Articles | Volume 15, issue 17
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Comprehensive detection of analytes in large chromatographic datasets by coupling factor analysis with a decision tree
Charles E. Via Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Brian M. Lerner
Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA 01821, USA
Donna T. Sueper
Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA 01821, USA
No articles found.
Delaney B. Kilgour, Gordon A. Novak, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, and Timothy H. Bertram
Laboratory experiments with seawater mimics suggest ozone deposition to the surface ocean can be a source of reactive carbon to the marine atmosphere. We conduct both field and laboratory measurements to assess abiotic VOC composition and yields from ozonolysis of real surface seawater. We show that C5–C11 aldehydes contribute to the observed VOC emission flux. We estimate that VOC generated by the ozonolysis of surface seawater is competitive with biological VOC production and emission.
James F. Hurley, Alejandra Caceres, Deborah F. McGlynn, Mary E. Tovillo, Suzanne Pinar, Roger Schürch, Ksenia Onufrieva, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4681–4692,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have a wide range of sources and impacts on environments and human health that make them spatially, temporally, and chemically varied. Current methods lack the ability to collect samples in ways that provide spatial and chemical resolution without complex, costly instrumentation. We describe and validate a low-cost, portable VOC sampler and demonstrate its utility in collecting distributed coordinated samples.
Namrata Shanmukh Panji and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4319–4330,Short summary
Measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is crucial for understanding air quality and environmental impact. Since these compounds are present in low concentrations, preconcentration of samples is often necessary for accurate detection. To address this issue, we have developed a novel inlet that uses selective permeation to concentrate organic gases in small sample flows. This device offers a promising approach for accurately detecting low levels of VOCs in the atmosphere.
Matthew M. Coggon, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Megan S. Claflin, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Xu Lu, Jessica B. Gilman, Julia Marcantonio, Cong Cao, Kelvin Bates, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Aaron Lamplugh, Erin F. Katz, Caleb Arata, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Felix Piel, Francesca Majluf, Donald R. Blake, Armin Wisthaler, Manjula Canagaratna, Brian M. Lerner, Allen H. Goldstein, John E. Mak, and Carsten Warneke
Mass spectrometry is a tool commonly used to measure air pollutants. This study evaluates measurement artifacts produced in the proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer. We provide methods to correct these biases and better measure compounds that contribute to the formation of air pollution.
Michael P. Vermeuel, Gordon A. Novak, Delaney B. Kilgour, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, Amy M. Trowbridge, Jonathan Thom, Patricia A. Cleary, Ankur R. Desai, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4123–4148,Short summary
Reactive carbon species emitted from natural sources such as forests play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Predictions of these emissions are based on plant responses during the growing season and do not consider potential effects from seasonal changes. To address this, we made measurements of reactive carbon over a forest during the summer to autumn transition. We learned that observed concentrations and emissions for some key species are larger than model predictions.
Deborah F. McGlynn, Graham Frazier, Laura E. R. Barry, Manuel T. Lerdau, Sally E. Pusede, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Biogeosciences, 20, 45–55,Short summary
Using a custom-made gas chromatography flame ionization detector, 2 years of speciated hourly biogenic volatile organic compound data were collected in a forest in central Virginia. We identify diurnal and seasonal variability in the data, which is shown to impact atmospheric oxidant budgets. A comparison with emission models identified discrepancies with implications for model outcomes. We suggest increased monitoring of speciated biogenic volatile organic compounds to improve modeled results.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Graham O. Frazier, Wen Xu, Andrew T. Lambe, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6835–6850,Short summary
Iodide-adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I-CIMS) has been widely used to analyze airborne organics. In this study, I-CIMS sensitivities of isomers within a formula are found to generally vary by 1 and up to 2 orders of magnitude. Comparisons between measured and predicted moles, obtained using a voltage-scanning calibration approach, show that predictions for individual compounds or formulas might carry high uncertainty, yet the summed moles of analytes agree reasonably well.
Deborah F. McGlynn, Laura E. R. Barry, Manuel T. Lerdau, Sally E. Pusede, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15755–15770,Short summary
We present 1 year of hourly measurements of chemically resolved Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) between 15 September 2019 and 15 September 2020, collected at a research tower in central Virginia. Concentrations of a range of BVOCs are described and examined for their impact on atmospheric reactivity. The majority of reactivity comes from α-pinene and limonene, highlighting the importance of both concentration and structure in assessing atmospheric impacts of emissions.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6551–6560,Short summary
Calibration techniques have been recently developed to log-linearly correlate analyte sensitivity with CIMS operating conditions particularly for compounds without authentic standards. In this work, we examine the previously ignored bias in the log-linear-based calibration method and estimate an average bias of 30 %, with 1 order of magnitude for less sensitive compounds in some circumstances. A step-by-step guide was provided to reduce and even remove the bias.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Graham O. Frazier, Wen Xu, Andrew T. Lambe, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3895–3907,Short summary
Measurement techniques that can achieve molecular characterizations are necessary to understand the differences of fate and transport within isomers produced in the atmospheric oxidation process. In this work, we develop an instrument to conduct isomer-resolved measurements of particle-phase organics. We assess the number of isomers per chemical formula in atmospherically relevant samples and examine the feasibility of extending the use of an existing instrument to a broader range of analytes.
Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz and Bernard Aumont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6541–6563,Short summary
There are tens of thousands of different chemical compounds in the atmosphere. To tackle this complexity, there are a wide range of different methods to estimate their physical and chemical properties. We use these methods to understand how much the detailed structure of a molecule impacts its properties, and the extent to which properties can be estimated without knowing this level of detail. We find that structure matters, but methods lacking that level of detail still perform reasonably well.
Megan S. Claflin, Demetrios Pagonis, Zachary Finewax, Anne V. Handschy, Douglas A. Day, Wyatt L. Brown, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jose L. Jimenez, Paul J. Ziemann, Joost de Gouw, and Brian M. Lerner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 133–152,Short summary
We have developed a field-deployable gas chromatograph with thermal desorption preconcentration and detector switching between two high-resolution mass spectrometers for in situ measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This system combines chromatography with both proton transfer and electron ionization to offer fast time response and continuous molecular speciation. This technique was applied during the 2018 ATHLETIC campaign to characterize VOC emissions in an indoor environment.
James F. Hurley, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Braden Stump, Chenyang Bi, Purushottam Kumar, Susanne V. Hering, Pat Keady, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4911–4925,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosols has implications for human and ecosystem health. Current methods for determining chemical composition are expensive and require highly trained personnel. Our method is promising for moderate-cost, low-maintenance measurements of oxygen / carbon ratios, a key chemical parameter, and other elements may also be studied. In this work, we coupled two commonly used detectors to assess O / C ratios in a variety of compounds and mixtures within an acceptable error.
Suzane S. de Sá, Luciana V. Rizzo, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yingjun J. Liu, Arthur Sedlacek, Stephen Springston, Allen H. Goldstein, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7973–8001,Short summary
This study investigates the impacts of urban and fire emissions on the concentration, composition, and optical properties of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in central Amazonia during the dry season. Biomass-burning and urban emissions appeared to contribute at least 80 % of brown carbon absorption while accounting for 30 % to 40 % of the organic PM1 mass concentration. Only a fraction of the 9-fold increase in mass concentration relative to the wet season was due to biomass burning.
Daniel C. Anderson, Jessica Pavelec, Conner Daube, Scott C. Herndon, Walter B. Knighton, Brian M. Lerner, J. Robert Roscioli, Tara I. Yacovitch, and Ezra C. Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2845–2860,Short summary
San Antonio is one of the largest cities in the United States and is in non-attainment of the 8 h ozone standard. Using the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, we made observations of ozone and its precursors at three sites in the San Antonio region to determine the main drivers of its production. We found that compounds produced by plants were the dominant organic compound for ozone production and that to limit ozone production at the study site, emissions of nitrogen oxides should be reduced.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Igor O. Ribeiro, Glauber G. Cirino, Yingjun Liu, Ryan Thalman, Arthur Sedlacek, Aaron Funk, Courtney Schumacher, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Karena A. McKinney, Henrique Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12185–12206,Short summary
This study aimed at understanding and quantifying the changes in mass concentration and composition of submicron airborne particulate matter (PM) in Amazonia due to urban pollution. Downwind of Manaus, PM concentrations increased by up to 200 % under polluted compared with background conditions. The observed changes included contributions from both primary and secondary processes. The differences in organic PM composition suggested a shift in the pathways of secondary production with pollution.
Lindsay D. Yee, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Rebecca A. Wernis, Meng Meng, Ventura Rivera, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Susanne V. Hering, Mads S. Bering, Marianne Glasius, Mary Alice Upshur, Ariana Gray Bé, Regan J. Thomson, Franz M. Geiger, John H. Offenberg, Michael Lewandowski, Ivan Kourtchev, Markus Kalberer, Suzane de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jose L. Jimenez, Yingjun Liu, Karena A. McKinney, Paulo Artaxo, Juarez Viegas, Antonio Manzi, Maria B. Oliveira, Rodrigo de Souza, Luiz A. T. Machado, Karla Longo, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10433–10457,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds react in the atmosphere to form secondary organic aerosol, yet the chemical pathways remain unclear. We collected filter samples and deployed a semi-volatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph in the central Amazon. We measured 30 sesquiterpenes and 4 diterpenes and find them to be important for reactive ozone loss. We estimate that sesquiterpene oxidation contributes at least 0.4–5 % (median 1 %) of observed submicron organic aerosol mass.
Kanako Sekimoto, Abigail R. Koss, Jessica B. Gilman, Vanessa Selimovic, Matthew M. Coggon, Kyle J. Zarzana, Bin Yuan, Brian M. Lerner, Steven S. Brown, Carsten Warneke, Robert J. Yokelson, James M. Roberts, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9263–9281,Short summary
We found that on average 85 % of the VOC emissions from biomass burning across various fuels representative of the western US (including various coniferous and chaparral fuels) can be explained using only two emission profiles: (i) a high-temperature pyrolysis profile and (ii) a low-temperature pyrolysis profile. The high-temperature profile is quantitatively similar between different fuel types (r2 > 0.84), and likewise for the low-temperature profile.
Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Jessica B. Gilman, Vanessa Selimovic, Matthew M. Coggon, Kyle J. Zarzana, Bin Yuan, Brian M. Lerner, Steven S. Brown, Jose L. Jimenez, Jordan Krechmer, James M. Roberts, Carsten Warneke, Robert J. Yokelson, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3299–3319,Short summary
Non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) were detected by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF) during an extensive laboratory characterization of wildfire emissions. Identifications for PTR-ToF ion masses are proposed and supported by a combination of techniques. Overall excellent agreement with other instrumentation is shown. Scalable emission factors and ratios are reported for many newly reported reactive species. An analysis of chemical characteristics is presented.
Catalina Tsai, Max Spolaor, Santo Fedele Colosimo, Olga Pikelnaya, Ross Cheung, Eric Williams, Jessica B. Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, Robert J. Zamora, Carsten Warneke, James M. Roberts, Ravan Ahmadov, Joost de Gouw, Timothy Bates, Patricia K. Quinn, and Jochen Stutz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1977–1996,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) photolysis is an important source of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Vertical HONO fluxes, observed in the snow-free, wintertime Uintah Basin, Utah, USA, show that chemical formation of HONO on the ground closes the HONO budget. Under high NOx conditions, HONO formation is most likely due to photo-enhanced conversion of NO2 on the ground. Under moderate to low NO2 conditions, photolysis of HNO3 on the ground seems to be the most likely source of HONO.
Brett B. Palm, Suzane S. de Sá, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Joel Brito, Florian Wurm, Paulo Artaxo, Ryan Thalman, Jian Wang, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Allen H. Goldstein, Yingjun Liu, Stephen R. Springston, Rodrigo Souza, Matt K. Newburn, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 467–493,Short summary
Ambient air was oxidized by OH or O3 in an oxidation flow reactor during both wet and dry seasons in the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated how much biogenic, urban, and biomass burning sources contributed to the ambient concentrations of SOA precursor gases and how their contributions changed diurnally and seasonally. SOA yields and hygroscopicity of organic aerosol in the oxidation flow reactor were also studied.
David H. Hagan, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Jonathan P. Franklin, Lisa M. M. Wallace, Benjamin D. Kocar, Colette L. Heald, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 315–328,Short summary
The use of low-cost sensors for air pollution research has outpaced our understanding of their capabilities and limitations under real-world conditions. Here we describe the deployment, calibration and evaluation of electrochemical sensors on the Island of Hawai‘i. We obtain excellent performance (RMSE < 7 ppb, r2 = 0.997) across a wide dynamic range (1 ppb–2 ppm). We introduce a hybrid regression algorithm which works across a large dynamic range and shows little decay in sensitivity over time.
Havala O. T. Pye, Andreas Zuend, Juliane L. Fry, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Shannon L. Capps, K. Wyat Appel, Hosein Foroutan, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 357–370,Short summary
Thermodynamic modeling revealed that some but not all measurements of ammonium-to-sulfate ratios are consistent with theory. The measurement diversity likely explains the previously reported range of results regarding the suitability of thermodynamic modeling. Despite particles being predominantly phase separated, organic–inorganic interactions resulted in increased aerosol pH and partitioning towards the particle phase for highly oxygenated organic compounds compared to traditional methods.
Robert C. Rhew, Malte Julian Deventer, Andrew A. Turnipseed, Carsten Warneke, John Ortega, Steve Shen, Luis Martinez, Abigail Koss, Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, James N. Smith, Alex B. Guenther, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13417–13438,Short summary
Alkenes emanate from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can contribute to atmospheric ozone production. This study measured
lightalkene (ethene, propene and butene) fluxes from a ponderosa pine forest using a novel relaxed eddy accumulation method, revealing much larger emissions than previously estimated and accounting for a significant fraction of OH reactivity. Emissions have a diurnal cycle related to sunlight and temperature, and the forest canopy appears to be the source.
Abigail Koss, Bin Yuan, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B. Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, Patrick R. Veres, Jeff Peischl, Scott Eilerman, Rob Wild, Steven S. Brown, Chelsea R. Thompson, Thomas Ryerson, Thomas Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Mitchell Thayer, Frank N. Keutsch, Shane Murphy, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2941–2968,Short summary
Oil and gas extraction activity can cause air quality issues through emission of reactive chemicals. VOCs related to extraction operations in the United States were measured by PTR-ToF-MS from aircraft during the SONGNEX campaign in March–April 2015. The detailed analysis in this work provides a guide to interpreting PTR-ToF measurements in oil- and gas-producing regions, and it includes fundamental observations of VOC speciation and mixing ratios.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Matthew K. Newburn, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Ryan Thalman, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Antonio O. Manzi, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Fan Mei, John E. Shilling, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Jason D. Surratt, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6611–6629,
Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, Kenneth C. Aikin, Elliot L. Atlas, Paul D. Goldan, Martin Graus, Roger Hendershot, Gabriel A. Isaacman-VanWertz, Abigail Koss, William C. Kuster, Richard A. Lueb, Richard J. McLaughlin, Jeff Peischl, Donna Sueper, Thomas B. Ryerson, Travis W. Tokarek, Carsten Warneke, Bin Yuan, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 291–313,Short summary
Whole air sampling followed by analysis by gas chromatography is a common technique for characterization of trace volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. We describe a new automated gas chromatograph–mass spectrograph which uses a Stirling cooler for sample preconcentration at −165 °C without the need for a cryogen such as liquid nitrogen. We also discuss potential sources of artifacts from our electropolished stainless steel sampling system and present results from two field campaigns.
Havala O. T. Pye, Benjamin N. Murphy, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, Annmarie G. Carlton, Hongyu Guo, Rodney Weber, Petros Vasilakos, K. Wyat Appel, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Jason D. Surratt, Athanasios Nenes, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 343–369,Short summary
We use a chemical transport model to examine how organic compounds in the atmosphere interact with water present in particles. Organic compounds themselves lead to water uptake, and organic compounds interact with water associated with inorganic compounds in the rural southeast atmosphere. Including interactions of organic compounds with water requires a treatment of nonideality to more accurately represent aerosol observations during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) 2013.
Carsten Warneke, Michael Trainer, Joost A. de Gouw, David D. Parrish, David W. Fahey, A. R. Ravishankara, Ann M. Middlebrook, Charles A. Brock, James M. Roberts, Steven S. Brown, Jonathan A. Neuman, Brian M. Lerner, Daniel Lack, Daniel Law, Gerhard Hübler, Iliana Pollack, Steven Sjostedt, Thomas B. Ryerson, Jessica B. Gilman, Jin Liao, John Holloway, Jeff Peischl, John B. Nowak, Kenneth C. Aikin, Kyung-Eun Min, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Martin G. Graus, Mathew Richardson, Milos Z. Markovic, Nick L. Wagner, André Welti, Patrick R. Veres, Peter Edwards, Joshua P. Schwarz, Timothy Gordon, William P. Dube, Stuart A. McKeen, Jerome Brioude, Ravan Ahmadov, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Jack J. Lin, Athanasios Nenes, Glenn M. Wolfe, Thomas F. Hanisco, Ben H. Lee, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Frank N. Keutsch, Jennifer Kaiser, Jingqiu Mao, and Courtney D. Hatch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3063–3093,Short summary
In this paper we describe the experimental approach, the science goals and early results of the NOAA SENEX campaign, which was focused on studying the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions to form secondary pollutants. During SENEX, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft conducted 20 research flights between 27 May and 10 July 2013 based out of Smyrna, TN. The SENEX flights included day- and nighttime flights in the Southeast as well as flights over areas with intense shale gas extraction.
Bin Yuan, Abigail Koss, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B. Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, Harald Stark, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2735–2752,Short summary
We present the development of a hydronium (H3O+) time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS). We characterize the humidity dependence of the reagent ions and VOC signals in details. The low mass cutoff issue of RF-only quadrupole leads to unusual humidity dependence of reagent ions. The new H3O+ ToF-CIMS was successfully deployed on the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft for the SONGNEX campaign in 2015 and some initial results from the SONGNEX campaign are presented.
G. M. Wolfe, J. Kaiser, T. F. Hanisco, F. N. Keutsch, J. A. de Gouw, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, C. D. Hatch, J. Holloway, L. W. Horowitz, B. H. Lee, B. M. Lerner, F. Lopez-Hilifiker, J. Mao, M. R. Marvin, J. Peischl, I. B. Pollack, J. M. Roberts, T. B. Ryerson, J. A. Thornton, P. R. Veres, and C. Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2597–2610,Short summary
This study uses airborne trace gas observations acquired over the southeast US to examine how both natural (isoprene) and anthropogenic (NOx) emissions influence the production of formaldehyde (HCHO). We find a 3-fold increase in HCHO yield between rural and polluted environments. State-of-the-science chemical mechanisms are generally able to reproduce this behavior. These results add confidence to global hydrocarbon emission inventories constrained by spaceborne HCHO observations.
Bin Yuan, John Liggio, Jeremy Wentzell, Shao-Meng Li, Harald Stark, James M. Roberts, Jessica Gilman, Brian Lerner, Carsten Warneke, Rui Li, Amy Leithead, Hans D. Osthoff, Robert Wild, Steven S. Brown, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2139–2153,Short summary
We describe high-resolution measurements of nitrated phenols using a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS). Strong diurnal profiles were observed for nitrated phenols, with concentration maxima at night. Box model simulations were able to reproduce the measured nitrated phenols.
R. J. Wild, P. M. Edwards, T. S. Bates, R. C. Cohen, J. A. de Gouw, W. P. Dubé, J. B. Gilman, J. Holloway, J. Kercher, A. R. Koss, L. Lee, B. M. Lerner, R. McLaren, P. K. Quinn, J. M. Roberts, J. Stutz, J. A. Thornton, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, E. Williams, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, K. J. Zarzana, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 573–583,Short summary
High wintertime ozone levels have been observed in the Uintah Basin, Utah, a sparsely populated rural region with intensive oil and gas operations. The reactive nitrogen budget plays an important role in tropospheric ozone formation, and we find that nighttime chemistry has a large effect on its partitioning. Much of the oxidation of reactive nitrogen during a high-ozone year occurred via heterogeneous uptake onto aerosol at night, keeping NOx at concentrations comparable to a low-ozone year.
J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, C. Warneke, P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, J. A. de Gouw, I. R. Burling, and R. J. Yokelson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13915–13938,Short summary
A comprehensive suite of instruments was used to quantify the emissions of over 200 organic and inorganic gases from 56 laboratory burns of 18 different biomass fuel types common in the southeastern, southwestern, or northern United States. Emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) are used to characterize the composition of gases emitted by mass; OH reactivity; and potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors for the three different U.S. fuel regions presented here.
W. W. Hu, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, D. A. Day, A. M. Ortega, P. L. Hayes, J. E. Krechmer, Q. Chen, M. Kuwata, Y. J. Liu, S. S. de Sá, K. McKinney, S. T. Martin, M. Hu, S. H. Budisulistiorini, M. Riva, J. D. Surratt, J. M. St. Clair, G. Isaacman-Van Wertz, L. D. Yee, A. H. Goldstein, S. Carbone, J. Brito, P. Artaxo, J. A. de Gouw, A. Koss, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, T. Karl, L. Kaser, W. Jud, A. Hansel, K. S. Docherty, M. L. Alexander, N. H. Robinson, H. Coe, J. D. Allan, M. R. Canagaratna, F. Paulot, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11807–11833,Short summary
This work summarized all the studies reporting isoprene epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) measured globally by aerosol mass spectrometer and compare them with modeled gas-phase IEPOX, with results suggestive of the importance of IEPOX-SOA for regional and global OA budgets. A real-time tracer of IEPOX-SOA is thoroughly evaluated for the first time by combing multiple field and chamber studies. A quick and easy empirical method on IEPOX-SOA estimation is also presented.
A. R. Koss, J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, M. Graus, B. Yuan, P. Edwards, S. S. Brown, R. Wild, J. M. Roberts, T. S. Bates, and P. K. Quinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5727–5741,Short summary
Extraction of natural gas and oil is associated with a range of possible atmospheric environmental issues. Here we present an analysis of gas-phase hydrocarbon measurements taken in an oil and natural gas extraction area in Utah during a period of high wintertime ozone. We are able to constrain important chemical parameters related to emission sources and rates, hydrocarbon photochemistry, and VOC composition.
B. Yuan, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, J. M. Roberts, J. B. Gilman, A. Koss, P. M. Edwards, M. Graus, W. C. Kuster, S.-M. Li, R. J. Wild, S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, J. E. Johnson, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, B. Lefer, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, R. J. Weber, R. Zamora, B. Ervens, D. B. Millet, B. Rappenglück, and J. A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1975–1993,Short summary
In this work, secondary formation of formic acid at an urban site and a site in an oil and gas production region is studied. We investigated various gas phase formation pathways of formic acid, including those recently proposed, using a box model. The contributions from aerosol-related processes, fog events and air-snow exchange to formic acid are also quantified.
R. Ahmadov, S. McKeen, M. Trainer, R. Banta, A. Brewer, S. Brown, P. M. Edwards, J. A. de Gouw, G. J. Frost, J. Gilman, D. Helmig, B. Johnson, A. Karion, A. Koss, A. Langford, B. Lerner, J. Olson, S. Oltmans, J. Peischl, G. Pétron, Y. Pichugina, J. M. Roberts, T. Ryerson, R. Schnell, C. Senff, C. Sweeney, C. Thompson, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, R. Wild, E. J. Williams, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 411–429,Short summary
High 2013 wintertime O3 pollution events associated with oil/gas production within the Uinta Basin are studied using a 3D model. It's able quantitatively to reproduce these events using emission estimates of O3 precursors based on ambient measurements (top-down approach), but unable to reproduce them using a recent bottom-up emission inventory for the oil/gas industry. The role of various physical and meteorological processes, chemical species and pathways contributing to high O3 are quantified.
L. Q. Hao, A. Kortelainen, S. Romakkaniemi, H. Portin, A. Jaatinen, A. Leskinen, M. Komppula, P. Miettinen, D. Sueper, A. Pajunoja, J. N. Smith, K. E. J. Lehtinen, D. R. Worsnop, A. Laaksonen, and A. Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13483–13495,Short summary
Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to the unified high-resolution mass spectra organic species with NO+ and NO2+ ions from the measurement in a mixed region between the boreal forestland and the urban area. The PMF analysis succeeded in separating the mixed spectra into three distinct organic factors and one inorganic factor. The particulate organic nitrate was distinguished by PMF for the first time, with a contribution of one-third of the total nitrate mass.
G. Isaacman, N. M. Kreisberg, L. D. Yee, D. R. Worton, A. W. H. Chan, J. A. Moss, S. V. Hering, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4417–4429,Short summary
We present here a new in situ instrument for ambient measurements of highly polar organic semi-volatile and low-volatility compounds in both the gas and particle phase by gas chromatography. Compounds previously measured only through filter collection and offline analysis can now be measured hourly with, in most cases, less than 20% uncertainty. This instrument provides unprecedented time resolution and the first ever observations of gas-particle partitioning for most of these compounds.
N. M. Kreisberg, D. R. Worton, Y. Zhao, G. Isaacman, A. H. Goldstein, and S. V. Hering
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4431–4444,
C. Warneke, F. Geiger, P. M. Edwards, W. Dube, G. Pétron, J. Kofler, A. Zahn, S. S. Brown, M. Graus, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. A. de Gouw, and J. M. Roberts
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10977–10988,
T. P. Riedel, G. M. Wolfe, K. T. Danas, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, D. M. Bon, A. Vlasenko, S.-M. Li, E. J. Williams, B. M. Lerner, P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, S. S. Brown, and J. A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3789–3800,
G. M. Buffaloe, D. A. Lack, E. J. Williams, D. Coffman, K. L. Hayden, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, I. Nuaaman, P. Massoli, T. B. Onasch, P. K. Quinn, and C. D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1881–1896,
C. D. Cappa, E. J. Williams, D. A. Lack, G. M. Buffaloe, D. Coffman, K. L. Hayden, S. C. Herndon, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, P. Massoli, R. McLaren, I. Nuaaman, T. B. Onasch, and P. K. Quinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1337–1352,
P. M. Edwards, C. J. Young, K. Aikin, J. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, F. Geiger, J. Gilman, D. Helmig, J. S. Holloway, J. Kercher, B. Lerner, R. Martin, R. McLaren, D. D. Parrish, J. Peischl, J. M. Roberts, T. B. Ryerson, J. Thornton, C. Warneke, E. J. Williams, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8955–8971,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalNumerical investigation on retrieval errors of mixing states of fractal black carbon aerosols using single-particle soot photometer based on Mie scattering and the effects on radiative forcing estimationPerformance evaluation of MOMA (MOment MAtching) – a remote network calibration technique for PM2.5 and PM10 sensorsMapping the performance of a versatile water-based condensation particle counter (vWCPC) with numerical simulation and experimental studyEnhancing characterization of organic nitrogen components in aerosols and droplets using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometryA searchable database and mass spectral comparison tool for aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) and aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM)Development and evaluation of an improved offline aerosol mass spectrometry techniqueSMEARcore – modular data infrastructure for atmospheric measurement stationsA multiple-charging correction algorithm for a broad-supersaturation scanning cloud condensation nuclei (BS2-CCN) systemMachine learning approaches for automatic classification of single-particle mass spectrometry dataAn evaluation of the U.S. EPA's correction equation for PurpleAir sensor data in smoke, dust, and wintertime urban pollution eventsTyphoon-associated air quality over the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area, China: machine-learning-based prediction and assessmentQuantification of primary and secondary organic aerosol sources by combined factor analysis of extractive electrospray ionisation and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements (EESI-TOF and AMS)A new method for calculating average visibility from the relationship between extinction coefficient and visibilityIn situ particle sampling relationships to surface and turbulent fluxes using large eddy simulations with Lagrangian particlesThe effect of the averaging period for PMF analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer measurements during offline applicationsCalibrating networks of low-cost air quality sensorsSource apportionment resolved by time of day for improved deconvolution of primary source contributions to air pollutionInformation content and aerosol property retrieval potential for different types of in situ polar nephelometer dataRolling vs. seasonal PMF: real-world multi-site and synthetic dataset comparisonCombined organic and inorganic source apportionment on yearlong ToF-ACSM dataset at a suburban station in AthensRetrieval of the sea spray aerosol mode from submicron particle size distributions and supermicron scattering during LASICAutomated identification of local contamination in remote atmospheric composition time seriesCh3MS-RF: a random forest model for chemical characterization and improved quantification of unidentified atmospheric organics detected by chromatography–mass spectrometry techniquesRegularized inversion of aerosol hygroscopic growth factor probability density function: application to humidity-controlled fast integrated mobility spectrometer measurementsA systematic re-evaluation of methods for quantification of bulk particle-phase organic nitrates using real-time aerosol mass spectrometryRevisiting matrix-based inversion of scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) dataData imputation in in situ-measured particle size distributions by means of neural networksAnalysis of mobile monitoring data from the microAeth® MA200 for measuring changes in black carbon on the roadside in AugsburgNew correction method for the scattering coefficient measurements of a three-wavelength nephelometerEstimating mean molecular weight, carbon number, and OM∕OC with mid-infrared spectroscopy in organic particulate matter samples from a monitoring networkModeled source apportionment of black carbon particles coated with a light-scattering shellEstimation of particulate organic nitrates from thermodenuder–aerosol mass spectrometer measurements in the North China PlainAerosol pH indicator and organosulfate detectability from aerosol mass spectrometry measurementsDetermination of equivalent black carbon mass concentration from aerosol light absorption using variable mass absorption cross sectionEffects of multi-charge on aerosol hygroscopicity measurement by a HTDMAA new method for long-term source apportionment with time-dependent factor profiles and uncertainty assessment using SoFi Pro: application to 1 year of organic aerosol dataEstimation of pollen counts from light scattering intensity when sampling multiple pollen taxa – establishment of an automated multi-taxa pollen counting estimation system (AME system)A novel lidar gradient cluster analysis method of nocturnal boundary layer detection during air pollution episodesAssessment of particle size magnifier inversion methods to obtain the particle size distribution from atmospheric measurementsA global analysis of climate-relevant aerosol properties retrieved from the network of Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) near-surface observatoriesDevelopment of an automatic linear calibration method for high-resolution single-particle mass spectrometry: improved chemical species identification for atmospheric aerosolsA hybrid method for reconstructing the historical evolution of aerosol optical depth from sunshine duration measurementsThe influence of the baseline drift on the resulting extinction values of a cavity attenuated phase shift-based extinction monitor (CAPS PMex)Evaluation of equivalent black carbon source apportionment using observations from Switzerland between 2008 and 2018Analysis of functional groups in atmospheric aerosols by infrared spectroscopy: method development for probabilistic modeling of organic carbon and organic matter concentrationsFilling the gaps of in situ hourly PM2.5 concentration data with the aid of empirical orthogonal function analysis constrained by diurnal cyclesGaussian process regression model for dynamically calibrating and surveilling a wireless low-cost particulate matter sensor network in DelhiMethods for identifying aged ship plumes and estimating contribution to aerosol exposure downwind of shipping lanesAutomatic pollen recognition with the Rapid-E particle counter: the first-level procedure, experience and next stepsAn open platform for Aerosol InfraRed Spectroscopy analysis – AIRSpec
Jia Liu, Guangya Wang, Cancan Zhu, Donghui Zhou, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4961–4974,Short summary
Single-particle soot photometer (SP2) employs the core-shell model to represent coated BC particles, which introduces retrieval errors in the mixing state (Dp/Dc) of BC. We construct fractal models to represent thinly and thickly coated BC particles, and the retrieval errors of the mixing state are investigated from the numerical aspect. We find that errors in Dp/Dc are noteworthy, and the errors in Dp/Dc can further affect the evaluation accuracy of the radiative forcing of BC.
Lena Francesca Weissert, Geoff Steven Henshaw, David Edward Williams, Brandon Feenstra, Randy Lam, Ashley Collier-Oxandale, Vasileios Papapostolou, and Andrea Polidori
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4709–4722,Short summary
We apply a previously developed remote calibration framework to a network of particulate matter (PM) sensors deployed in Southern California. Our results show that a remote calibration can improve the accuracy of PM data, which was particularly visible for PM10. We highlight that sensor drift was mostly due to differences in particle composition than monitor operational factors. Thus, PM sensors may require frequent calibration if PM sources vary with different wind conditions or seasons.
Weixing Hao, Fan Mei, Susanne Hering, Steven Spielman, Beat Schmid, Jason Tomlinson, and Yang Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3973–3986,Short summary
Airborne aerosol instrumentation plays a crucial role in understanding the spatial distribution of ambient aerosol particles. This study investigates a versatile water-based condensation particle counter through simulations and experiments. It provides valuable insights to improve versatile water-based condensation particle counter (vWCPC) aerosol measurement and operation for the community.
Xinlei Ge, Yele Sun, Justin Trousdell, Mindong Chen, and Qi Zhang
This study enhances the understanding and application of the Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) for comprehensive characterization of organic nitrogen (ON) compounds in aerosol particles and droplets. 75 ON compounds representing a diverse range of ambient ON types were thoroughly analyzed. Our findings highlight the potential of utilizing HR-AMS in studying the concentration and chemistry of atmospheric ON compounds, thus their sources and environmental impacts.
Sohyeon Jeon, Michael J. Walker, Donna T. Sueper, Douglas A. Day, Anne V. Handschy, Jose L. Jimenez, and Brent J. Williams
In this study, a searchable database tool for the AMS and ACSM mass spectral dataset was built to improve the efficiency of data analysis using Igor Pro. The database tool incorporates the published MS and sample information uploaded on the existing website. This tool allows users to compare their own mass spectrum with the reference MS in the database, calculating cosine similarity, and provides a range of MS comparison plots, reweighting, and mass spectrum filtering options.
Christina N. Vasilakopoulou, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2837–2850,Short summary
The offline aerosol mass spectrometry technique is a useful tool for the source apportionment of organic aerosol in areas and periods during which an aerosol mass spectrometer is not available. In this work, an improved offline technique was developed and evaluated in an effort to capture most of the partially soluble and insoluble organic aerosol material, reducing the uncertainty of the corresponding source apportionment significantly.
Anton Rusanen, Kristo Hõrrak, Lauri R. Ahonen, Tuomo Nieminen, Pasi P. Aalto, Pasi Kolari, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, and Heikki Junninen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2781–2793,Short summary
We present a framework for setting up SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem–Atmosphere Relations) type measurement station data flows. This framework, called SMEARcore, consists of modular open-source software components that can be chosen to suit various station configurations. The benefits of using this framework are automation of routine operations and real-time monitoring of measurement results.
Najin Kim, Hang Su, Nan Ma, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2771–2780,Short summary
We propose a multiple-charging correction algorithm for a broad-supersaturation scanning cloud condensation nuclei (BS2-CCN) system which can obtain high time-resolution aerosol hygroscopicity and CCN activity. The correction algorithm aims at deriving the activation fraction's true value for each particle size. The meaningful differences between corrected and original κ values (single hygroscopicity parameter) emphasize the correction algorithm's importance for ambient aerosol measurement.
Guanzhong Wang, Heinrich Ruser, Julian Schade, Johannes Passig, Thomas Adam, Günther Dollinger, and Ralf Zimmermann
This research aims to develop a novel warning system for the real-time monitoring of pollutants in the atmosphere. The system is capable of sampling and investigating airborne aerosol particles on-site, utilizing artificial intelligence to learn their chemical signatures and to classify them in real-time. We applied single-particle mass spectrometry for analyzing of chemical composition of aerosol particles and suggested several supervised algorithms for highly reliable automatic classification.
Daniel A. Jaffe, Colleen Miller, Katie Thompson, Brandon Finley, Manna Nelson, James Ouimette, and Elisabeth Andrews
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1311–1322,Short summary
PurpleAir sensors (PASs) are low-cost tools to measure fine particulate matter (PM) concentrations. However, the raw PAS data have significant biases, so the sensors must be corrected. We analyzed data from numerous sites and found that the standard correction to the PAS Purple Air data is accurate in urban pollution events and smoke events but leads to a 6-fold underestimate in the PM2.5 concentrations in dust events. We propose a new correction algorithm to address this problem.
Yilin Chen, Yuanjian Yang, and Meng Gao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1279–1294,Short summary
The Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area suffers from summertime air pollution events related to typhoons. The present study leverages machine learning to predict typhoon-associated air quality over the area. The model evaluation shows that the model performs excellently. Moreover, the change in meteorological drivers of air quality on typhoon days and non-typhoon days suggests that air pollution control strategies should have different focuses on typhoon days and non-typhoon days.
Yandong Tong, Lu Qi, Giulia Stefenelli, Dongyu Simon Wang, Francesco Canonaco, Urs Baltensperger, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, and Jay Gates Slowik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7265–7291,Short summary
We present a method for positive matrix factorisation (PMF) analysis on a single dataset that includes measurements from both EESI-TOF and AMS in Zurich, Switzerland. For the first time, we resolved and quantified secondary organic aerosol (SOA) sources. Meanwhile, we also determined the retrieved EESI-TOF factor-dependent sensitivities. This method provides a framework for exploiting semi-quantitative, high-resolution instrumentation for quantitative source apportionment.
Zefeng Zhang, Hengnan Guo, Hanqing Kang, Jing Wang, Junlin An, Xingna Yu, Jingjing Lv, and Bin Zhu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7259–7264,Short summary
In this study, we first analyze the relationship between the visibility, the extinction coefficient, and atmospheric compositions. Then we propose to use the harmonic average of visibility data as the average visibility, which can better reflect changes in atmospheric extinction coefficients and aerosol concentrations. It is recommended to use the harmonic average visibility in the studies of climate change, atmospheric radiation, air pollution, environmental health, etc.
Hyungwon John Park, Jeffrey S. Reid, Livia S. Freire, Christopher Jackson, and David H. Richter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7171–7194,Short summary
We use numerical models to study field measurements of sea spray aerosol particles and conclude that both the atmospheric state and the methods of instrument sampling are causes for the variation in the production rate of aerosol particles: a critical metric to learn the aerosol's effect on processes like cloud physics and radiation. This work helps field observers improve their experimental design and interpretation of measurements because of turbulence in the atmosphere.
Christina Vasilakopoulou, Iasonas Stavroulas, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6419–6431,Short summary
Offline aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements can provide valuable information about ambient organic aerosols when online AMS measurements are not available. In this study, we examine whether and how the low time resolution (usually 24 h) of the offline technique affects source apportionment results. We concluded that use of the daily averages resulted in estimated average contributions that were within 8 % of the total OA compared with the high-resolution analysis.
Priyanka deSouza, Ralph Kahn, Tehya Stockman, William Obermann, Ben Crawford, An Wang, James Crooks, Jing Li, and Patrick Kinney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6309–6328,Short summary
How sensitive are the spatial and temporal trends of PM2.5 derived from a network of low-cost sensors to the calibration adjustment used? How transferable are calibration equations developed at a few co-location sites to an entire network of low-cost sensors? This paper attempts to answer this question and offers a series of suggestions on how to develop the most robust calibration function for different end uses. It uses measurements from the Love My Air network in Denver as a test case.
Sahil Bhandari, Zainab Arub, Gazala Habib, Joshua S. Apte, and Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6051–6074,Short summary
We present a new method to conduct source apportionment resolved by time of day using the underlying approach of positive matrix factorization. We report results for four example time periods in two seasons (winter and monsoon 2017) in Delhi, India. Compared to the traditional approach, we extract a larger number of factors that represent the expected sources of primary organic aerosol. This method can capture diurnal time series patterns of sources at low computational cost.
Alireza Moallemi, Rob L. Modini, Tatyana Lapyonok, Anton Lopatin, David Fuertes, Oleg Dubovik, Philippe Giaccari, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5619–5642,Short summary
Aerosol properties (size distributions, refractive indices) can be retrieved from in situ, angularly resolved light scattering measurements performed with polar nephelometers. We apply an established framework to assess the aerosol property retrieval potential for different instrument configurations, target applications, and assumed prior knowledge. We also demonstrate how a reductive greedy algorithm can be used to determine the optimal placements of the angular sensors in a polar nephelometer.
Marta Via, Gang Chen, Francesco Canonaco, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Benjamin Chazeau, Hasna Chebaicheb, Jianhui Jiang, Hannes Keernik, Chunshui Lin, Nicolas Marchand, Cristina Marin, Colin O'Dowd, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Jean-Eudes Petit, Michael Pikridas, Véronique Riffault, Jean Sciare, Jay G. Slowik, Leïla Simon, Jeni Vasilescu, Yunjiang Zhang, Olivier Favez, André S. H. Prévôt, Andrés Alastuey, and María Cruz Minguillón
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5479–5495,Short summary
This work presents the differences resulting from two techniques (rolling and seasonal) of the positive matrix factorisation model that can be run for organic aerosol source apportionment. The current state of the art suggests that the rolling technique is more accurate, but no proof of its effectiveness has been provided yet. This paper tackles this issue in the context of a synthetic dataset and a multi-site real-world comparison.
Olga Zografou, Maria Gini, Manousos I. Manousakas, Gang Chen, Athina C. Kalogridis, Evangelia Diapouli, Athina Pappa, and Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4675–4692,Short summary
A yearlong ToF-ACSM dataset was used to characterize ambient aerosols over a suburban Athenian site, and innovative software for source apportionment was implemented in order to distinguish the sources of the total non-refractory species of PM1. A comparison between the methodology of combined organic and inorganic PMF analysis and the conventional organic PMF took place.
Jeramy L. Dedrick, Georges Saliba, Abigail S. Williams, Lynn M. Russell, and Dan Lubin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4171–4194,Short summary
A new method is presented to retrieve the sea spray aerosol size distribution by combining submicron size and nephelometer scattering based on Mie theory. Using available sea spray tracers, we find that this approach serves as a comparable substitute to supermicron size distribution measurements, which are limited in availability at marine sites. Application of this technique can expand sea spray observations and improve the characterization of marine aerosol impacts on clouds and climate.
Ivo Beck, Hélène Angot, Andrea Baccarini, Lubna Dada, Lauriane Quéléver, Tuija Jokinen, Tiia Laurila, Markus Lampimäki, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Matthew Boyer, Xianda Gong, Martin Gysel-Beer, Tuukka Petäjä, Jian Wang, and Julia Schmale
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4195–4224,Short summary
We present the pollution detection algorithm (PDA), a new method to identify local primary pollution in remote atmospheric aerosol and trace gas time series. The PDA identifies periods of contaminated data and relies only on the target dataset itself; i.e., it is independent of ancillary data such as meteorological variables. The parameters of all pollution identification steps are adjustable so that the PDA can be tuned to different locations and situations. It is available as open-access code.
Emily B. Franklin, Lindsay D. Yee, Bernard Aumont, Robert J. Weber, Paul Grigas, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3779–3803,Short summary
The composition of atmospheric aerosols are extremely complex, containing hundreds of thousands of estimated individual compounds. The majority of these compounds have never been catalogued in widely used databases, making them extremely difficult for atmospheric chemists to identify and analyze. In this work, we present Ch3MS-RF, a machine-learning-based model to enable characterization of complex mixtures and prediction of structure-specific properties of unidentifiable organic compounds.
Jiaoshi Zhang, Yang Wang, Steven Spielman, Susanne Hering, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2579–2590,Short summary
New nonparametric, regularized methods are developed to invert the growth factor probability density function (GF-PDF) from humidity-controlled fast integrated mobility spectrometer measurements. These algorithms are computationally efficient, require no prior assumptions of the GF-PDF distribution, and reduce the error in inverted GF-PDF. They can be applied to humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer data. Among all algorithms, Twomey’s method retrieves GF-PDF with the smallest error.
Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Hongyu Guo, Paul J. Wooldridge, Ronald C. Cohen, Kenneth S. Docherty, J. Alex Huffman, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 459–483,Short summary
Particle-phase nitrates are an important component of atmospheric aerosols and chemistry. In this paper, we systematically explore the application of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the organic and inorganic nitrate fractions of aerosols in the atmosphere. While AMS has been used for a decade to quantify nitrates, methods are not standardized. We make recommendations for a more universal approach based on this analysis of a large range of field and laboratory observations.
Markus D. Petters
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7909–7928,Short summary
Inverse methods infer physical properties from a measured instrument response. Measurement noise often interferes with the inversion. This work presents a general, domain-independent, accessible, and computationally efficient software implementation of a common class of statistical inversion methods. In addition, a new method to invert data from humidified tandem differential mobility analyzers is introduced. Results show that the approach is suitable for inversion of large-scale datasets.
Pak Lun Fung, Martha Arbayani Zaidan, Ola Surakhi, Sasu Tarkoma, Tuukka Petäjä, and Tareq Hussein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5535–5554,Short summary
Aerosol size distribution measurements rely on a variety of techniques to classify the aerosol size and measure the size distribution. However, due to the instrumental insufficiency and inversion limitations, the raw dataset contains missing gaps or negative values, which hinder further analysis. With a merged particle size distribution in Jordan, this paper suggests a neural network method to estimate number concentrations at a particular size bin by the number concentration at other size bins.
Xiansheng Liu, Hadiatullah Hadiatullah, Xun Zhang, L. Drew Hill, Andrew H. A. White, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Jan Bendl, Gert Jakobi, Brigitte Schloter-Hai, and Ralf Zimmermann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5139–5151,Short summary
A monitoring campaign was conducted in Augsburg to determine a suitable noise reduction algorithm for the MA200 Aethalometer. Results showed that centred moving average (CMA) post-processing effectively removed spurious negative concentrations without major bias and reliably highlighted effects from local sources, effectively increasing spatio-temporal resolution in mobile measurements. Evaluation of each method on peak sample reduction and background correction further supports the reliability.
Jie Qiu, Wangshu Tan, Gang Zhao, Yingli Yu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4879–4891,Short summary
Considering nephelometers' major problems of a nonideal Lambertian light source and angle truncation, a new correction method based on a machine learning model is proposed. Our method has the advantage of obtaining data with high accuracy while achieving self-correction, which means that researchers can get more accurate scattering coefficients without the need for additional observation data. This method provides a more precise estimation of the aerosol’s direct radiative forcing.
Amir Yazdani, Ann M. Dillner, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4805–4827,Short summary
We propose a spectroscopic method for estimating several mixture-averaged molecular properties (carbon number and molecular weight) in particulate matter relevant for understanding its chemical origins. This estimation is enabled by calibration models built and tested using laboratory standards containing molecules with known structure, and can be applied to filter samples of PM2.5 currently collected in existing air pollution monitoring networks and field campaigns.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3707–3719,Short summary
The Aethalometer model is used widely for estimating the contributions of fossil fuel emissions and biomass burning to black carbon. The calculation is based on measured absorption Ångström exponents, which is ambiguous since it not only depends on the dominant absorber but also on the size and internal structure of the particles, core size, and shell thickness. The uncertainties of the fractions of absorption by eBC from fossil fuel and biomass burning are evaluated with a core–shell Mie model.
Weiqi Xu, Masayuki Takeuchi, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Conghui Xie, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3693–3705,Short summary
Here we developed a method for estimation of particulate organic nitrates (pON) from the measurements of a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a thermodenuder based on the volatility differences between inorganic nitrate and pON. The results generally had improvements in reducing negative values due to the influences of a high concentration of inorganic nitrate and a constant ratio of NO+ to NO2+ of organic nitrates (RON).
Melinda K. Schueneman, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Duseong S. Jo, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Brett B. Palm, Alma Hodzic, Jack E. Dibb, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2237–2260,Short summary
This work focuses on two important properties of the aerosol, acidity, and sulfate composition, which is important for our understanding of aerosol health and environmental impacts. We explore different methods to understand the composition of the aerosol with measurements from a specific instrument and apply those methods to a large dataset. These measurements are confounded by other factors, making it challenging to predict aerosol sulfate composition; pH estimations, however, show promise.
Weilun Zhao, Wangshu Tan, Gang Zhao, Chuanyang Shen, Yingli Yu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1319–1331,
Chuanyang Shen, Gang Zhao, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1293–1301,Short summary
Aerosol hygroscopicity measured by the humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) is affected by multiply charged particles from two aspects: (1) number contribution and (2) the weakening effect. An algorithm is proposed to do the multi-charge correction and applied to a field measurement. Results show that the difference between corrected and measured size-resolved κ can reach 0.05, highlighting that special attention needs to be paid to the multi-charge effect when using HTDMA.
Francesco Canonaco, Anna Tobler, Gang Chen, Yulia Sosedova, Jay Gates Slowik, Carlo Bozzetti, Kaspar Rudolf Daellenbach, Imad El Haddad, Monica Crippa, Ru-Jin Huang, Markus Furger, Urs Baltensperger, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 923–943,Short summary
Long-term ambient aerosol mass spectrometric data were analyzed with a statistical model (PMF) to obtain source contributions and fingerprints. The new aspects of this paper involve time-dependent source fingerprints by a rolling technique and the replacement of the full visual inspection of each run by a user-defined set of criteria to monitor the quality of each of these runs more efficiently. More reliable sources will finally provide better instruments for political mitigation strategies.
Kenji Miki and Shigeto Kawashima
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 685–693,Short summary
Laser optics have long been used in pollen counting systems. To clarify the limitations and potential new applications of laser optics for automatic pollen counting and discrimination, we determined the light scattering patterns of various pollen types, tracked temporal changes in these distributions, and introduced a new theory for automatic pollen discrimination.
Yinchao Zhang, Su Chen, Siying Chen, He Chen, and Pan Guo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6675–6689,Short summary
Air pollution has an important impact on human health, climatic patterns, and the ecological environment. The complexity of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), combined with its strong physio-chemical effect, induces worse polluted episodes. Therefore, we present a new approach named cluster analysis of gradient method (CA-GM) to overcome the multilayer structure and remove the fluctuation of NBL height using raw data resolution.
Tommy Chan, Runlong Cai, Lauri R. Ahonen, Yiliang Liu, Ying Zhou, Joonas Vanhanen, Lubna Dada, Yan Chao, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4885–4898,Short summary
Using a particle size magnifier (PSM; Airmodus, Finland), we determined the particle size distribution using four inversion methods and compared each method to the others to establish their strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, we provided a step-by-step procedure on how to invert measured data using the PSM. Finally, we provided recommendations, code and data related to the data inversion. This is an important paper, as no operating procedure exists regarding how to process measured PSM data.
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Shengqiang Zhu, Lei Li, Shurong Wang, Mei Li, Yaxi Liu, Xiaohui Lu, Hong Chen, Lin Wang, Jianmin Chen, Zhen Zhou, Xin Yang, and Xiaofei Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4111–4121,Short summary
Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) is widely used to detect chemical compositions and sizes of individual aerosol particles. However, it has a major issue: the mass accuracy of high-resolution SPAMS is relatively low. Here we developed an automatic linear calibration method to greatly improve the mass accuracy of SPAMS spectra so that the elemental compositions of organic peaks, such as Cx, CxHy, CxHyOz and CxHyNO peaks, can be directly identified just based on their m / z values.
William Wandji Nyamsi, Antti Lipponen, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Martin Wild, and Antti Arola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3061–3079,Short summary
This paper proposes a novel and accurate method for estimating and reconstructing aerosol optical depth from sunshine duration measurements under cloud-free conditions at any place and time since the late 19th century. The method performs very well when compared to AErosol RObotic NETwork measurements and operates an efficient detection of signals from massive volcanic eruptions. Reconstructed long-term aerosol optical depths are in agreement with the dimming/brightening phenomenon.
Sascha Pfeifer, Thomas Müller, Andrew Freedman, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2161–2167,Short summary
The effect of the baseline drift on the resulting extinction values of three CAPS PMex monitors with different wavelengths was analysed for an urban background station. A significant baseline drift was observed, which leads to characteristic measurement artefacts for particle extinction. Two alternative methods for recalculating the baseline are shown. With these methods the extinction artefacts are diminished and the effective scattering of the resulting extinction values is reduced.
Stuart K. Grange, Hanspeter Lötscher, Andrea Fischer, Lukas Emmenegger, and Christoph Hueglin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1867–1885,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is an important atmospheric pollutant and can be monitored by instruments called aethalometers. A pragmatic data processing technique called the
aethalometer modelcan be used to apportion aethalometer observations into traffic and woodburning components. We present an exploratory data analysis evaluating the aethalometer model and use the outputs for BC trend analysis across Switzerland. The aethalometer model's robustness and utility for such analyses is discussed.
Charlotte Bürki, Matteo Reggente, Ann M. Dillner, Jenny L. Hand, Stephanie L. Shaw, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1517–1538,Short summary
Infrared spectroscopy is a chemically informative method for particulate matter characterization. However, recent work has demonstrated that predictions depend heavily on the choice of calibration model parameters. We propose a means for managing parameter uncertainties by combining available data from laboratory standards, molecular databases, and collocated ambient measurements to provide useful characterization of atmospheric organic matter on a large scale.
Kaixu Bai, Ke Li, Jianping Guo, Yuanjian Yang, and Ni-Bin Chang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1213–1226,Short summary
A novel gap-filling method called the diurnal-cycle-constrained empirical orthogonal function (DCCEOF) is proposed. Cross validation indicates that this method gives high accuracy in predicting missing values in daily PM2.5 time series by accounting for the local diurnal phases, especially by reconstructing daily extrema that cannot be accurately restored by other approaches. The DCCEOF method can be easily applied to other data sets because of its self-consistent capability.
Tongshu Zheng, Michael H. Bergin, Ronak Sutaria, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Robert Caldow, and David E. Carlson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5161–5181,Short summary
Here we present a simultaneous Gaussian process regression (GPR) and linear regression pipeline to calibrate and monitor dense wireless low-cost particulate matter sensor networks (WLPMSNs) on the fly by using all available reference monitors across an area. Our approach can achieve an overall 30 % prediction error at a 24 h scale, can differentiate malfunctioning nodes, and track drift. Our solution can substantially reduce manual labor for managing WLPMSNs and prolong their lifetimes.
Stina Ausmeel, Axel Eriksson, Erik Ahlberg, and Adam Kristensson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4479–4493,Short summary
We present a method for identifying individual exhaust plumes of air pollution emitted from shipping, by linking these to specific ships using identification information which all ships transmit. We also quantify the contribution of these plumes to local particle levels, which has relevance for health effects. Ships emit a lot of nanometre-sized particles, which proved to be a good indicator of plumes at a distance of about 10 km downwind of a shipping lane in the Baltic Sea.
Ingrida Šaulienė, Laura Šukienė, Gintautas Daunys, Gediminas Valiulis, Lukas Vaitkevičius, Predrag Matavulj, Sanja Brdar, Marko Panic, Branko Sikoparija, Bernard Clot, Benoît Crouzy, and Mikhail Sofiev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3435–3452,Short summary
The goal is to evaluate the capabilities of the new Rapid-E monitor and to construct a first-level pollen recognition algorithm. The output data were treated with ANN aiming at classification of the injected pollen. Algorithms based on scattering and fluorescence data alone fall short of acceptable quality. The combinations of these exceeded 80 % accuracy for 5 out of 11 pollen species. Constructing multistep algorithms with sequential discrimination of pollen can be a possible way forward.
Matteo Reggente, Rudolf Höhn, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2313–2329,Short summary
The infrared spectra of atmospheric particles are rich in chemical information but require sophisticated statistical methods to extract information on account of their complex absorption profiles. We present an open software suite which makes current algorithms used for analysis of such spectra available to the community, with a browser-based interface for general users and modular architecture that facilitates addition of new methods by developers.
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Atmospheric samples can be complex, and current analysis methods often require substantial human interaction and discard potentially important information. To improve analysis accuracy and computational cost of these large datasets, we developed an automated analysis algorithm that utilizes a factor analysis approach coupled with a decision tree. We demonstrate that this algorithm cataloged approximately 10 times more analytes compared to a manual analysis and in a quarter of the analysis time.
Atmospheric samples can be complex, and current analysis methods often require substantial human...