Articles | Volume 15, issue 8
Research article
02 May 2022
Research article |  | 02 May 2022

An evaluation of the heat test for the ice-nucleating ability of minerals and biological material

Martin I. Daily, Mark D. Tarn, Thomas F. Whale, and Benjamin J. Murray

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Cited articles

Ansmann, A., Tesche, M., Althausen, D., Müller, D., Seifert, P., Freudenthaler, V., Heese, B., Wiegner, M., Pisani, G., Knippertz, P., and Dubovik, O.: Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D04210,, 2008. 
Atkinson, J. D., Murray, B. J., Woodhouse, M. T., Whale, T. F., Baustian, K. J., Carslaw, K. S., Dobbie, S., O'Sullivan, D., and Malkin, T. L.: The importance of feldspar for ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase clouds, Nature, 498, 355–358,, 2013. 
Augustin, S., Wex, H., Niedermeier, D., Pummer, B., Grothe, H., Hartmann, S., Tomsche, L., Clauss, T., Voigtländer, J., Ignatius, K., and Stratmann, F.: Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10989–11003,, 2013. 
Augustin-Bauditz, S., Wex, H., Kanter, S., Ebert, M., Niedermeier, D., Stolz, F., Prager, A., and Stratmann, F.: The immersion mode ice nucleation behavior of mineral dusts: A comparison of different pure and surface modified dusts, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 7375–7382,, 2014. 
Baloh, P., Els, N., David, R. O., Larose, C., Whitmore, K., Sattler, B., and Grothe, H.: Assessment of Artificial and Natural Transport Mechanisms of Ice Nucleating Particles in an Alpine Ski Resort in Obergurgl, Austria, Front. Microbiol., 10, 2278,, 2019. 
Short summary
Mineral dust and particles of biological origin are important types of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) that can trigger ice formation of supercooled cloud droplets. Heat treatments are used to detect the presence of biological INPs in samples collected from the environment as the activity of mineral INPs is assumed unchanged, although not fully assessed. We show that the ice-nucleating ability of some minerals can change after heating and discuss how INP heat tests should be interpreted.