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AMT | Articles | Volume 11, issue 9
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5315–5334, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-11-5315-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Special issue: Fifth International Workshop on Ice Nucleation (FIN) (ACP/AMT...

Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5315–5334, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-11-5315-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 24 Sep 2018

Research article | 24 Sep 2018

Cleaning up our water: reducing interferences from nonhomogeneous freezing of “pure” water in droplet freezing assays of ice-nucleating particles

Michael Polen et al.

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Alstadt, V. J., Dawson, J. N., Losey, D. J., Sihvonen, S. K., and Freedman, M. A.: Heterogeneous Freezing of Carbon Nanotubes: A Model System for Pore Condensation and Freezing in the Atmosphere, J. Phys. Chem. A, 121, 8166–8175, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpca.7b06359, 2017. 
Archuleta, C. M., DeMott, P. J., and Kreidenweis, S. M.: Ice nucleation by surrogates for atmospheric mineral dust and mineral dust/sulfate particles at cirrus temperatures, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2617–2634, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-2617-2005, 2005. 
Augustin-Bauditz, S., Wex, H., Denjean, C., Hartmann, S., Schneider, J., Schmidt, S., Ebert, M., and Stratmann, F.: Laboratory-generated mixtures of mineral dust particles with biological substances: characterization of the particle mixing state and immersion freezing behavior, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5531–5543, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-5531-2016, 2016. 
Banfield, J. F. and Eggleton, R. A.: Analytical transmission electron microscope studies of plagioclase, muscovite, and K-feldspar weathering, Clay. Clay Miner., 38, 77–89, 1990. 
Beydoun, H., Polen, M., and Sullivan, R. C.: Effect of particle surface area on ice active site densities retrieved from droplet freezing spectra, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13359–13378, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-13359-2016, 2016. 
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Ice nucleation commonly studied using droplet freezing measurements suffers from artifacts caused by water impurities or substrate effects. We evaluate a series of substrates and water sources to find methods that reduce the background freezing temperature limit. The best performance was obtained from our new microfluidic device and hydrophobic glass surfaces, using filtered HPLC bottled water. We conclude with recommendations for best practices in droplet freezing experiments and data analysis.
Ice nucleation commonly studied using droplet freezing measurements suffers from artifacts...
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