organic compounds using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a CHARON inletA quantitative comparison of methods used to measure smaller methane emissions typically observed from superannuated oil and gas infrastructureComparing airborne algorithms for greenhouse gas flux measurements over the Alberta oil sandsCharacterization of inexpensive metal oxide sensor performance for trace methane detectionIntercomparison of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric water vapor measurements over the Asian Summer Monsoon during the StratoClim campaignAir pollution measurement errors: is your data fit for purpose?Performance characterization of low-cost air quality sensors for off-grid deployment in rural MalawiComment on “Comparison of ozone measurement methods in biomass burning smoke: an evaluation under field and laboratory conditions” by Long et al. (2021)Homogenization of the Observatoire de Haute Provence electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde data record: comparison with lidar and satellite observationsLong-term behavior and stability of calibration models for NO and NO2 low-cost sensorsIntercomparison of detection and quantification methods for methane emissions from the natural gas distribution network in Hamburg, GermanyControlled-release experiment to investigate uncertainties in UAV-based emission quantification for methane point sourcesOzone formation sensitivity study using machine learning coupled with the reactivity of volatile organic compound speciesEvaluating uncertainty in sensor networks for urban air pollution insightsEstimating oil sands emissions using horizontal path-integrated column measurementsGlobal evaluation of the precipitable-water-vapor product from MERSI-II (Medium Resolution Spectral Imager) on board the Fengyun-3D satelliteField testing two flux footprint modelsValidation of a new cavity ring-down spectrometer for measuring tropospheric gaseous hydrogen chlorideComparison of formaldehyde measurements by Hantzsch, CRDS and DOAS in the SAPHIR chamberA field intercomparison of three passive air samplers for gaseous mercury in ambient airBeef cattle methane emissions measured with tracer-ratio and inverse dispersion modelling techniquesMethane emissions from an oil sands tailings pond: a quantitative comparison of fluxes derived by different methodsPerformance of open-path GasFinder3 devices for CH4 concentration measurements close to ambient levelsWater vapor density and turbulent fluxes from three generations of infrared gas analyzersQuantifying fugitive gas emissions from an oil sands tailings pond with open-path Fourier transform infrared measurementsRobust statistical calibration and characterization of portable low-cost air quality monitoring sensors to quantify real-time O3 and NO2 concentrations in diverse environmentsA miniature Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) for real-driving monitoring of motorcyclesIn situ measurement of CO2 and CH4 from aircraft over northeast China and comparison with OCO-2 dataMobile-platform measurement of air pollutant concentrations in California: performance assessment, statistical methods for evaluating spatial variations, and spatial representativenessContinuous methane concentration measurements at the Greenland ice sheet–atmosphere interface using a low-cost, low-power metal oxide sensor systemThe development of the Atmospheric Measurements by Ultra-Light Spectrometer (AMULSE) greenhouse gas profiling system and application for satellite retrieval validationAtmospheric observations of the water vapour continuum in the near-infrared windows between 2500 and 6600 cm−1Intercomparison study of atmospheric 222Rn and 222Rn progeny monitorsSources of error in open-path FTIR measurements of N2O and CO2 emitted from agricultural fieldsConstraining the accuracy of flux estimates using OTM 33AEvaluating the measurement interference of wet rotating-denuder–ion chromatography in measuring atmospheric HONO in a highly polluted areaIntercomparison of nitrous acid (HONO) measurement techniques in a megacity (Beijing)Validity and limitations of simple reaction kinetics to calculate concentrations of organic compounds from ion counts in PTR-MSRecent advances in measurement techniques for atmospheric carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide observationsTrue eddy accumulation trace gas flux measurements: proof of conceptSimultaneous detection of C2H6, CH4, and δ13C-CH4 using optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region: towards application for dissolved gas measurementsAn improved low-power measurement of ambient NO2 and O3 combining electrochemical sensor clusters and machine learningComparison of slant open-path flux gradient and static closed chamber techniques to measure soil N2O emissionsField measurements of methylglyoxal using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry and comparison to the DNPH–HPLC–UV methodHow well can global chemistry models calculate the reactivity of short-lived greenhouse gases in the remote troposphere, knowing the chemical compositionEstimation of nocturnal CO2 and N2O soil emissions from changes in surface boundary layer mass storage
Max Müller, Stefan Weigl, Jennifer Müller-Williams, Matthias Lindauer, Thomas Rück, Simon Jobst, Rudolf Bierl, and Frank-Michael Matysik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4263–4270,Short summary
Over a period of 5 d, a photoacoustic methane sensor was compared with a Picarro cavity ring-down (G2301) spectrometer. Both devices measured the ambient methane concentration at the meteorological observatory Hohenpeißenberg. Cross-sensitivities on the photoacoustic signal, due to fluctuating ambient humidity, were compensated by applying the CoNRad algorithm. The results show that photoacoustic sensors have the potential for accurate and precise greenhouse gas monitoring.
Jörg Beecken, Andreas Weigelt, Simone Griesel, Johan Mellqvist, Alexander Vladimir Conde, Daniëlle van Dinther, Jan Duyzer, Jon Knudsen, Bettina Knudsen, and Leonidas Ntziachristos
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Air pollution from shipping is a debated topic in science and politics. We compare differenent monitoring systems used currently in different European countries for the enforcement of emission limits regarding air pollution from ships according to regulation. The system performances were individually assessed in the field by comparison to true values. Non-compliant vessels with actual fuel sulphur contents >0.15–0.19 % can be detected by the compared systems with 95 % confidence.
Antje Hoheisel, Cedric Couret, Bryan Hellack, and Martina Schmidt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2399–2413,Short summary
High-precision CO2, CH4 and CO measurements have been carried out at Zugspitze for decades. New technologies make it possible to analyse these gases with high temporal resolution. This allows the detection of local pollution. To this end, measurements have been performed on the mountain ridge (ZGR) and are compared to routine measurements at the Schneefernerhaus (ZSF). Careful manual flagging of pollution events in the ZSF data leads to consistency with the little influenced ZGR time series.
Róisín Commane, Andrew Hallward-Driemeier, and Lee T. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1431–1441,Short summary
Methane / ethane ratios can be used to identify and partition the different sources of methane, especially in areas with natural gas mixed with biogenic methane emissions, such as cities. We tested three commercially available laser-based analyzers for sensitivity, precision, size, power requirement, ease of use on mobile platforms, and expertise needed to operate the instrument, and we make recommendations for use in various situations.
Yarong Peng, Hongli Wang, Yaqin Gao, Shengao Jing, Shuhui Zhu, Dandan Huang, Peizhi Hao, Shengrong Lou, Tiantao Cheng, Cheng Huang, and Xuan Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 15–28,Short summary
This work examined the phase partitioning behaviors of organic compounds at hourly resolution in ambient conditions with the use of the CHemical Analysis of aeRosols ONline (CHARON) inlet coupled to a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS). Properly accounting for the neutral losses of small moieties during the molecular feature extraction from PTR mass spectra could significantly reduce uncertainties associated with the gas–particle partitioning measurements.
Stuart N. Riddick, Riley Ancona, Mercy Mbua, Clay S. Bell, Aidan Duggan, Timothy L. Vaughn, Kristine Bennett, and Daniel J. Zimmerle
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6285–6296,Short summary
This describes controlled release experiments at the METEC facility in Fort Collins, USA, that investigates the accuracy and precision of five methods commonly used to measure methane emissions. Methods include static/dynamic chambers, hi flow sampling, a backward Lagrangian stochastic method, and a Gaussian plume method. This is the first time that methods for measuring CH4 emissions from point sources less than 200 g CH4 h−1 have been quantitively assessed against references and each other.
Broghan M. Erland, Cristen Adams, Andrea Darlington, Mackenzie L. Smith, Andrew K. Thorpe, Gregory R. Wentworth, Steve Conley, John Liggio, Shao-Meng Li, Charles E. Miller, and John A. Gamon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5841–5859,Short summary
Accurately estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is essential to reaching net-zero goals to combat the climate crisis. Airborne box-flights are ideal for assessing regional GHG emissions, as they can attain small error. We compare two box-flight algorithms and found they produce similar results, but daily variability must be considered when deriving emissions inventories. Increasing the consistency and agreement between airborne methods moves us closer to achieving more accurate estimates.
Daniel Furuta, Tofigh Sayahi, Jinsheng Li, Bruce Wilson, Albert A. Presto, and Jiayu Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5117–5128,Short summary
Methane is a major greenhouse gas and contributor to climate change with various human-caused and natural sources. Currently, atmospheric methane is expensive to sense. We investigate repurposing cheap methane safety sensors for atmospheric sensing, finding several promising sensors and identifying some of the challenges in this approach. This work will help in developing inexpensive sensor networks for methane monitoring, which will aid in reducing methane leaks and emissions.
Clare E. Singer, Benjamin W. Clouser, Sergey M. Khaykin, Martina Krämer, Francesco Cairo, Thomas Peter, Alexey Lykov, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, Simone Brunamonti, and Elisabeth J. Moyer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4767–4783,Short summary
In situ measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere are necessary to study cloud formation and hydration of the stratosphere but challenging due to cold–dry conditions. We compare measurements from three water vapor instruments from the StratoClim campaign in 2017. In clear sky (clouds), point-by-point differences were <1.5±8 % (<1±8 %). This excellent agreement allows detection of fine-scale structures required to understand the impact of convection on stratospheric water vapor.
Sebastian Diez, Stuart E. Lacy, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Flynn, Tom Gardiner, David Harrison, Nicholas Marsden, Nicholas A. Martin, Katie Read, and Pete M. Edwards
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4091–4105,Short summary
Regardless of the cost of the measuring instrument, there are no perfect measurements. For this reason, we compare the quality of the information provided by cheap devices when they are used to measure air pollutants and we try to emphasise that before judging the potential usefulness of the devices, the user must specify his own needs. Since commonly used performance indices/metrics can be misleading in qualifying this, we propose complementary visual analysis to the more commonly used metrics.
Ashley S. Bittner, Eben S. Cross, David H. Hagan, Carl Malings, Eric Lipsky, and Andrew P. Grieshop
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3353–3376,Short summary
We present findings from a 1-year pilot deployment of low-cost integrated air quality sensor packages in rural Malawi using calibration models developed during collocation with US regulatory monitors. We compare the results with data from remote sensing products and previous field studies. We conclude that while the remote calibration approach can help extract useful data, great care is needed when assessing low-cost sensor data collected in regions without reference instrumentation.
Noah Bernays, Daniel A. Jaffe, Irina Petropavlovskikh, and Peter Effertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3189–3192,Short summary
Ozone is an important pollutant that impacts millions of people worldwide. It is therefore important to ensure accurate measurements. A recent surge in wildfire activity in the USA has resulted in significant enhancements in ozone concentration. However given the nature of wildfire smoke, there are questions about our ability to accurately measure ozone. In this comment, we discuss possible biases in the UV measurements of ozone in the presence of smoke.
Gérard Ancellet, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Herman G. J. Smit, Ryan M. Stauffer, Roeland Van Malderen, Renaud Bodichon, and Andrea Pazmiño
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3105–3120,Short summary
The 1991–2021 Observatoire de Haute Provence electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde data have been homogenized according to the recommendations of the Ozonesonde Data Quality Assessment panel. Comparisons with ground-based instruments also measuring ozone at the same station (lidar, surface measurements) and with colocated satellite observations show the benefits of this homogenization. Remaining differences between ECC and other observations in the stratosphere are also discussed.
Horim Kim, Michael Müller, Stephan Henne, and Christoph Hüglin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2979–2992,Short summary
In this study, the performance of electrochemical sensors for NO and NO2 for measuring air quality was determined over a longer operating period. The performance of NO sensors remained reliable for more than 18 months. However, the NO2 sensors showed decreasing performance over time. During deployment, we found that the NO2 sensors can distinguish general pollution levels, but they proved unsuitable for accurate measurements due to significant biases.
Hossein Maazallahi, Antonio Delre, Charlotte Scheutz, Anders M. Fredenslund, Stefan Schwietzke, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Measurement methods are increasingly deployed to verify reported methane emissions of gas leaks. This study describes unique advantages and limitations of three methods. Two methods are rapidly deployed, but uncertainties and biases exist for some leak locations. In contrast, the suction method could accurately determine leak rates in principle. However, this method, which provides data for the German emission inventory, creates an overall low-bias in our study due to non-random site selection.
Randulph Morales, Jonas Ravelid, Katarina Vinkovic, Piotr Korbeń, Béla Tuzson, Lukas Emmenegger, Huilin Chen, Martina Schmidt, Sebastian Humbel, and Dominik Brunner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2177–2198,Short summary
Mapping trace gas emission plumes using in situ measurements from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is an emerging and attractive possibility to quantify emissions from localized sources. We performed an extensive controlled-release experiment to develop an optimal quantification method and to determine the related uncertainties under various environmental and sampling conditions. Our approach was successful in quantifying local methane sources from drone-based measurements.
Junlei Zhan, Yongchun Liu, Wei Ma, Xin Zhang, Xuezhong Wang, Fang Bi, Yujie Zhang, Zhenhai Wu, and Hong Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1511–1520,Short summary
Our study investigated the O3 formation sensitivity in Beijing using a random forest model coupled with the reactivity of volatile organic compound (VOC) species. Results found that random forest accurately predicted O3 concentration when initial VOCs were considered, and relative importance correlated well with O3 formation potential. The O3 isopleth curves calculated by the random forest model were generally comparable with those calculated by the box model.
Daniel R. Peters, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Roderic L. Jones, Nicholas A. Martin, Jim Mills, Elizabeth R. Fonseca, Amy Stidworthy, Ella Forsyth, David Carruthers, Megan Dupuy-Todd, Felicia Douglas, Katie Moore, Rishabh U. Shah, Lauren E. Padilla, and Ramón A. Alvarez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 321–334,Short summary
We present more than 2 years of NO2 pollution measurements from a sensor network in Greater London and compare results to an extensive network of expensive reference-grade monitors. We show the ability of our lower-cost network to generate robust insights about local air pollution. We also show how irregularities in sensor performance lead to some uncertainty in results and demonstrate ways that future users can characterize and mitigate uncertainties to get the most value from sensor data.
Timothy G. Pernini, T. Scott Zaccheo, Jeremy Dobler, and Nathan Blume
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 225–240,Short summary
We demonstrate a novel approach to estimating emissions from oil sands operations that utilizes the GreenLITE™ gas concentration measurement system and an atmospheric model. While deployed at a facility in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada, CH4 emissions from a tailings pond were estimated to be 7.2 t/d for July–October 2019, and 5.1 t/d for March–July 2020. CH4 emissions from an open-pit mine were estimated to be 24.6 t/d for September–October 2019.
Wengang Zhang, Ling Wang, Yang Yu, Guirong Xu, Xiuqing Hu, Zhikang Fu, and Chunguang Cui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7821–7834,Short summary
Global precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from MERSI-II (Medium Resolution Spectral Imager) is compared with PWV from the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA). Our results show a good agreement between PWV from MERSI-II and IGRA and that MERSI-II PWV is slightly underestimated on the whole, especially in summer. The bias between MERSI-II and IGRA grows with a larger spatial distance between the footprint of the satellite and the IGRA station, as well as increasing PWV.
Trevor W. Coates, Monzurul Alam, Thomas K. Flesch, and Guillermo Hernandez-Ramirez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7147–7152,Short summary
A field study tested two footprint models for calculating surface emissions from downwind flux measurements. Emission rates from a 10 × 10 m synthetic source were estimated with the simple Kormann–Meixner model and a sophisticated Lagrangian stochastic model. Both models underestimated emissions by approximately 30 %, and no statistical differences were observed between the models. Footprint models are critically important for interpreting eddy covariance measurements.
Teles C. Furlani, Patrick R. Veres, Kathryn E. R. Dawe, J. Andrew Neuman, Steven S. Brown, Trevor C. VandenBoer, and Cora J. Young
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5859–5871,Short summary
This study characterized and validated a commercial spectroscopic instrument for the measurement of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the atmosphere. Near the Earth’s surface, HCl acts as the dominant reservoir for other chlorine-containing reactive chemicals that play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. The properties of HCl make it challenging to measure. This instrument can overcome many of these challenges, enabling reliable HCl measurements.
Marvin Glowania, Franz Rohrer, Hans-Peter Dorn, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4239–4253,Short summary
Three instruments that use different techniques to measure gaseous formaldehyde concentrations were compared in experiments in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR at Forschungszentrum Jülich. The results demonstrated the need to correct the baseline in measurements by instruments that use the Hantzsch reaction or make use of cavity ring-down spectroscopy. After applying corrections, all three methods gave accurate and precise measurements within their specifications.
Attilio Naccarato, Antonella Tassone, Maria Martino, Sacha Moretti, Antonella Macagnano, Emiliano Zampetti, Paolo Papa, Joshua Avossa, Nicola Pirrone, Michelle Nerentorp, John Munthe, Ingvar Wängberg, Geoff W. Stupple, Carl P. J. Mitchell, Adam R. Martin, Alexandra Steffen, Diana Babi, Eric M. Prestbo, Francesca Sprovieri, and Frank Wania
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3657–3672,Short summary
Mercury monitoring in support of the Minamata Convention requires effective and reliable analytical tools. Passive sampling is a promising approach for creating a sustainable long-term network for atmospheric mercury with improved spatial resolution and global coverage. In this study the analytical performance of three passive air samplers (CNR-PAS, IVL-PAS, and MerPAS) was assessed over extended deployment periods and the accuracy of concentrations was judged by comparison with active sampling.
Mei Bai, José I. Velazco, Trevor W. Coates, Frances A. Phillips, Thomas K. Flesch, Julian Hill, David G. Mayer, Nigel W. Tomkins, Roger S. Hegarty, and Deli Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3469–3479,Short summary
The development and validation of management practices to mitigate methane (CH4) emissions from livestock require accurate emission measurements. We compared the inverse dispersion modelling (IDM) and tracer-ratio techniques to measure CH4 emissions from cattle. Both measurements agreed well but were higher than IPCC estimates. We suggest that the IDM approach can provide an accurate method of estimating cattle emissions, and IPCC estimates may have larger uncertainties.
Yuan You, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, James Beck, and Richard L. Mittermeier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1879–1892,Short summary
Tailings ponds in the Alberta oil sands can be significant sources of methane, an important greenhouse gas. This paper describes a 1-month study conducted in 2017 to measure methane emissions from a pond using a variety of micrometeorological flux methods and demonstrates some advantages of these methods over flux chambers.
Christoph Häni, Marcel Bühler, Albrecht Neftel, Christof Ammann, and Thomas Kupper
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1733–1741,
Seth Kutikoff, Xiaomao Lin, Steven R. Evett, Prasanna Gowda, David Brauer, Jerry Moorhead, Gary Marek, Paul Colaizzi, Robert Aiken, Liukang Xu, and Clenton Owensby
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1253–1266,Short summary
Fast-response infrared gas sensors have been used over 3 decades for long-term monitoring of water vapor fluxes. As optically improved infrared gas sensors are newly employed, we evaluated the performance of water vapor density and water vapor flux from three generations of infrared gas sensors in Bushland, Texas, USA. From our experiments, fluxes from the old sensors were best representative of evapotranspiration based on a world-class lysimeter reference measurement.
Yuan You, Samar G. Moussa, Lucas Zhang, Long Fu, James Beck, and Ralf M. Staebler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 945–959,Short summary
Tailings ponds in the Alberta oil sands represent an insufficiently characterized source of fugitive emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere. In this study, a novel approach of using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer along with measurements of atmospheric turbulence is shown to present a practical, non-intrusive method of quantifying emission rates for ammonia, alkanes, and methane. Results from a 1-month field study are presented and discussed.
Ravi Sahu, Ayush Nagal, Kuldeep Kumar Dixit, Harshavardhan Unnibhavi, Srikanth Mantravadi, Srijith Nair, Yogesh Simmhan, Brijesh Mishra, Rajesh Zele, Ronak Sutaria, Vidyanand Motiram Motghare, Purushottam Kar, and Sachchida Nand Tripathi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 37–52,Short summary
A unique feature of our low-cost sensor deployment is a swap-out experiment wherein four of the six sensors were relocated to different sites in the two phases. The swap-out experiment is crucial in investigating the efficacy of calibration models when applied to weather and air quality conditions vastly different from those present during calibration. We developed a novel local calibration algorithm based on metric learning that offers stable and accurate calibration performance.
Michal Vojtisek-Lom, Alessandro A. Zardini, Martin Pechout, Lubos Dittrich, Fausto Forni, François Montigny, Massimo Carriero, Barouch Giechaskiel, and Giorgio Martini
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5827–5843,Short summary
The feasibility of monitoring on-road emissions from small motorcycles with two highly compact portable emissions monitoring systems was evaluated on three motorcycles, with positive results. Mass emissions measured on the road were consistent among repeated runs, with differences between laboratory and on-road tests much larger than those between portable and laboratory systems, which were, on the average, within units of percent over standard test cycles.
Xiaoyu Sun, Minzheng Duan, Yang Gao, Rui Han, Denghui Ji, Wenxing Zhang, Nong Chen, Xiangao Xia, Hailei Liu, and Yanfeng Huo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3595–3607,Short summary
The accurate measurement of greenhouse gases and their vertical distribution in the atmosphere is significant to the study of climate change and satellite remote sensing. Carbon dioxide and methane between 0.6 and 7 km were measured by the aircraft King Air 350ER in Jiansanjiang, northeast China, on 7–11 August 2018. The profiles show strong variation with the altitude and time, so the vertical structure of gases should be taken into account in the current satellite retrieval algorithm.
Paul A. Solomon, Dena Vallano, Melissa Lunden, Brian LaFranchi, Charles L. Blanchard, and Stephanie L. Shaw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3277–3301,Short summary
Analyzing street-level air pollutants (2016–2017), this assessment indicates that mobile measurement is precise and accurate (5 % to 25 % bias) relative to regulatory sites, with higher spatial resolution. Collocated sensor measurements in California showed differences less than 20 %, suggesting that greater differences represent spatial variability. Mobile data confirm regulatory-site spatial representation and that pollutant levels can also be 6 to 8 times higher just blocks apart.
Christian Juncher Jørgensen, Jacob Mønster, Karsten Fuglsang, and Jesper Riis Christiansen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3319–3328,Short summary
Recent discoveries have shown large emissions of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere from meltwater at the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). Low-cost and low-power gas sensor technology offers great potential to supplement CH4 measurements using very expensive reference analyzers under harsh and remote conditions. In this paper we evaluate the in situ performance at the GrIS of a low-cost CH4 sensor to a state-of-the-art analyzer and find very excellent agreement between the two methods.
Lilian Joly, Olivier Coopmann, Vincent Guidard, Thomas Decarpenterie, Nicolas Dumelié, Julien Cousin, Jérémie Burgalat, Nicolas Chauvin, Grégory Albora, Rabih Maamary, Zineb Miftah El Khair, Diane Tzanos, Joël Barrié, Éric Moulin, Patrick Aressy, and Anne Belleudy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3099–3118,Short summary
This article presents an instrument weighing less than 3 kg for accurate and rapid measurement of greenhouse gases between 0 and 30 km altitude using a meteorological balloon. This article shows the interest of these measurements for the validation of simulations of infrared satellite observations.
Jonathan Elsey, Marc D. Coleman, Tom D. Gardiner, Kaah P. Menang, and Keith P. Shine
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2335–2361,Short summary
Water vapour is an important component in trying to understand the flows of energy between the Sun and Earth, since it is opaque to radiation emitted by both the surface and the Sun. In this paper, we study how it absorbs sunlight by way of its
continuum, a property which is poorly understood and with few measurements. Our results indicate that this continuum absorption may be more significant than previously thought, potentially impacting satellite observations and climate studies.
Claudia Grossi, Scott D. Chambers, Olivier Llido, Felix R. Vogel, Victor Kazan, Alessandro Capuana, Sylvester Werczynski, Roger Curcoll, Marc Delmotte, Arturo Vargas, Josep-Anton Morguí, Ingeborg Levin, and Michel Ramonet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2241–2255,Short summary
The sustainable support of radon metrology at the environmental level offers new scientific possibilities for the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the determination of their source terms as well as for the identification of radioactive sources for the assessment of radiation exposure. This study helps to harmonize the techniques commonly used for atmospheric radon and radon progeny activity concentration measurements.
Cheng-Hsien Lin, Richard H. Grant, Albert J. Heber, and Cliff T. Johnston
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2001–2013,Short summary
Gas quantification using the open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (OP-FTIR) is subject to interferences of environmental variables, leading to errors in gas concentration calculations. This study investigated the effects of ambient water vapour content, temperature, path lengths, and wind speed on the quantification of N2O and CO2 concentrations, which can help the OP-FTIR users to avoid these errors and improve the precision and accuracy of the atmospheric gas quantification.
Rachel Edie, Anna M. Robertson, Robert A. Field, Jeffrey Soltis, Dustin A. Snare, Daniel Zimmerle, Clay S. Bell, Timothy L. Vaughn, and Shane M. Murphy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 341–353,Short summary
Ground-based measurements of emissions from oil and natural gas production are important for understanding emission distributions and improving emission inventories. Here, measurement technique Other Test Method 33A (OTM 33A) is validated through several test releases staged at the Methane Emissions Technology Evaluation Center. These tests suggest OTM 33A has no inherent bias and that a group of OTM measurements is within 5 % of the known mean emission rate.
Zheng Xu, Yuliang Liu, Wei Nie, Peng Sun, Xuguang Chi, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6737–6748,Short summary
We evaluated the performance of HONO measurement by a wet-denuder--ion0chromatography system (WD/IC, MARGA). We found significant artificial HONO formed from the reaction of NO2 oxidizing SO2 in the denuder solution. High ambient NH3 would elevate the pH of the denuder solution and promote the overestimation of HONO. A method was established to correct the HONO measurement by WD/IC instruments.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Bin Ouyang, Jun Duan, Wenqian Zhang, Shengrui Tong, Maofa Ge, Ke Tang, Min Qin, Pinhua Xie, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, James Allan, Carl J. Percival, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Roderic L. Jones, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6449–6463,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is key species for understanding tropospheric chemistry, yet accurate and precise measurements are challenging. Here we report an inter–comparison exercise of a number of instruments that measured HONO in a highly polluted location (Beijing). All instruments agreed on the temporal trends yet displayed divergence in absolute concentrations. The cause of this divergence was unclear, but it may in part be due to spatial variability in instrument location.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
Christoph Zellweger, Rainer Steinbrecher, Olivier Laurent, Haeyoung Lee, Sumin Kim, Lukas Emmenegger, Martin Steinbacher, and Brigitte Buchmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5863–5878,Short summary
We analysed results obtained through CO and N2O performance audits conducted within the framework of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) quality management system of the World Meteorology Organization (WMO). The results reveal that current spectroscopic measurement techniques have clear advantages with respect to data quality objectives compared to more traditional methods. Further, they allow for a smooth continuation of historic CO and N2O time series.
Lukas Siebicke and Anas Emad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4393–4420,Short summary
We present the emerging flux measurement method
true eddy accumulation(TEA), able to quantify the land–atmosphere exchange of a large number of trace gases which are important for air quality and atmospheric composition. Our innovative implementation provides proof of concept of TEA and compared well to the established reference, outperforming previous works on TEA. Key to the success was the innovative high-speed air sampling and fully digital real-time data processing system.
Loic Lechevallier, Roberto Grilli, Erik Kerstel, Daniele Romanini, and Jérôme Chappellaz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3101–3109,Short summary
In this work we describe a highly sensitive optical spectrometer for simultaneous measurement of methane, ethane, and the isotopic composition of methane. The coupling of the spectrometer with a dissolved gas extraction system will provide a suitable tool for understanding the origins of the dissolved hydrocarbons and discriminate between the different sources (e.g., biogenic vs. thermogenic).
Kate R. Smith, Peter M. Edwards, Peter D. Ivatt, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, Chengliang Dai, Richard E. Peltier, Mat J. Evans, Yele Sun, and Alastair C. Lewis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1325–1336,Short summary
Clusters of low-cost, low-power atmospheric gas sensors were built into a sensor instrument to monitor NO2 and O3 in Beijing, alongside reference instruments, aiming to improve the reliability of sensor measurements. Clustering identical sensors and using the median sensor signal was used to minimize drift over short and medium timescales. Three different machine learning techniques were used for all the sensor data in an attempt to correct for cross-interferences, which worked to some degree.
Mei Bai, Helen Suter, Shu Kee Lam, Thomas K. Flesch, and Deli Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1095–1102,Short summary
Improving direct field measurement techniques to quantify gas emissions from large agriculture farm is challenging. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions with static closed chambers and slant open-path flux gradient (FG) approaches following chicken manure application. The concurrent emission ratios (FG / chamber) showed N2O fluxes measured by FG were 1.22-1.40 times higher than those from the chambers. This study provides important information for the agriculture gas measurement community.
Vincent Michoud, Stéphane Sauvage, Thierry Léonardis, Isabelle Fronval, Alexandre Kukui, Nadine Locoge, and Sébastien Dusanter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5729–5740,Short summary
This study presents the first measurements of ambient methylglyoxal, an important atmospheric α-dicarbonyl, using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These measurements mostly agree with concomitant measurements from a reference technique: the DNPH derivatization technique and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. In addition, a careful investigation of the differences between the two techniques is carried out to explain the disagreements observed.
Michael J. Prather, Clare M. Flynn, Xin Zhu, Stephen D. Steenrod, Sarah A. Strode, Arlene M. Fiore, Gustavo Correa, Lee T. Murray, and Jean-Francois Lamarque
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2653–2668,Short summary
A new protocol for merging in situ atmospheric chemistry measurements with 3-D models is developed. This technique can identify the most reactive air parcels in terms of tropospheric production/loss of O3 & CH4. This approach highlights differences in 6 global chemistry models even with composition specified. Thus in situ measurements from, e.g., NASA's ATom mission can be used to develop a chemical climatology of, not only the key species, but also the rates of key reactions in each air parcel.
Richard H. Grant and Rex A. Omonode
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2119–2133,Short summary
Annual emissions of trace gases requires knowledge of the emissions throughout the day and year. Unfortunately emissions into the surface boundary layer during calm nights are rarely measured. During such conditions surface layer concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) often accumulate in the surface boundary layer and the time rate of change of this accumulation was used to estimate emissions. Results showed this approach to be reasonable.
Blitz, M. A., Heard, D. E., and Pilling, M. J.: OH formation from CH3CO + O2: a convenient experimental marker for the acetyl radical, Chem. Phys. Lett., 365, 374–379, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2614(02)01484-7 , 2002.
Darley, E. F., Kettner, K. A., and Stephens, E. R.: Analysis of Peroxyacyl Nitrates by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection, Anal. Chem., 35, 589–591, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60197a028, 1963.
Day, D. A., Wooldridge, P. J., Dillon, M. B., Thornton, J. A., and Cohen, R. C.: A thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for in situ detection of NO2, peroxy nitrates, alkyl nitrates, and HNO3, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4046, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000779, 2002.
Fischer, E. V., Jaffe, D. A., Reidmiller, D. R., and Jaegle, L.: Meteorological controls on observed peroxyacetyl nitrate at Mount Bachelor during the spring of 2008, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D03302, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012776, 2010.
Flocke, F. M., Weinheimer, A. J., Swanson, A. L., Roberts, J. M., Schmitt, R., and Shertz, S.: On the measurement of PANs by gas chromatography and electron capture detection, J. Atmos. Chem., 52, 19–43, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10874-005-6772-0, 2005.
Fuchs, H., Dubé, W. P., Lerner, B. M., Wagner, N. L., Williams, E. J., and Brown, S. S.: A Sensitive and Versatile Detector for Atmospheric NO2 and NOx Based on Blue Diode Laser Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 7831–7836, https://doi.org/10.1021/es902067h, 2009.
Furgeson, A., Mielke, L. H., Paul, D., and Osthoff, H. D.: A photochemical source of peroxypropionic and peroxyisobutanoic nitric anhydride, Atmos. Environ., 45, 5025–5032, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.03.072, 2011.
Horowitz, A., Meller, R., and Moortgat, G. K.: The UV-VIS absorption cross sections of the alpha-dicarbonyl compounds: Pyruvic acid, biacetyl and glyoxal, J. Photoch. Photobio. A, 146, 19–27, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(01)00601-3 , 2001.
Jenkin, M. E., Saunders, S. M., and Pilling, M. J.: The tropospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds: a protocol for mechanism development, Atmos. Environ., 31, 81–104, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(96)00105-7, 1997.
Jenkin, M. E., Wyche, K. P., Evans, C. J., Carr, T., Monks, P. S., Alfarra, M. R., Barley, M. H., McFiggans, G. B., Young, J. C., and Rickard, A. R.: Development and chamber evaluation of the MCM v3.2 degradation scheme for β-caryophyllene, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5275–5308, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-5275-2012, 2012.
Kabir, M., Jagiella, S., and Zabel, F.: Thermal Stability of n-Acyl Peroxynitrates, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 46, 462–469, https://doi.org/10.1002/kin.20862, 2014.
Kames, J., Schurath, U., Flocke, F., and Volzthomas, A.: Preparation of organic nitrates from alcohols and N2O5 for species identification in atmospheric samples, J. Atmos. Chem., 16, 349–359, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01032630, 1993.
Lightfoot, P. D., Cox, R. A., Crowley, J. N., Destriau, M., Hayman, G. D., Jenkin, M. E., Moortgat, G. K., and Zabel, F.: Organic Peroxy-Radicals – Kinetics, Spectroscopy And Tropospheric Chemistry, Atmos. Environ. A, 26, 1805–1961, https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-1686(92)90423-I, 1992.
Martinez, R. D., Buitrago, A. A., Howell, N. W., Hearn, C. H., and Joens, J. A.: The near-UV absorption spectra of several aliphatic aldehydes and ketones at 300 K, Atmos. Environ. A-Gen., 26, 785–792, https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-1686(92)90238-G, 1992.
Meyrahn, H., Helas, G., and Warneck, P.: Gas-chromatographic determination of peroxyacyetyl nitrate – 2 convenient calibration techniques, J. Atmos. Chem., 5, 405–415, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00113903, 1987.
Mielke, L. H. and Osthoff, H. D.: On quantitative measurements of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydride mixing ratios by thermal dissociation chemical ionization mass spectrometry, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 310, 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijms.2011.10.005, 2012.
Mielke, L. H., Stutz, J., Tsai, C., Hurlock, S. C., Roberts, J. M., Veres, P. R., Froyd, K. D., Hayes, P. L., Cubison, M. J., Jimenez, J. L., Washenfelder, R. A., Young, C. J., Gilman, J. B., de Gouw, J. A., Flynn, J. H., Grossberg, N., Lefer, B. L., Liu, J., Weber, R. J., and Osthoff, H. D.: Heterogeneous formation of nitryl chloride and its role as a nocturnal NOx reservoir species during CalNex-LA 2010, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 10638–10652, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50783, 2013.
Pätz, H.-W., Lerner, A., Houben, N., and Volz-Thomas, A.: Validation of a new method for the calibration of peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN)-analyzers, Gefahrst. Reinhalt. L., 62, 215–219, 2002.
Paul, D., Furgeson, A., and Osthoff, H. D.: Measurement of total alkyl and peroxy nitrates by thermal decomposition cavity ring-down spectroscopy, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 80, 114101, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3258204 2009.
Paul, D. and Osthoff, H. D.: Absolute Measurements of Total Peroxy Nitrate Mixing Ratios by Thermal Dissociation Blue Diode Laser Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy, Anal. Chem., 82, 6695–6703, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac101441z, 2010.
Perring, A. E., Pusede, S. E., and Cohen, R. C.: An Observational Perspective on the Atmospheric Impacts of Alkyl and Multifunctional Nitrates on Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol, Chem. Rev., 113, 5848–5870, https://doi.org/10.1021/cr300520x, 2013.
Roberts, J. M., Fajer, R. W., and Springston, S. R.: Capillary gas chromatographic separation of alkyl nitrates and peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides, Anal. Chem., 61, 771–772, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00182a026, 1989.
Roberts, J. M.: The atmospheric chemistry of organic nitrates, Atmos. Environ. A-Gen., 24, 243–287, https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-1686(90)90108-Y, 1990.
Roberts, J. M.: PAN and Related Compounds, in: Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere, edited by: Koppmann, R., Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 221–268, 2007.
Romero, M. T. B., Blitz, M. A., Heard, D. E., Pilling, M. J., Price, B., and Seakins, P. W.: OH formation from the C2H5CO+O2 reaction: An experimental marker for the propionyl radical, Chem. Phys. Lett., 408, 232–236, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2005.04.018, 2005.
Sander, S. P., Abbatt, J. P. D., Barker, J. R., Burkholder, J. B., Friedl, R. R., Golden, D. M., Huie, R. E., Kolb, C. E., Kurylo, M. J., Moortgat, G. K., Orkin, V. L., and Wine, P. H.: Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Atmospheric Studies, Evaluation No. 17, JPL Publication 10-6, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, 2010.
Saunders, S. M., Jenkin, M. E., Derwent, R. G., and Pilling, M. J.: Protocol for the development of the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM v3 (Part A): tropospheric degradation of non-aromatic volatile organic compounds, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 161–180, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-3-161-2003, 2003.
Scholtens, K. W., Messer, B. M., Cappa, C. D., and Elrod, M. J.: Kinetics of the CH3O2 + NO Reaction: Temperature Dependence of the Overall Rate Constant and an Improved Upper Limit for the CH3ONO2 Branching Channel, J. Phys. Chem. A, 103, 4378–4384, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp990469k, 1999.
Singh, H. B. and Hanst, P. L.: Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the unpolluted atmosphere – an important reservoir for nitrogen oxides, Geophys. Res. Lett., 8, 941–944, https://doi.org/10.1029/GL008i008p00941, 1981.
Slusher, D. L., Huey, L. G., Tanner, D. J., Flocke, F. M., and Roberts, J. M.: A thermal dissociation-chemical ionization mass spectrometry (TD-CIMS) technique for the simultaneous measurement of peroxyacyl nitrates and dinitrogen pentoxide, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19315, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004670, 2004.
Staffelbach, T. A., Orlando, J. J., Tyndall, G. S., and Calvert, J. G.: The UV-visible absorption spectrum and photolysis quantum yields of methylglyoxal, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 100, 14189–14198, https://doi.org/10.1029/95jd00541, 1995.
Szabo, E., Djehiche, M., Riva, M., Fittschen, C., Coddeville, P., Sarzy\'nski, D., Tomas, A., and Dóbé , S.: Atmospheric Chemistry of 2,3-Pentanedione: Photolysis and Reaction with OH Radicals, J. Phys. Chem. A, 115, 9160–9168, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp205595c, 2011.
Tanimoto, H., Hirokawa, J., Kajii, Y., and Akimoto, H.: A new measurement technique of peroxyacetyl nitrate at parts per trillion by volume levels: Gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 21343–21354, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JD900345, 1999.
Tokarek, T. W., Huo, J. A., Odame-Ankrah, C. A., Hammoud, D., Taha, Y. M., and Osthoff, H. D.: A gas chromatograph for quantification of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides calibrated by thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3263–3283, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-7-3263-2014, 2014.
Volz-Thomas, A., Xueref, I., and Schmitt, R.: An automatic gas chromatograph and calibration system for ambient measurements of PAN and PPN, Environ. Sci. Pollut. R., 9, 72–76, 2002.
Warneck, P. and Zerbach, T.: Synthesis of peroxyacetyl nitrate in air by acetone photolysis, Environm. Sci. Technol., 26, 74–79, https://doi.org/10.1021/es00025a005, 1992.
Williams, J. E., Le Bras, G., Kukui, A., Ziereis, H., and Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.: The impact of the chemical production of methyl nitrate from the NO + CH3O2 reaction on the global distributions of alkyl nitrates, nitrogen oxides and tropospheric ozone: a global modelling study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2363–2382, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-2363-2014, 2014.
Wooldridge, P. J., Perring, A. E., Bertram, T. H., Flocke, F. M., Roberts, J. M., Singh, H. B., Huey, L. G., Thornton, J. A., Wolfe, G. M., Murphy, J. G., Fry, J. L., Rollins, A. W., LaFranchi, B. W., and Cohen, R. C.: Total Peroxy Nitrates (ΣPNs) in the atmosphere: the Thermal Dissociation-Laser Induced Fluorescence (TD-LIF) technique and comparisons to speciated PAN measurements, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 593–607, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-3-593-2010, 2010.
Zheng, W., Flocke, F. M., Tyndall, G. S., Swanson, A., Orlando, J. J., Roberts, J. M., Huey, L. G., and Tanner, D. J.: Characterization of a thermal decomposition chemical ionization mass spectrometer for the measurement of peroxy acyl nitrates (PANs) in the atmosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6529–6547, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-6529-2011, 2011.
A photochemical source of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) in which a dialkyl ketone (acetone, diethyl-, di-isopropyl, or di-n-propyl ketone) in the presence of oxygen and nitric oxide is photodissociated by arrays of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) is described. The source output was analyzed by gas chromatography and thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy and modeled using the Master Chemical Mechanism.
A photochemical source of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) in which a dialkyl ketone...