Articles | Volume 14, issue 9
28 Sep 2021
Research article | 28 Sep 2021
A compact static birefringent interferometer for the measurement of upper atmospheric winds: concept, design and lab performance
Tingyu Yan et al.
C. Zhang, T. Yan, T. Mu, and Y. He
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., V-1-2020, 383–388,
C. Zhang, T. Yan, T. Mu, and Y. He
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., V-1-2020, 383–388,
Jeffery Langille, Adam Bourassa, Laura L. Pan, Daniel Letros, Brian Solheim, Daniel Zawada, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5477–5486,Short summary
Water vapour (WV) is a highly variable and extremely important trace gas in Earth’s atmosphere. Due to its radiative and chemical properties, it is coupled to the climate in an extremely complex manner. This is especially true in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). Despite its importance, the physical processes that control mixing and the distribution of WV in the LMS are poorly understood. This study provides observational evidence of moistening the LMS via mixing across the subtropical jet.
Uma Das, William E. Ward, Chen Jeih Pan, and Sanat Kumar Das
Ann. Geophys., 38, 421–435,Short summary
Temperatures obtained from FORMOSAT-3 and COSMIC observations in the stratosphere are analysed for tidal variations. It is seen that non-migrating tides are not very significant in the high-latitude winter stratosphere. It is shown that the observed amplitudes of these tides in earlier studies are most probably a result of aliasing and are not geophysical in nature. Thus, the process of non-linear interactions through which it was believed that they are produced seems to be unimportant.
Piao Rong, Christian von Savigny, Chunmin Zhang, Christoph G. Hoffmann, and Michael J. Schwartz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1737–1755,Short summary
We study the presence and characteristics of 27 d solar signatures in middle atmospheric temperature observed by the microwave limb sounder on NASA's Aura spacecraft. This is a highly interesting and significant subject because the physical and chemical mechanisms leading to these 27 d solar-driven signatures are, in many cases, not well understood. The analysis shows that highly significant 27 d solar signatures in middle atmospheric temperature are present at many altitudes and latitudes.
Jeffery Langille, Daniel Letros, Adam Bourassa, Brian Solheim, Doug Degenstein, Fabien Dupont, Daniel Zawada, and Nick D. Lloyd
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 431–455,Short summary
The SHOW instrument is a prototype satellite concept that is being developed through collaboration between the University of Saskatchewan, the Canadian Space Agency, and ABB Inc. to provide high vertical resolution (< 200 m) measurements of UTLS water vapour with < 1 ppm accuracy. This paper presents suborbital measurements obtained during a demonstration flight aboard NASA's ER-2 aircraft. These measurements are validated through a comparison with coincident radiosonde measurements.
Maya García-Comas, Francisco González-Galindo, Bernd Funke, Angela Gardini, Aythami Jurado-Navarro, Manuel López-Puertas, and William E. Ward
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11019–11041,Short summary
In this paper, for the first time, temperature longitudinal oscillations are derived from 20 to 150 km from a single instrument. A climatology of amplitudes and phases of zonal waves with odd daily frequencies is presented on a global scale. The interannual variability in amplitudes of the migrating modes shows a QBO in the MLT, which is probably originated in the stratosphere. The results are useful for testing general circulation models considering tidal effects in the MLT region.
Related subject area
Subject: Others (Wind, Precipitation, Temperature, etc.) | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsComplementarity of wind measurements from co-located X-band weather radar and Doppler lidarEvaluation of the New York State Mesonet Profiler Network dataQuantification of motion-induced measurement error on floating lidar systemsObservation error analysis for the WInd VElocity Radar Nephoscope W-band Doppler conically scanning spaceborne radar via end-to-end simulationsEvaluating convective planetary boundary layer height estimations resolved by both active and passive remote sensing instruments during the CHEESEHEAD19 field campaignAtmospheric precipitable water vapor and its correlation with clear-sky infrared temperature observationsSpectral performance analysis of the Aeolus Fabry–Pérot and Fizeau interferometers during the first years of operationModerate spectral resolution solar irradiance measurements, aerosol optical depth, and solar transmission, from 360 to 1070 nm, using the refurbished rotating shadow band spectroradiometer (RSS)Mitigation of bias sources for atmospheric temperature and humidity in the mobile Raman Weather and Aerosol Lidar (WALI)Gravity wave instability structures and turbulence from more than 1.5 years of OH* airglow imager observations in SloveniaALADIN laser frequency stability and its impact on the Aeolus wind errorThe COTUR project: remote sensing of offshore turbulence for wind energy applicationCharacterization of dark current signal measurements of the ACCDs used on board the Aeolus satelliteRelationship between wind observation accuracy and the ascending node of the sun-synchronous orbit for the Aeolus-type spaceborne Doppler wind lidarA new lidar design for operational atmospheric wind and cloud/aerosol survey from spaceVAHCOLI, a new concept for lidars: technical setup, science applications, and first measurementsA Compact Rayleigh Autonomous Lidar (CORAL) for the middle atmosphereMeasurement characteristics of an airborne microwave temperature profiler (MTP)Towards accurate and practical drone-based wind measurements with an ultrasonic anemometerAtmospheric observations with E-band microwave links – challenges and opportunitiesTomographic retrieval algorithm of OH concentration profiles using double spatial heterodyne spectrometersWuhan MST radar: technical features and validation of wind observationsJoint analysis of convective structure from the APR-2 precipitation radar and the DAWN Doppler wind lidar during the 2017 Convective Processes Experiment (CPEX)First observations of the McMurdo–South Pole oblique ionospheric HF channelVertical wind profiling from the troposphere to the lower mesosphere based on high-resolution heterodyne near-infrared spectroradiometryEffect of OH emission on the temperature and wind measurements derived from limb-viewing observations of the 1.27 µm O2 dayglowDoppler lidar at Observatoire de Haute-Provence for wind profiling up to 75 km altitude: performance evaluation and observationsQuantifying hail size distributions from the sky – application of drone aerial photogrammetryWind sensing with drone-mounted wind lidars: proof of conceptSAETTA: high-resolution 3-D mapping of the total lightning activity in the Mediterranean Basin over Corsica, with a focus on a mesoscale convective system eventApplication of parametric speakers to radio acoustic sounding systemSimulating precipitation radar observations from a geostationary satelliteNovel specular meteor radar systems using coherent MIMO techniques to study the mesosphere and lower thermosphereDual-wavelength radar technique development for snow rate estimation: a case study from GCPExA Fourier transform spectroradiometer for ground-based remote sensing of the atmospheric downwelling long-wave radianceAutomated compact mobile Raman lidar for water vapor measurement: instrument description and validation by comparison with radiosonde, GNSS, and high-resolution objective analysisImplementation of polarization diversity pulse-pair technique using airborne W-band radarMetrology of solar spectral irradiance at the top of the atmosphere in the near infrared measured at Mauna Loa Observatory: the PYR-ILIOS campaignDoppler W-band polarization diversity space-borne radar simulator for wind studiesThe FengYun-3C radio occultation sounder GNOS: a review of the mission and its early results and science applicationsWIRA-C: a compact 142-GHz-radiometer for continuous middle-atmospheric wind measurementsA large-area blackbody for in-flight calibration of an infrared interferometer deployed on board a long-duration balloon for stratospheric researchA measurement campaign to assess sources of error in microwave link rainfall estimationSimulation study for the Stratospheric Inferred Winds (SIW) sub-millimeter limb sounderReduction in 317–780 nm radiance reflected from the sunlit Earth during the eclipse of 21 August 2017A highly miniaturized satellite payload based on a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for atmospheric temperature measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphereWind turbine wake measurements with automatically adjusting scanning trajectories in a multi-Doppler lidar setupAirborne wind lidar observations over the North Atlantic in 2016 for the pre-launch validation of the satellite mission AeolusShipborne Wind Measurement and Motion-induced Error Correction of a Coherent Doppler Lidar over the Yellow Sea in 2014In-flight calibration of SCIAMACHY's polarization sensitivity
Jenna Ritvanen, Ewan O'Connor, Dmitri Moisseev, Raisa Lehtinen, Jani Tyynelä, and Ludovic Thobois
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6507–6519,Short summary
Doppler lidars and weather radars provide accurate wind measurements, with Doppler lidar usually performing better in dry weather conditions and weather radar performing better when there is precipitation. Operating both instruments together should therefore improve the overall performance. We investigate how well a co-located Doppler lidar and X-band radar perform with respect to various weather conditions, including changes in horizontal visibility, cloud altitude, and precipitation.
Bhupal Shrestha, Jerald A. Brotzge, and Junhong Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6011–6033,Short summary
The NYS Mesonet Profiler Network is comprised of 17 profiler sites, each equipped with a Doppler lidar, microwave radiometer, and sun photometer. This study presents a multi-year, multi-station evaluation based on well-defined reference measurements. Results demonstrate robust technologies that can aid real-time weather operations and a network test bed that can be used for further expansion, evaluation, and integration of such technologies at a large scale.
Felix Kelberlau and Jakob Mann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5323–5341,Short summary
Floating lidar systems are used for measuring wind speeds offshore, and their motion influences the measurements. This study describes the motion-induced bias on mean wind speed estimates by simulating the lidar sampling pattern of a moving lidar. An analytic model is used to validate the simulations. The bias is low and depends on amplitude and frequency of motion as well as on wind shear. It has been estimated for the example of the Fugro SEAWATCH wind lidar buoy carrying a ZX 300M lidar.
Alessandro Battaglia, Paolo Martire, Eric Caubet, Laurent Phalippou, Fabrizio Stesina, Pavlos Kollias, and Anthony Illingworth
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3011–3030,Short summary
We present an instrument simulator for a new sensor, WIVERN (WInd VElocity Radar Nephoscope), a conically scanning radar payload with Doppler capabilities, recently down-selected as one of the four candidates for the European Space Agency Earth Explorer 11 program. The mission aims at measuring horizontal winds in cloudy areas. The simulator is instrumental in the definition and consolidation of the mission requirements and the evaluation of mission performances.
James B. Duncan Jr., Laura Bianco, Bianca Adler, Tyler Bell, Irina V. Djalalova, Laura Riihimaki, Joseph Sedlar, Elizabeth N. Smith, David D. Turner, Timothy J. Wagner, and James M. Wilczak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2479–2502,Short summary
In this study, several ground-based remote sensing instruments are used to estimate the height of the convective planetary boundary layer, and their performance is compared against independent boundary layer depth estimates obtained from radiosondes launched as part of the CHEESEHEAD19 field campaign. The impact of clouds (particularly boundary layer clouds) on the estimation of the boundary layer depth is also investigated.
Vicki Kelsey, Spencer Riley, and Kenneth Minschwaner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1563–1576,Short summary
In the interior western USA there are distances of hundreds of kilometers between weather balloon launch sites for weather forecasting. Satellite coverage can also be sparse or with poor resolution. Using infrared thermometers, clear-sky temperatures were collected and compared with data from weather balloons. A correlation between clear-sky temperatures and precipitable water measurements from weather balloons was found. This means that citizen scientists can collect data.
Benjamin Witschas, Christian Lemmerz, Oliver Lux, Uwe Marksteiner, Oliver Reitebuch, Fabian Weiler, Frederic Fabre, Alain Dabas, Thomas Flament, Dorit Huber, and Michael Vaughan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1465–1489,Short summary
In August 2018, the ESA launched the first Doppler wind lidar into space. In order to calibrate the instrument and to monitor the overall instrument conditions, instrument spectral registration measurements have been performed with Aeolus on a weekly basis. Based on these measurements, the alignment drift of the Aeolus satellite instrument is estimated by applying tools and mathematical model functions to analyze the spectrometer transmission curves.
Joseph J. Michalsky and Peter W. Kiedron
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 353–364,Short summary
This paper describes an instrument that measures spectrally from 360 nm (ultraviolet) to 1070 nm (near-infrared) at 1002 separate wavelengths. The measurements were made every minute from the late summer of 2009 to the winter of 2014 at a site in northern Oklahoma (USA; 36.605° N, 97.486° W). Methods are described that enable the normalized transmission across the spectrum to be measured and, subsequently, used to calculate the aerosol optical depth and spectra irradiance.
Julien Totems, Patrick Chazette, and Alexandre Baron
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7525–7544,Short summary
We describe in detail the design and calibration of the new Raman channels for the WALI system, going over the important sources of bias and uncertainty on retrieved temperature profiles. For the first time, their impact is investigated using horizontal shots in a homogenous atmosphere: the magnitude of the highlighted biases can be much larger than the targeted absolute accuracy of 1° C. Actual measurement errors are quantified using radiosoundings launched close to the lidar site.
René Sedlak, Patrick Hannawald, Carsten Schmidt, Sabine Wüst, Michael Bittner, and Samo Stanič
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6821–6833,Short summary
High-resolution images of the OH* airglow layer (ca. 87 km height) acquired at Otlica Observatory, Slovenia, have been analysed. A statistical analysis of small-scale wave structures with horizontal wavelengths up to 4.5 km suggests strong presence of instability features in the upper mesosphere or lower thermosphere. The dissipated energy of breaking gravity waves is derived from observations of turbulent vortices. It is concluded that dynamical heating plays a vital role in the atmosphere.
Oliver Lux, Christian Lemmerz, Fabian Weiler, Thomas Kanitz, Denny Wernham, Gonçalo Rodrigues, Andrew Hyslop, Olivier Lecrenier, Phil McGoldrick, Frédéric Fabre, Paolo Bravetti, Tommaso Parrinello, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6305–6333,Short summary
The work assesses the frequency stability of the laser transmitters on board Aeolus and discusses its influence on the quality of the global wind data. Excellent frequency stability of the space lasers is evident, although enhanced frequency noise occurs at certain locations along the orbit due to micro-vibrations that are introduced by the satellite’s reaction wheels. The study elaborates on this finding and investigates the extent to which the enhanced frequency noise increases the wind error.
Etienne Cheynet, Martin Flügge, Joachim Reuder, Jasna B. Jakobsen, Yngve Heggelund, Benny Svardal, Pablo Saavedra Garfias, Charlotte Obhrai, Nicolò Daniotti, Jarle Berge, Christiane Duscha, Norman Wildmann, Ingrid H. Onarheim, and Marte Godvik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6137–6157,Short summary
The COTUR campaign explored the structure of wind turbulence above the ocean to improve the design of future multi-megawatt offshore wind turbines. Deploying scientific instruments offshore is both a financial and technological challenge. Therefore, lidar technology was used to remotely measure the wind above the ocean from instruments located on the seaside. The experimental setup is tailored to the study of the spatial correlation of wind gusts, which governs the wind loading on structures.
Fabian Weiler, Thomas Kanitz, Denny Wernham, Michael Rennie, Dorit Huber, Marc Schillinger, Olivier Saint-Pe, Ray Bell, Tommaso Parrinello, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5153–5177,Short summary
This paper reports on dark current signal anomalies of the detectors used on board the ESA's Earth Explorer satellite Aeolus during the first 1.5 years in orbit. After introducing sophisticated algorithms to classify dark current anomalies according to their characteristics, the impact of the different kinds of anomalies on wind measurements is discussed. In addition, mitigation approaches for the wind retrieval are presented and potential root causes are discussed.
Chuanliang Zhang, Xuejin Sun, Wen Lu, Yingni Shi, Naiying Dou, and Shaohui Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4787–4803,Short summary
The first spaceborne doppler wind lidar (DWL) Aeolus operates on sun-synchronous dawn–dusk orbit to lower the impact of solar background radiation (SBR) on wind observation accuracy. Increased SBR leads to an increment of averaged wind observation uncertainties from 0.19 to 0.27 m s-1 comparing Aeolus and two added spaceborne DWLs operating on orbits with local ascending times of 15:00 and 12:00 LT. A quantitative design of laser pulse energy according to accuracy requirements is also proposed.
Didier Bruneau and Jacques Pelon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4375–4402,Short summary
Taking advantage of Aeolus success and of our airborne lidar system expertise, we present a new spaceborne wind lidar design for operational Aeolus follow-on missions, keeping most of the initial lidar system but relying on a single Mach–Zehnder interferometer to relax operational constraints and reduce measurement bias. System parameters are optimized. Random and systematic errors are shown to be compliant with the initial mission requirements. In addition, the system allows unbiased retrieval.
Franz-Josef Lübken and Josef Höffner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3815–3836,Short summary
We present a new concept for a cluster of lidars that allows us to measure time-resolved profiles of temperatures, winds, and aerosols in the entire middle atmosphere for the first time, also covering regional horizontal scales (
four-dimensional coverage). Measurements are performed during day and night. The essential component is a newly developed laser with unprecedented performance. We present the first measurements. New observational capabilities in atmospheric physics are established.
Bernd Kaifler and Natalie Kaifler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1715–1732,Short summary
This paper describes the Compact Rayleigh Autonomous Lidar (CORAL), which is the first lidar instrument to make fully automatic high-resolution measurements of atmospheric density and temperature between 15 and 90 km altitude. CORAL achieves a much larger measurement cadence than conventional lidars and thus facilitates studies of rare atmospheric phenomena.
Mareike Heckl, Andreas Fix, Matthias Jirousek, Franz Schreier, Jian Xu, and Markus Rapp
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1689–1713,
William Thielicke, Waldemar Hübert, Ulrich Müller, Michael Eggert, and Paul Wilhelm
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1303–1318,Short summary
We developed a wind-measuring drone with exceptional measuring accuracy and a very long flight time. Measurements are extensively validated at different levels. A comparison with a bistatic lidar reveals very small bias and RMSEs. We also present a demonstration measurement in the wake of a wind turbine. We think that our solution is a significant enhancement to existing designs, and other researchers can benefit from the details that we are giving in the paper.
Martin Fencl, Michal Dohnal, Pavel Valtr, Martin Grabner, and Vojtěch Bareš
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6559–6578,Short summary
Commercial microwave links operating at E-band frequencies are increasingly being updated and are frequently replacing older infrastructure. We show that E-band microwave links are able to observe even light rainfalls, a feat practically impossible to achieve by older 15–40 GHz devices. Furthermore, water vapor retrieval may be possible from long E-band microwave links, although the efficient separation of gaseous attenuation from other signal losses will be challenging in practice.
Yuan An, Jinji Ma, Yibo Gao, Wei Xiong, and Xianhua Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6521–6542,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH) plays a significant role in atmospheric chemical and physical reactions. The superiority and feasibility of a new satellite sensor, which consists of two spatial heterodyne spectrometers in the orthogonal layout to monitor OH in the middle and upper atmosphere, is proved by the forward model. An inversion algorithm to obtain OH concentrations based on the simulated observation data of sensors and the errors in results are also given.
Lei Qiao, Gang Chen, Shaodong Zhang, Qi Yao, Wanlin Gong, Mingkun Su, Feilong Chen, Erxiao Liu, Weifan Zhang, Huangyuan Zeng, Xuesi Cai, Huina Song, Huan Zhang, and Liangliang Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5697–5713,
F. Joseph Turk, Svetla Hristova-Veleva, Stephen L. Durden, Simone Tanelli, Ousmane Sy, G. David Emmitt, Steve Greco, and Sara Q. Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4521–4537,Short summary
The mechanisms linking convection and air motion are major factors in much of the uncertainty in weather prediction, but complementary measurements of these quantities are rarely taken in close proximity. These quantities are shown from the 2017 Convective Processes Experiment (CPEX), wherein cloud and vertical air motion winds derived from the APR-2 airborne Doppler radar are combined with joint Doppler wind lidar (DAWN) measurements in the aerosol-rich regions surrounding the convection.
Alex T. Chartier, Juha Vierinen, and Geonhwa Jee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3023–3031,Short summary
A novel oblique ionospheric radio sounder has been developed and demonstrated in Antarctica. The transmitter was located at McMurdo and the receiver at the South Pole (1356 km great-circle path). The system cycled through 12 frequencies each minute and recorded signal time of flight, intensity, and Doppler. This allowed for the estimation of peak ionospheric electron density, which validated well against independent data from the nearby Jang Bogo ionosonde and GPS TEC.
Alexander V. Rodin, Dmitry V. Churbanov, Sergei G. Zenevich, Artem Y. Klimchuk, Vladimir M. Semenov, Maxim V. Spiridonov, and Iskander S. Gazizov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2299–2308,Short summary
The paper presents a new technique in remote wind measurements that may potentially complement conventional aerological observations and eventually greatly improve our knowledge about our climate system, especially concerning processes related to troposphere–stratosphere coupling. The technique may be implemented at relatively low cost in various applications from meteorological observation posts to remote sensing spacecraft.
Kuijun Wu, Weiwei He, Yutao Feng, Yuanhui Xiong, and Faquan Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1817–1824,Short summary
The 1.27 μm O2 dayglow is well-suited for remote sensing in near-space. The main goal of this paper is to discuss the effect of OH radiance on the wind and temperature measurements derived from limb-viewing observations of the O2 dayglow. It is apparent from the simulations that the presence of OH radiance as an interfering species decreases the wind and temperature accuracy at all altitudes, but this effect can be reduced considerably by improving OH radiance knowledge.
Sergey M. Khaykin, Alain Hauchecorne, Robin Wing, Philippe Keckhut, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Jacques Porteneuve, Jean-Francois Mariscal, and Jerome Schmitt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1501–1516,Short summary
The article presents a powerful atmospheric instrument based on a laser radar (lidar), capable of measuring horizontal wind velocity at a wide range of altitudes. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the wind lidar at Observatoire de Haute-Provence and demonstrate the application of its measurements for studies of atmospheric dynamical processes. Finally, we present an example of early validation of the ESA Aeolus space-borne wind lidar using its ground-based predecessor.
Joshua S. Soderholm, Matthew R. Kumjian, Nicholas McCarthy, Paula Maldonado, and Minzheng Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 747–754,Short summary
Collecting measurements of hail size and shape is difficult due to the infrequent and dangerous nature of hailstorms. To improve upon this, a new technique called
HailPixelis introduced for measuring hail using aerial imagery collected by a drone. A combination of machine learning and computer vision methods is used to extract the shape of thousands of hailstones from the aerial imagery. The improved statistics from the much larger HailPixel dataset show significant benefits.
Nikola Vasiljević, Michael Harris, Anders Tegtmeier Pedersen, Gunhild Rolighed Thorsen, Mark Pitter, Jane Harris, Kieran Bajpai, and Michael Courtney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 521–536,Short summary
In this paper we present the preliminary results of the proof-of-concept (POC) stage of a drone-based wind lidar system development process. To test the POC drone–lidar system we hovered the drone next to mast-mounted sonic anemometers at the Risø test center. The preliminary results of the intercomparison between the measurements derived from the POC system and those of the sonic anemometers show good agreement.
Sylvain Coquillat, Eric Defer, Pierre de Guibert, Dominique Lambert, Jean-Pierre Pinty, Véronique Pont, Serge Prieur, Ronald J. Thomas, Paul R. Krehbiel, and William Rison
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5765–5790,Short summary
Characteristics of SAETTA lightning imager installed in Corsica are presented, with original observations of lightning activity at regional and lightning scales. SAETTA monitors thunderstorms in a maritime and mountainous region, complex for weather forecasting and sensitive to global warming. A 3-year lightning climatology highlights frequent activity over a specific region due to relief. Uncommonly high discharge in stratiform thundercloud may support a recent model of charging processes.
Ahoro Adachi and Hiroyuki Hashiguchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5699–5715,Short summary
The radio acoustic sounding system is a remote sensing technique that provides vertical profiles of temperature in the air. Since RASS is accompanied with loud noise around the site, acoustic sources having low side lobe levels are desired. Thus, the application of parametric acoustic array as a high-directivity acoustic source was exploited in this study. The results show that the PAA–RASS has accuracy and precision comparable with conventional RASS despite its high directivity of sound.
Atsushi Okazaki, Takumi Honda, Shunji Kotsuki, Moeka Yamaji, Takuji Kubota, Riko Oki, Toshio Iguchi, and Takemasa Miyoshi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3985–3996,Short summary
The JAXA is surveying the feasibility of a potential satellite mission equipped with a precipitation radar on a geostationary orbit, as a successor of the GPM Core Observatory. We investigate what kind of observation data will be available from the radar using simulation techniques. Although the quality of the observation depends on the radar specifications and the position of precipitation systems, the results demonstrate that it would be possible to obtain three-dimensional precipitation data.
Jorge Luis Chau, Juan Miguel Urco, Juha Pekka Vierinen, Ryan Andrew Volz, Matthias Clahsen, Nico Pfeffer, and Jörg Trautner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2113–2127,Short summary
New systems to study the mesosphere are introduced. They result from the reengineering of previous systems, by making use of MIMO, spread-spectrum and compressed-sensing techniques that are widely used in telecommunications. The interferometer configuration is now implemented in transmission, making the location of meteor echoes possible with just one antenna on reception. Our novel concept makes the study of a mesosphere volume from different viewing points on the ground feasible and easy.
Gwo-Jong Huang, Viswanathan N. Bringi, Andrew J. Newman, Gyuwon Lee, Dmitri Moisseev, and Branislav M. Notaroš
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1409–1427,Short summary
This paper proposes a method for snow rate (SR) estimation using observations collected by NASA dual-frequency dual-polarized (D3R) radar during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx). The new method utilizes dual-wavelength radar reflectivity ratio (DWR) and 2-D-video disdrometer (2DVD) measurements to improve SR estimation accuracy. It is validated by comparing the D3R radar-retrieved SR with accumulated SR directly measured by a Pluvio gauge for an entire GCPEx synoptic event.
Giovanni Bianchini, Francesco Castagnoli, Gianluca Di Natale, and Luca Palchetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 619–635,Short summary
The characterization of infrared radiation emitted by the atmosphere is a crucial task in the study of the Earth's climate. The Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared (REFIR) spectroradiometer allows us to perform this task adding the capability of resolving, through spectroscopy, the atmospheric components responsible for the measured radiative effects. The analysis of the measurements also allows us to retrieve the atmospheric structure, making REFIR a complete tool for atmospheric studies.
Tetsu Sakai, Tomohiro Nagai, Toshiharu Izumi, Satoru Yoshida, and Yoshinori Shoji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 313–326,Short summary
We developed an automated compact mobile Raman lidar (MRL) system for measuring the vertical distribution of the water vapor mixing ratio in the lower troposphere, which has an affordable cost and is easy to operate. The MRL was installed in a small trailer for easy deployment and can start measurement in a few hours, and it is capable of unattended operation for several months. We describe the MRL system and present validation results obtained by comparing with the other humidity sensors.
Mengistu Wolde, Alessandro Battaglia, Cuong Nguyen, Andrew L. Pazmany, and Anthony Illingworth
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 253–269,Short summary
This paper presents an implementation of polarization diversity pulse-pair processing (PDPP) on the National Research Council of Canada airborne W-band radar (NAW) system. A description of the NAW PDPP pulsing schemes and an analysis of comprehensive airborne data collected in diverse weather conditions in Canada is presented. The analysis shows a successful airborne measurement of Doppler velocity exceeding 100 m s−1 using PDPP approach, the first such measurement from a moving platform.
Nuno Pereira, David Bolsée, Peter Sperfeld, Sven Pape, Dominique Sluse, and Gaël Cessateur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6605–6615,Short summary
The knowledge of the solar spectrum at the top of Earth's atmosphere is of great importance for climatic studies. Satellite instruments allow direct measurements; however, their calibration presents issues. It is possible to determine this spectrum precisely from Earth-based measurements as well, using the Langley plot technique and accurate calibration techniques. We present an infrared spectrum using these techniques for measurements made at the reference Mauna Loa Observatory.
Alessandro Battaglia, Ranvir Dhillon, and Anthony Illingworth
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5965–5979,Short summary
A new technique is proposed to simulated winds in clouds as they could be observed by a space-borne Doppler 3 mm wavelength radar. Results show that, in the presence of cloud inhomogeneity and of vertical wind shear, measured winds can be corrected and produce unbiased estimates of line-of-sight winds that can then be assimilated in numerical models to improve weather forecasts.
Yueqiang Sun, Weihua Bai, Congliang Liu, Yan Liu, Qifei Du, Xianyi Wang, Guanglin Yang, Mi Liao, Zhongdong Yang, Xiaoxin Zhang, Xiangguang Meng, Danyang Zhao, Junming Xia, Yuerong Cai, and Gottfried Kirchengast
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5797–5811,Short summary
The GNSS Occultation Sounder (GNOS) is one of the new-generation payloads on board the Chinese FengYun 3 (FY-3) series of operational meteorological satellites for sounding the Earth’s neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. FY-3C GNOS, on board the FY-3 series C satellite launched in September 2013, was designed to acquire setting and rising radio occultation (RO) data by using GNSS signals from both the Chinese BDS and the US GPS. This paper reviews the FY-3C GNOS mission.
Jonas Hagen, Axel Murk, Rolf Rüfenacht, Sergey Khaykin, Alain Hauchecorne, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5007–5024,
Friedhelm Olschewski, Christian Monte, Albert Adibekyan, Max Reiniger, Berndt Gutschwager, Joerg Hollandt, and Ralf Koppmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4757–4762,Short summary
The Institute for Atmospheric and Environmental Research at the University of Wuppertal designed and manufactured a prototype of the large-area blackbody for in-flight calibration of an infrared interferometer deployed onboard a long-duration balloon for stratospheric research.
Thomas C. van Leth, Aart Overeem, Hidde Leijnse, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4645–4669,Short summary
We present a campaign to address several error sources associated with rainfall estimates from microwave links in cellular communication networks. The set-up consists of three co-located links, complemented with reference instruments. We investigate events covering different attenuating phenomena: Rainfall, solid precipitation, temperature, fog, antenna wetting due to rain or dew, and clutter.
Philippe Baron, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Jana Mendrok, Satoshi Ochiai, Kristell Pérot, Hideo Sagawa, and Makoto Suzuki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4545–4566,Short summary
This paper investigates with computer simulations the measurement performances of the satellite Stratospheric Inferred Winds (SIW) in the altitude range 10–90 km. SIW is a Swedish mission that will be launched close to 2022. It is intended to fill the current altitude gap between 30 and 70 km in wind measurements and to pursue the monitoring of temperature and key stratospheric constituents for better understanding climate change effects.
Jay Herman, Guoyong Wen, Alexander Marshak, Karin Blank, Liang Huang, Alexander Cede, Nader Abuhassan, and Matthew Kowalewski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4373–4388,Short summary
The DSCOVR/EPIC instrument located near the Lagrange 1 Earth–Sun gravitational balance point is able to view the entire sunlit disk of the Earth. This means that during the eclipse of 21 August 2017 EPIC was able to see the region of totality and the much larger region of partial eclipse. Because of this, EPIC is able to measure the global reduction of reflected solar flux. For the wavelength range 388 to 780 nm, we estimated a 10 % reduction in reflected radiation.
Martin Kaufmann, Friedhelm Olschewski, Klaus Mantel, Brian Solheim, Gordon Shepherd, Michael Deiml, Jilin Liu, Rui Song, Qiuyu Chen, Oliver Wroblowski, Daikang Wei, Yajun Zhu, Friedrich Wagner, Florian Loosen, Denis Froehlich, Tom Neubert, Heinz Rongen, Peter Knieling, Panos Toumpas, Jinjun Shan, Geshi Tang, Ralf Koppmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3861–3870,Short summary
The concept and optical layout of a limb sounder using a spatial heterodyne spectrometer is presented. The instrument fits onto a nano-satellite platform, such as a CubeSat. It is designed for the derivation of temperatures in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The design parameters of the optics and a radiometric assessment of the instrument as well as the main characterization and calibration steps are discussed.
Norman Wildmann, Nikola Vasiljevic, and Thomas Gerz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3801–3814,Short summary
Wind turbines extract energy from the flow which manifests in a region of lower wind speeds and increased turbulence downstream of the rotor, the so-called wake. Understanding the characteristics of the wake is a key challenge for wind-energy research. A new strategy for measuring the wind in the wake with three synchronized lidar instruments is presented. The measurement points are automatically adapted to the prevailing wind direction to achieve continuous monitoring of wake properties.
Oliver Lux, Christian Lemmerz, Fabian Weiler, Uwe Marksteiner, Benjamin Witschas, Stephan Rahm, Andreas Schäfler, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3297–3322,Short summary
This work reports airborne wind lidar observations performed in a recent field campaign. The deployed lidar system serves as a demonstrator for the satellite instrument ALADIN on board Aeolus, which is scheduled for launch in 2018 and will become the first wind lidar in space. After presenting the measurement principle, operation procedures and wind retrieval algorithm, the obtained wind results are validated and discussed, providing valuable information in preparation for the satellite mission.
Xiaochun Zhai, Songhua Wu, Bingyi Liu, Xiaoquan Song, and Jiaping Yin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1313–1331,Short summary
A Doppler wind lidar attitude correction method is presented. This algorithm-based method relaxes the requirements for mechanical stability and active compensation mechanisms. A shipborne wind measurement campaign was carried out in the Yellow Sea, 2014. Comparison between lidar and radiosonde wind measurements shows good consistency, indicating that the method can provide continuous and high spatio-temporal resolution measurement of atmospheric turbulence processes in the marine boundary layer.
Patricia Liebing, Matthijs Krijger, Ralph Snel, Klaus Bramstedt, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 265–289,Short summary
This article describes a method to determine the polarization sensitivity of SCIAMACHY, a spectrometer on Envisat, from in-orbit data. Polarization is a preference of a direction in which light oscillates, and many optical instruments suffer from a dependence of their measured signals on this. To measure and correct for this effect, a statistical analysis of in-flight data combined with a model of the atmosphere and the instrument was performed, showing that the instrument changed after launch.
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High-resolution interferometers are routinely used to measure upper atmospheric motions by measuring small Doppler shifts in spectrally isolated airglow emissions. The birefringent interferometer presented in this paper has similar capabilities as several existing state-of-the-art instruments but is smaller and less complex to construct and operate. This paper presents the measurement technique and characterization of a lab prototype and examines the performance of the instrument.
High-resolution interferometers are routinely used to measure upper atmospheric motions by...