Articles | Volume 13, issue 7
Research article 20 Jul 2020
Research article | 20 Jul 2020
Optimised degradation correction for SCIAMACHY satellite solar measurements from 330 to 1600 nm by using the internal white light source
Tina Hilbig et al.
No articles found.
Lily N. Zhang, Susan Solomon, Kane A. Stone, Jonathan D. Shanklin, Joshua D. Eveson, Steve Colwell, John P. Burrows, Mark Weber, Pieternel F. Levelt, Natalya A. Kramarova, and David P. Haffner
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In the 1980s, measurements at the British Antarctic Survey station in Halley, Antarctica led to the discovery of the ozone hole. The Halley total ozone record continues to be uniquely valuable for studies of long-term changes in Antarctic ozone. Environmental conditions in 2017 forced a temporary cessation of operations, leading to a gap in the historic record. We develop and test a method for filling in the Halley record using satellite data and find evidence to further support ozone recovery.
Jakob Borchardt, Konstantin Gerilowski, Sven Krautwurst, Heinrich Bovensmann, Andrew K. Thorpe, David R. Thompson, Christian Frankenberg, Charles E. Miller, Riley M. Duren, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1267–1291,Short summary
The AVIRIS-NG hyperspectral imager has been used successfully to identify and quantify anthropogenic methane sources utilizing different retrieval and inversion methods. Here, we examine the adaption and application of the WFM-DOAS algorithm to AVIRIS-NG measurements to retrieve local methane column enhancements, compare the results with other retrievals, and quantify the uncertainties resulting from the retrieval method. Additionally, we estimate emissions from five detected methane plumes.
Soheila Jafariserajehlou, Vladimir V. Rozanov, Marco Vountas, Charles K. Gatebe, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 369–389,Short summary
In this work, we study retrieval of snow grain morphologies and their impact on the reflectance in a coupled snow–atmosphere system. We present a sensitivity study to highlight the importance of having adequate information about snow and atmosphere. A novel two-stage algorithm for retrieving the size and shape of snow grains is presented. The reflectance simulation results are compared to that of airborne measurements; high correlations of 0.98 at IR and 0.88–0.98 at VIS are achieved.
Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Sven Krautwurst, Konstantin Gerilowski, Matthias Lindauer, Dagmar Kubistin, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 153–172,Short summary
CO2 measurements from a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) can provide a cost-effective way to complement and validate satellite-based measurements of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We introduce an sUAS which is capable of determining atmospheric CO2 mass fluxes from its own sensor data. We show results of validation flights at the ICOS atmospheric station in Steinkimmen and from demonstration flights downwind a CO2-emitting natural gas processing facility.
Sven Krautwurst, Konstantin Gerilowski, Jakob Borchardt, Norman Wildmann, Michal Galkowski, Justyna Swolkien, Julia Marshall, Alina Fiehn, Anke Roiger, Thomas Ruhtz, Christoph Gerbig, Jaroslaw Necki, John P. Burrows, Andreas Fix, and Heinrich Bovensmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The study reports on observations from the passive airborne remote sensing instrument MAMAP, from which atmospheric CH4 column anomalies are retrieved to investigate CH4 emissions from coal mine shafts in Poland. Emissions from small groups of shafts have successfully been computed from the anomalies and compared to inventory data. The comparison revealed that caution is required if inventory data is only available on an annual basis and that an exact source assignment requires 2D instruments.
Daniel Zawada, Ghislain Franssens, Robert Loughman, Antti Mikkonen, Alexei Rozanov, Claudia Emde, Adam Bourassa, Seth Dueck, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Didier Ramon, Vladimir Rozanov, Emmanuel Dekemper, Erkki Kyrölä, John P. Burrows, Didier Fussen, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Satellite measurements of atmospheric composition often rely on computer tools known as radiative transfer models to model the propagation of sunlight within the atmosphere. Here we have performed a detailed inter-comparison of seven different radiative transfer models in a variety of conditions. We have found that the models agree remarkably well, at a level better than previously reported. This result provides confidence in our understanding of atmospheric radiative transfer.
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, James R. Podolske, David F. Pollard, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We present first GOSAT and GOSAT-2 XCO2 data derived with the FOCAL retrieval algorithm. Comparisons of the GOSAT FOCAL product with other data reveal a long-term agreement within about 1 ppm over one decade, differences in seasonal variations of about 0.5 ppm and a mean regional bias to ground based TCCON data of 0.56 ppm with a mean scatter of 1.89 ppm. GOSAT-2 FOCAL data are considered to be preliminary only, but first comparisons show that they compare well with the GOSAT FOCAL results.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Monika Szelag, Johanna Tamminen, Erkki Kyrölä, Doug Degenstein, Chris Roth, Daniel Zawada, Alexei Rozanov, Carlo Arosio, John P. Burrows, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Gabriele Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Lucien Froidevaux, Nathaniel Livesey, Michel van Roozendael, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The MErged GRIdded Dataset of Ozone Profiles is the long-term (2001–2018) stratospheric ozone profile climate data record with the resolved longitudinal structure, which combines the data from six limb satellite instruments. The dataset can be used various analyses, some of them are discussed in the paper. In particular, regional and vertically resolved ozone trends are evaluated, including the trends in polar regions.
Sora Seo, Andreas Richter, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Ilias Bougoudis, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12285–12312,Short summary
In this study, we present spatial distributions of occurrence frequency of enhanced total BrO column and various meteorological parameters affecting it in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice regions by using 10 years of GOME-2 measurements and meteorological model data. Statistical analysis using the long-term dataset shows clear differences in the meteorological conditions between the mean field and the situation of enhanced total BrO columns in both polar sea ice regions.
Ilias Bougoudis, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Andreas Richter, Sora Seo, John Philip Burrows, Nicolas Theys, and Annette Rinke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11869–11892,Short summary
A 22-year (1996 to 2017) consistent Arctic tropospheric BrO dataset derived from four satellite remote sensing instruments is presented. An increase in tropospheric BrO VCDs over this period, and especially during polar springs, can be seen. Comparisons of tropospheric BrO VCDs with first-year sea ice reveal a moderate spatial and temporal correlation between the two, suggesting that the increase in first-year sea ice in the Arctic has an impact on tropospheric BrO abundancies.
Stefan Noël, Klaus Bramstedt, Alexei Rozanov, Elizaveta Malinina, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5643–5666,Short summary
A new approach to derive stratospheric aerosol extinction profiles from SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements based on an onion-peeling method is presented. The resulting extinctions at 452, 525 and 750 nm compare well with other limb and occultation data from, e.g. SAGE and SCIAMACHY, but show small oscillating features which vanish in monthly anomalies. Major volcanic eruptions, polar stratospheric clouds and influences of the quasi-biennial oscillation can be identified in the time series.
Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Stefan Noël, Klaus Bramstedt, Oliver Schneising, Michael Hilker, Blanca Fuentes Andrade, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hartmut Boesch, Lianghai Wu, Jochen Landgraf, Ilse Aben, Christian Retscher, Christopher W. O’Dell, and David Crisp
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reduced anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during 2020 in large parts of the world. We have used a small emsemble of satellite retrievals of column-averaged CO2 (XCO2) to find out if a regional-scale reduction of atmospheric CO2 can be detected from space. We focus on East China and show that it is challenging to reliably detect and to accurately quantify the emission reduction, which only results in regional XCO2 reductions of about 0.1–0.2 ppm.
Linlu Mei, Vladimir Rozanov, Christine Pohl, Marco Vountas, and John P. Burrows
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
This paper presents a new snow property retrieval algorithm from satellite observations. This is part 1 of the paper, which shows the method description and sensitivity study. The paper investigates the major impact factors, including the assumptions of snow optical properties and atmospheric conditions (cloud and aerosol) on snow properties retrievals from satellite observation.
Linlu Mei, Vladimir Rozanov, Evelyn Jäkel, Xiao Cheng, Marco Vountas, and John P. Burrows
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
This paper presents a new snow property retrieval algorithm from satellite observations. This is part 2 of the paper, which shows the results and validation. The paper performs the new retrieval algorithm on the SLSTR instrument and compared the retrieved snow properties with ground-based measurements, aircraft measures, and other satellite products.
Hirofumi Ohyama, Isamu Morino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Theresa Klausner, Gerry Bagtasa, Matthäus Kiel, Matthias Frey, Akihiro Hori, Osamu Uchino, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Alina Fiehn, Anke Roiger, Michael Lichtenstern, Hans Schlager, Pao K. Wang, Charles C.-K. Chou, Maria Dolores Andrés-Hernández, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5149–5163,Short summary
Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 measured by a solar viewing portable Fourier transform spectrometer (EM27/SUN) were validated with in situ profile data obtained during the transfer flights of two aircraft campaigns. Atmospheric dynamical properties based on ERA5 and WRF-Chem were used as criteria for selecting the best aircraft profiles for the validation. The resulting air-mass-independent correction factors for the EM27/SUN data were 0.9878 for CO2 and 0.9829 for CH4.
Elizaveta Malinina, Alexei Rozanov, Ulrike Niemeier, Sandra Peglow, Carlo Arosio, Felix Wrana, Claudia Timmreck, Christian von Savigny, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In the paper, changes in the stratospheric aerosol loading after the 2018 Ambae eruption were analyzed using OMPS-LP observations. The eruption was also simulated with MECHAM-HAM global climate model. Generally, the model and observations agree very well. We attribute good consistency of the results with precisely determined altitude and mass of the volcanic injection as well as with nudging of meteorological data. The radiative forcing from the eruption was estimated to be −0.13 W/m2.
Oliver Schneising, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Steffen Vanselow, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9169–9182,Short summary
The switch from the use of coal to natural gas or oil for energy generation potentially reduces the impact on global warming due to lower CO2 emissions with the same energy content. However, this climate benefit is offset by fugitive methane emissions during the production and distribution process. We quantify emission and leakage rates relative to production for several large production regions based on satellite observations to evaluate the climate footprint of the gas and oil industry.
Steven Compernolle, Tijl Verhoelst, Gaia Pinardi, José Granville, Daan Hubert, Arno Keppens, Sander Niemeijer, Bruno Rino, Alkis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Folkert Boersma, John P. Burrows, Isabelle De Smedt, Henk Eskes, Florence Goutail, François Hendrick, Alba Lorente, Andrea Pazmino, Ankie Piters, Enno Peters, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Jos van Geffen, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, and Jean-Christopher Lambert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8017–8045,Short summary
Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 columns from the OMI QA4ECV NO2 satellite product are validated by comparison with ground-based measurements at 11 sites. The OMI stratospheric column has a small negative bias, and the OMI tropospheric column has a stronger negative bias relative to the ground-based data. Discrepancies are attributed to comparison errors (e.g. difference in horizontal smoothing) and measurement errors (e.g. clouds, aerosols, vertical smoothing and a priori proﬁle assumptions).
Midhun George, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Yangzhuoran Liu, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2577–2600,Short summary
The accurate measurement of peroxy radicals is essential for understanding the chemistry of air masses probed in the free troposphere. The PeRCEAS instrument has been designed, developed and thoroughly characterised for the measurement of the total sum of peroxy radicals (RO2*) aboard airborne platforms. Parameters expected to affect the precision and accuracy of the measurement have been investigated in detail.
Oliver Schneising, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3317–3332,Short summary
As a consequence of climate change, droughts in California are occurring more often, providing ample fuel for destructive wildfires. The associated smoke is reducing air quality as it contains pollutants considered harmful to public health and the environment such as carbon monoxide (CO). We analyse the statewide distribution of CO during the first days of two specific wildfires using satellite measurements and assess the corresponding air quality burden in major Californian cities.
Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Joaquim Arteta, Adriana Coman, Lyana Curier, Henk Eskes, Gilles Foret, Clio Gielen, Francois Hendrick, Virginie Marécal, Frédérik Meleux, Jonathan Parmentier, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie J. M. Piters, Matthieu Plu, Andreas Richter, Arjo Segers, Mikhail Sofiev, Álvaro M. Valdebenito, Michel Van Roozendael, Julius Vira, Tim Vlemmix, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2795–2823,Short summary
MAX-DOAS tropospheric NO2 vertical column retrievals from a set of European measurement stations are compared to regional air quality models which contribute to the operational Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Correlations are on the order of 35 %–75 %; large differences occur for individual pollution plumes. The results demonstrate that future model development needs to concentrate on improving representation of diurnal cycles and associated temporal scalings.
Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Andreas Richter, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Andreas Hilboll, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Oliver Schneising, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2057–2072,Short summary
We present CHOCHO and HCHO columns retrieved from measurements by TROPOMI. Elevated amounts of CHOCHO and HCHO are observed during the fire season in BC, Canada, where a large number of fires occurred in 2018. CHOCHO and HCHO plumes from individual fires are observed in air masses travelling over distances of up to 1500 km. Comparison with FLEXPART simulations with different lifetimes shows that effective lifetimes of 20 h and more are needed to explain the observations.
Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Boesch, Antonio Di Noia, Jasdeep Anand, Robert J. Parker, Peter Somkuti, Lianghai Wu, Otto P. Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Kei Shiomi, Yukio Yoshida, Isamu Morino, David Crisp, Christopher W. O'Dell, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Rigel Kivi, David F. Pollard, Frank Hase, Ralf Sussmann, Yao V. Té, Kimberly Strong, Sébastien Roche, Mahesh K. Sha, Martine De Mazière, Dietrich G. Feist, Laura T. Iraci, Coleen M. Roehl, Christian Retscher, and Dinand Schepers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 789–819,Short summary
We present new satellite-derived data sets of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The data products are column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 and XCH4. The products cover the years 2003–2018 and are merged Level 2 (satellite footprints) and merged Level 3 (gridded at monthly time and 5° x 5° spatial resolution) products obtained from combining several individual sensor products. We present the merging algorithms and product validation results.
Oliver Schneising, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Tobias Borsdorff, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Christian Hermans, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Jochen Landgraf, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Sébastien Roche, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6771–6802,Short summary
We introduce an algorithm that is used to simultaneously derive the abundances of the important atmospheric constituents carbon monoxide and methane from the TROPOMI instrument onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, which enables the determination of both gases with an unprecedented level of detail on a global scale. The quality of the resulting data sets is assessed and the first results are presented.
André Seyler, Andreas C. Meier, Folkard Wittrock, Lisa Kattner, Barbara Mathieu-Üffing, Enno Peters, Andreas Richter, Thomas Ruhtz, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan Schmolke, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5959–5977,Short summary
This study describes a novel application of an
onion-peelingapproach to MAX-DOAS measurements of shipping emissions to study the inhomogeneous NO2 field above a shipping lane. It is shown how the method can be used to derive the approximate plume positions in the observed area, and, by using a simple Gaussian plume model, to calculate in-plume NO2 volume mixing ratios. For validation, a comparison to airborne imaging DOAS measurements during the NOSE campaign in July 2013 is included.
Lisa K. Behrens, Andreas Hilboll, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Folkard Wittrock, John P. Burrows, and Mihalis Vrekoussis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10257–10278,Short summary
MAX-DOAS measurements were conducted on the research vessel Maria S. Merian during a cruise from the Azores to South Africa in October 2016. The measurements indicate enhanced levels of HCHO and CHOCHO over the remote Atlantic Ocean, which is unexpected due to their short lifetime. Precursors of these gases or gas–aerosol combinations might be transported. Model simulations indicate potential source regions over the African continent, probably related to biomass burning or biogenic emissions.
Enno Peters, Mareike Ostendorf, Tim Bösch, André Seyler, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, Jeroen Sebastiaan Henzing, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4171–4190,Short summary
A novel imaging-DOAS instrument (IMPACT) is presented for measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the atmosphere. The instrument combines full-azimuthal pointing (360°) with a large vertical coverage (40°). Complete panoramic scans and vertical NO2 profiles around the measurement site are acquired at a temporal resolution of 15 min. In addition, information about the aerosol phase function is retrieved from O4 slant columns along multiple almucantar scans measured simultaneously by IMPACT.
Dan Weaver, Kimberly Strong, Kaley A. Walker, Chris Sioris, Matthias Schneider, C. Thomas McElroy, Holger Vömel, Michael Sommer, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, John P. Burrows, William G. Read, Evan Fishbein, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4039–4063,Short summary
This work assesses water vapour profiles acquired by Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) using comparisons to radiosondes and ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer measurements acquired at a Canadian high Arctic measurement site in Eureka, Nunavut. Additional comparisons are made between these Eureka measurements and other water vapour satellite datasets for context, including AIRS, MLS, and others.
Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Sven Krautwurst, Christopher W. O'Dell, Andreas Richter, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9371–9383,Short summary
The quantification of anthropogenic emissions with current CO2 satellite sensors is difficult, but NO2 is co-emitted, making it a suitable tracer of recently emitted CO2. We analyze enhancements of CO2 and NO2 observed by OCO-2 and S5P and estimate the CO2 plume cross-sectional fluxes that we compare with emission databases. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of simultaneous satellite observations of CO2 and NO2 as envisaged for the European Copernicus anthropogenic CO2 monitoring mission
Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Rokjin J. Park, Gonzalo González Abad, Kelly Chance, Thomas P. Kurosu, Jhoon Kim, Isabelle De Smedt, Michel Van Roozendael, Enno Peters, and John Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3551–3571,Short summary
The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) will be launched by South Korea in 2019, and it will measure radiances ranging from 300 to 500 nm every hour with a fine spatial resolution of 7 km x 8 km over Seoul in South Korea to monitor column concentrations of air pollutants including O3, NO2, SO2, and HCHO, as well as aerosol optical properties. This paper describes a GEMS formaldehyde retrieval algorithm including a number of sensitivity tests for algorithm evaluation.
Elizaveta Malinina, Alexei Rozanov, Landon Rieger, Adam Bourassa, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3485–3502,Short summary
This paper covers the problems related to the derivation of aerosol extinction coefficients and Ångström exponents from space-borne instruments working in limb and occultation viewing geometries. Aerosol extinction coefficients and Ångström exponents were calculated from the SCIAMACHY aerosol particle size data set. The results were compared with the data from SAGE II and OSIRIS. The Ångström exponent in the tropical regions and its dependency on particle size parameters are discussed.
Sora Seo, Andreas Richter, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Ilias Bougoudis, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2913–2932,Short summary
TROPOMI on board the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor platform can measure various atmospheric compositions at high spatial resolution and improved spectral resolution compared to its predecessors. Bromine monoxide (BrO) is one of the gases that can be derived from the measured radiances of TROPOMI using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy method. In this paper, we present the first retrieval results of BrO column amounts from TROPOMI observations on global and regional scales.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Michael Kiefer, Kaley A. Walker, Jean-Loup Bertaux, Laurent Blanot, James M. Russell, Ellis E. Remsberg, John C. Gille, Takafumi Sugita, Christopher E. Sioris, Bianca M. Dinelli, Enzo Papandrea, Piera Raspollini, Maya García-Comas, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Anu Dudhia, William G. Read, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Robert P. Damadeo, Joseph M. Zawodny, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, Stefan Noël, John P. Burrows, Hideo Sagawa, Yasuko Kasai, Joachim Urban, Patrick Eriksson, Donal P. Murtagh, Mark E. Hervig, Charlotta Högberg, Dale F. Hurst, and Karen H. Rosenlof
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2693–2732,
Stefan F. Schreier, Andreas Richter, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5853–5879,Short summary
In this case stuy, we have coupled ground-based remote-sensing measurements with surface in situ measurements to investigate NO2 distributions in the planetary boundary layer in the Viennese metropolitan area. We find that the application of a novel linear regression analysis for the conversion of tropospheric NO2 vertical columns into near-surface NO2 mixing ratios is promising and thus the method needs to be further explored and tested on satellite observations in future studies.
Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Elizaveta Malinina, Mark Weber, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2423–2444,Short summary
The aim of this study is the merging of stratospheric ozone profiles from three satellite data sets. The merged time series is used to compute long-term changes as a function of altitude, latitude and longitude to study the evolution of the ozone layer over 1985–2018. During the last 16 years we found positive trends in the upper stratosphere at mid latitudes, a large variability of the ozone changes as a function of longitude and a fluctuation in the tropical middle stratospheric trend.
Soheila Jafariserajehlou, Linlu Mei, Marco Vountas, Vladimir Rozanov, John P. Burrows, and Rainer Hollmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1059–1076,Short summary
We developed a new algorithm for cloud identification over the Arctic. This algorithm called ASCIA, utilizes time-series measurements of Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on Envisat and Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) on Sentinel-3A and -3B. The data product of ASCIA is compared with three satellite products: ASCIA shows an improved performance compared to them. We validated ASCIA by ground-based measurements and a promising agreement is achieved.
Stefan Bender, Miriam Sinnhuber, Patrick J. Espy, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2135–2147,Short summary
We present an empirical model for nitric oxide (NO) in the mesosphere (60–90 km) derived from SCIAMACHY limb scan data. Our model relates the daily (longitudinally) averaged NO number densities from SCIAMACHY as a function of geomagnetic latitude to the solar Lyman-alpha and the geomagnetic AE indices. We use a non-linear regression model, incorporating a finite and seasonally varying lifetime for the geomagnetically induced NO.
Evgenia Galytska, Alexey Rozanov, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip. S. Dhomse, Mark Weber, Carlo Arosio, Wuhu Feng, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 767–783,Short summary
In this study we analysed ozone changes in the tropical mid-stratosphere as observed by the SCIAMACHY instrument during 2004–2012. We used simulations from TOMCAT model with different chemical and dynamical forcings to reveal primary causes of ozone changes. We also considered measured NO2 and modelled NOx, NOx, and N2O data. With modelled AoA data we identified seasonal changes in the upwelling speed and explained how those changes affect N2O chemistry which leads to observed ozone changes.
Tim Bösch, Vladimir Rozanov, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Alexei Rozanov, Folkard Wittrock, Alexis Merlaud, Johannes Lampel, Stefan Schmitt, Marijn de Haij, Stijn Berkhout, Bas Henzing, Arnoud Apituley, Mirjam den Hoed, Jan Vonk, Martin Tiefengraber, Moritz Müller, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6833–6859,Short summary
A new MAX-DOAS profiling algorithm for aerosols and trace gases was developed. The performance of this novel algorithm was tested with the help of synthetic data and measurements from the CINDI-2 campaign in Cabauw, the Netherlands, in 2016.
Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Oliver Schneising, Stefan Noël, Bettina Gier, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Boesch, Jasdeep Anand, Robert J. Parker, Peter Somkuti, Rob G. Detmers, Otto P. Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, André Butz, Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, David Crisp, and Christopher O'Dell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17355–17370,Short summary
We present a new satellite data set of column-averaged mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), which covers the time period 2003 to 2016. We used this data set to compute annual mean atmospheric CO2 growth rates. We show that the growth rate is highest during 2015 and 2016 despite nearly constant CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning in recent years. The high growth rates are attributed to year 2015-2016 El Nino episodes. We present correlations with fossil fuel emissions and ENSO indices.
Paul J. J. Tol, Tim A. van Kempen, Richard M. van Hees, Matthijs Krijger, Sidney Cadot, Ralph Snel, Stefan T. Persijn, Ilse Aben, and Ruud W. M. Hoogeveen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4493–4507,Short summary
The shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectrometer module of the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) is used to measure atmospheric CO and methane columns from space. A method has been developed and applied in an on-ground calibration campaign to characterize stray light in detail. An algorithm was then devised to correct in-flight observations in near-real time, reducing the stray-light signal sufficiently for accurate gas-column retrievals.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Stefan Lossow, Gabriele P. Stiller, Karen H. Rosenlof, Joachim Urban, John P. Burrows, Robert P. Damadeo, Patrick Eriksson, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Michael Kiefer, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4435–4463,Short summary
Time series of stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour using 33 data sets from 15 satellite instruments were compared in the framework of the second SPARC water vapour assessment. We find that most data sets can be considered in observational and modelling studies addressing, e.g. stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour variability and trends if data-set-specific characteristics (e.g. a drift) and restrictions (e.g. temporal and spatial coverage) are taken into account.
Richard M. van Hees, Paul J. J. Tol, Sidney Cadot, Matthijs Krijger, Stefan T. Persijn, Tim A. van Kempen, Ralph Snel, Ilse Aben, and Ruud W. M. Hoogeveen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3917–3933,
Landon A. Rieger, Elizaveta P. Malinina, Alexei V. Rozanov, John P. Burrows, Adam E. Bourassa, and Doug A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3433–3445,Short summary
This paper compares aerosol extinction records from two limb scattering instruments, OSIRIS and SCIAMACHY, to that from the occultation instrument SAGE II. Differences are investigated through modelling and retrieval studies and important sources of systematic errors are quantified. It is found that the largest biases come from uncertainties in the aerosol size distribution and the aerosol particle concentration at altitudes above 30 km.
Lisa K. Behrens, Andreas Hilboll, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Henk Eskes, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2769–2795,Short summary
We developed a novel NO2 DOAS retrieval for the GOME-2A instrument in the UV spectral range, which is compared with a NO2 retrieval in the visible and model values. Regions representative for both anthropogenic and biomass burning NO2 pollution are investigated. Anthropogenic air pollution is mostly located in the boundary layer close to the surface. In contrast, biomass burning NO2 is often uplifted into elevated layers.
Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Elizaveta Malinina, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Thomas von Clarmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2135–2149,Short summary
This paper describes the development of a retrieval algorithm at the University of Bremen which derives stratospheric ozone profiles from limb observations performed by the OMPS satellite instrument. Here we present the implementation of the algorithm and the validation of our results (1 year of data against independent satellite and ground-based measurements). Good agreement is generally found between 20 and 55 km, mostly within 10 % at all latitudes.
Evgenia Galytska, Vassyl Danylevsky, René Hommel, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2101–2118,Short summary
This research assesses the influence of biomass burning during forest fires throughout summer 2010 on aerosol load over Ukraine, the European territory of Russia (ETR) and Eastern Europe. We apply and compare ground-based and satellite measurements to determine aerosol content, dynamics, and properties. With the application of modeling techniques (HYSPLIT), we show that the maximum AOD in August 2010 over Ukraine was caused by particle transport from the forest fires in the ETR.
Elizaveta Malinina, Alexei Rozanov, Vladimir Rozanov, Patricia Liebing, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2085–2100,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosols play an important role in climate change. This paper presents the retrieval algorithm of two aerosol particle size distribution parameters in the stratosphere from remote sensing instruments. A unique data set was created by implementing this algorithm on SCIAMACHY limb measurements. The general behaviour of the aerosol particle size parameters was revealed. Comparison of the retrieved parameters with another instrument showed good agreement.
Stefan Noël, Katja Weigel, Klaus Bramstedt, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4463–4476,Short summary
The combined analysis of stratospheric methane and water vapour data derived from SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements shows the expected anti-correlation and a clear temporal variation related to waves in equatorial zonal winds. Above about 20 km most of the additional water vapour is attributed to the oxidation of methane. The SCIAMACHY data confirm that at lower altitudes water vapour and methane are transported from the tropics to higher latitudes.
Linlu Mei, Vladimir Rozanov, Marco Vountas, John P. Burrows, and Andreas Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2511–2523,
Mark Weber, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Vitali E. Fioletov, Stacey M. Frith, Jeannette D. Wild, John P. Burrows, Craig S. Long, and Diego Loyola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2097–2117,Short summary
This paper commemorates the 30-year anniversary of the initial signing of the Montreal Protocol (MP) on substances that deplete the ozone layer. The MP is so far successful in reducing ozone-depleting substances, and total ozone decline was successfully stopped by the late 1990s. Total ozone levels have been mostly stable since then. In some regions, barely significant upward trends are observed that suggest an emergence into the expected ozone recovery phase.
Thomas Krings, Bruno Neininger, Konstantin Gerilowski, Sven Krautwurst, Michael Buchwitz, John P. Burrows, Carsten Lindemann, Thomas Ruhtz, Dirk Schüttemeyer, and Heinrich Bovensmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 721–739,
Amirmahdi Zarboo, Stefan Bender, John P. Burrows, Johannes Orphal, and Miriam Sinnhuber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 473–487,Short summary
We present the retrieved volume emission rates (VERs) from the airglow of both the daytime and twilight O2(1Σ) band and O2(1Δ) band emissions in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). We have investigated the daily mean latitudinal distributions and the time series of the retrieved VER in the altitude range from 53 to 149 km. These observations provide information about the chemistry and dynamics and can be used to infer ozone, solar heating rates, and temperature in the MLT.
Patricia Liebing, Matthijs Krijger, Ralph Snel, Klaus Bramstedt, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 265–289,Short summary
This article describes a method to determine the polarization sensitivity of SCIAMACHY, a spectrometer on Envisat, from in-orbit data. Polarization is a preference of a direction in which light oscillates, and many optical instruments suffer from a dependence of their measured signals on this. To measure and correct for this effect, a statistical analysis of in-flight data combined with a model of the atmosphere and the instrument was performed, showing that the instrument changed after launch.
Elizabeth C. Weatherhead, Jerald Harder, Eduardo A. Araujo-Pradere, Greg Bodeker, Jason M. English, Lawrence E. Flynn, Stacey M. Frith, Jeffrey K. Lazo, Peter Pilewskie, Mark Weber, and Thomas N. Woods
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15069–15093,Short summary
Satellite overlap is often carried out as a check on the stability of the data collected. We looked at how length of overlap influences how much information can be derived from the overlap period. Several results surprised us: the confidence we could have in the matchup of two records was independent of the offset, and understanding of the relative drift between the two satellite data sets improved significantly with 2–3 years of overlap. Sudden jumps could easily be confused with drift.
Gerald E. Nedoluha, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Lossow, R. Michael Gomez, Niklaus Kämpfer, Martin Lainer, Peter Forkman, Ole Martin Christensen, Jung Jin Oh, Paul Hartogh, John Anderson, Klaus Bramstedt, Bianca M. Dinelli, Maya Garcia-Comas, Mark Hervig, Donal Murtagh, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen Rosenlof, Gabriele P. Stiller, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14543–14558,Short summary
As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere–troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate) water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II), we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. In the lower mesosphere, we quantify instrumental differences in the observed trends and annual variations at six sites. We then present a range of observed trends in water vapor over the past 20 years.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Erkki Kyrölä, Marko Laine, Johanna Tamminen, Doug Degenstein, Adam Bourassa, Chris Roth, Daniel Zawada, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Nabiz Rahpoe, Gabriele Stiller, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick Sheese, Daan Hubert, Michel van Roozendael, Claus Zehner, Robert Damadeo, Joseph Zawodny, Natalya Kramarova, and Pawan K. Bhartia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12533–12552,Short summary
We present a merged dataset of ozone profiles from several satellite instruments: SAGE II, GOMOS, SCIAMACHY, MIPAS, OSIRIS, ACE-FTS and OMPS. For merging, we used the latest versions of the original ozone datasets. The merged SAGE–CCI–OMPS dataset is used for evaluating ozone trends in the stratosphere through multiple linear regression. Negative ozone trends in the upper stratosphere are observed before 1997 and positive trends are found after 1997.
Sven Krautwurst, Konstantin Gerilowski, Haflidi H. Jonsson, David R. Thompson, Richard W. Kolyer, Laura T. Iraci, Andrew K. Thorpe, Markus Horstjann, Michael Eastwood, Ira Leifer, Samuel A. Vigil, Thomas Krings, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Buchwitz, Matthew M. Fladeland, John P. Burrows, and Heinrich Bovensmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3429–3452,Short summary
This study investigates a subset of data collected during the CO2 and Methane EXperiment (COMEX) in 2014. It focuses on airborne measurements to quantify the emissions from landfills in the Los Angeles Basin. Airborne remote sensing data have been used to estimate the emission rate of one particular landfill on four different days. The results have been compared to airborne in situ measurements. Airborne imaging spectroscopy has been used to identify emission hotspots across the landfill.
André Seyler, Folkard Wittrock, Lisa Kattner, Barbara Mathieu-Üffing, Enno Peters, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmolke, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10997–11023,Short summary
Shipping accounts for a significant part of the emissions from the transportation sector. We have analyzed 3 years of MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2 and SO2 from a small island in the German Bight, showing that despite the vicinity to the shipping lane, the contribution of shipping sources to air pollution is only about 40 %. The implementation of stricter fuel sulfur limits led to a significant reduction in SO2-to-NO2 ratios in shipping emissions and ambient SO2 levels at the German coast.
Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Lucien Froidevaux, Ryan Fuller, Ray Wang, John Anderson, Chris Roth, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Robert Damadeo, Joe Zawodny, Stacey Frith, Richard McPeters, Pawan Bhartia, Jeannette Wild, Craig Long, Sean Davis, Karen Rosenlof, Viktoria Sofieva, Kaley Walker, Nabiz Rahpoe, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele Stiller, Natalya Kramarova, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Thierry Leblanc, Richard Querel, Daan Swart, Ian Boyd, Klemens Hocke, Niklaus Kämpfer, Eliane Maillard Barras, Lorena Moreira, Gerald Nedoluha, Corinne Vigouroux, Thomas Blumenstock, Matthias Schneider, Omaira García, Nicholas Jones, Emmanuel Mahieu, Dan Smale, Michael Kotkamp, John Robinson, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Neil Harris, Birgit Hassler, Daan Hubert, and Fiona Tummon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10675–10690,Short summary
Thanks to the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments, ozone-depleting chlorine (and bromine) in the stratosphere has declined slowly since the late 1990s. Improved and extended long-term ozone profile observations from satellites and ground-based stations confirm that ozone is responding as expected and has increased by about 2 % per decade since 2000 in the upper stratosphere, around 40 km altitude. At lower altitudes, however, ozone has not changed significantly since 2000.
Martin P. Langowski, Christian von Savigny, John P. Burrows, Didier Fussen, Erin C. M. Dawkins, Wuhu Feng, John M. C. Plane, and Daniel R. Marsh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2989–3006,Short summary
Meteoric metals form metal layers in the upper atmosphere anandplay a role in the formation of middle-atmospheric clouds and aerosols. However, the total metal influx rate is not well known. Global Na datasets from measurements and a model are available, which had not been compared yet on a global scale until this paper. Overall the agreement is good, and many differences between measurements are also found in the model simulations. However, the modeled layer altitude is too low.
Klaus Bramstedt, Thomas C. Stone, Manfred Gottwald, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2413–2423,Short summary
The satellite instrument SCIAMACHY on board the ESA's platform Envisat (2002–2012) performed observations of the Earth's atmosphere. Using sun and moon observations of the instrument itself, we derived a set of correction parameters for the determination of the viewing directions of the instrument. From this work, all vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters from SCIAMACHY's limb and occultation measurements will be improved by a more accurate altitude information.
Andreas Carlos Meier, Anja Schönhardt, Tim Bösch, Andreas Richter, André Seyler, Thomas Ruhtz, Daniel-Eduard Constantin, Reza Shaiganfar, Thomas Wagner, Alexis Merlaud, Michel Van Roozendael, Livio Belegante, Doina Nicolae, Lucian Georgescu, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1831–1857,Short summary
We present airborne remote sensing measurements of NO2 in the urban area of Bucharest. NO2 is a harmful pollutant, which is emitted in combustion processes. The measurements presented here enable the creation of maps, showing the horizontal NO2 distribution across the whole city within a relatively short time window of 1.5 h. These data provide new insight into urban pollution levels and their spatial distribution.
Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Maximilian Reuter, Jens Heymann, Sven Krautwurst, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Boesch, Robert J. Parker, Peter Somkuti, Rob G. Detmers, Otto P. Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, André Butz, Christian Frankenberg, and Alexander J. Turner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5751–5774,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas and increasing atmospheric concentrations result in global warming. We present a simple method to derive annual methane emission estimates of methane hotspot areas from satellite data. We present results for four source areas. We found that our estimates are in good agreement with other studies/data sets for the Four Corners region in the USA and for Azerbaijan but we also found higher emissions for parts of California and Turkmenistan.
Jia Jia, Annette Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Xuewei Hou, Alexei Rozanov, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4915–4930,
Anja Schönhardt, Andreas Richter, Nicolas Theys, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4857–4870,Short summary
Iodine monoxide, IO, is observed in satellite measurements following the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in August 2008. Large IO columns are detected by SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and by GOME-2 on MetOp-A for several days. IO amounts are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those of BrO. Details in the spatial distributions differ between IO, BrO and sulfur dioxide, SO2. The total mass of IO in the volcanic plume is determined to be on the order of 10 Mg.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, John. P. Burrows, Bianca M. Dinelli, Patrick Eriksson, Patrick J. Espy, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen H. Rosenlof, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Gabriele P. Stiller, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1111–1137,
Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, André Seyler, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, Tim Bösch, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Theano Drosoglou, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Yugo Kanaya, Xiaoyi Zhao, Kimberly Strong, Johannes Lampel, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore Koenig, Ivan Ortega, Olga Puentedura, Mónica Navarro-Comas, Laura Gómez, Margarita Yela González, Ankie Piters, Julia Remmers, Yang Wang, Thomas Wagner, Shanshan Wang, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, David García-Nieto, Carlos A. Cuevas, Nuria Benavent, Richard Querel, Paul Johnston, Oleg Postylyakov, Alexander Borovski, Alexander Elokhov, Ilya Bruchkouski, Haoran Liu, Cheng Liu, Qianqian Hong, Claudia Rivera, Michel Grutter, Wolfgang Stremme, M. Fahim Khokhar, Junaid Khayyam, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 955–978,Short summary
This work is about harmonization of differential optical absorption spectroscopy retrieval codes, which is a remote sensing technique widely used to derive atmospheric trace gas amounts. The study is based on ground-based measurements performed during the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany, in summer 2013. In total, 17 international groups working in the field of the DOAS technique participated in this study.
Andreas Hilboll, Andreas Richter, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
We investigate the temporal evolution of the important tropospheric air pollutant nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since the early 2000s, and correlate NO2 abundances with indicators of economic development. Until 2012, NO2 pollution and economic growth are strongly correlated, with annual increases of up to 4.4 %. Since then, tropospheric NO2 pollution has stabilized or is even declining, probably as a result of a slow-down in Indian economic growth combined with the implementation of cleaner technology.
Ruixiong Zhang, Yuhang Wang, Qiusheng He, Laiguo Chen, Yuzhong Zhang, Hang Qu, Charles Smeltzer, Jianfeng Li, Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3083–3095,Short summary
We use short-lived reactive aromatics as proxies to diagnose transport of pollutants to Tibet. In situ observations of short-lived reactive aromatics across the Tibetan Plateau are analyzed using a regional chemistry and transport model. Our results suggest that the cut-off low system is a major pathway for long-range transport of pollutants such as black carbon. The modeling analysis reveals that even the state-of-the-science reanalysis cannot simulate this cut-off system accurately.
Stefan Bender, Miriam Sinnhuber, Martin Langowski, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 209–220,Short summary
We present the retrieval of NO number densities from 60 km to 85 km from measurements of SCIAMACHY/Envisat in its nominal limb mode (0–91 km). We derive the densities from the NO gamma bands (230–300 nm). Using prior input reduces the incorrect attribution of NO from the lower thermosphere. The SCIAMACHY nominal limb scans provide almost 10 years of daily NO data in this altitude range, a unique data record to constrain NO in the mesosphere for testing and validating chemistry climate models.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Chris A. McLinden, Peter F. Bernath, Adam E. Bourassa, John P. Burrows, Doug A. Degenstein, Bernd Funke, Didier Fussen, Gloria L. Manney, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, Cora E. Randall, Piera Raspollini, Alexei Rozanov, James M. Russell III, Makoto Suzuki, Masato Shiotani, Joachim Urban, Thomas von Clarmann, and Joseph M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5781–5810,Short summary
This study validates version 3.5 of the ACE-FTS NOy species data sets by comparing diurnally scaled ACE-FTS data to correlative data from 11 other satellite limb sounders. For all five species examined (NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2), there is good agreement between ACE-FTS and the other data sets in various regions of the atmosphere. In these validated regions, these NOy data products can be used for further investigation into the composition, dynamics, and climate of the stratosphere.
Mark Weber, Victor Gorshelev, and Anna Serdyuchenko
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4459–4470,Short summary
Ozone absorption cross sections measured in the laboratory using spectroscopic means can be a major source of uncertainty in atmospheric ozone retrievals. In this paper we assess the overall uncertainty in three published UV ozone cross-section datasets that are most popular in the remote sensing community. The overall uncertainties were estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. They are important for traceability of atmospheric ozone measuring instruments to common metrological standards.
Dhanyalekshmi Pillai, Michael Buchwitz, Christoph Gerbig, Thomas Koch, Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, Julia Marshall, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9591–9610,Short summary
Approximately 70 % of total CO2 emissions arise from cities; however, there exist large uncertainties in quantifying urban emissions. The present study investigates the potential of a satellite mission like CarbonSat to retrieve the city emissions via inverse modelling techniques. The study makes a valid conclusion that an instrument like CarbonSat has high potential to provide important information on city emissions when exploiting the observations using a high-resolution modelling system.
Elpida Leventidou, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Mark Weber, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3407–3427,Short summary
Here, we present a 17 years tropical tropospheric ozone columns dataset (1996–2012) using GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2 data, developed as part of the verification algorithm for TROPOMI on S5p mission.The uncertainty is less than 2 DU. Validation with SHADOZ ozonesonde data showed biases within 5 DU and RMS errors less than 10 DU. Comparisons with tropospheric ozone columns derived from limb–nadir matching showed that the bias and RMS are within the range of the CCD_IUP comparison with the sondes.
Stefan Noël, Klaus Bramstedt, Michael Hilker, Patricia Liebing, Johannes Plieninger, Max Reuter, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1485–1503,Short summary
Stratospheric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) profiles have been derived from solar occultation measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument. The accuracy of these profiles is estimated to be about 5–10 % for CH4 and 2–3 % for CO2, mainly limited by unexpected vertical oscillations. Results are available for August 2002 to April 2012 and latitudes between about 50 and 70° N. From these, time series trends have been estimated, which are in reasonable agreement with total column trends.
Stefan F. Schreier, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2803–2817,Short summary
Mixing ratios of NO2 and HCHO in the free troposphere are obtained from MAX-DOAS measurements at two mountain stations at midlatitudes and in the tropics using a modified geometrical approach. The method is applied in the UV wavelength range and, thus, allows the detection of HCHO mixing ratios, in addition to NO2. We find that mixing ratios of both species are increased in the tropical free troposphere due to biomass burning.
Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Luca Lelli, Christian von Savigny, Harjinder Sembhi, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 793–815,Short summary
Height-resolved limb radiance spectra of the satellite instrument SCIAMACHY are used to retrieve cloud top heights with a colour index method. Clouds are detectable from the lower to the uppermost troposphere. These cloud heights help to improve the trace gas retrieval for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Comparisons with other data sets have shown good agreement. As clouds and aerosols are not distinguishable, lower stratospheric volcanic aerosol clouds are detected in some years.
A.-M. Blechschmidt, A. Richter, J. P. Burrows, L. Kaleschke, K. Strong, N. Theys, M. Weber, X. Zhao, and A. Zien
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1773–1788,Short summary
A comprehensive case study of a comma-shaped bromine monoxide plume in the Arctic, which was transported by a polar cyclone and was observed by the GOME-2 satellite sensor over several days, is presented. By making combined use of different kinds of satellite data and numerical models, we demonstrate the important role of the frontal weather system in favouring the bromine activation cycle and blowing snow production, which may have acted as a bromine source during the bromine explosion event.
Sébastien Massart, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Jens Heymann, Michael Buchwitz, Frédéric Chevallier, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Hilker, John P. Burrows, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Frank Hase, Ralf Sussmann, Filip Desmet, Manvendra K. Dubey, David W. T. Griffith, Rigel Kivi, Christof Petri, Matthias Schneider, and Voltaire A. Velazco
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1653–1671,Short summary
This study presents the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) monitoring of atmospheric CO2 using measurements from the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). We show that the modelled CO2 has a better precision than standard CO2 satellite products compared to ground-based measurements. We also present the CO2 forecast based on our best knowledge of the atmospheric CO2 distribution. We show that it has skill to forecast the largest scale CO2 patterns up to day 5.
M. P. Langowski, C. von Savigny, J. P. Burrows, V. V. Rozanov, T. Dunker, U.-P. Hoppe, M. Sinnhuber, and A. C. Aikin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 295–311,Short summary
An algorithm has been developed for the retrieval of sodium atom (Na) number density on a latitude and altitude grid from SCIAMACHY limb measurements of the Na resonance fluorescence (multiannual means 2008–2012). The Na layer peaks at 90 to 93 km altitude and has a FWHM of 5 to 15 km. A summer minimum in peak density and width is observed at high latitudes. At low latitudes, a semiannual oscillation is found. The results are compared with other measurements and models and agree well with these.
F. Ebojie, J. P. Burrows, C. Gebhardt, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, C. von Savigny, A. Rozanov, M. Weber, and H. Bovensmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 417–436,Short summary
The goal of this study is to determine the global and zonal changes in the tropospheric ozone data product derived from SCIAMACHY limb-nadir-matching (LNM) observations during the period 2003–2011. Tropospheric O3 shows statistically significant increases over some regions of South Asia, the South American continent, Alaska, around Congo in Africa and over some continental outflows. Significant decrease in TOC is observed over some continents and oceans.
K. Weigel, A. Rozanov, F. Azam, K. Bramstedt, R. Damadeo, K.-U. Eichmann, C. Gebhardt, D. Hurst, M. Kraemer, S. Lossow, W. Read, N. Spelten, G. P. Stiller, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 133–158,Short summary
The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard the Envisat satellite provided measurements between 2002 and 2012 with different viewing geometries. The limb viewing geometry allows the retrieval of water vapour profiles in the UTLS (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere) from the near-infrared spectral range (1353–1410 nm). Here, we present data version 3.01 and compare it to other water vapour data.
F. Khosrawi, J. Urban, S. Lossow, G. Stiller, K. Weigel, P. Braesicke, M. C. Pitts, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, and D. Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 101–121,Short summary
Our sensitivity studies based on air parcel trajectories confirm that Polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation is quite sensitive to water vapour and temperature changes. Considering water vapour time series from satellite measurements we do not find a consistent, significant trend in water vapour in the lower stratosphere during the past 15 years (2000–2014). Thus, the severe dentrification observed in 2010/2011 cannot be directly related to increases in stratospheric water vapour.
C. von Savigny, F. Ernst, A. Rozanov, R. Hommel, K.-U. Eichmann, V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, and L. W. Thomason
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5223–5235,Short summary
This article presents validation results for stratospheric aerosol extinction profiles retrieved from limb-scatter measurements with the SCIAMACHY instrument on the Envisat satellite. The SCIAMACHY retrievals are compared to co-located measurements with the SAGE II instrument. Very good agreement to within about 15% is found in a global average sense at altitudes above 15 km. The article also presents sample results on the global morphology of the stratospheric aerosol layer from 2003 to 2011.
A. Schönhardt, P. Altube, K. Gerilowski, S. Krautwurst, J. Hartmann, A. C. Meier, A. Richter, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5113–5131,Short summary
The study reports on the application of an aircraft-based instrument (AirMAP) measuring atmospheric nitrogen dioxide. Two-dimensional maps are produced at a spatial resolution of 28m x 30m and with wide spatial coverage. The instrument characteristics are explained and the detailed mapping of a power plant emission plume is demonstrated. Small-scale enhanced amounts of nitrogen dioxide from traffic are observed above a motorway.
N. Rahpoe, M. Weber, A. V. Rozanov, K. Weigel, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Laeng, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, E. Kyrölä, V. F. Sofieva, J. Tamminen, K. Walker, D. Degenstein, A. E. Bourassa, R. Hargreaves, P. Bernath, J. Urban, and D. P. Murtagh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4369–4381,Short summary
The analyses among six satellite instruments measuring ozone reveals that the relative drift between the sensors is not significant in the stratosphere and we conclude that merging of data from these instruments is possible. The merged ozone profiles can then be ingested in global climate models for long-term forecasts of ozone and climate change in the atmosphere. The added drift uncertainty is estimated at about 3% per decade (1 sigma) and should be applied in the calculation of ozone trends.
S. Bender, M. Sinnhuber, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, J. Urban, K. Pérot, K. A. Walker, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4171–4195,Short summary
We compare the nitric oxide (NO) daily zonal mean number density data sets in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT, 60km to 150km) from four instruments: ACE-FTS (2004--2010), MIPAS (2005--2012), SCIAMACHY (2008--2012), and SMR (2003--2012). We find that these data sets from different instruments consistently constrain NO in the MLT. Thus, they offer reliable forcing inputs for climate and chemistry climate models as an initial step to include solar and geomagnetic activity.
L. Kattner, B. Mathieu-Üffing, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, S. Schmolke, A. Seyler, and F. Wittrock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10087–10092,Short summary
On 1 January 2015, the International Maritime Organisation tightened the regulations for sulfur content of shipping fuels in Sulfur Emission Control Areas. Here we present data from a station near Hamburg harbour in the North Sea SECA, which uses in situ measurements of atmospheric trace gases to deduce the sulphur fuel content of passing ships. We compare data from 2014 before the regulation change and from January 2015 and show how this method can be used for compliance monitoring.
J. Jia, A. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3369–3383,
J. Heymann, M. Reuter, M. Hilker, M. Buchwitz, O. Schneising, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Kuze, H. Suto, N. M. Deutscher, M. K. Dubey, D. W. T. Griffith, F. Hase, S. Kawakami, R. Kivi, I. Morino, C. Petri, C. Roehl, M. Schneider, V. Sherlock, R. Sussmann, V. A. Velazco, T. Warneke, and D. Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2961–2980,Short summary
Long-term data sets of global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations based on observations from different satellite instruments may suffer from inconsistencies originating from the use of different retrieval algorithms. This issue has been addressed by applying the Bremen Optimal Estimation DOAS retrieval algorithm to SCIAMACHY and TANSO-FTS observations. Detailed comparisons with TCCON and CarbonTracker show good consistency between the SCIAMACHY and TANSO-FTS data sets.
T. Dinter, V. V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, and A. Bracher
Ocean Sci., 11, 373–389,
M. P. Langowski, C. von Savigny, J. P. Burrows, W. Feng, J. M. C. Plane, D. R. Marsh, D. Janches, M. Sinnhuber, A. C. Aikin, and P. Liebing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 273–295,Short summary
Global concentration fields of Mg and Mg+ in the Earth's upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (70-150km) are presented. These are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat satellite grating spectrometer measurements in limb viewing geometry between 2008 and 2012. These were compared with WACCM-Mg model results and a large fraction of the available measurement results for these species, and an interpretation of the results is done. The variation of these species during NLC presence is discussed.
M. Reuter, M. Buchwitz, M. Hilker, J. Heymann, O. Schneising, D. Pillai, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, H. Bösch, R. Parker, A. Butz, O. Hasekamp, C. W. O'Dell, Y. Yoshida, C. Gerbig, T. Nehrkorn, N. M. Deutscher, T. Warneke, J. Notholt, F. Hase, R. Kivi, R. Sussmann, T. Machida, H. Matsueda, and Y. Sawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13739–13753,Short summary
Current knowledge about the European terrestrial biospheric carbon sink relies upon bottom-up and global surface flux inverse model estimates using in situ measurements. Our analysis of five satellite data sets comprises a regional inversion designed to be insensitive to potential retrieval biases and transport errors. We show that the satellite-derived sink is larger (1.0±0.3GtC/a) than previous estimates (0.4±0.4GtC/a).
G. D. Hayman, F. M. O'Connor, M. Dalvi, D. B. Clark, N. Gedney, C. Huntingford, C. Prigent, M. Buchwitz, O. Schneising, J. P. Burrows, C. Wilson, N. Richards, and M. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13257–13280,Short summary
Globally, wetlands are a major source of methane, which is the second most important greenhouse gas. We find the JULES wetland methane scheme to perform well in general, although there is a tendency for it to overpredict emissions in the tropics and underpredict them in northern latitudes. Our study highlights novel uses of satellite data as a major tool to constrain land-atmosphere methane flux models in a warming world.
J. Aschmann, J. P. Burrows, C. Gebhardt, A. Rozanov, R. Hommel, M. Weber, and A. M. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12803–12814,Short summary
This study compares observations and simulation results of ozone in the lower tropical stratosphere. It shows that ozone in this region decreased from 1985 up to about 2002, which is consistent with an increase in tropical upwelling predicted by climate models. However, the decrease effectively stops after 2002, indicating that significant changes in tropical upwelling have occurred. The most important factor appears to be that the vertical ascent in the tropics is no longer accelerating.
E. Peters, F. Wittrock, A. Richter, L. M. A. Alvarado, V. V. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4203–4221,Short summary
In this study, a correction spectrum accounting for insufficiencies in commonly used liquid water absorption spectra in DOAS applications is retrieved from ship-borne field measurements. The correction spectrum compensates at the same time for broadband parts of vibrational Raman scattering. With this, an entire compensation of liquid water spectral effects in DOAS applications was achieved.
L. M. A. Alvarado, A. Richter, M. Vrekoussis, F. Wittrock, A. Hilboll, S. F. Schreier, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4133–4150,Short summary
An improved glyoxal retrieval for OMI measurements using the DOAS method has been developed. The retrieval is based on sensitivity tests for the selection of most appropriate retrieval parameters. Also, corrections for reduction of interferences with other species have been applied. In addition, the link between pyrogenic emissions and glyoxal over regions with large wildfires have been investigated, and showed that fires are an important source of glyoxal.
A. Laeng, U. Grabowski, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, V. Sofieva, I. Petropavlovskikh, D. Hubert, T. Bathgate, P. Bernath, C. D. Boone, C. Clerbaux, P. Coheur, R. Damadeo, D. Degenstein, S. Frith, L. Froidevaux, J. Gille, K. Hoppel, M. McHugh, Y. Kasai, J. Lumpe, N. Rahpoe, G. Toon, T. Sano, M. Suzuki, J. Tamminen, J. Urban, K. Walker, M. Weber, and J. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3971–3987,
J. Strandgren, L. Mei, M. Vountas, J. P. Burrows, A. Lyapustin, and Y. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
K. Noguchi, A. Richter, V. Rozanov, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, H. Irie, and K. Kita
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3497–3508,
A. Spolaor, P. Vallelonga, J. Gabrieli, T. Martma, M. P. Björkman, E. Isaksson, G. Cozzi, C. Turetta, H. A. Kjær, M. A. J. Curran, A. D. Moy, A. Schönhardt, A.-M. Blechschmidt, J. P. Burrows, J. M. C. Plane, and C. Barbante
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9613–9622,
L. L. Mei, Y. Xue, A. A. Kokhanovsky, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, G. de Leeuw, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2411–2420,
A. W. Zien, A. Richter, A. Hilboll, A.-M. Blechschmidt, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7367–7396,
W. Chehade, M. Weber, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7059–7074,
F. Ebojie, C. von Savigny, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Rozanov, M. Weber, K.-U. Eichmann, S. Bötel, N. Rahpoe, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2073–2096,
J. Yoon, J. P. Burrows, M. Vountas, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, D. Y. Chang, A. Richter, and A. Hilboll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6881–6902,
B. Dils, M. Buchwitz, M. Reuter, O. Schneising, H. Boesch, R. Parker, S. Guerlet, I. Aben, T. Blumenstock, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, N. M. Deutscher, C. Frankenberg, F. Hase, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Heymann, M. De Mazière, J. Notholt, R. Sussmann, T. Warneke, D. Griffith, V. Sherlock, and D. Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1723–1744,
L. Lelli, A. A. Kokhanovsky, V. V. Rozanov, M. Vountas, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5679–5692,
B. Hassler, I. Petropavlovskikh, J. Staehelin, T. August, P. K. Bhartia, C. Clerbaux, D. Degenstein, M. De Mazière, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Dufour, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Granville, N. R. P. Harris, K. Hoppel, D. Hubert, Y. Kasai, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, J.-C. Lambert, P. F. Levelt, C. T. McElroy, R. D. McPeters, R. Munro, H. Nakajima, A. Parrish, P. Raspollini, E. E. Remsberg, K. H. Rosenlof, A. Rozanov, T. Sano, Y. Sasano, M. Shiotani, H. G. J. Smit, G. Stiller, J. Tamminen, D. W. Tarasick, J. Urban, R. J. van der A, J. P. Veefkind, C. Vigouroux, T. von Clarmann, C. von Savigny, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1395–1427,
M. Horstjann, M. D. Andrés Hernández, V. Nenakhov, A. Chrobry, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1245–1257,
R. Hommel, K.-U. Eichmann, J. Aschmann, K. Bramstedt, M. Weber, C. von Savigny, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, F. Wittrock, F. Khosrawi, R. Bauer, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3247–3276,
S. F. Schreier, A. Richter, J. W. Kaiser, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2447–2466,
V. Gorshelev, A. Serdyuchenko, M. Weber, W. Chehade, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 609–624,
A. Serdyuchenko, V. Gorshelev, M. Weber, W. Chehade, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 625–636,
A. Redondas, R. Evans, R. Stuebi, U. Köhler, and M. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1635–1648,
C. Gebhardt, A. Rozanov, R. Hommel, M. Weber, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, and A. M. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 831–846,
M. Langowski, M. Sinnhuber, A. C. Aikin, C. von Savigny, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 29–48,
O. Schneising, M. Reuter, M. Buchwitz, J. Heymann, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 133–141,
M. Buchwitz, M. Reuter, H. Bovensmann, D. Pillai, J. Heymann, O. Schneising, V. Rozanov, T. Krings, J. P. Burrows, H. Boesch, C. Gerbig, Y. Meijer, and A. Löscher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3477–3500,
V. F. Sofieva, N. Rahpoe, J. Tamminen, E. Kyrölä, N. Kalakoski, M. Weber, A. Rozanov, C. von Savigny, A. Laeng, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, S. Lossow, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. Adams, C. Roth, N. Lloyd, P. Bernath, R. J. Hargreaves, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, M. van Roozendael, N. Kalb, and C. Zehner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 349–363,
W. Chehade, V. Gorshelev, A. Serdyuchenko, J. P. Burrows, and M. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3055–3065,
N. Rahpoe, C. von Savigny, M. Weber, A.V. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2825–2837,
S. Bender, M. Sinnhuber, J. P. Burrows, M. Langowski, B. Funke, and M. López-Puertas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2521–2531,
W. Chehade, B. Gür, P. Spietz, V. Gorshelev, A. Serdyuchenko, J. P. Burrows, and M. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1623–1632,
M. D. Andrés-Hernández, D. Kartal, J. N. Crowley, V. Sinha, E. Regelin, M. Martínez-Harder, V. Nenakhov, J. Williams, H. Harder, H. Bozem, W. Song, J. Thieser, M. J. Tang, Z. Hosaynali Beigi, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5731–5749,
G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, G. Berthet, A. Bracher, C. Cornacchia, D. G. Feist, H. Fischer, A. Fix, M. Iarlori, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, M. Milz, L. Mona, S. C. Müller, J. Ovarlez, G. Pappalardo, C. Piccolo, P. Raspollini, J.-B. Renard, V. Rizi, S. Rohs, C. Schiller, G. Stiller, M. Weber, and G. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5791–5811,
A. Hilboll, A. Richter, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4145–4169,
I. Ermolli, K. Matthes, T. Dudok de Wit, N. A. Krivova, K. Tourpali, M. Weber, Y. C. Unruh, L. Gray, U. Langematz, P. Pilewskie, E. Rozanov, W. Schmutz, A. Shapiro, S. K. Solanki, and T. N. Woods
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3945–3977,
O. Schneising, J. Heymann, M. Buchwitz, M. Reuter, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2445–2454,
A. Hilboll, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, Ø. Hodnebrog, A. Heckel, S. Solberg, F. Stordal, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 565–584,
M. Reuter, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, A. Bril, M. Buchwitz, A. Butz, J. P. Burrows, C. W. O'Dell, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, J. Heymann, N. Kikuchi, S. Oshchepkov, R. Parker, S. Pfeifer, O. Schneising, T. Yokota, and Y. Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1771–1780,
T. Krings, K. Gerilowski, M. Buchwitz, J. Hartmann, T. Sachs, J. Erzinger, J. P. Burrows, and H. Bovensmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 151–166,
Related subject area
Subject: Others (Wind, Precipitation, Temperature, etc.) | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalImprovement in tropospheric moisture retrievals from VIIRS through the use of infrared absorption bands constructed from VIIRS and CrIS data fusionHydrometeor classification of quasi-vertical profiles of polarimetric radar measurements using a top-down iterative hierarchical clustering methodAssimilation of lidar planetary boundary layer height observationsDetection of anomalies in the UV–vis reflectances from the Ozone Monitoring InstrumentWhat millimeter-wavelength radar reflectivity reveals about snowfall: an information-centric analysisGeneralized canonical transform method for radio occultation sounding with improved retrieval in the presence of horizontal gradientsLinking rain into ice microphysics across the melting layer in stratiform rain: a closure studyClassification of lidar measurements using supervised and unsupervised machine learning methodsThe development of rainfall retrievals from radar at DarwinRetrieved wind speed from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2Probabilistic analysis of ambiguities in radar echo direction of arrival from meteorsDetecting the melting layer with a micro rain radar using a neural network approachDetecting turbulent structures on single Doppler lidar large datasets: an automated classification method for horizontal scansReal-time estimation of airflow vector based on lidar observations for preview controlFiltering of pulsed lidar data using spatial information and a clustering algorithmVariability of the Brunt–Väisälä frequency at the OH∗-airglow layer height at low and midlatitudesA new global grid-based weighted mean temperature model considering vertical nonlinear variationIntra-annual variations of spectrally resolved gravity wave activity in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) regionRainForest: A random forest algorithm for quantitative precipitation estimation over SwizerlandRemoving spurious inertial instability signals from gravity wave temperature perturbations using spectral filtering methodsEstimation of the height of turbulent mixing layer from data of Doppler lidar measurements using conical scanning by a probe beamLiSBOA: LiDAR Statistical Barnes Objective Analysis for optimal design of LiDAR scans and retrieval of wind statistics. Part I: Theoretical frameworkLiSBOA: LiDAR Statistical Barnes Objective Analysis for optimal design of LiDAR scans and retrieval of wind statistics. Part II: Applications to synthetic and real LiDAR data of wind turbine wakesIntegrated water vapor and liquid water path retrieval using a single-channel radiometerImproved SIFTER v2 algorithm for long-term GOME-2A satellite retrievals of fluorescence with a correction for instrument degradationTowards improved turbulence estimation with Doppler wind lidar velocity-azimuth display (VAD) scansMonitoring Sudden Stratospheric Warmings using radio occultation: a new approach demonstrated based on the 2009 eventRain event detection in commercial microwave link attenuation data using convolutional neural networksPreliminary investigation of the relationship between differential phase shift and path-integrated attenuation at the X band frequency in an Alpine environmentObservation of sensible and latent heat flux profiles with lidarMethodology for deriving the telescope focus function and its uncertainty for a heterodyne pulsed Doppler lidarUpdate of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) channel selection with correlated observation errors for numerical weather prediction (NWP)Spectral correction of turbulent energy damping on wind LiDAR measurements due to range-gate averagingLearning about the vertical structure of radar reflectivity using hydrometeor classes and neural networks in the Swiss AlpsToward a variational assimilation of polarimetric radar observations in a convective-scale numerical weather prediction (NWP) modelEstimating raindrop size distributions using microwave link measurements: potential and limitationsAn LES-based airborne Doppler lidar simulator and its application to wind profiling in inhomogeneous flow conditionsAnalysis of flow in complex terrain using multi-Doppler lidar retrievalsUnsupervised classification of vertical profiles of dual polarization radar variablesMonitoring the differential reflectivity and receiver calibration of the German polarimetric weather radar networkA channel selection method for hyperspectral atmospheric infrared sounders based on layeringImproved fuzzy logic method to distinguish between meteorological and non-meteorological echoes using C-band polarimetric radar dataAdvanced hodograph-based analysis technique to derive gravity-wave parameters from lidar observationsRayleigh wind retrieval for the ALADIN airborne demonstrator of the Aeolus mission using simulated response calibrationDetermining the daytime Earth radiative flux from National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR) measurementsDetermination of time-varying periodicities in unequally spaced time series of OH* temperatures using a moving Lomb–Scargle periodogram and a fast calculation of the false alarm probabilitiesA GPS water vapour tomography method based on a genetic algorithmkCARTA: a fast pseudo line-by-line radiative transfer algorithm with analytic Jacobians, fluxes, nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium, and scattering for the infraredPotential for the measurement of mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) wind, temperature, density and geomagnetic field with Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder 2 (SMILES-2)Estimation of turbulence dissipation rate from Doppler wind lidars and in situ instrumentation for the Perdigão 2017 campaign
E. Eva Borbas, Elisabeth Weisz, Chris Moeller, W. Paul Menzel, and Bryan A. Baum
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1191–1203,Short summary
As the VIIRS satellite sensor has no infrared (IR) H2O absorption bands, we construct the missing bands through the fusion of imager (VIIRS) and sounder (CrIS) data in an attempt to improve derivation of moisture products. This study clearly demonstrates the positive impact by adding fusion IR absorption spectral bands and the potential for continuing the moisture record from MODIS and the previous generations of polar-orbiting satellite sensors.
Maryna Lukach, David Dufton, Jonathan Crosier, Joshua M. Hampton, Lindsay Bennett, and Ryan R. Neely III
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1075–1098,Short summary
This paper presents a novel technique of data-driven hydrometeor classification (HC) from quasi-vertical profiles, where the hydrometeor types are identified from an optimal number of hierarchical clusters, obtained recursively. This data-driven HC approach is capable of providing an optimal number of classes from dual-polarimetric weather radar observations. The embedded flexibility in the extent of granularity is the main advantage of this technique.
Andrew Tangborn, Belay Demoz, Brian J. Carroll, Joseph Santanello, and Jeffrey L. Anderson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1099–1110,Short summary
Accurate prediction of the planetary boundary layer is essential to both numerical weather prediction (NWP) and pollution forecasting. This paper presents a methodology to combine these measurements with the models through a statistical data assimilation approach that calculates the correlation between the PBLH and variables like temperature and moisture in the model. The model estimates of these variables can be improved via this method, and this will enable increased forecast accuracy.
Nick Gorkavyi, Zachary Fasnacht, David Haffner, Sergey Marchenko, Joanna Joiner, and Alexander Vasilkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 961–974,Short summary
Various instrumental or geophysical artifacts, such as saturation, stray light or obstruction of light, negatively impact satellite measured ultraviolet and visible Earthshine radiance spectra. Here, we introduce a straightforward detection method that is based on the correlation, r, between the observed Earthshine radiance and solar irradiance spectra over a 10 nm spectral range; our decorrelation index (DI for brevity) is simply defined as DI of 1–r.
Norman B. Wood and Tristan S. L'Ecuyer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 869–888,Short summary
Although millimeter-wavelength radar reflectivity observations are used to investigate snowfall properties, their ability to constrain specific properties has not been well-quantified. An information-focused retrieval method shows how well snowfall properties, including rate and size distribution, are constrained by reflectivity. Sources of uncertainty in snowfall rate are dominated by uncertainties in the retrieved size distribution properties rather than by other retrieval assumptions.
Michael Gorbunov, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Kent B. Lauritsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 853–867,Short summary
Currently, the canonical transform (CT) approach to the processing of radio occultation observations is widely used. For the spherically symmetric atmosphere, the applicability of this method can be strictly proven. However, in the presence of horizontal gradients, this approach may not work. Here we introduce a generalization of the CT method in order to reduce the errors due to horizontal gradients.
Kamil Mróz, Alessandro Battaglia, Stefan Kneifel, Leonie von Terzi, Markus Karrer, and Davide Ori
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 511–529,Short summary
The article examines the relationship between the characteristics of rain and the properties of the ice cloud from which the rain originated. Our results confirm the widely accepted assumption that the mass flux through the melting zone is well preserved with an exception of extreme aggregation and riming conditions. Moreover, it is shown that the mean (mass-weighted) size of particles above and below the melting zone is strongly linked, with the former being on average larger.
Ghazal Farhani, Robert J. Sica, and Mark Joseph Daley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 391–402,Short summary
While it is relatively straightforward to automate the processing of lidar signals, it is difficult to automatically preprocess the measurements to distinguish between
badscans. It is easy to train humans to perform the task; however, considering the growing number of measurements, it is a time-consuming, on-going process. We have tested some machine learning algorithms for lidar signal classification and had success with both supervised and unsupervised methods.
Robert Jackson, Scott Collis, Valentin Louf, Alain Protat, Die Wang, Scott Giangrande, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Brenda Dolan, and Scott W. Powell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 53–69,Short summary
About 4 years of 2D video disdrometer data in Darwin are used to develop and validate rainfall retrievals for tropical convection in C- and X-band radars in Darwin. Using blended techniques previously used for Colorado and Manus and Gan islands, with modified coefficients in each estimator, provided the most optimal results. Using multiple radar observables to develop a rainfall retrieval provided a greater advantage than using a single observable, including using specific attenuation.
Robert R. Nelson, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, Aronne J. Merrelli, and Christopher W. O'Dell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6889–6899,Short summary
Measurements of surface wind speed over oceans are scientifically useful. Here we show that the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), originally designed to measure carbon dioxide using reflected sunlight, can also accurately and precisely measure wind speed. OCO-2's high spatial resolution means that it can observe close to coastlines and therefore be used to study coastal wind processes and inform related economic sectors.
Daniel Kastinen and Johan Kero
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6813–6835,Short summary
The behaviour of position determination with interferometric radar systems and possible ambiguities therein depends on the spatial configuration of the radar-receiving antennas and their individual characteristics. We have simulated the position determination performance of five different radar systems. These simulations showed that ambiguities are dynamic and need to be examined on a case-by-case basis. However, the simulations can be used to analyse and understand previously ambiguous data.
Maren Brast and Piet Markmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6645–6656,Short summary
An artificial neural network was trained to identify melting layers in micro rain radar data. It was successfully tested on simple and complex cases, which are difficult to identify using classical approaches, and also provided information on the melting layer width.
Ioannis Cheliotis, Elsa Dieudonné, Hervé Delbarre, Anton Sokolov, Egor Dmitriev, Patrick Augustin, and Marc Fourmentin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6579–6592,Short summary
The current study presents an automated method to classify coherent structures near the surface, based on the observations recorded by a single scanning Doppler lidar. This methodology combines texture analysis with a supervised machine-learning algorithm in order to study large datasets. The algorithm classified correctly about 91 % of cases of a training ensemble (150 scans). Furthermore the results of a 2-month classified dataset (4577 scans) by the algorithm are presented.
Ryota Kikuchi, Takashi Misaka, Shigeru Obayashi, and Hamaki Inokuchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6543–6558,Short summary
The control technique in a gust-alleviation system using the airborne Doppler lidar is expected to minimize the risks of turbulence-related accidents. Accurate estimation of the vertical wind is important in the successful implementation of a gust-alleviation system. An estimation algorithm of the airflow vector based on the lidars is proposed for preview control. The estimation performance and the computational cost of the proposed method can satisfy the performance demand for preview control.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6237–6254,Short summary
Wind lidars present advantages over meteorological masts, including simultaneous multipoint observations, flexibility in measuring geometry, and reduced installation cost. But wind lidars come with the cost of increased complexity in terms of data quality and analysis. The common carrier-to-noise ratio and median filters are compared to the DBSCAN clustering algorithm to find improved data quality and recovery rate.
Sabine Wüst, Michael Bittner, Jeng-Hwa Yee, Martin G. Mlynczak, and James M. Russell III
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6067–6093,Short summary
With airglow spectrometers, the temperature in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere can be derived each night. The data allow to estimate the amount of energy which is transported by small-scale atmospheric waves, known as gravity waves. In order to do this, information about the Brunt–Väisälä frequency and its evolution during the year is necessary. This is provided here for low and midlatitudes based on 18 years of satellite data.
Peng Sun, Suqin Wu, Kefei Zhang, Moufeng Wan, and Ren Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
In GPS/GNSS meteorology, precipitable water vapor (PWV) at a station is obtained from a conversion of the zenith wet delay (ZWD) of GNSS signals using a conversion factor which is a function of weighted mean temperature (Tm) over the site. In this research, a new global grid-based empirical Tm model was developed using ERA5 reanalysis data. The model-predicted Tm value has significance for applications needing real-time or near real-time PWV converted from GNSS signals.
René Sedlak, Alexandra Zuhr, Carsten Schmidt, Sabine Wüst, Michael Bittner, Goderdzi G. Didebulidze, and Colin Price
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5117–5128,Short summary
Gravity wave (GW) activity in the UMLT in the period range 6-480 min is calculated by applying a wavelet analysis to nocturnal temperature time series derived from OH* airglow spectrometers. We analyse measurements from eight different locations at different latitudes. GW activity shows strong period dependence. We find hardly any seasonal variability for periods below 60 min and a semi-annual cycle for periods longer than 60 min that evolves into an annual cycle around a period of 200 min.
Daniel Wolfensberger, Marco Gabella, Marco Boscacci, Urs Germann, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMT
Cornelia Strube, Manfred Ern, Peter Preusse, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4927–4945,Short summary
We present how inertial instabilities affect gravity wave background removal filters on different temperature data sets. Vertical filtering has to remove a part of the gravity wave spectrum to eliminate inertial instability remnants, while horizontal filtering leaves typical gravity wave scales untouched. In addition, we show that it is possible to separate inertial instabilities from gravity wave perturbations for infrared limb-sounding satellite profiles using a cutoff zonal wavenumber of 6.
Viktor A. Banakh, Igor N. Smalikho, and Andrey V. Falits
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMT
Stefano Letizia, Lu Zhan, and Giacomo Valerio Iungo
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
A LiDAR Statistical Barnes Objective Analysis (LiSBOA) for the optimal design of LiDAR scans and retrieval of the velocity statistics is proposed.The LiSBOA is validated and characterized via a Monte Carlo approach applied to a synthetic velocity field. The optimal design of LiDAR scans is formulated as a two cost-function optimization problem including the minimization of the volume not sampled with adequate spatial resolution and the minimization of the error on the mean of the velocity field.
Stefano Letizia, Lu Zhan, and Giacomo Valerio Iungo
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The LiDAR Statistical Barnes Objective Analysis (LiSBOA) is applied to LiDAR data collected in the wake of wind turbines to reconstruct mean wind speed and turbulence intensity. This procedure is firstly tested for a numerical dataset obtained by means of the virtual LiDAR technique applied to LES data, then to data collected during a field campaign for a wind farm in complex terrain. The results endorse the application of the LiSBOA for LiDAR-based wind resource assessment and farm diagnostics.
Anne-Claire Billault-Roux and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
In the context of climate studies, understanding the role of clouds on a global and local scale is of paramount importance. One aspect is the quantification of cloud liquid water, which impacts the Earth’s radiative balance. This is routinely achieved with radiometers operating at different frequencies. In this study, we propose an approach that uses a single-frequency radiometer and that can be applied at any location to retrieve vertically-integrated quantities of liquid water and water vapor.
Erik van Schaik, Maurits L. Kooreman, Piet Stammes, L. Gijsbert Tilstra, Olaf N. E. Tuinder, Abram F. J. Sanders, Willem W. Verstraeten, Rüdiger Lang, Alessandra Cacciari, Joanna Joiner, Wouter Peters, and K. Folkert Boersma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4295–4315,Short summary
With our improved algorithm we have generated a stable, long-term dataset of fluorescence measurements from the GOME-2A satellite instrument. In this study we determined a correction for the degradation of GOME-2A in orbit and applied this correction along with other improvements to our SIFTER v2 retrieval algorithm. The result is a coherent dataset of daily and monthly averaged fluorescence values for the period 2007–2018 to track worldwide changes in photosynthetic activity by vegetation.
Norman Wildmann, Eileen Päschke, Anke Roiger, and Christian Mallaun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4141–4158,
Ying Li, Gottfried Kirchengast, Marc Schwärz, Florian Ladstädter, and Yunbin Yuan
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We introduce a new method to detect and monitor Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) events using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Radio Occultation (RO) data at high northern latitudes and demonstrate it for the well-known Jan–Feb 2009 event. We found that RO data are capable for SSW monitoring. Based on our method, a SSW event can be detected and tracked, the duration and the strength of the event can be recorded. The results are consistent with other researches on this 2009 event.
Julius Polz, Christian Chwala, Maximilian Graf, and Harald Kunstmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3835–3853,Short summary
Commercial microwave link (CML) networks can be used to estimate path-averaged rain rates. This study evaluates the ability of convolutional neural networks to distinguish between wet and dry periods in CML time series data and the ability to transfer this detection skill to sensors not used for training. Our data set consists of several months of data from 3904 CMLs covering all of Germany. Compared to a previously used detection method, we could show a significant increase in performance.
Guy Delrieu, Anil Kumar Khanal, Nan Yu, Frédéric Cazenave, Brice Boudevillain, and Nicolas Gaussiat
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3731–3749,
Andreas Behrendt, Volker Wulfmeyer, Christoph Senff, Shravan Kumar Muppa, Florian Späth, Diego Lange, Norbert Kalthoff, and Andreas Wieser
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3221–3233,Short summary
In order to understand how solar radiation energy hitting the ground is distributed into the atmosphere, we use a new combination of laser-based remote-sensing techniques to quantify these energy fluxes up to heights of more than 1 km above ground. Before, similar techniques had already been presented for determining the energy flux component regarding the exchange of humidity but not the warm air itself. Now, we show that this can also be measured by remote sensing with low uncertainties.
Pyry Pentikäinen, Ewan James O'Connor, Antti Juhani Manninen, and Pablo Ortiz-Amezcua
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2849–2863,Short summary
We provide a methodology for obtaining a function describing how the Doppler lidar telescope configuration impacts the measurements. Together with the function itself, we also provide the uncertainties in the function, which propagate through to provide uncertainties in the geophysical quantities obtained from the measurements. The method can be used to determine how stable the instrument is over time and also identify if changes have been made in the instrument setup.
Olivier Coopmann, Vincent Guidard, Nadia Fourrié, Béatrice Josse, and Virginie Marécal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2659–2680,Short summary
The objective of this paper is to make a new selection of IASI channels by taking into account inter-channel observation-error correlations. Our selection further reduces the analysis error by 3 % in temperature, 1.8 % in humidity and 0.9 % in ozone compared to Collard’s selection, when using the same number of channels. A selection of 400 IASI channels is proposed at the end of the paper which is able to further reduce analysis errors.
Matteo Puccioni and Giacomo Valerio Iungo
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
A procedure for correcting the turbulent-energy damping connected with the range-gate averaging of wind LiDARs is proposed. This effect of the LiDAR measuring process is modeled through a low-pass filter, whose order and cut-off frequency are estimated directly from the LiDAR data. The proposed procedure is first assessed through simultaneous and co-located LiDAR and sonic-anemometer measurements, then it is applied to several datasets collected at sites with different terrain roughness.
Floor van den Heuvel, Loris Foresti, Marco Gabella, Urs Germann, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2481–2500,Short summary
In areas with reduced visibility at the ground level, radar precipitation measurements higher up in the atmosphere need to be extrapolated to the ground and be corrected for the vertical change (i.e. growth and transformation) of precipitation. This study proposes a method based on hydrometeor proportions and machine learning (ML) to apply these corrections at smaller spatiotemporal scales. In comparison with existing techniques, the ML methods can make predictions from higher altitudes.
Guillaume Thomas, Jean-François Mahfouf, and Thibaut Montmerle
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2279–2298,Short summary
This paper presents the potential of a polarimetric weather radar observation operator for hydrometeor content initialization. The non-linear operator allows to simulate ZHH, ZDR, KDP and ρHV, using the T-Matrix method, prognostic variables forecasted by the AROME-France NWP model and a one-moment microphysical scheme. After sensitivity studies, it has been found that ZHH and ZDR are good candidates for hydrometeor initialization and that KDP seems useful for rain content only.
Thomas C. van Leth, Hidde Leijnse, Aart Overeem, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1797–1815,Short summary
We present a method of using collocated microwave link instruments to estimate the average size distribution of raindrops along a path of several kilometers. Our method is validated using simulated fields as well as five laser disdrometers installed along a path. We also present preliminary results from an experimental setup measuring at 26 and 38 GHz along a 2.2 km path. We show that a retrieval on the basis of microwave links can be highly accurate, provided the base power level is stable.
Philipp Gasch, Andreas Wieser, Julie K. Lundquist, and Norbert Kalthoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1609–1631,Short summary
We present an airborne Doppler lidar simulator (ADLS) based on high-resolution atmospheric wind fields (LES). The ADLS is used to evaluate the retrieval accuracy of airborne wind profiling under turbulent, inhomogeneous wind field conditions inside the boundary layer. With the ADLS, the error due to the violation of the wind field homogeneity assumption used for retrieval can be revealed. For the conditions considered, flow inhomogeneities exert a dominant influence on wind profiling error.
Tyler M. Bell, Petra Klein, Norman Wildmann, and Robert Menke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1357–1371,Short summary
This study investigates the utility of using multi-Doppler retrievals during the Perdigão 2017 campaign. By combining scans from the multitude of Doppler lidars, it was possible to derive virtual towers that greatly extend the range of traditional in situ meteorological towers. Uncertainties from the measurements are analyzed and discussed. Despite multiple sources of error, it was found that the virtual towers are useful for analyzing the complex flows observed during the campaign.
Jussi Tiira and Dmitri Moisseev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1227–1241,Short summary
Modern weather radars are sensitive for properties of precipitating snow particles, such as their sizes, shapes and number concentration. Vertical profiles of such radar measurements can be used for studying the processes through which snow is formed. We created a profile classification method for this purpose, and we show how it can be used for automatic identification of snow growth processes. Being able to identify the processes is expected to improve radar-based precipitation estimation.
Michael Frech and John Hubbert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1051–1069,Short summary
The prime source of the temperature sensitivity of ZDR can be attributed to the antenna assembly. This result is based on over 2000 solar box scans. These data also reveal that there is a 0.6 dB decrease in gain for a 10 °C temperature increase, which directly relates to a bias of the radar reflectivity factor Z, which has not been not accounted for previously. The ZDR variability in and ZDR calibration performance of the German weather radar network are shown.
Shujie Chang, Zheng Sheng, Huadong Du, Wei Ge, and Wei Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 629–644,Short summary
Because a satellite channel’s ability to resolve hyperspectral data varies with height, an improved channel selection method is proposed based on information content. An improved channel selection scheme (ICS) for a hyperspectral atmospheric infrared sounder using AIRS data based on layering is proposed. The accuracy of the retrieval temperature is improved by using our method, which means the ICS method selected in this paper is feasible and shows great promise for various applications.
Shuai Zhang, Xingyou Huang, Jinzhong Min, Zhigang Chu, Xiaoran Zhuang, and Hengheng Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 537–551,Short summary
The discrimination between meteorological and non-meteorological echoes is necessary to obtain better meteorological application performance. However, the widely used algorithms have high expectations for polarimetric data, which have similar characteristics between meteorological and non-meteorological echoes in the weak-signal regions. Therefore, an improved fuzzy logic method is proposed in this paper to improve the classification performance in weak-signal regions.
Irina Strelnikova, Gerd Baumgarten, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 479–499,Short summary
One of the major problems of climate and weather modeling is atmospheric gravity waves. All measured meteorological parameters such as winds and temperature reveal superposition of large-scale background field and small-scale features created by waves. We developed an analysis technique that decomposes the measured winds and temperature into single waves, which allows for a detailed description of wave parameters. Application of this technique will improve understanding of atmospheric dynamics.
Xiaochun Zhai, Uwe Marksteiner, Fabian Weiler, Christian Lemmerz, Oliver Lux, Benjamin Witschas, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 445–465,Short summary
An airborne prototype called A2D was developed for validating the Aeolus measurement principle based on realistic atmospheric signals. However, the atmospheric and instrumental variability currently limit the reliability and repeatability of the measured Rayleigh response calibration (MRRC), which is a prerequisite for accurate wind retrieval. A procedure for a simulated Rayleigh response calibration (SRRC) is developed and presented to resolve these limitations of the A2D Rayleigh channel MRRC.
Wenying Su, Patrick Minnis, Lusheng Liang, David P. Duda, Konstantin Khlopenkov, Mandana M. Thieman, Yinan Yu, Allan Smith, Steven Lorentz, Daniel Feldman, and Francisco P. J. Valero
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 429–443,Short summary
The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) provides continuous full-disk global broadband irradiance measurements over most of the sunlit side of the Earth. The three active cavity radiometers measure the total radiant energy from the sunlit side of the Earth in shortwave (SW; 0.2–4 µm), total (0.4–100 µm), and near-infrared (NIR; 0.7–4 µm) channels. In this paper, the algorithm used to derive daytime shortwave and longwave fluxes from NISTAR measurements is presented.
Christoph Kalicinsky, Robert Reisch, Peter Knieling, and Ralf Koppmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 467–477,Short summary
This study presents an approach to analyse unequally spaced time series of OH* temperatures with respect to time-varying periodic fluctuations. The approach is based on the classical Lomb–Scargle periodogram and, additionally, the idea of a moving window is used. Furthermore, a fast and easy way to analyse the significance of the results is presented. The general performance of the approach is tested with artificially generated time series and results for real observations are presented.
Fei Yang, Jiming Guo, Junbo Shi, Xiaolin Meng, Yinzhi Zhao, Lv Zhou, and Di Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 355–371,Short summary
The development of GPS station networks that provide rich data sources containing atmospheric information will enable more GPS applications in the field of meteorology. This study describes a genetic algorithm for the water vapour tomography; overcomes the ill-conditioned problem; and eliminates the reliance on excessive constraints, priori information, and external data. It is proven in the paper that accurate 3-D water vapour distribution can be provided by this study for atmospheric research.
Sergio DeSouza-Machado, L. Larrabee Strow, Howard Motteler, and Scott Hannon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 323–339,Short summary
The current instruments being used for weather forecasting and climate require accurate radiative transfer codes to process the acquired data. In addition the codes are becoming more realistic, as they can now account for the effects of cloud and aerosols, rather than only simulating radiances for a clear sky. We describe a fast, accurate, and general purpose code that we have developed to help model data from these instruments.
Philippe Baron, Satoshi Ochiai, Eric Dupuy, Richard Larsson, Huixin Liu, Naohiro Manago, Donal Murtagh, Shin-ichiro Oyama, Hideo Sagawa, Akinori Saito, Takatoshi Sakazaki, Masato Shiotani, and Makoto Suzuki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 219–237,Short summary
Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder 2 (SMILES-2) is a satellite mission proposed in Japan to probe the middle and upper atmosphere (20–160 km). The key products are wind, temperature and density. If selected, this mission could provide new insights into vertical coupling in the atmosphere and could help improve weather and climate models. We conducted simulation studies to assess the measurement performances in the altitude range 60–110 km, with a special focus on the geomagnetic effects.
Norman Wildmann, Nicola Bodini, Julie K. Lundquist, Ludovic Bariteau, and Johannes Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6401–6423,Short summary
Turbulence is the variation of wind velocity on short timescales. In this study we introduce a new method to measure turbulence in a two-dimensionial plane with lidar instruments. The method allows for the detection and quantification of subareas of distinct turbulence conditions in the observed plane. We compare the results to point and profile measurements with more established instruments. It is shown that turbulence below low-level jets and in wind turbine wakes can be investigated this way.
BenMoussa, A., Gissot, S., Schühle, U., Del Zanna, G., Auchère, F., Mekaoui, S., Jones, A. R., Walton, D., Eyles, C. J., Thuillier, G., Seaton, D., Dammasch, I. E., Cessateur, G., Meftah, M., Andretta, V., Berghmans, D., Bewsher, D., Bolsée, D., Bradley, L., Brown, D. S., Chamberlin, P. C., Dewitte, S., Didkovsky, L. V., Dominique, M., Eparvier, F. G., Foujols, T., Gillotay, D., Giordanengo, B., Halain, J. P., Hock, R. A., Irbah, A., Jeppesen, C., Judge, D. L., Kretzschmar, M., McMullin, D. R., Nicula, B., Schmutz, W., Ucker, G., Wieman, S., Woodraska, D., and Woods, T. N.: On-orbit degradation of solar instruments, Sol. Phys., 288, 389–434, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-013-0290-z, 2013. a, b, c
Bovensmann, H., Aben, I., van Roozendael, M., Kühl, S., Gottwald, M., von Savigny, C., Buchwitz, M., Richter, A., Frankenberg, C., Stammes, P., de Graaf, M., Wittrock, F., Sinnhuber, M., Sinnhuber, B.-M., Schönhardt, A., Beirle, S., Gloudemans, A., Schrijver, H., Bracher, A., Rozanov, A. V., Weber, M., and Burrows, J. P.: SCIAMACHY's view of the changing earth's environment, in: SCIAMACHY – Exploring the Changing Earth’s Atmosphere, edited by: Gottwald, M. and Bovensmann, H., Springer, Dordrecht, chap. 10, 175–216, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9896-2, 2011. a
Bramstedt, K.: Scan-angle dependent degradation correction with the scanner model approach, Tech. Rep. IUP-SCIA-TN-Mfactor, Version 1.0, Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), available at: http://www.iup.uni-bremen.de/UVSAT_material/technotes/SCIAMACHY_calibration/mfactor-TN-3-1_20140428.pdf (last access: June 2020), 2014. a
Bramstedt, K., Noël, S., Bovensmann, H., Burrows, J. P., Lerot, C., Tilstra, L. G., Lichtenberg, G., Dehn, A., and Fehr, T.: SCIAMACHY monitoring factors: Observation and end-to-end correction of instrument performance degradation, in: Atmospheric Science Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 7–11 September 2009, ESA SP-676, 2009. a
Burrows, J. P., Weber, M., Buchwitz, M., Rozanov, V., Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A., Richter, A., DeBeek, R., Hoogen, R., Bramstedt, K., Eichmann, K.-U., Eisinger, M., and Perner, D.: The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission concept and first scientific results, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 151–175, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<0151:TGOMEG>2.0.CO;2, 1999. a
Coddington, O., Lean, J., Pilewskie, P., Snow, M., Richard, E., Kopp, G., Lindholm, C., DeLand, M., Marchenko, S., Haberreiter, M., and Baranyi, T.: Solar Irradiance Variability: Comparisons of Models and Measurements, Earth and Space Science, 6, 2525–2555, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019EA000693, 2019. a
Ermolli, I., Matthes, K., Dudok de Wit, T., Krivova, N. A., Tourpali, K., Weber, M., Unruh, Y. C., Gray, L., Langematz, U., Pilewskie, P., Rozanov, E., Schmutz, W., Shapiro, A., Solanki, S. K., and Woods, T. N.: Recent variability of the solar spectral irradiance and its impact on climate modelling, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3945–3977, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-3945-2013, 2013. a, b, c, d, e
Gottwald, M., Krieg, E., Lichtenberg, G., Noël, S., Bramstedt, K., Bovensmann, H., Snel, R., and Krijger, M.: SCIAMACHY In-Orbit Mission Report, DLR-IMF & IUP-IFE & SRON, PO-TN-DLR-SH-0034, Issue 1, Rev 0, available at: https://atmos.eoc.dlr.de/projects/scops/ (last access: March 2020) (see: Mission Documents/In-orbit Mission Report), 2016. a
Gray, L. J., Beer, J., Geller, M., Haigh, J. D., Lockwood, M., Matthes, K., Cubasch, U., Fleitmann, D., Harrison, G., Hood, L., Luterbacher, J., Meehl, G. A., Shindell, D., van Geel, B., and White, W.: Solar influences on climate, Rev. Geophys., 48, RG4001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009RG000282, 2010. a
Harber, D.: CSIM, available at: https://lasp.colorado.edu/home/csim/, last access: 26 August 2019. a
Hilbig, T., Weber, M., Bramstedt, K., Noël, S., Burrows, J. P., Krijger, J. M., Snel, R., Meftah, M., Damé, L., Bekki, S., Bolsée, D., Pereira, N., and Sluse, D.: The New SCIAMACHY Reference Solar Spectral Irradiance and its Validation, Sol. Phys., 293, 121, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-018-1339-9, 2018. a, b, c, d, e, f
Hilbig, T., Weber, M., and Bramstedt, K.: SCIAMACHY solar spectral irradiance time series, IUP V1, http://www.iup.uni-bremen.de/UVSAT/datasets/scia-ssi-timeseries, last update: July 2020. a
Lean, J. L.: Sun-Climate Connections, Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science, https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228620.013.9, 2017. a, b
Lichtenberg, G., Kleipool, Q., Krijger, J. M., van Soest, G., van Hees, R., Tilstra, L. G., Acarreta, J. R., Aben, I., Ahlers, B., Bovensmann, H., Chance, K., Gloudemans, A. M. S., Hoogeveen, R. W. M., Jongma, R. T. N., Noël, S., Piters, A., Schrijver, H., Schrijvers, C., Sioris, C. E., Skupin, J., Slijkhuis, S., Stammes, P., and Wuttke, M.: SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 5347–5367, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-5347-2006, 2006. a, b
Matthes, K., Funke, B., Andersson, M. E., Barnard, L., Beer, J., Charbonneau, P., Clilverd, M. A., Dudok de Wit, T., Haberreiter, M., Hendry, A., Jackman, C. H., Kretzschmar, M., Kruschke, T., Kunze, M., Langematz, U., Marsh, D. R., Maycock, A. C., Misios, S., Rodger, C. J., Scaife, A. A., Seppälä, A., Shangguan, M., Sinnhuber, M., Tourpali, K., Usoskin, I., van de Kamp, M., Verronen, P. T., and Versick, S.: Solar forcing for CMIP6 (v3.2), Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2247–2302, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-2247-2017, 2017. a
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Thuillier, G., Foujols, T., Bolsée, D., Gillotay, D., Hersé, M., Peetermans, W., Decuyper, W., Mandel, H., Sperfeld, P., Pape, S., Taubert, D. R., and Hartmann, J.: SOLAR/SOLSPEC: Scientific Objectives, Instrument Performance and Its Absolute Calibration Using a Blackbody as Primary Standard Source, Sol. Phys., 257, 185–213, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-009-9361-6, 2009. a
Veefkind, J., Aben, I., McMullan, K., Förster, H., de Vries, J., Otter, G., Claas, J., Eskes, H., de Haan, J., Kleipool, Q., van Weele, M., Hasekamp, O., Hoogeveen, R., Landgraf, J., Snel, R., Tol, P., Ingmann, P., Voors, R., Kruizinga, B., Vink, R., Visser, H., and Levelt, P.: TROPOMI on the ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor: A GMES mission for global observations of the atmospheric composition for climate, air quality and ozone layer applications, Remote Sens. Environ., 120, 70–83, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2011.09.027, 2012. a
One of the main limitations for long-term space-based measurements is instrument degradation. We present an optimisation of the degradation correction approach (Krijger et al. 2014) for SCIAMACHY on-board Envisat, focusing on the improvement of the solar spectral irradiance data. The main achievement of this study is the successful integration of SCIAMACHY’s internal white light source (WLS) into the existing degradation model and the characterisation of WLS ageing in space.
One of the main limitations for long-term space-based measurements is instrument degradation....