Articles | Volume 12, issue 7
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4019–4038, 2019
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
22 Jul 2019
Research article | 22 Jul 2019
The new BELUGA setup for collocated turbulence and radiation measurements using a tethered balloon: first applications in the cloudy Arctic boundary layer
Ulrike Egerer et al.
Ulrike Egerer, André Ehrlich, Matthias Gottschalk, Hannes Griesche, Roel A. J. Neggers, Holger Siebert, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6347–6364,Short summary
This paper describes a case study of a three-day period with a persistent humidity inversion above a mixed-phase cloud layer in the Arctic. It is based on measurements with a tethered balloon, complemented with results from a dedicated high-resolution large-eddy simulation. Both methods show that the humidity layer acts to provide moisture to the cloud layer through downward turbulent transport. This supply of additional moisture can contribute to the persistence of Arctic clouds.
Janine Lückerath, Andreas Held, Holger Siebert, Michel Michalkow, and Birgit Wehner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10007–10021,Short summary
Three different methods were applied to estimate the vertical aerosol particle flux in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and between the MBL and free troposphere. For the first time, aerosol fluxes derived from these three methods were estimated and compared using airborne aerosol measurements using data from the ACORES field campaign in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean in July 2017. The amount of fluxes was small and directed up and down for different cases, but the methods were applicable.
Christian Pilz, Sebastian Düsing, Birgit Wehner, Thomas Müller, Holger Siebert, Jens Voigtländer, and Michael Lonardi
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Airborne observations of vertical aerosol distributions are crucial for particle process studies. Tethered balloons represent a less expensive complement to aircraft. This study focuses on the technical development of the new balloon-borne platform "CAMP" with its four mobile instruments. The measurement performance of CAMP was evaluated in laboratory and field experiments. A case study highlights the importance of atmospheric processes for particle abundance at the ground.
Dmitry G. Chechin, Christof Lüpkes, Jörg Hartmann, André Ehrlich, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Clouds represent a very important component of the Arctic climate system as they strongly reduce the amount of heat lost to space from the sea-ice surface. Properties of clouds, as well as their persistence strongly depend on the complex interaction of such small-scale properties as phase transitions, radiative transfer and turbulence. In this study we use airborne observations to learn more about the effect of clouds and radiative cooling on turbulence in comparison with other factors.
Sebastian Becker, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Tim Carlsen, Michael Schäfer, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2939–2953,Short summary
Airborne radiation measurements are used to characterize the solar directional reflection of a mixture of Arctic sea ice and open-ocean surfaces in the transition zone between both surface types. The mixture reveals reflection properties of both surface types. It is shown that the directional reflection of the mixture can be reconstructed from the directional reflection of the individual surfaces, accounting for the special conditions present in the transition zone.
Michael Schäfer, Kevin Wolf, André Ehrlich, Christoph Hallbauer, Evelyn Jäkel, Friedhelm Jansen, Anna Elizabeth Luebke, Joshua Müller, Jakob Thoböll, Timo Röschenthaler, Bjorn Stevens, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1491–1509,Short summary
The new airborne thermal infrared imager VELOX is introduced. It measures two-dimensional fields of spectral thermal infrared radiance or brightness temperature within the large atmospheric window. The technical specifications as well as necessary calibration and correction procedures are presented. Example measurements from the first field deployment are analysed with respect to cloud coverage and cloud top altitude.
Anna E. Luebke, André Ehrlich, Michael Schäfer, Kevin Wolf, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2727–2744,Short summary
A combination of aircraft and satellite observations is used to show how the characteristics of tropical shallow clouds interact with incoming and outgoing energy. A complete depiction of these clouds is challenging to obtain, but such data are useful for understanding how models can correctly represent them. The amount of cloud is found to be the most important factor, while other cloud characteristics become increasingly impactful when more cloud is present.
Ramon Campos Braga, Barbara Ervens, Daniel Rosenfeld, Meinrat O. Andreae, Jan-David Förster, Daniel Fütterer, Lianet Hernández Pardo, Bruna A. Holanda, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Ovid O. Krüger, Oliver Lauer, Luiz A. T. Machado, Christopher Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17513–17528,Short summary
Interactions of aerosol particles with clouds represent a large uncertainty in estimates of climate change. Properties of aerosol particles control their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei. Using aerosol measurements in the Amazon, we performed model studies to compare predicted and measured cloud droplet number concentrations at cloud bases. Our results confirm previous estimates of particle hygroscopicity in this region.
Heike Konow, Florian Ewald, Geet George, Marek Jacob, Marcus Klingebiel, Tobias Kölling, Anna E. Luebke, Theresa Mieslinger, Veronika Pörtge, Jule Radtke, Michael Schäfer, Hauke Schulz, Raphaela Vogel, Martin Wirth, Sandrine Bony, Susanne Crewell, André Ehrlich, Linda Forster, Andreas Giez, Felix Gödde, Silke Groß, Manuel Gutleben, Martin Hagen, Lutz Hirsch, Friedhelm Jansen, Theresa Lang, Bernhard Mayer, Mario Mech, Marc Prange, Sabrina Schnitt, Jessica Vial, Andreas Walbröl, Manfred Wendisch, Kevin Wolf, Tobias Zinner, Martin Zöger, Felix Ament, and Bjorn Stevens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5545–5563,Short summary
The German research aircraft HALO took part in the research campaign EUREC4A in January and February 2020. The focus area was the tropical Atlantic east of the island of Barbados. We describe the characteristics of the 15 research flights, provide auxiliary information, derive combined cloud mask products from all instruments that observe clouds on board the aircraft, and provide code examples that help new users of the data to get started.
Sebastian Düsing, Albert Ansmann, Holger Baars, Joel C. Corbin, Cyrielle Denjean, Martin Gysel-Beer, Thomas Müller, Laurent Poulain, Holger Siebert, Gerald Spindler, Thomas Tuch, Birgit Wehner, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16745–16773,Short summary
The work deals with optical properties of aerosol particles in dried and atmospheric states. Based on two measurement campaigns in the rural background of central Europe, different measurement approaches were compared with each other, such as modeling based on Mie theory and direct in situ or remote sensing measurements. Among others, it was shown that the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio is relative humidity dependent, and refinement with respect to the model input parameters is needed.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ovid O. Krüger, Barbara Ervens, Bruna A. Holanda, Manfred Wendisch, Trismono Krisna, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christiane Voigt, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14079–14088,Short summary
Quantifying the precipitation within clouds is crucial for our understanding of the Earth's hydrological cycle. Using in situ measurements of cloud and rain properties over the Amazon Basin and Atlantic Ocean, we show here a linear relationship between the effective radius (re) and precipitation water content near the tops of convective clouds for different pollution states and temperature levels. Our results emphasize the role of re to determine both initiation and amount of precipitation.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4067–4119,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next-generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing trade wind clouds.
Ulrike Egerer, André Ehrlich, Matthias Gottschalk, Hannes Griesche, Roel A. J. Neggers, Holger Siebert, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6347–6364,Short summary
This paper describes a case study of a three-day period with a persistent humidity inversion above a mixed-phase cloud layer in the Arctic. It is based on measurements with a tethered balloon, complemented with results from a dedicated high-resolution large-eddy simulation. Both methods show that the humidity layer acts to provide moisture to the cloud layer through downward turbulent transport. This supply of additional moisture can contribute to the persistence of Arctic clouds.
Johannes Stapf, André Ehrlich, Christof Lüpkes, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Airborne observations of the surface radiative energy budget in the marginal sea ice zone (the region between open ocean and closed sea ice) are presented. Atmospheric thermodynamic profiles and surface properties change on small spatial scales in this area and influence the impact of clouds on the radiative energy budget. The radiation budget over sea ice is compared to available studies in the Arctic and the influence of cold air outbreaks and warm air intrusions is illustrated.
Evelyn Jäkel, Tim Carlsen, André Ehrlich, Manfred Wendisch, Michael Schäfer, Sophie Rosenburg, Konstantina Nakoudi, Marco Zanatta, Gerit Birnbaum, Veit Helm, Andreas Herber, Larysa Istomina, Linlu Mei, and Anika Rohde
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Different approaches to retrieve the optical-equivalent snow grain size using satellite, airborne, and ground-based observations were evaluated and compared to modeled data. The study is focused on low Sun and partly rough surface conditions encountered North of Greenland in March/April 2018. We proposed an adjusted airborne retrieval method to reduce the retrieval uncertainty.
Johannes Quaas, Antti Arola, Brian Cairns, Matthew Christensen, Hartwig Deneke, Annica M. L. Ekman, Graham Feingold, Ann Fridlind, Edward Gryspeerdt, Otto Hasekamp, Zhanqing Li, Antti Lipponen, Po-Lun Ma, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Athanasios Nenes, Joyce E. Penner, Daniel Rosenfeld, Roland Schrödner, Kenneth Sinclair, Odran Sourdeval, Philip Stier, Matthias Tesche, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15079–15099,Short summary
Anthropogenic pollution particles – aerosols – serve as cloud condensation nuclei and thus increase cloud droplet concentration and the clouds' reflection of sunlight (a cooling effect on climate). This Twomey effect is poorly constrained by models and requires satellite data for better quantification. The review summarizes the challenges in properly doing so and outlines avenues for progress towards a better use of aerosol retrievals and better retrievals of droplet concentrations.
Tim Carlsen, Gerit Birnbaum, André Ehrlich, Veit Helm, Evelyn Jäkel, Michael Schäfer, and Manfred Wendisch
The Cryosphere, 14, 3959–3978,Short summary
The angular reflection of solar radiation by snow surfaces is particularly anisotropic and highly variable. We measured the angular reflection from an aircraft using a digital camera in Antarctica in 2013/14 and studied its variability: the anisotropy increases with a lower Sun but decreases for rougher surfaces and larger snow grains. The applied methodology allows for a direct comparison with satellite observations, which generally underestimated the anisotropy measured within this study.
Jan Kretzschmar, Johannes Stapf, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Wendisch, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13145–13165,Short summary
This study compares simulations with the ICON model at the kilometer scale to airborne radiation and cloud microphysics observations that have been derived during the ACLOUD aircraft campaign around Svalbard, Norway, in May/June 2017. We find an overestimated surface warming effect of clouds compared to the observations in our setup. This bias was reduced by considering subgrid-scale vertical motion in the activation of cloud condensation nuclei in the two-moment microphysical scheme used.
Li Li, Zhengqiang Li, Wenyuan Chang, Yang Ou, Philippe Goloub, Chengzhe Li, Kaitao Li, Qiaoyun Hu, Jianping Wang, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10845–10864,Short summary
Dust Aerosol Observation-Kashi (DAO-K) campaign was conducted near the Taklimakan Desert in April 2019 to obtain comprehensive aerosol, atmosphere, and surface parameters. Estimations of aerosol solar radiative forcing by a radiative transfer (RT) model were improved based on the measured aerosol parameters, additionally considering atmospheric profiles and diurnal variations of surface albedo. RT simulations agree well with simultaneous irradiance observations, even in dust-polluted conditions.
Johannes Stapf, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Christof Lüpkes, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9895–9914,
Tobias Donth, Evelyn Jäkel, André Ehrlich, Bernd Heinold, Jacob Schacht, Andreas Herber, Marco Zanatta, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8139–8156,Short summary
Solar radiative effects of Arctic black carbon (BC) particles (suspended in the atmosphere and in the surface snowpack) were quantified under cloudless and cloudy conditions. An atmospheric and a snow radiative transfer model were coupled to account for radiative interactions between both compartments. It was found that (i) the warming effect of BC in the snowpack overcompensates for the atmospheric BC cooling effect, and (ii) clouds tend to reduce the atmospheric BC cooling and snow BC warming.
Elena Ruiz-Donoso, André Ehrlich, Michael Schäfer, Evelyn Jäkel, Vera Schemann, Susanne Crewell, Mario Mech, Birte Solveig Kulla, Leif-Leonard Kliesch, Roland Neuber, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5487–5511,Short summary
Mixed-phase clouds, formed of water droplets and ice crystals, appear frequently in Arctic regions. Characterizing the distribution of liquid water and ice inside the cloud appropriately is important because it influences the cloud's impact on the surface temperature. In this study, we combined images of the cloud top with measurements inside the cloud to analyze in detail the 3D spatial distribution of liquid and ice in two mixed-phase clouds occurring under different meteorological scenarios.
Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Jeannine Ditas, Florian Ditas, Christiane Schulz, Marco Aurélio Franco, Qiaoqiao Wang, Tobias Donth, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Joel Brito, Yafang Cheng, Maximilian Dollner, Johannes W. Kaiser, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Ovid O. Krüger, Daniel Fütterer, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Luiz A. T. Machado, Jing Ming, Fernando G. Morais, Hauke Paulsen, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Johannes Schneider, Hang Su, Bernadett Weinzierl, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4757–4785,Short summary
Biomass burning smoke from African savanna and grassland is transported across the South Atlantic Ocean in defined layers within the free troposphere. The combination of in situ aircraft and ground-based measurements aided by satellite observations showed that these layers are transported into the Amazon Basin during the early dry season. The influx of aged smoke, enriched in black carbon and cloud condensation nuclei, has important implications for the Amazonian aerosol and cloud cycling.
Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Jennifer M. Comstock, Ralf Weigel, Martina Krämer, Christoph Mahnke, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Charles N. Long, Manfred Wendisch, Luiz A. T. Machado, Beat Schmid, Trismono Krisna, Mikhail Pekour, John Hubbe, Andreas Giez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Martin Zoeger, Mira L. Pöhlker, Hans Schlager, Micael A. Cecchini, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Suzane S. de Sá, Jiwen Fan, Jason Tomlinson, Stephen Springston, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, Christopher Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Andreas Minikin, Armin Afchine, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 661–684,Short summary
In 2014, the US DOE G1 aircraft and the German HALO aircraft overflew the Amazon basin to study how aerosols influence cloud cycles under a clean condition and around a tropical megacity. This paper describes how to meaningfully compare similar measurements from two research aircraft and identify the potential measurement issue. We also discuss the uncertainty range for each measurement for further usage in model evaluation and satellite data validation.
Pascal Polonik, Christoph Knote, Tobias Zinner, Florian Ewald, Tobias Kölling, Bernhard Mayer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Mahnke, Sergej Molleker, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Christiane Voigt, Ralf Weigel, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1591–1605,Short summary
A realistic representation of cloud–aerosol interactions is central to accurate climate projections. Here we combine observations collected during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign with chemistry-transport simulations to evaluate the model’s ability to represent the indirect effects of biomass burning aerosol on cloud microphysics. We find an upper limit for the model sensitivity on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations well below the levels reached during the burning season in the Amazon Basin.
André Ehrlich, Manfred Wendisch, Christof Lüpkes, Matthias Buschmann, Heiko Bozem, Dmitri Chechin, Hans-Christian Clemen, Régis Dupuy, Olliver Eppers, Jörg Hartmann, Andreas Herber, Evelyn Jäkel, Emma Järvinen, Olivier Jourdan, Udo Kästner, Leif-Leonard Kliesch, Franziska Köllner, Mario Mech, Stephan Mertes, Roland Neuber, Elena Ruiz-Donoso, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Johannes Stapf, and Marco Zanatta
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1853–1881,Short summary
During the Arctic CLoud Observations Using airborne measurements during polar Day (ACLOUD) campaign, two research aircraft (Polar 5 and 6) jointly performed 22 research flights over the transition zone between open ocean and closed sea ice. The data set combines remote sensing and in situ measurement of cloud, aerosol, and trace gas properties, as well as turbulent and radiative fluxes, which will be used to study Arctic boundary layer and mid-level clouds and their role in Arctic amplification.
Jacob Schacht, Bernd Heinold, Johannes Quaas, John Backman, Ribu Cherian, Andre Ehrlich, Andreas Herber, Wan Ting Katty Huang, Yutaka Kondo, Andreas Massling, P. R. Sinha, Bernadett Weinzierl, Marco Zanatta, and Ina Tegen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11159–11183,Short summary
The Arctic is warming faster than the rest of Earth. Black carbon (BC) aerosol contributes to this Arctic amplification by direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects while distributed in air or deposited on snow and ice. The aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM is used to estimate direct aerosol radiative effect (DRE). Airborne and near-surface BC measurements are used to evaluate the model and give an uncertainty range for the burden and DRE of Arctic BC caused by different emission inventories.
Evelyn Jäkel, Johannes Stapf, Manfred Wendisch, Marcel Nicolaus, Wolfgang Dorn, and Annette Rinke
The Cryosphere, 13, 1695–1708,Short summary
The sea ice surface albedo parameterization of a coupled regional climate model was validated against aircraft measurements performed in May–June 2017 north of Svalbard. The albedo parameterization was run offline from the model using the measured parameters surface temperature and snow depth to calculate the surface albedo and the individual fractions of the ice surface subtypes. An adjustment of the variables and additionally accounting for cloud cover reduced the root-mean-squared error.
Katarzyna Karpińska, Jonathan F. E. Bodenschatz, Szymon P. Malinowski, Jakub L. Nowak, Steffen Risius, Tina Schmeissner, Raymond A. Shaw, Holger Siebert, Hengdong Xi, Haitao Xu, and Eberhard Bodenschatz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4991–5003,Short summary
Observations of clouds at a mountain-top laboratory revealed for the first time the presence of “voids”, i.e., elongated volumes inside a cloud that are devoid of droplets. Theoretical and numerical analyses suggest that these voids are a result of strong and long-lasting vortex presence in turbulent air. If this is confirmed in further investigation, the effect may become an important part of models describing cloud evolution and rain formation.
Kevin Wolf, André Ehrlich, Marek Jacob, Susanne Crewell, Martin Wirth, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1635–1658,Short summary
Using passive spectral solar radiation and active lidar, radar, and microwave measurements with HALO during NARVAL-II, the cloud droplet number concentration of shallow trade wind cumulus is estimated. With stepwise inclusion of the different instruments into the retrieval, the benefits of the synergetic approach based on artificial measurements and two cloud cases are demonstrated. Significant improvement with the synergetic method compared to the solar-radiation-only method is reported.
Tobias Zinner, Ulrich Schwarz, Tobias Kölling, Florian Ewald, Evelyn Jäkel, Bernhard Mayer, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1167–1181,
Erlend M. Knudsen, Bernd Heinold, Sandro Dahlke, Heiko Bozem, Susanne Crewell, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Georg Heygster, Daniel Kunkel, Marion Maturilli, Mario Mech, Carolina Viceto, Annette Rinke, Holger Schmithüsen, André Ehrlich, Andreas Macke, Christof Lüpkes, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17995–18022,Short summary
The paper describes the synoptic development during the ACLOUD/PASCAL airborne and ship-based field campaign near Svalbard in spring 2017. This development is presented using near-surface and upperair meteorological observations, satellite, and model data. We first present time series of these data, from which we identify and characterize three key periods. Finally, we put our observations in historical and regional contexts and compare our findings to other Arctic field campaigns.
Emma Järvinen, Olivier Jourdan, David Neubauer, Bin Yao, Chao Liu, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrike Lohmann, Manfred Wendisch, Greg M. McFarquhar, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15767–15781,Short summary
Using light diffraction it is possible to detect microscopic features within ice particles that have not yet been fully characterized. Here, this technique was applied in airborne measurements, where it was found that majority of atmospheric ice particles have features that significantly change the way ice particles interact with solar light. The microscopic features make ice-containing clouds more reflective than previously thought, which could have consequences for predicting our climate.
Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Oliver Appel, Anja Costa, Suzane S. de Sá, Volker Dreiling, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Scot T. Martin, Stephan Mertes, Mira L. Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Bernadett Weinzierl, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Luiz A. T. Machado, Ulrich Pöschl, Manfred Wendisch, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14979–15001,Short summary
Aerosol chemical composition measurements in the tropical upper troposphere over the Amazon region show that 78 % of the aerosol in the upper troposphere consists of organic matter. Up to 20 % of the organic aerosol can be attributed to isoprene epoxydiol secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA). Furthermore, organic nitrates were identified, suggesting a connection to the IEPOX-SOA formation.
Michael Schäfer, Katharina Loewe, André Ehrlich, Corinna Hoose, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13115–13133,Short summary
Airborne observed horizontal fields of cloud optical thickness are compared with semi-idealized large eddy simulations of Arctic stratus. The comparison focuses on horizontal cloud inhomogeneities and directional features of the small-scale cloud structures. Using inhomogeneity parameters and autocorrelation analysis it is investigated, if the observed small-scale cloud inhomogeneities can be represented by the model. Forcings for cloud inhomogeneities are investigated in a sensitivity study.
Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Marloes Penning de Vries, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Samara Carbone, David Walter, Nicole Bobrowski, Joel Brito, Xuguang Chi, Alexandra Gutmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Luiz A. T. Machado, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Julian Rüdiger, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Qiaoqiao Wang, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10391–10405,Short summary
This study uses satellite observations to track volcanic emissions in eastern Congo and their subsequent transport across the Atlantic Ocean into the Amazon Basin. Aircraft and ground-based observations are used to characterize the influence of volcanogenic aerosol on the chemical and microphysical properties of Amazonian aerosols. Further, this work is an illustrative example of the conditions and dynamics driving the transatlantic transport of African emissions to South America.
Luiz A. T. Machado, Alan J. P. Calheiros, Thiago Biscaro, Scott Giangrande, Maria A. F. Silva Dias, Micael A. Cecchini, Rachel Albrecht, Meinrat O. Andreae, Wagner F. Araujo, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Casey Burleyson, Cristiano W. Eichholz, Jiwen Fan, Zhe Feng, Gilberto F. Fisch, Michael P. Jensen, Scot T. Martin, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Jean-François Ribaud, Daniel Rosenfeld, Jaci M. B. Saraiva, Courtney Schumacher, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6461–6482,Short summary
This overview discuss the main precipitation processes and their sensitivities to environmental conditions in the Central Amazon Basin. It presents a review of the knowledge acquired about cloud processes and rainfall formation in Amazonas. In addition, this study provides a characterization of the seasonal variation and rainfall sensitivities to topography, surface cover, and aerosol concentration. Airplane measurements were evaluated to characterize and contrast cloud microphysical properties.
Trismono C. Krisna, Manfred Wendisch, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Frank Werner, Ralf Weigel, Stephan Borrmann, Christoph Mahnke, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christiane Voigt, and Luiz A. T. Machado
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4439–4462,Short summary
The optical thickness and particle effective radius of a cirrus above liquid water clouds and a DCC topped by an anvil cirrus are retrieved based on SMART and MODIS radiance measurements. For the cirrus, retrieved particle effective radius are validated with corresponding in situ data using a vertical weighting method. This approach allows to assess the measurements, retrieval algorithms, and derived cloud products.
Sebastian Düsing, Birgit Wehner, Patric Seifert, Albert Ansmann, Holger Baars, Florian Ditas, Silvia Henning, Nan Ma, Laurent Poulain, Holger Siebert, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Andreas Macke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1263–1290,
Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel Albrecht, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Micael A. Cecchini, Anja Costa, Maximilian Dollner, Daniel Fütterer, Emma Järvinen, Tina Jurkat, Thomas Klimach, Tobias Konemann, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Trismono Krisna, Luiz A. T. Machado, Stephan Mertes, Andreas Minikin, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Antonio Spanu, Vinicius B. Sperling, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Jian Wang, Bernadett Weinzierl, Manfred Wendisch, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 921–961,Short summary
We made airborne measurements of aerosol particle concentrations and properties over the Amazon Basin. We found extremely high concentrations of very small particles in the region between 8 and 14 km altitude all across the basin, which had been recently formed by gas-to-particle conversion at these altitudes. This makes the upper troposphere a very important source region of atmospheric particles with significant implications for the Earth's climate system.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Manfred Wendisch, Anja Costa, Martina Krämer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel I. Albrecht, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Daniel Fütterer, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Mahnke, Scot T. Martin, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Lianet H. Pardo, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14727–14746,Short summary
This study introduces and explores the concept of gamma phase space. This space is able to represent all possible variations in the cloud droplet size distributions (DSDs). The methodology was applied to recent in situ aircraft measurements over the Amazon. It is shown that the phase space is able to represent several processes occurring in the clouds in a simple manner. The consequences for cloud studies, modeling, and the representation of the transition from warm to mixed phase are discussed.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ralf Weigel, Tina Jurkat, Meinrat O. Andreae, Manfred Wendisch, Ulrich Pöschl, Christiane Voigt, Christoph Mahnke, Stephan Borrmann, Rachel I. Albrecht, Sergej Molleker, Daniel A. Vila, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Lucas Grulich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14433–14456,
Tim Carlsen, Gerit Birnbaum, André Ehrlich, Johannes Freitag, Georg Heygster, Larysa Istomina, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Anaïs Orsi, Michael Schäfer, and Manfred Wendisch
The Cryosphere, 11, 2727–2741,Short summary
The optical size of snow grains (ropt) affects the reflectivity of snow surfaces and thus the local surface energy budget in particular in polar regions. The temporal evolution of ropt retrieved from ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne remote sensing could reproduce optical in situ measurements for a 2-month period in central Antarctica (2013/14). The presented validation study provided a unique testbed for retrievals of ropt under Antarctic conditions where in situ data are scarce.
Anja Costa, Jessica Meyer, Armin Afchine, Anna Luebke, Gebhard Günther, James R. Dorsey, Martin W. Gallagher, Andre Ehrlich, Manfred Wendisch, Darrel Baumgardner, Heike Wex, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12219–12238,Short summary
The paper presents 38 h of in situ cloud spectrometer observations of microphysical cloud properties in the Arctic, midlatitudes and tropics. The clouds are classified via particle concentrations, size distributions, and – as a novelty – small particle aspherical fractions. Cloud-type profiles are given for different temperatures and locations. The results confine regions where different cloud transformation processes occurred and emphasise the importance of small particle shape detection.
Marcus Klingebiel, André Ehrlich, Fanny Finger, Timo Röschenthaler, Suad Jakirlić, Matthias Voigt, Stefan Müller, Rolf Maser, Manfred Wendisch, Peter Hoor, Peter Spichtinger, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3485–3498,Short summary
Microphysical and radiation measurements were collected with the unique AIRcraft TOwed Sensor Shuttle (AIRTOSS) – Learjet tandem platform. It is a combination of a Learjet 35A research aircraft and an instrumented aerodynamic bird, which can be detached from and retracted back to the aircraft during flight. AIRTOSS and Learjet are equipped with radiative, cloud microphysical, trace gas, and meteorological instruments to study cirrus clouds.
André Ehrlich, Eike Bierwirth, Larysa Istomina, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3215–3230,Short summary
In the Arctic, uncertainties in passive solar remote sensing of cloud properties arise from uncertainties in the assumed spectral surface albedo, mainly determined by the generally unknown effective snow grain size. Therefore, a retrieval method is presented that simultaneously derives liquid water cloud and snow surface parameters, including cloud optical thickness, droplet effective radius, and effective snow grain size. Airborne measurements were used to test the retrieval procedure.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Rachel I. Albrecht, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat, Christoph Mahnke, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Christiane Voigt, Bernadett Weinzierl, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10037–10050,Short summary
We study the effects of aerosol particles and updraft speed on the warm phase of Amazonian clouds. We expand the sensitivity analysis usually found in the literature by concomitantly considering cloud evolution and the effects on droplet size distribution (DSD) shape. The quantitative results show that particle concentration is the primary driver for the vertical profiles of effective diameter and droplet concentration in the warm phase of Amazonian convective clouds.
Evelyn Jäkel, Manfred Wendisch, Trismono C. Krisna, Florian Ewald, Tobias Kölling, Tina Jurkat, Christiane Voigt, Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Armin Afchine, Anja Costa, Martina Krämer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Tianle Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9049–9066,Short summary
Vertical profiles of the cloud particle phase state in tropical deep convective clouds (DCCs) were investigated using airborne imaging spectrometer measurements during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign, which was conducted over the Brazilian rainforest in September 2014. A phase discrimination retrieval was applied to observations of clouds formed in different aerosol conditions. The profiles were compared to in situ and satellite measurements.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ralf Weigel, Tina Jurkat, Meinrat O. Andreae, Manfred Wendisch, Mira L. Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Christiane Voigt, Christoph Mahnke, Stephan Borrmann, Rachel I. Albrecht, Sergej Molleker, Daniel A. Vila, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7365–7386,
Andreas Macke, Patric Seifert, Holger Baars, Christian Barthlott, Christoph Beekmans, Andreas Behrendt, Birger Bohn, Matthias Brueck, Johannes Bühl, Susanne Crewell, Thomas Damian, Hartwig Deneke, Sebastian Düsing, Andreas Foth, Paolo Di Girolamo, Eva Hammann, Rieke Heinze, Anne Hirsikko, John Kalisch, Norbert Kalthoff, Stefan Kinne, Martin Kohler, Ulrich Löhnert, Bomidi Lakshmi Madhavan, Vera Maurer, Shravan Kumar Muppa, Jan Schween, Ilya Serikov, Holger Siebert, Clemens Simmer, Florian Späth, Sandra Steinke, Katja Träumner, Silke Trömel, Birgit Wehner, Andreas Wieser, Volker Wulfmeyer, and Xinxin Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4887–4914,Short summary
This article provides an overview of the instrumental setup and the main results obtained during the two HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiments HOPE-Jülich and HOPE-Melpitz conducted in Germany in April–May and Sept 2013, respectively. Goal of the field experiments was to provide high-resolution observational datasets for both, improving the understaning of boundary layer and cloud processes, as well as for the evaluation of the new ICON model that is run at 156 m horizontal resolution.
Kevin Wolf, André Ehrlich, Tilman Hüneke, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Frank Werner, Martin Wirth, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4283–4303,Short summary
The potential of airborne radiance measurements in the sideward and nadir directions for cirrus remote sensing is investigated. Therefore radiative transfer simulations were used and the sensitivity of upward radiance with respect to optical thickness, effective radius, surface albedo, wavelength and viewing angle was studied. It was shown that sideward observations lead to more accurate retrieval results. Investigating a case study of ML-CIRRUS, these findings are confirmed.
Michael Schäfer, Eike Bierwirth, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Frank Werner, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2359–2372,Short summary
Cloud optical thickness fields, retrieved from solar spectral radiance measurements, are used to investigate the directional structure of horizontal cloud inhomogeneities with scalar one-dimensional inhomogeneity parameters, two-dimensional auto-correlation functions, and two-dimensional Fourier analysis. The investigations reveal that it is not sufficient to quantify horizontal cloud inhomogeneities by one-dimensional inhomogeneity parameters; two-dimensional parameters are necessary.
Heike Wex, Katrin Dieckmann, Greg C. Roberts, Thomas Conrath, Miguel A. Izaguirre, Susan Hartmann, Paul Herenz, Michael Schäfer, Florian Ditas, Tina Schmeissner, Silvia Henning, Birgit Wehner, Holger Siebert, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14107–14130,Short summary
Aerosol arriving in the eastern Caribbean after passing the Atlantic is characterized, based on ground-based and airborne measurements. We describe the repetitive occurrence of three different types of air masses and relate them to their origin from either Africa or the Atlantic and also draw conclusions about the particle composition. The length of the data series is unprecedented. By a comparison with other studies, we also suggest that the organic fraction in the aerosol depends on season.
Natalia Babkovskaia, Ullar Rannik, Vaughan Phillips, Holger Siebert, Birgit Wehner, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7889–7898,Short summary
Turbulence, aerosol growth and microphysics of hydrometeors in clouds are intimately coupled. A new modelling approach was applied to quantify this linkage. We study the interaction in the cloud area under transient, high supersaturation conditions, using direct numerical simulations. Analysing the effect of aerosol dynamics on the turbulent kinetic energy and on vertical velocity, we conclude that the presence of aerosol has an effect on vertical motion and tends to reduce downward velocity.
Fanny Finger, Frank Werner, Marcus Klingebiel, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Matthias Voigt, Stephan Borrmann, Peter Spichtinger, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7681–7693,Short summary
Solar spectra of optical layer properties of cirrus have been derived from the first truly collocated airborne radiation measurements using an aircraft and a towed sensor platform. The measured layer properties differ slightly due to horizontal cirrus inhomogeneities and the influence of low-level water clouds. Applying a 1-D radiative transfer model sensitivity studies were performed. It was found that if a low-level cloud is not considered, the solar cooling of the cirrus is strongly overestimated.
S. T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. A. T. Machado, A. O. Manzi, R. A. F. Souza, C. Schumacher, J. Wang, M. O. Andreae, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Fan, G. Fisch, A. H. Goldstein, A. Guenther, J. L. Jimenez, U. Pöschl, M. A. Silva Dias, J. N. Smith, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785–4797,Short summary
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place in central Amazonia throughout 2014 and 2015. The experiment focused on the complex links among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other, especially when altered by urban pollution. This article serves as an introduction to the special issue of publications presenting findings of this experiment.
E. Jäkel, B. Mey, R. Levy, X. Gu, T. Yu, Z. Li, D. Althausen, B. Heese, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5237–5249,
B. Wehner, F. Werner, F. Ditas, R. A. Shaw, M. Kulmala, and H. Siebert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11701–11711,Short summary
During the CARRIBA campaign on Barbados, 91 cases with increased aerosol particle number concentrations near clouds were detected from helicopter-borne measurements. Most of these cases are correlated with enhanced irradiance in the ultraviolet range. The events have a mean length of 100m, corresponding to a lifetime of 300s, meaning a growth of several nm/h. Such high values cannot be explained by sulfuric acid alone; thus extremely low volatility organic compounds are probably involved here.
A. Ehrlich and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3671–3684,
S. Risius, H. Xu, F. Di Lorenzo, H. Xi, H. Siebert, R. A. Shaw, and E. Bodenschatz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3209–3218,
H. Siebert, R. A. Shaw, J. Ditas, T. Schmeissner, S. P. Malinowski, E. Bodenschatz, and H. Xu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3219–3228,Short summary
We report results from simultaneous, high-resolution and collocated measurements of cloud microphysical and turbulence properties during several warm cloud events at the Umweltforschungsstation Schneefernerhaus (UFS) on Zugspitze in the German Alps. The data gathered were found to be representative of observations made with similar instrumentation in free clouds.
M. Schäfer, E. Bierwirth, A. Ehrlich, E. Jäkel, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8147–8163,
M. Klingebiel, A. de Lozar, S. Molleker, R. Weigel, A. Roth, L. Schmidt, J. Meyer, A. Ehrlich, R. Neuber, M. Wendisch, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 617–631,
C. Fricke, A. Ehrlich, E. Jäkel, B. Bohn, M. Wirth, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1943–1958,
H. Siebert, M. Beals, J. Bethke, E. Bierwirth, T. Conrath, K. Dieckmann, F. Ditas, A. Ehrlich, D. Farrell, S. Hartmann, M. A. Izaguirre, J. Katzwinkel, L. Nuijens, G. Roberts, M. Schäfer, R. A. Shaw, T. Schmeissner, I. Serikov, B. Stevens, F. Stratmann, B. Wehner, M. Wendisch, F. Werner, and H. Wex
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10061–10077,
M. Schäfer, E. Bierwirth, A. Ehrlich, F. Heyner, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1855–1868,
E. Bierwirth, A. Ehrlich, M. Wendisch, J.-F. Gayet, C. Gourbeyre, R. Dupuy, A. Herber, R. Neuber, and A. Lampert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1189–1200,
E. Jäkel, M. Wendisch, and B. Mayer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 527–537,
E. Jäkel, J. Walter, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 539–547,
Related subject area
Subject: Others (Wind, Precipitation, Temperature, etc.) | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsInstabilities, Dynamics, and Energetics accompanying Atmospheric Layering (IDEAL): high-resolution in situ observations and modeling in and above the nocturnal boundary layerInfrasound measurement system for real-time in situ tornado measurementsQuantifying the coastal urban surface layer structure using distributed temperature sensing in Helsinki, FinlandOn the quality of RS41 radiosonde descent dataIdealized simulation study of the relationship of disdrometer sampling statistics with the precision of precipitation rate measurementUse of thermal signal for the investigation of near-surface turbulenceDrone measurements of surface-based winter temperature inversions in the High Arctic at EurekaGround mobile observation system for measuring multisurface microwave emissivityA differential emissivity imaging technique for measuring hydrometeor mass and typeEffect of snow-covered ground albedo on the accuracy of air temperature measurementsDistributed wind measurements with multiple quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles in the atmospheric boundary layerThe INFRA-EAR: a low-cost mobile multidisciplinary measurement platform for monitoring geophysical parametersA dedicated robust instrument for water vapor generation at low humidity for use with a laser water isotope analyzer in cold and dry polar regionsArctic observations and numerical simulations of surface wind effects on Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera measurementsThe development of the “Storm Tracker” and its applications for atmospheric high-resolution upper-air observationsUse of automatic radiosonde launchers to measure temperature and humidity profiles from the GRUAN perspectiveUsing global reanalysis data to quantify and correct airflow distortion bias in shipborne wind speed measurementsThe CopterSonde: an insight into the development of a smart unmanned aircraft system for atmospheric boundary layer researchMicrophysical properties and fall speed measurements of snow ice crystals using the Dual Ice Crystal Imager (D-ICI)The Disdrometer Verification Network (DiVeN): a UK network of laser precipitation instrumentsIdentification of platform exhaust on the RV InvestigatorEvaluation of Windsond S1H2 performance in Kumasi during the 2016 DACCIWA field campaignRecovery of the three-dimensional wind and sonic temperature data from a physically deformed sonic anemometerConsiderations for temperature sensor placement on rotary-wing unmanned aircraft systemsNew calibration procedures for airborne turbulence measurements and accuracy of the methane fluxes during the AirMeth campaignsIs it feasible to estimate radiosonde biases from interlaced measurements?Vertical wind velocity measurements using a five-hole probe with remotely piloted aircraft to study aerosol–cloud interactionsCalibration and evaluation of CCD spectroradiometers for ground-based and airborne measurements of spectral actinic flux densitiesRevising shortwave and longwave radiation archives in view of possible revisions of the WSG and WISG reference scales: methods and implicationsOverview of and first observations from the TILDAE High-Altitude Balloon MissionHigh-resolution urban observation network for user-specific meteorological information service in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South KoreaPyranometer offsets triggered by ambient meteorology: insights from laboratory and field experimentsIdentification of tower-wake distortions using sonic anemometer and lidar measurementsA Bayesian model to correct underestimated 3-D wind speeds from sonic anemometers increases turbulent components of the surface energy balanceProof of concept for turbulence measurements with the RPAS SUMO during the BLLAST campaignTurbulence fluxes and variances measured with a sonic anemometer mounted on a tethered balloonEstimates of Mode-S EHS aircraft-derived wind observation errors using triple collocationCharacterisation and improvement of j(O1D) filter radiometersExploring the potential of the RPA system SUMO for multipurpose boundary-layer missions during the BLLAST campaignReturn glider radiosonde for in situ upper-air research measurementsThe Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric researchMeasuring droplet fall speed with a high-speed camera: indoor accuracy and potential outdoor applicationsThe Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD – best practice and added valueControlled weather balloon ascents and descents for atmospheric research and climate monitoringOn the consistency of 2-D video disdrometers in measuring microphysical parameters of solid precipitationCalibration of 3-D wind measurements on a single-engine research aircraftEvaporation from weighing precipitation gauges: impacts on automated gauge measurements and quality assurance methodsGlobal Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere obtained during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaignRapid, optical measurement of the atmospheric pressure on a fast research aircraft using open-path TDLASCalibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor
Abhiram Doddi, Dale Lawrence, David Fritts, Ling Wang, Thomas Lund, William Brown, Dragan Zajic, and Lakshmi Kantha
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4023–4045,Short summary
Small-scale turbulent structures are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, yet our understanding of their structure and dynamics is vastly incomplete. IDEAL aimed to improve our understanding of small-scale turbulent flow features in the lower atmosphere. A small, unmanned, fixed-wing aircraft was employed to make targeted observations of atmospheric columns. Measured data were used to guide atmospheric model simulations designed to describe the structure and dynamics of small-scale turbulence.
Brandon C. White, Brian R. Elbing, and Imraan A. Faruque
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2923–2938,Short summary
Tornadic storms have been hypothesized to emit sound at frequencies below human hearing which animals and certain microphones can detect. This study covers the design, fabrication, and deployment of a specialized microphone that can be carried by first responders and storm chasers. The study also presents real-time processing methods, analyzes several recorded severe weather events including a tornado, and introduces a real-time web interface to allow for live monitoring of the mobile sensor.
Sasu Karttunen, Ewan O'Connor, Olli Peltola, and Leena Järvi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2417–2432,Short summary
To study the complex structure of the lowest tens of metres of atmosphere in urban areas, measurement methods with great spatial and temporal coverage are needed. In our study, we analyse measurements with a promising and relatively new method, distributed temperature sensing, capable of providing detailed information on the near-surface atmosphere. We present multiple ways to utilise these kinds of measurements, as well as important considerations for planning new studies using the method.
Bruce Ingleby, Martin Motl, Graeme Marlton, David Edwards, Michael Sommer, Christoph von Rohden, Holger Vömel, and Hannu Jauhiainen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 165–183,Short summary
Radiosonde descent data could provide extra profiles of the atmosphere for forecasting and other uses. Descent data from Vaisala RS41 radiosondes have been compared with the ascent profiles and with ECMWF short-range forecasts. The agreement is mostly good. The descent rate is very variable and high descent rates cause temperature biases, especially at upper levels. Ascent winds are affected by pendulum motion; on average, the descent winds are smoother.
Karlie N. Rees and Timothy J. Garrett
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7681–7691,Short summary
Monte Carlo simulations are used to establish baseline precipitation measurement uncertainties according to World Meteorological Organization standards. Measurement accuracy depends on instrument sampling area, time interval, and precipitation rate. Simulations are compared with field measurements taken by an emerging hotplate precipitation sensor. We find that the current collection area is sufficient for light rain, but a larger collection area is required to detect moderate to heavy rain.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7475–7493,Short summary
Understanding turbulence near the surface is important for many applications. In this work, methods for observing and analysing temperature structures in a near-surface volume were explored. Experiments were conducted to identify modes of organised motion. These help explain interactions between the vegetation and the atmosphere that are not currently well understood. Techniques used include fibre-optic sensing, thermal infrared imaging, signal decomposition, and machine learning.
Alexey B. Tikhomirov, Glen Lesins, and James R. Drummond
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7123–7145,Short summary
Two commercial quadcopters (DJI Matrice 100 and M210 RTK) were equipped with an air temperature measurement system. They were flown at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, at 80° N latitude to study surface-based temperature inversion during February–March field campaigns in 2017 and 2020. It was demonstrated that the drones can be effectively used in the High Arctic to measure vertical temperature profiles up to 75 m off the ground.
Wenying He, Hongbin Chen, Yuejian Xuan, Jun Li, Minzheng Duan, and Weidong Nan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7069–7078,Short summary
Large microwave surface emissivities (ε) cause difficulties in widely using satellite microwave data over land. Usually, ground-based radiometers are fixed to a scan field to obtain the temporal evolution of ε over a single land-cover area. To obtain the long-term temporal evolution of ε over different land-cover surfaces simultaneously, we developed a ground mobile observation system to enhance in situ ε observations and presented some preliminary results.
Dhiraj K. Singh, Spencer Donovan, Eric R. Pardyjak, and Timothy J. Garrett
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6973–6990,Short summary
This paper describes a new instrument for quantifying the physical characteristics of hydrometeors such as snow and rain. The device can measure the mass, size, density and type of individual hydrometeors as well as their bulk properties. The instrument is called the Differential Emissivity Imaging Disdrometer (DEID) and is composed of a thermal camera and hotplate. The DEID measures hydrometeors at sampling frequencies up to 1 Hz with masses and effective diameters greater than 1 µg and 200 µm.
Chiara Musacchio, Graziano Coppa, Gaber Begeš, Christina Hofstätter-Mohler, Laura Massano, Guido Nigrelli, Francesca Sanna, and Andrea Merlone
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6195–6212,Short summary
In the context of the overhaul of the WMO/CIMO guide (no. 8) on instruments and methods of observation, we performed an experiment to quantify uncertainties in air temperature measurements due to reflected solar radiation from a snow-covered surface. Coupled sensors with different radiation shields were put under different ground conditions (grass vs. snow) for a whole winter. Results show that different shields may reduce the influence of backward radiation, which can produce errors up to 3 °C.
Tamino Wetz, Norman Wildmann, and Frank Beyrich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3795–3814,Short summary
A fleet of quadrotors is presented as a system to measure the spatial distribution of atmospheric boundary layer flow. The big advantage of this approach is that multiple and flexible measurement points in space can be sampled synchronously. The algorithm to calculate the horizontal wind is based on the principle of aerodynamic drag and the related quadrotor dynamics. The validation reveals that an average accuracy of < 0.3 m s−1 for the wind speed and < 8° for the wind direction was achieved.
Olivier F. C. den Ouden, Jelle D. Assink, Cornelis D. Oudshoorn, Dominique Filippi, and Läslo G. Evers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3301–3317,
Christophe Leroy-Dos Santos, Mathieu Casado, Frédéric Prié, Olivier Jossoud, Erik Kerstel, Morgane Farradèche, Samir Kassi, Elise Fourré, and Amaëlle Landais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2907–2918,Short summary
We developed an instrument that can generate water vapor at low humidity at a very stable level. This instrument was conceived to calibrate water vapor isotopic records obtained in very dry places such as central Antarctica. Here, we provide details on the instrument as well as results obtained for correcting water isotopic records for diurnal variability during a long field season at the Concordia station in East Antarctica.
Kyle E. Fitch, Chaoxun Hang, Ahmad Talaei, and Timothy J. Garrett
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1127–1142,Short summary
Snow measurements are very sensitive to wind. Here, we compare airflow and snowfall simulations to Arctic observations for a Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera to show that measurements of fall speed, orientation, and size are accurate only with a double wind fence and winds below 5 m s−1. In this case, snowflakes tend to fall with a nearly horizontal orientation; the largest flakes are as much as 5 times more likely to be observed. Adjustments are needed for snow falling in naturally turbulent air.
Wei-Chun Hwang, Po-Hsiung Lin, and Hungjui Yu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5395–5406,Short summary
We have developed a small, light-weight (radiosonde of 20 g with battery), low-cost, and easy-to-use upper-air radiosonde system: the Storm Tracker. With the ability to receive multiple radiosondes simultaneously, the system enables high temporal and spatial resolution atmospheric observations. In the 2018 field campaign, the accuracy of the Storm tracker was tested using co-launched data with Vaisala RS41-SGP radiosondes, and the measurements show an overall good agreement.
Fabio Madonna, Rigel Kivi, Jean-Charles Dupont, Bruce Ingleby, Masatomo Fujiwara, Gonzague Romanens, Miguel Hernandez, Xavier Calbet, Marco Rosoldi, Aldo Giunta, Tomi Karppinen, Masami Iwabuchi, Shunsuke Hoshino, Christoph von Rohden, and Peter William Thorne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3621–3649,Short summary
Radiosondes are one of the primary sources of upper-air data for weather and climate monitoring. In the last two decades, technological progress made available automated radiosonde launchers (ARLs), which are able to replace measurements typically performed manually. This work presents a comparative analysis of the technical performance of the ARLs currently available on the market and contribute to define a strategy to achieve the full traceability of the ARL products.
Sebastian Landwehr, Iris Thurnherr, Nicolas Cassar, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Julia Schmale
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3487–3506,Short summary
Shipborne wind speed measurements are relevant for field studies of air–sea interaction processes. Distortion of the airflow by the ship’s structure can, however, lead to errors. We estimate the flow distortion bias by comparing the observations to ERA-5 reanalysis data. The underlying assumptions are that the bias depends only on the relative orientation of the ship to the wind direction and that the ERA-5 wind speeds are (on average) representative of the true wind speed.
Antonio R. Segales, Brian R. Greene, Tyler M. Bell, William Doyle, Joshua J. Martin, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, and Phillip B. Chilson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2833–2848,Short summary
The CopterSonde is an unmanned aircraft system designed with the purpose of sampling thermodynamic and kinematic parameters of the lower Earth's atmosphere, with a focus on vertical profiles in the planetary boundary layer. By incorporating adaptive sampling techniques and optimizing the sensor placement, our study shows that CopterSonde can provide similar information as a radiosonde, but with more control of its sampling location at much higher temporal and spatial resolution.
Thomas Kuhn and Sandra Vázquez-Martín
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1273–1285,Short summary
Directly measured shape and fall speed are two important parameters needed for models and remote sensing. This can be done by the new Dual Ice Crystal Imager (D-ICI) instrument, which takes two high-resolution pictures of falling snow crystals from two different angles. Fall speed is measured by doubly exposing the side-view picture. Size and shape are determined from the second picture providing the top view of the snow crystal. D-ICI has been tested on the ground in Kiruna, northern Sweden.
Ben S. Pickering, Ryan R. Neely III, and Dawn Harrison
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5845–5861,Short summary
A new network of precipitation instruments has been established for the UK. The instruments are capable of detecting the fall velocity and diameter of each particle that falls through a laser beam. The particle characteristics are derived from the duration and amount of decrease in beam brightness as perceived by a receiving diode. A total of 14 instruments make up the network and all instruments upload 60 s frequency data in near-real time to a publicly available website with plots.
Ruhi S. Humphries, Ian M. McRobert, Will A. Ponsonby, Jason P. Ward, Melita D. Keywood, Zoe M. Loh, Paul B. Krummel, and James Harnwell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3019–3038,Short summary
Undertaking atmospheric observations from ships provides important data in regions where measurements are impossible by other means. However, making measurements so close to a diesel exhaust plume is difficult. In this paper, we describe an algorithm that utilises ongoing measurements of aerosol number concentrations, black carbon mass concentrations, and mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide to accurately distinguish between exhaust and background data periods.
Geoffrey Elie Quentin Bessardon, Kwabena Fosu-Amankwah, Anders Petersson, and Barbara Jane Brooks
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1311–1324,Short summary
This paper presents the first performance assessment during a field campaign of a new reusable radiosonde: the Windsond S1H2. The reuse feature of the S1H2 requires evaluation of the data alteration due to sonde reuse in addition to performance and reproducibility assessments. A comparison with the Vaisala RS41-SG, a well-proven system, shows the potential of the S1H2, with no major performance degradation arising from S1H2 sonde reuse but shows the need for improving the S1H2 GPS system.
Xinhua Zhou, Qinghua Yang, Xiaojie Zhen, Yubin Li, Guanghua Hao, Hui Shen, Tian Gao, Yirong Sun, and Ning Zheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5981–6002,Short summary
The three-dimensional wind and sonic temperature data from a physically deformed sonic anemometer was successfully recovered by developing equations, algorithms, and related software. Using two sets of geometry data from production calibration and return re-calibration, this algorithm can recover wind with/without transducer shadow correction and sonic temperature with crosswind correction, and then obtain fluxes at quality as expected. This study is applicable as a reference for related topics.
Brian R. Greene, Antonio R. Segales, Sean Waugh, Simon Duthoit, and Phillip B. Chilson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5519–5530,Short summary
With the recent commercial availability of rotary-wing unmanned aircraft systems (rwUAS), their ability to collect observations in the lower atmosphere is quickly being realized. However, integrating sensors with an rwUAS can introduce errors if not sited properly. This study discusses an objective method of determining some of these error sources in temperature, including improper airflow and rotary motor heating. Errors can be mitigated by mounting thermistors under propellers near the tips.
Jörg Hartmann, Martin Gehrmann, Katrin Kohnert, Stefan Metzger, and Torsten Sachs
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4567–4581,Short summary
We present new in-flight calibration procedures for airborne turbulence measurements that exploit suitable regular flight legs without the need for dedicated calibration patterns. Furthermore we estimate the accuracy of the airborne wind measurement and of the turbulent fluxes of the traces gases methane and carbon dioxide.
Stefanie Kremser, Jordis S. Tradowsky, Henning W. Rust, and Greg E. Bodeker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3021–3029,Short summary
We investigate the feasibility of quantifying the difference in biases of two instrument types (i.e. radiosondes) by flying the old and new instruments on alternating days, so-called interlacing, to statistically derive the systematic biases between the instruments. While it is in principle possible to estimate the difference between two instrument biases from interlaced measurements, the number of required interlaced flights is very large for reasonable autocorrelation coefficient values.
Radiance Calmer, Gregory C. Roberts, Jana Preissler, Kevin J. Sanchez, Solène Derrien, and Colin O'Dowd
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2583–2599,Short summary
Remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS), commonly called UAVs, are used in atmospheric science for in situ measurements. The presented work shows wind measurements from a five-hole probe on an RPAS. Comparisons with other instruments (sonic anemometer and cloud radar) show good agreement, validating the RPAS measurements. In situ vertical wind measurements at cloud base are highlighted because they are a major parameter needed for simulating aerosol–cloud interactions, though rarely collected.
Birger Bohn and Insa Lohse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3151–3174,Short summary
CCD spectroradiometers are widely used for measurements of atmospheric photolysis frequencies. Their fast response makes them suitable for airborne applications despite the well-known stray-light problem. In this work we describe simple and reliable procedures to minimize the stray-light influence on calibrations and field measurements. Comparisons with a reference instrument confirm high accuracies and low detection limits of important photolysis frequencies.
Stephan Nyeki, Stefan Wacker, Julian Gröbner, Wolfgang Finsterle, and Martin Wild
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3057–3071,Short summary
A large number of radiometers used to measure solar and terrestrial broadband radiation are traceable to World Standard Groups at PMOD/WRC in Davos, Switzerland. A small correction of each group may be required in the future, and this study examines the methods and implications of this on data sets collected at four remote baseline stations since the 1990s. The goal is to develop a better estimate of the solar and terrestrial radiation budget at the Earth's surface.
Bennett A. Maruca, Raffaele Marino, David Sundkvist, Niharika H. Godbole, Stephane Constantin, Vincenzo Carbone, and Herb Zimmerman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1595–1607,Short summary
The Turbulence and Intermittency Long-Duration Atmospheric Experiment (TILDAE) was developed to characterize small-scale fluctuations in the troposphere and stratosphere. The mission's key instrument, a customized sonic anemometer, made high-speed calibrated measurements of the 3-D wind velocity and air temperature. TILDAE was incorporated as an "add-on" experiment to the payload of a NASA long-duration balloon mission that launched in January 2016 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica.
Moon-Soo Park, Sung-Hwa Park, Jung-Hoon Chae, Min-Hyeok Choi, Yunyoung Song, Minsoo Kang, and Joon-Woo Roh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1575–1594,Short summary
The philosophy, background, and details of high-resolution urban observation network to meet the need of reducing damages caused by extreme weather phenomena such as heavy rain/snow fall, strong wind, heat/cold waves, or road ice in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea (UMS-Seoul), is introduced. Two case studies demonstrate that the observed data have a great potential to help to understand the boundary-layer structures more deepl and provide useful meteorological information in the SMA.
Sandro M. Oswald, Helga Pietsch, Dietmar J. Baumgartner, Philipp Weihs, and Harald E. Rieder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1169–1179,Short summary
This study investigates effects of precipitation events on the accuracy of solar radiation measurements. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation, a series of controlled laboratory experiments and two field campaigns were performed. The results indicate that precipitation significantly affects the thermal environment of the instruments and thus their stability. A high accuracy of solar radiation measurements is important to improve the prediction of Earth's climate change.
Katherine McCaffrey, Paul T. Quelet, Aditya Choukulkar, James M. Wilczak, Daniel E. Wolfe, Steven P. Oncley, W. Alan Brewer, Mithu Debnath, Ryan Ashton, G. Valerio Iungo, and Julie K. Lundquist
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 393–407,Short summary
During the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) field campaign, the wake and flow distortion from a 300-meter meteorological tower was identified using pairs of sonic anemometers mounted on opposite sides of the tower, as well as profiling and scanning lidars. Wind speed deficits up to 50% and TKE increases of 2 orders of magnitude were observed at wind directions in the wake, along with wind direction differences (flow deflection) outside of the wake.
John M. Frank, William J. Massman, and Brent E. Ewers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5933–5953,Short summary
Ecosystem flux networks measure carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange and are integral to global studies of the biosphere and climate change. Yet recent evidence suggests a measurement error in sonic anemometry, the principal instrument for eddy-covariance research. A novel Bayesian analysis estimates the three-dimensional correction in these instruments and demonstrates that 60 % of the sites within the AmeriFlux network and numerous others globally underestimate all ecosystem fluxes by 8–12 %.
Line Båserud, Joachim Reuder, Marius O. Jonassen, Stephan T. Kral, Mostafa B. Paskyabi, and Marie Lothon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4901–4913,Short summary
The micro-RPAS SUMO (Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer) equipped with a five-hole-probe (5HP) system for turbulent flow measurements was operated in 49 flight missions during the BLLAST (Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) field campaign in 2011. Based on data sets from these flights, we investigate the potential and limitations of airborne velocity variance and TKE (turbulent kinetic energy) estimations by an RPAS with a take-off weight below 1 kg.
Guylaine Canut, Fleur Couvreux, Marie Lothon, Dominique Legain, Bruno Piguet, Astrid Lampert, William Maurel, and Eric Moulin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4375–4386,Short summary
Turbulent processes of the atmospheric boundary layer contribute the most to transfers between the surface and the atmosphere. Typically, turbulent boundary layer parameters are measured by sonic anemometers on masts and by research aircraft. This is to measure in situ turbulent parameters in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) at altitudes above 50 m. For this purpose, our team have developed a system under a tethered balloon which has been in use since 2010.
Siebren de Haan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4141–4150,Short summary
The paper presents estimates of aircraft-derived wind observations obtained using Mode-S EHS method by applying the triple-collocation technique. Triple-collocated data sets were constructed using sodar (at Schiphol airport) and Doppler radar wind observation (from two radars in the Netherlands) in combination with numerical weather model data. It was found that the wind error near the surface is around 1.4 m s−1, while at 500 hPa the error is estimated to be around 1.1 m s−1.
Birger Bohn, Dwayne E. Heard, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Rainer Schmitt, and Lisa K. Whalley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3455–3466,Short summary
Filter radiometers are instruments that quantify the rate of formation of excited oxygen atoms from photolysis of ozone in the atmosphere. The excited oxygen atoms are important for the atmospheric self-cleaning ability. The radiometers were characterised by measurements of their spectral response. Together with field comparisons with a reference instrument, the characterisations improved the performance. That will help to better understand atmospheric photochemistry in future research.
Joachim Reuder, Line Båserud, Marius O. Jonassen, Stephan T. Kral, and Martin Müller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2675–2688,Short summary
Extensive operations of the Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer, a small (80 cm) and lightweight (700 g) unmanned research aircraft, have been performed during the BLLAST (Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) campaign in southern France in summer 2011. With a total of 300 flights, the SUMO system has provided a unique data set consisting of temperature, humidity and wind profiles, surface-temperature surveys and profiles of turbulence parameters.
Andreas Kräuchi and Rolf Philipona
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2535–2544,Short summary
New radiosonde instruments for humidity-, radiation- and gas-profile measurements were introduced in recent years for atmospheric research and climate monitoring. Such instruments are intended to be reused on multiple flights. Here we introduce the return glider radiosonde (RGR), which enables flying and retrieving valuable in situ upper-air instruments. The RGR is lifted with weather balloons to a preset altitude, and a built-in autopilot flies the glider autonomously back to the launch site.
Gijs de Boer, Scott Palo, Brian Argrow, Gabriel LoDolce, James Mack, Ru-Shan Gao, Hagen Telg, Cameron Trussel, Joshua Fromm, Charles N. Long, Geoff Bland, James Maslanik, Beat Schmid, and Terry Hock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1845–1857,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of a recently developed unmanned aerial system (UAS) for study of the lower atmosphere. This platform, the University of Colorado Pilatus UAS, is capable of providing measurements of atmospheric thermodynamics (temperature, pressure, humidity), atmospheric aerosol size distributions, and broadband radiation. These quantities are critical for understanding a variety of atmospheric processes relevant for characterization of the surface energy budget.
Cheng-Ku Yu, Pei-Rong Hsieh, Sandra E. Yuter, Lin-Wen Cheng, Chia-Lun Tsai, Che-Yu Lin, and Ying Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1755–1766,Short summary
How to accurately measure droplet fall speed in natural outdoor conditions has been a long-standing and highly challenging issue in the meteorological community. Results from this article are not only to demonstrate the great potential for high-speed imaging to provide a reliable measurement of droplet fall speed without suffering from sampling uncertainties but also to share a new approach and different thoughts about the retrieval of the droplet fall speed information.
Marc Olefs, Dietmar J. Baumgartner, Friedrich Obleitner, Christoph Bichler, Ulrich Foelsche, Helga Pietsch, Harald E. Rieder, Philipp Weihs, Florian Geyer, Thomas Haiden, and Wolfgang Schöner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1513–1531,Short summary
We present the Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) that has been established to advance national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modeling and solar energy techniques' development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods and strategies.
Andreas Kräuchi, Rolf Philipona, Gonzague Romanens, Dale F. Hurst, Emrys G. Hall, and Allen F. Jordan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 929–938,Short summary
In situ upper-air measurements are often made with instruments attached to weather balloons launched at the surface and lifted into the stratosphere. It has been demonstrated that ascending weather balloons can perturb the air measured by very sensitive humidity and temperature sensors trailing behind them. The use of controlled balloon descent for such measurements has therefore been investigated and is described here. We present two different methods and show advantages and disadvantages.
F. Bernauer, K. Hürkamp, W. Rühm, and J. Tschiersch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3251–3261,Short summary
This work has the aim of clarifying the consistency of 2-D video disdrometer devices in deriving size, velocity and shape parameters of solid hydrometeors. The need of implementing a matching algorithm suitable for mixed- and solid-phase precipitation is highlighted as an essential step in data evaluation. For this purpose simple reproducible experiments with solid steel spheres and irregularly shaped Styrofoam particles are conducted.
C. Mallaun, A. Giez, and R. Baumann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3177–3196,Short summary
We demonstrate a calibration method for the three-dimensional wind measurements on a research aircraft, which are strongly influenced by dynamical effects during flight. We correct these errors step by step after an extensive test flight program including new methods to gain optimum correction coefficients and a direct estimation of the residual errors. The overall error, estimated with a novel error propagation scheme, is 0.3 m/s for the horizontal and 0.2 m/s for the vertical wind.
R. D. Leeper and J. Kochendorfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2291–2300,Short summary
Evaporation from precipitation gauges can bias measurements lower. The use of evaporation suppressants may not always be practical, considering the added cost of maintenance, transport, and disposal of the gauge additive. In this field study, two quality assurance methods used to evaluate depth change for the US Climate Reference Network were compared. Results from this study indicate calculation techniques can reduce the impact of gauge evaporation on precipitation measurements.
J. M. Intrieri, G. de Boer, M. D. Shupe, J. R. Spackman, J. Wang, P. J. Neiman, G. A. Wick, T. F. Hock, and R. E. Hood
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3917–3926,Short summary
In winter 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) was deployed over the Arctic to evaluate a UAS dropsonde system at high latitudes. Dropsondes deployed from the Global Hawk successfully obtained high-resolution profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind speed and direction information between the stratosphere and surface. During the 25-hour polar flight, the Global Hawk released 35 sondes between the North Slope of Alaska and 85° N latitude.
B. Buchholz, A. Afchine, and V. Ebert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3653–3666,
W. A. Cooper, S. M. Spuler, M. Spowart, D. H. Lenschow, and R. B. Friesen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3215–3231,
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In this study, we introduce the new tethered balloon system BELUGA, which includes different modular instrument packages for measuring turbulence and radiation in the atmospheric boundary layer. BELUGA was deployed in an Arctic field campaign in 2017, providing details of boundary layer processes in combination with low-level clouds. Those processes are still not fully understood and in situ measurements in the Arctic improve our understanding of the Arctic response in terms of global warming.
In this study, we introduce the new tethered balloon system BELUGA, which includes different...