Articles | Volume 15, issue 1
03 Jan 2022
Research article | 03 Jan 2022
A study on the fragmentation of sulfuric acid and dimethylamine clusters inside an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer
Dina Alfaouri et al.
Nanna Myllys, Jakub Kubečka, Vitus Besel, Dina Alfaouri, Tinja Olenius, James Norman Smith, and Monica Passananti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9753–9768,Short summary
In atmospheric sulfuric-acid-driven particle formation, bases are able to stabilize the initial molecular clusters and thus enhance particle formation. We have investigated the enhancing potential of different bases in atmospheric particle formation. We show that strong bases with low abundance are likely to dominate electrically neutral particle formation, whereas weak bases with high abundance have a larger role in ion-mediated particle formation.
Eka Dian Pusfitasari, Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, Aleksi Tiusanen, Markus Suuronen, Jesse Haataja, Juha Kangasluoma, Krista Luoma, Tuukka Petäjä, Matti Jussila, Kari Hartonen, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
A miniaturized air sampling-drone system was successfully applied for the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and for the measurement of black carbon (BC) and total particle number concentrations in atmospheric air. Here we report, for the first time, the vertical profiles of BC and aerosol number concentrations above the boreal forest in Hyytiälä (Finland) at high altitudes close to the boundary layer in autumn 2021. VOC composition with its distribution was studied as well.
Huan Yang, Ivo Neefjes, Valtteri Tikkanen, Jakub Kubečka, Theo Kurtén, Hanna Vehkamäki, and Bernhard Reischl
We present a new analytical model for collision rates between molecules and clusters of arbitrary sizes, that accounts for long-range interactions. The model is verified against atomistic simulations of typical acid-base clusters participating in atmospheric new particle formation. Results show that accounting for long-range interactions leads to 2–3 times higher collision rates for small clusters, indicating the necessity of including such forces in atmospheric new particle formation modelling.
Jian Zhao, Ella Häkkinen, Frans Graeffe, Jordan E. Krechmer, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Juha Kangasluoma, and Mikael Ehn
Based on the combined measurements of gas- and particle-phase highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM) from α-pinene ozonolysis, enhancement of C16-C19 HOM dimers in particles was observed. Especially, C17H26Oz, which has often been reported by offline measurements, dominates the particle-phase HOM. Our results indicate that these C17 compounds might be closely related to particle-phase HOM formation. These results are important for a better understanding of SOA formation in the atmosphere.
Runlong Cai, Chenjuan Deng, Dominik Stolzenburg, Chenxi Li, Junchen Guo, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14571–14587,Short summary
The survival probability of new particles is the key parameter governing their influences on the atmosphere and climate, yet the knowledge of particle survival in the atmosphere is rather limited. We propose methods to compute the size-resolved particle survival probability and validate them using simulations and measurements from diverse environments. Using these methods, we could explain particle survival from the cluster size to the cloud condensation nuclei size.
Rujing Yin, Xiaoxiao Li, Chao Yan, Runlong Cai, Ying Zhou, Juha Kangasluoma, Nina Sarnela, Janne Lampilahti, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Federico Bianchi, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
The negative cluster ions with specific compositions are measured and quantified through the in-situ measurement of an atmospheric pressure interface high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer and a neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer in urban Beijing. The governing factors of atmospheric negative cluster ion concentration and composition at polluted urban sites are revealed and the fate of two representative ions in the urban atmosphere is characterized.
Chenjuan Deng, Yiran Li, Chao Yan, Jin Wu, Runlong Cai, Dongbin Wang, Yongchun Liu, Juha Kangasluoma, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13569–13580,Short summary
The size distributions of urban atmospheric particles convey important information on their origins and impacts. This study investigates the characteristics of typical particle size distributions and key gaseous precursors in the long term in urban Beijing. A fitting function is proposed to represent and help interpret size distribution including particles and gaseous precursors. In addition to NPF (new particle formation) as the major source, vehicles can emit sub-3 nm particles as well
Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Nina Sarnela, Sebastian Holm, Juha Kangasluoma, Markku Kulmala, Paul M. Winkler, and Dominik Stolzenburg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13153–13166,Short summary
Fast nanoparticle growth is essential for the survival of new aerosol particles in the atmosphere and hence their contribution to the climate. We show that using naturally charged ions for growth calculations can cause a significant error. During the diurnal cycle, the importance of ion-induced and neutral nucleation varies, causing the ion population to have a slower measurable apparent growth. Results suggest that data from ion spectrometers need to be considered with great care below 3 nm.
Dominik Stolzenburg, Tiia Laurila, Pasi Aalto, Joonas Vanhanen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Size-distributions measurements of ultrafine particles are of special interest as they can be used to estimate the atmospheric signficance of new particle formation, a process which is thought to influence the global climate. Here we show that improved counting statistics in size-distribution measurements through the usage of higher sampling flows can significantly reduce the uncertainties in such calculations.
Ella Häkkinen, Jian Zhao, Frans Graeffe, Nicolas Fauré, Jordan Krechmer, Douglas Worsnop, Hilkka Timonen, Mikael Ehn, and Juha Kangasluoma
Highly oxygenated compounds contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric organic aerosol, and thus impact the global climate. Knowledge of their transformations and fate after condensing into the particle phase has been limited by the lack of suitable detection techniques. Here, we present an online method for measuring highly oxygenated compounds from organic aerosol. We evaluate the performance of the method and demonstrate that the method is applicable to different organic species.
Chao Yan, Yicheng Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lubna Dada, Ximeng Qi, Simo Hakala, Anu-Maija Sundström, Yishuo Guo, Antti Lipponen, Tom V. Kokkonen, Jenni Kontkanen, Runlong Cai, Jing Cai, Tommy Chan, Liangduo Chen, Biwu Chu, Chenjuan Deng, Wei Du, Xiaolong Fan, Xu-Cheng He, Juha Kangasluoma, Joni Kujansuu, Mona Kurppa, Chang Li, Yiran Li, Zhuohui Lin, Yiliang Liu, Yuliang Liu, Yiqun Lu, Wei Nie, Jouni Pulliainen, Xiaohui Qiao, Yonghong Wang, Yifan Wen, Ye Wu, Gan Yang, Lei Yao, Rujing Yin, Gen Zhang, Shaojun Zhang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Antti Arola, Johanna Tamminen, Pauli Paasonen, Yele Sun, Lin Wang, Neil M. Donahue, Yongchun Liu, Federico Bianchi, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Aijun Ding, Jingkun Jiang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12207–12220,Short summary
Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is a dominant source of atmospheric ultrafine particles. In urban environments, traffic emissions are a major source of primary pollutants, but their contribution to NPF remains under debate. During the COVID-19 lockdown, traffic emissions were significantly reduced, providing a unique chance to examine their relevance to NPF. Based on our comprehensive measurements, we demonstrate that traffic emissions alone are not able to explain the NPF in Beijing.
Runlong Cai, Ella Häkkinen, Chao Yan, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11529–11541,Short summary
The influences of new particle formation on the climate and air quality are governed by particle survival, which has been under debate due to uncertainties in the coagulation sink. Here we measure the coagulation coefficient of sub-10 nm particles and demonstrate that collisions between the freshly nucleated and background particles can effectively lead to coagulation. We further show that the effective coagulation sink is consistent with the new particle formation measured in urban Beijing.
Ivo Neefjes, Roope Halonen, Hanna Vehkamäki, and Bernhard Reischl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11155–11172,Short summary
Collisions between ionic and dipolar molecules and clusters facilitate the formation of atmospheric aerosol particles, which affect global climate and air quality. We compared often-used classical approaches for calculating ion–dipole collision rates with robust atomistic computer simulations. While classical approaches work for simple ions and dipoles only, our modeling approach can also efficiently calculate reasonable collision properties for more complex systems.
Benjamin Foreback, Lubna Dada, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Chao Yan, Lili Wang, Biwu Chu, Ying Zhou, Tom V. Kokkonen, Mona Kurppa, Rosaria E. Pileci, Yonghong Wang, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Lin Zhuohui, Yishou Guo, Chang Li, Rima Baalbaki, Joni Kujansuu, Xiaolong Fan, Zemin Feng, Pekka Rantala, Shahzad Gani, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Yongchun Liu, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11089–11104,Short summary
This study analyzed air quality in Beijing during the Chinese New Year over 7 years, including data from a new in-depth measurement station. This is one of few studies to look at long-term impacts, including the outcome of firework restrictions starting in 2018. Results show that firework pollution has gone down since 2016, indicating a positive result from the restrictions. Results of this study may be useful in making future decisions about the use of fireworks to improve air quality.
Golnaz Roudsari, Olli H. Pakarinen, Bernhard Reischl, and Hanna Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10099–10114,Short summary
We use atomistic simulations to study heterogeneous ice nucleation on silver iodide surfaces in slit and wedge geometries at low supercooling which serve as a model of irregularities on real atmospheric aerosol particle surfaces. The revealed microscopic ice nucleation mechanisms in confined geometries strongly support the experimental evidence for the importance of surface features such as cracks or pits functioning as active sites for ice nucleation in the atmosphere.
Anton Rusanen, Kristo Hõrrak, Lauri R. Ahonen, Tuomo Nieminen, Pasi P. Aalto, Pasi Kolari, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, and Heikki Junninen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We present a framework for setting up SMEAR (Station for Measuring Earth Surface-Atmosphere Relations) type measurement station data flows. This framework, called SMEARcore, consists of modular open-source software components that can be chosen to suit various station configurations. The benefits of using this framework are automation of routine operations, real-time monitoring of measurement results and station status.
Ying Zhou, Simo Hakala, Chao Yan, Yang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Biwu Chu, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Shahzad Gani, Jenni Kontkanen, Pauli Paasonen, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Lubna Dada
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17885–17906,Short summary
We characterized the connection between new particle formation (NPF) events in terms of frequency, intensity and growth at a near-highway location in central Beijing and at a background mountain site 80 km away. Due to the substantial contribution of NPF to the global aerosol budget, identifying the conditions that promote the occurrence of regional NPF events could help understand their contribution on a large scale and would improve their implementation in global models.
Shahzad Gani, Lukas Kohl, Rima Baalbaki, Federico Bianchi, Taina M. Ruuskanen, Olli-Pekka Siira, Pauli Paasonen, and Hanna Vehkamäki
Geosci. Commun., 4, 507–516,Short summary
In this article, we present authorship guidelines which also include a novel authorship form along with the documentation of the formulation process for a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary center with more than 250 researchers. Our practical approach promotes fair authorship practices and, by focusing on clear, transparent, and timely communication, helps avoid late-stage authorship conflict.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14275–14291,Short summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid–base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span 4 orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in ambient conditions. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Emma Lumiaro, Milica Todorović, Theo Kurten, Hanna Vehkamäki, and Patrick Rinke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13227–13246,Short summary
The study of climate change relies on climate models, which require an understanding of aerosol formation. We train a machine-learning model to predict the partitioning coefficients of atmospheric molecules, which govern condensation into aerosols. The model can make instant predictions based on molecular structures with accuracy surpassing that of standard computational methods. This will allow the screening of low-volatility molecules that contribute most to aerosol formation.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Sander Mirme, Mikael Ehn, Iida Pullinen, Katri Leino, Siegfried Schobesberger, Juha Kangasluoma, Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Riikka Väänänen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Radovan Krejci, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Janne Levula, Aadu Mirme, Stefano Decesari, Ralf Tillmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12649–12663,Short summary
We studied aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different locations (Po Valley, Italy, and Hyytiälä, Finland). The observations consist of airborne measurements on board an instrumented Zeppelin and a small airplane combined with comprehensive ground-based measurements.
Zhuohui Lin, Yonghong Wang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Yishuo Guo, Zemin Feng, Chang Li, Yusheng Zhang, Simo Hakala, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Xiaolong Fan, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Runlong Cai, Tom V. Kokkonen, Putian Zhou, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12173–12187,Short summary
We find that ammonium nitrate and aerosol water content contributed most during low mixing layer height conditions; this may further trigger enhanced formation of sulfate and organic aerosol via heterogeneous reactions. The results of this study contribute towards a more detailed understanding of the aerosol–chemistry–radiation–boundary layer feedback that is likely to be responsible for explosive aerosol mass growth events in urban Beijing.
Sabrina Chee, Kelley Barsanti, James N. Smith, and Nanna Myllys
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11637–11654,Short summary
We explored molecular properties affecting atmospheric particle formation efficiency and derived a parameterization between particle formation rate and heterodimer concentration, which showed good agreement to previously reported experimental data. Considering the simplicity of calculating heterodimer concentration, this approach has potential to improve estimates of global cloud condensation nuclei in models that are limited by the computational expense of calculating particle formation rate.
Magdalena Okuljar, Heino Kuuluvainen, Jenni Kontkanen, Olga Garmash, Miska Olin, Jarkko V. Niemi, Hilkka Timonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Yee Jun Tham, Rima Baalbaki, Mikko Sipilä, Laura Salo, Henna Lintusaari, Harri Portin, Kimmo Teinilä, Minna Aurela, Miikka Dal Maso, Topi Rönkkö, Tuukka Petäjä, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9931–9953,Short summary
To estimate the relative contribution of different sources to the particle population in an urban environment, we conducted simultaneous measurements at a street canyon and an urban background station in Helsinki. We investigated the contribution of traffic and new particle formation to particles with a diameter between 1 and 800 nm. We found that during spring traffic does not dominate the particles smaller than 3 nm at either of the stations.
Rima Baalbaki, Michael Pikridas, Tuija Jokinen, Tiia Laurila, Lubna Dada, Spyros Bezantakos, Lauri Ahonen, Kimmo Neitola, Anne Maisser, Elie Bimenyimana, Aliki Christodoulou, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juha Kangasluoma, George Biskos, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jean Sciare, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9223–9251,Short summary
This study investigates new particle formation (NPF) in the less represented region of the Mediterranean basin using 1-year measurements of aerosol particles down to ~ 1 nm in diameter. We report a high frequency of NPF and give examples of interesting NPF features. We quantify the strength of NPF events by calculating formation rates and growth rates. We further unveil the atmospheric conditions and variables considered important for the intra-monthly and inter-monthly occurrence of NPF.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Chang Li, Wei Ma, Zemin Feng, Ying Zhou, Zhuohui Lin, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Rujing Yin, Jenni Kontkanen, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Runlong Cai, Federico Bianchi, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5499–5511,Short summary
Fog, cloud and haze are very common natural phenomena. Sulfuric acid (SA) is one of the key compounds forming those suspended particles, technically called aerosols, through gas-to-particle conversion. Therefore, the concentration level, source and sink of SA is very important. Our results show that ozonolysis of alkenes plays a major role in nighttime SA formation under unpolluted conditions in urban Beijing, and nighttime cluster mode particles are probably driven by SA in urban environments.
Runlong Cai, Chao Yan, Dongsen Yang, Rujing Yin, Yiqun Lu, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Jiaxin Ruan, Xiaoxiao Li, Jenni Kontkanen, Qiang Zhang, Juha Kangasluoma, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, Federico Bianchi, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2457–2468,Short summary
Based on long-term measurements, we discovered that the collision of H2SO4–amine clusters is the governing mechanism that initializes fast new particle formation in the polluted atmospheric environment of urban Beijing. The mechanism and the governing factors for H2SO4–amine nucleation in the polluted atmosphere are quantitatively investigated in this study.
Runlong Cai, Chenxi Li, Xu-Cheng He, Chenjuan Deng, Yiqun Lu, Rujing Yin, Chao Yan, Lin Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2287–2304,Short summary
Growth rate determines the survival probability of atmospheric new particles and hence their impacts. We clarify the impacts of coagulation on the values retrieved by the appearance time method, which is widely used for growth rate evaluation. A new formula with coagulation correction is proposed based on derivation and tested using both models and atmospheric data. We show that the sub-3 nm particle growth rate in polluted environments may be overestimated without the coagulation correction.
Juha Sulo, Nina Sarnela, Jenni Kontkanen, Lauri Ahonen, Pauli Paasonen, Tiia Laurila, Tuija Jokinen, Juha Kangasluoma, Heikki Junninen, Mikko Sipilä, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Katrianne Lehtipalo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 695–715,Short summary
In this study, we analyzed over 5 years of sub-3 nm particle concentrations and their precursor vapors, identifying atmoshperic vapors important to the formation of these particles in the boreal forest. We also observed seasonal differences in both particle and precursor vapor concentrations and the formation pathways of these particles. Our results confirm the importance of organic vapors in atmospheric aerosol formation and highlight key seasonal differences that require further study.
Anna Shcherbacheva, Tracey Balehowsky, Jakub Kubečka, Tinja Olenius, Tapio Helin, Heikki Haario, Marko Laine, Theo Kurtén, and Hanna Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15867–15906,Short summary
Atmospheric new particle formation and cluster growth to aerosol particles is an important field of research, in particular due to the climate change phenomenon. Evaporation rates are very difficult to account for but they are important to explain the formation and growth of particles. Different quantum chemistry (QC) methods produce substantially different values for the evaporation rates. We propose a novel approach for inferring evaporation rates of clusters from available measurements.
Helmi-Marja Keskinen, Ilona Ylivinkka, Liine Heikkinen, Pasi P. Aalto, Tuomo Nieminen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juho Aalto, Janne Levula, Jutta Kesti, Lauri R. Ahonen, Ekaterina Ezhova, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseenShort summary
Long-term (2005–2017) aerosol particulate matter (PM) concentration measurements at Finland at Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II, Hyytiälä) have been measured with three different measurement equipment. The comparison revealed an equivalence among the three methods. Mass concentrations were generally highest in summer. The descending trend was visible here in spring, summer and winter. This might have resulted at least partly from air quality legislation.
Yongchun Liu, Yusheng Zhang, Chaofan Lian, Chao Yan, Zeming Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolong Fan, Yan Chen, Weigang Wang, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Jing Cai, Wei Du, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Joni Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Xuefei Wang, Bo Hu, Yuesi Wang, Maofa Ge, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13023–13040,Short summary
Understanding of the chemical and physical processes leading to atmospheric aerosol particle formation is crucial to devising effective mitigation strategies to protect the public and reduce uncertainties in climate predictions. We found that the photolysis of nitrous acid could promote the formation of organic and nitrate aerosol and that traffic-related emission is a major contributor to ambient nitrous acid on haze days in wintertime in Beijing.
Jing Cai, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Chao Yan, Liine M. Heikkinen, Feixue Zheng, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Shaojun Zhang, Daoyuan Yang, Yonghong Wang, Tom V. Kokkonen, Tommy Chan, Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yongchun Liu, Hong He, Pauli Paasonen, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Claudia Mohr, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Yele Sun, Philip L. Croteau, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Wei Du, Markku Kulmala, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12721–12740,Short summary
By applying both OA PMF and size PMF at the same urban measurement site in Beijing, similar particle source types, including vehicular emissions, cooking emissions and secondary formation-related sources, were resolved by both frameworks and agreed well. It is also found that in the absence of new particle formation, vehicular and cooking emissions dominate the particle number concentration, while secondary particulate matter governed PM2.5 mass during spring and summer in Beijing.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna Elina Manninen, Katri Leino, Riikka Väänänen, Antti Manninen, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Tuomo Nieminen, Matti Leskinen, Joonas Enroth, Marja Bister, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Juha Kangasluoma, Heikki Järvinen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11841–11854,Short summary
In this work, by using co-located airborne and ground-based measurements, we show that counter-rotating horizontal circulations in the planetary boundary layer (roll vortices) frequently enhance regional new particle formation or induce localized bursts of new particle formation. These observations can be explained by the ability of the rolls to efficiently lift low-volatile vapors emitted from the surface to the top of the boundary layer where new particle formation is more favorable.
Martin Heinritzi, Lubna Dada, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andrea C. Wagner, Lukas Fischer, Lauri R. Ahonen, Stavros Amanatidis, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Bernhard Baumgartner, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, Antonio Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Imad El Haddad, Xucheng He, Johanna Helm, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Juha Kangasluoma, Timo Keber, Changhyuk Kim, Andreas Kürten, Houssni Lamkaddam, Tiia M. Laurila, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna Elina Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy Lee Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Tuomo Nieminen, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Monica Passananti, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Clémence Rose, Siegfried Schobesberger, Wiebke Scholz, Kay Scholze, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Annele Virtanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Rainer Volkamer, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11809–11821,Short summary
With experiments performed at CLOUD, we show how isoprene interferes in monoterpene oxidation via RO2 termination at atmospherically relevant concentrations. This interference shifts the distribution of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) away from C20 class dimers towards C15 class dimers, which subsequently reduces both biogenic nucleation and early growth rates. Our results may help to understand the absence of new-particle formation in isoprene-rich environments.
Tommy Chan, Runlong Cai, Lauri R. Ahonen, Yiliang Liu, Ying Zhou, Joonas Vanhanen, Lubna Dada, Yan Chao, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4885–4898,Short summary
Using a particle size magnifier (PSM; Airmodus, Finland), we determined the particle size distribution using four inversion methods and compared each method to the others to establish their strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, we provided a step-by-step procedure on how to invert measured data using the PSM. Finally, we provided recommendations, code and data related to the data inversion. This is an important paper, as no operating procedure exists regarding how to process measured PSM data.
Tommaso Zanca, Jakub Kubečka, Evgeni Zapadinsky, Monica Passananti, Theo Kurtén, and Hanna Vehkamäki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3581–3593,Short summary
In this paper we quantify (using a statistical model) the probability of decomposition of a representative class of HOM clusters in an APi-TOF mass spectrometer. This is important because it quantifies the systematic error of measurements in a APi-TOF MS due to cluster decomposition. The results (specific for our selected clusters) show that decomposition is negligible, provided their bonding energy is large enough to allow formation in the atmosphere in the first place.
Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yiliang Liu, Yueyun Fu, Juha Kangasluoma, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Federico Bianchi, Tom V. Kokkonen, Yongchun Liu, Joni Kujansuu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Lin Wang, Jingkun Jiang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1201–1216,Short summary
In this study, we focus on explaining the concentration variations in the observed particle modes, by relating them to the potential aerosol sources and sinks, and on understanding the connections between these modes. Interestingly, even in the atmospheric cocktail in urban Beijing, secondary new particle formation (NPF) drives the particle number concentration, especially in the sub-3 nm range. We found that the total number concentration is ~ 4 times higher on NPF days than on haze days.
Roope Halonen, Evgeni Zapadinsky, Theo Kurtén, Hanna Vehkamäki, and Bernhard Reischl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13355–13366,Short summary
The rate of collisions between molecules or clusters is used to determine particle formation in the atmosphere. The basic approach is to treat the colliding particles as noninteracting hard spheres. By using atomistic simulations with a realistic force field and theoretical approaches, we showed that the actual collision rate of two sulfuric acid molecules is more than twice as high as that for hard spheres. The results of this study will improve models of atmospheric particle growth.
Nanna Myllys, Jakub Kubečka, Vitus Besel, Dina Alfaouri, Tinja Olenius, James Norman Smith, and Monica Passananti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9753–9768,Short summary
In atmospheric sulfuric-acid-driven particle formation, bases are able to stabilize the initial molecular clusters and thus enhance particle formation. We have investigated the enhancing potential of different bases in atmospheric particle formation. We show that strong bases with low abundance are likely to dominate electrically neutral particle formation, whereas weak bases with high abundance have a larger role in ion-mediated particle formation.
Katri Leino, Janne Lampilahti, Pyry Poutanen, Riikka Väänänen, Antti Manninen, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Lubna Dada, Anna Franck, Daniela Wimmer, Pasi P. Aalto, Lauri R. Ahonen, Joonas Enroth, Juha Kangasluoma, Petri Keronen, Frans Korhonen, Heikki Laakso, Teemu Matilainen, Erkki Siivola, Hanna E. Manninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4127–4138,Short summary
This study presents airborne observations of particles, starting from 1.5 nm in diameter, above the boreal forest from 100 m up to 2700 m. The aim was to study the extent of NPF and likely places for nucleation. We found that the highest concentrations of 1.5–3 nm particles were above the forest canopy top on NPF event mornings, and the concentration decreased with increasing altitude. This would indicate the importance of gaseous precursors from vegetation for NPF processes in this area.
Daniela Wimmer, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Hanna Elina Manninen, Juha Kangasluoma, Alessandro Franchin, Tuomo Nieminen, John Backman, Jian Wang, Chongai Kuang, Radovan Krejci, Joel Brito, Fernando Goncalves Morais, Scot Turnbull Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Markku Kulmala, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13245–13264,Short summary
This work focuses on understanding the production of very small airborne particles in the undisturbed environment of the Amazon basin. Computer models have shown that up to 70 % of these tiny particles are responsible for cloud formation on a global scale. The processes behind the production of these very small particles have been studied intensely recently. Their appearance has been observed almost all over the world. We directly measure sub-3 nm aerosols for the first time in the Amazon basin.
Runlong Cai, Dongsen Yang, Lauri R. Ahonen, Linlin Shi, Frans Korhonen, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Tuukka Petäjä, Jun Zheng, Juha Kangasluoma, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4477–4491,Short summary
We tested the performance of four inversion methods to recover sub-3 nm aerosol size distributions using the particle size magnifier (PSM). The PSM is widely used in new particle formation study; however, the inversion methods used in previous studies may report false particle concentrations. Due to the results, we suggest using the expectation–maximization algorithm to address the PSM inversion problem. We also gave practical suggestions on PSM operation based on the inversion analysis.
Marja Hemmilä, Heidi Hellén, Aki Virkkula, Ulla Makkonen, Arnaud P. Praplan, Jenni Kontkanen, Lauri Ahonen, Markku Kulmala, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6367–6380,Short summary
We measured gas- and particle-phase amine and ammonia concentrations in a boreal forest site in 2015 with online ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We wanted to know how much and which kinds of amines there are, and how they behave and could affect nucleation. We observed seasonal and diurnal variations for different amines. Amines turned out to be a heterogeneous group of compounds. To our best knowledge, our amine measurements are the longest time series that has been made.
Ulrich K. Krieger, Franziska Siegrist, Claudia Marcolli, Eva U. Emanuelsson, Freya M. Gøbel, Merete Bilde, Aleksandra Marsh, Jonathan P. Reid, Andrew J. Huisman, Ilona Riipinen, Noora Hyttinen, Nanna Myllys, Theo Kurtén, Thomas Bannan, Carl J. Percival, and David Topping
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 49–63,Short summary
Vapor pressures of low-volatility organic molecules at atmospheric temperatures reported in the literature often differ by several orders of magnitude between measurement techniques. These discrepancies exceed the stated uncertainty of each technique, which is generally reported to be smaller than a factor of 2. We determined saturation vapor pressures for the homologous series of polyethylene glycols ranging in vapor pressure at 298 K from 1E−7 Pa to 5E−2 Pa as a reference set.
Carla Frege, Ismael K. Ortega, Matti P. Rissanen, Arnaud P. Praplan, Gerhard Steiner, Martin Heinritzi, Lauri Ahonen, António Amorim, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Martin Breitenlechner, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El-Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Marc Gonin, Armin Hansel, Christopher R. Hoyle, Tuija Jokinen, Heikki Junninen, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Roy Lee Mauldin, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Tuukka Petäjä, Nina Sarnela, Siegfried Schobesberger, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Dominik Stolzenburg, António Tomé, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Paul M. Winkler, Josef Dommen, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 65–79,Short summary
It was recently shown that biogenic highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) form particles in the absence of sulfuric acid and ions enhance the nucleation rate. Here we compare the molecular composition of positive and negative HOM clusters at 25, 5 and −25 °C. At lower temperatures the HOM average oxygen-to-carbon ratio decreases indicating a reduction in the rate of autoxidation due to rather high activation energy. The experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations.
Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jonathan Duplissy, Tuomo Nieminen, Juha Kangasluoma, Lauri R. Ahonen, Lubna Dada, Jenni Kontkanen, Hanna E. Manninen, Antonio Dias, Antonio Amorim, Paulus S. Bauer, Anton Bergen, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Xuemeng Chen, Danielle C. Draper, Lukas Fischer, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Jani Hakala, Liine Heikkinen, Martin Heinritzi, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Alexander N. Kvashnin, Tiia Laurila, Michael J. Lawler, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Roy L. Mauldin III, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Felix Piel, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Nina Sarnela, Simon Schallhart, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Yrjö Viisanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Mao Xiao, Penglin Ye, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, James N. Smith, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas Worsnop, Mikael Ehn, Mikko Sipilä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15181–15197,
Juha Kangasluoma, Susanne Hering, David Picard, Gregory Lewis, Joonas Enroth, Frans Korhonen, Markku Kulmala, Karine Sellegri, Michel Attoui, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2271–2281,Short summary
The manuscript presents a characterization of three new particle counters able to detect airborne nanoparticles smaller than 3 nm in diameter. We explored some of the parameters affecting the smallest detectable particle size, such as sample flow relative humidity, the particle chemical composition and the electrical charging state. The characterization results help one to select a suitable particle counter for a given application.
Jenni Kontkanen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri Ahonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Hanna E. Manninen, Jani Hakala, Clémence Rose, Karine Sellegri, Shan Xiao, Lin Wang, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Aijun Ding, Huan Yu, Shanhu Lee, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2163–2187,Short summary
The concentrations of ~1–3 nm particles were investigated at nine sites around the world. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were highest at the sites with strong anthropogenic influence. Electrically neutral particles dominated sub-3 nm particle concentrations in polluted environments and in boreal forest during spring and summer. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were observed to be determined by the availability of precursor vapors rather than the sink caused by preexisting aerosol particles.
Elham Baranizadeh, Benjamin N. Murphy, Jan Julin, Saeed Falahat, Carly L. Reddington, Antti Arola, Lars Ahlm, Santtu Mikkonen, Christos Fountoukis, David Patoulias, Andreas Minikin, Thomas Hamburger, Ari Laaksonen, Spyros N. Pandis, Hanna Vehkamäki, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Ilona Riipinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2741–2754,Short summary
The molecular mechanisms through which new ultrafine (< 100 nm) aerosol particles are formed in the atmosphere have puzzled the scientific community for decades. In the past few years, however, significant progress has been made in unraveling these processes through laboratory studies and computational efforts. In this work we have implemented these new developments to an air quality model and study the implications of anthropogenically driven particle formation for European air quality.
Juha Kangasluoma, Alessandro Franchin, Jonahtan Duplissy, Lauri Ahonen, Frans Korhonen, Michel Attoui, Jyri Mikkilä, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Joonas Vanhanen, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2977–2988,Short summary
The paper describes technical aspects of using the Airmodus A11 nCNC at various inlet pressures and how temperature selection affects the performance of the instrument. We also present a sampling box to minimize the inlet losses and make use of the instrument more convenient.
Alessandro Franchin, Andy Downard, Juha Kangasluoma, Tuomo Nieminen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Gerhard Steiner, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Richard C. Flagan, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2709–2720,Short summary
High transmission efficiency is key for classifying and counting atmospheric aerosol below 10 nm. We developed a new high-transmission inlet for the Caltech nano-radial DMA (nRDMA) and successfully deployed the nRDMA, equipped with the new inlet, in chamber measurements, using a particle size magnifier (PSM) and a booster CPC as a counter. With this setup, we were able to measure size distributions of ions between 1.3 and 6 nm in mobility diameter.
Jenni Kontkanen, Tinja Olenius, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hanna Vehkamäki, Markku Kulmala, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5545–5560,
Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Hanna E. Manninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juha Kangasluoma, Stefano Decesari, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Ari Laaksonen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1919–1935,
K. Ruusuvuori, P. Hietala, O. Kupiainen-Määttä, T. Jokinen, H. Junninen, M. Sipilä, T. Kurtén, and H. Vehkamäki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2577–2588,Short summary
Ionization reagents suitable for accurate measurements of the atmospheric gas-phase amine vapour concentrations are needed. Based on computational results, acetone is a viable option for use as an ionization reagent in CI-APi-TOF measurements on atmospheric dimethylamine. However, comparison between the computational and experimental results revealed notable discrepancies. Further study is still required before the acetone CI-APi-TOF can be considered a viable option in practice.
A. P. Praplan, S. Schobesberger, F. Bianchi, M. P. Rissanen, M. Ehn, T. Jokinen, H. Junninen, A. Adamov, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Duplissy, J. Hakala, A. Hansel, M. Heinritzi, J. Kangasluoma, J. Kirkby, M. Krapf, A. Kürten, K. Lehtipalo, F. Riccobono, L. Rondo, N. Sarnela, M. Simon, A. Tomé, J. Tröstl, P. M. Winkler, C. Williamson, P. Ye, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, N. M. Donahue, M. Kulmala, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4145–4159,Short summary
Our study shows, based on data from three atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometers measuring in parallel charged and neutral molecules and molecular clusters, how oxidised organic compounds bind to inorganic ions (e.g. bisulfate, nitrate, ammonium). This ionisation is selective for compounds with lower molar mass due to their limited amount and variety of functional groups. We also found that extremely low volatile organic compounds (ELVOCs) can be formed immediately.
N. T. Tsona, N. Bork, and H. Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 495–503,
N. Bork, J. Elm, T. Olenius, and H. Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12023–12030,
I. K. Ortega, T. Olenius, O. Kupiainen-Määttä, V. Loukonen, T. Kurtén, and H. Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7995–8007,
J. Kangasluoma, C. Kuang, D. Wimmer, M. P. Rissanen, K. Lehtipalo, M. Ehn, D. R. Worsnop, J. Wang, M. Kulmala, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 689–700,
K. Ruusuvuori, T. Kurtén, I. K. Ortega, J. Faust, and H. Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10397–10404,
N. Bork, T. Kurtén, and H. Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3695–3703,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Technique: Laboratory Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsInvestigating the dependence of mineral dust depolarization on complex refractive index and size with a laboratory polarimeter at 180.0° lidar backscattering angleEvaluation of a low-cost dryer for a low-cost optical particle counterEffects of temperature and salinity on bubble-bursting aerosol formation simulated with a bubble-generating chamberA new hot-stage microscopy technique for measuring temperature-dependent viscosities of aerosol particles and its application to farnesene secondary organic aerosolCharacterization of a modified printed optical particle spectrometer for high-frequency and high-precision laboratory and field measurementsAn Optimised OC/EC Fraction Separation Method for Radiocarbon Source Apportionment Applied to Low-Loaded Arctic Aerosol FiltersDesign and fabrication of an electrostatic precipitator for infrared spectroscopyCombined application of online FIGAERO-CIMS and offline LC-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS) to characterize the chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in smog chamber studiesHigh-frequency gaseous and particulate chemical characterization using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (Dual-Phase-EESI-TOF)An evaluation of the heat test for the ice-nucleating ability of minerals and biological materialDevelopment, characterization, and application of an improved online reactive oxygen species analyzer based on the Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in ambient Air (MARGA)Characterization of soot produced by the mini inverted soot generator with an atmospheric simulation chamberLED-based solar simulator to study photochemistry over a wide temperature range in the large simulation chamber AIDALaboratory evaluation of the scattering matrix of ragweed, ash, birch and pine pollen towards pollen classificationCloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity analysis of low-hygroscopicity aerosols using the aerodynamic aerosol classifier (AAC)Characterisation of the Manchester Aerosol Chamber facilityA semi-automated instrument for cellular oxidative potential evaluation (SCOPE) of water-soluble extracts of ambient particulate matterUtilizing an electrical low-pressure impactor to indirectly probe water uptake via particle bounce measurementsCalibration and evaluation of a broad supersaturation scanning (BS2) cloud condensation nuclei counter for rapid measurement of particle hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activityCorrecting bias in log-linear instrument calibrations in the context of chemical ionization mass spectrometryEffects of aerosol size and coating thickness on the molecular detection using extractive electrospray ionizationThe nano-scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (nSEMS) and its application to size distribution measurements of 1.5–25 nm particlesA dual-droplet approach for measuring the hygroscopicity of aqueous aerosolA method for liquid spectrophotometric measurement of total and water-soluble iron and copper in ambient aerosolsEfficacy of a portable, moderate-resolution, fast-scanning differential mobility analyzer for ambient aerosol size distribution measurementsComparative characterization of the performance of bio-aerosol nebulizers in connection with atmospheric simulation chambersCoupling a gas chromatograph simultaneously to a flame ionization detector and chemical ionization mass spectrometer for isomer-resolved measurements of particle-phase organic compoundsInvestigation of structural changes of atmospheric aerosol samples during two thermal–optical measurement procedures (EUSAAR2, NIOSH870)Development of the drop Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), intercomparison of droplet freezing techniques, and use of soluble lignin as an atmospheric ice nucleation standardElemental analysis of oxygenated organic coating on black carbon particles using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometerOn the calibration of FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS: importance and impact of calibrant delivery for the particle-phase calibrationA single-beam photothermal interferometer for in situ measurements of aerosol light absorptionAqueous particle generation with a 3D printed nebulizerA new method for operating a continuous-flow diffusion chamber to investigate immersion freezing: assessment and performance studyCharacterization of a non-thermal plasma source for use as a mass specrometric calibration tool and non-radioactive aerosol chargerApplication of time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry for the real-time measurement of particle-phase organic peroxides: an online redox derivatization–aerosol mass spectrometer (ORD-AMS)Nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) for investigating hygroscopic properties of sub-10 nm aerosol nanoparticlesQuantification of toxic metals using machine learning techniques and spark emission spectroscopyA new approach for measuring the carbon and oxygen content of atmospherically relevant compounds and mixturesAn experimental study on light scattering matrices for Chinese loess dust with different particle size distributionsCounting on chemistry: laboratory evaluation of seed-material-dependent detection efficiencies of ultrafine condensation particle countersPhotophoretic spectroscopy in atmospheric chemistry – high-sensitivity measurements of light absorption by a single particleLaboratory evaluation of particle-size selectivity of optical low-cost particulate matter sensorsMapping ice formation to mineral-surface topography using a micro mixing chamber with video and atomic-force microscopyHigh-humidity tandem differential mobility analyzer for accurate determination of aerosol hygroscopic growth, microstructure, and activity coefficients over a wide range of relative humidityDevelopment of an improved two-sphere integration technique for quantifying black carbon concentrations in the atmosphere and seasonal snowDevelopment of the DRoplet Ice Nuclei Counter Zurich (DRINCZ): validation and application to field-collected snow samplesMultiple-scattering correction factor of quartz filters and the effect of filtering particles mixed in water: implications for analyses of light absorption in snow samplesThe effect of rapid relative humidity changes on fast filter-based aerosol-particle light-absorption measurements: uncertainties and correction schemesCharacterisation of the filter inlet system on the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft and its use for size-resolved aerosol composition measurements
Alain Miffre, Danaël Cholleton, Clément Noël, and Patrick Rairoux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 403–417,Short summary
The depolarization ratio of hematite, silica, Arizona and Asian dust is evaluated in a lab with a π-polarimeter operating at lidar 180 ° and at (355, 532) nm wavelengths. The hematite depolarization equals (10±1) % at 355 nm for coarser particles, while that of silica is (33±1) %. This huge difference is explained by accounting for the high imaginary part of the hematite complex refractive index, thus revealing the key role played by light absorption in mineral dust lidar depolarization.
Miriam Chacón-Mateos, Bernd Laquai, Ulrich Vogt, and Cosima Stubenrauch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7395–7410,Short summary
The study evaluates a low-cost dryer to avoid the negative effect of hygroscopic growth and fog droplets in the particulate matter (PM) concentrations of sensors. The results show a reduction in the overestimation of the PM but also an underestimation compared to reference devices. Special care is needed when designing a dryer as high temperatures change the sampled air by evaporating the most volatile particulate species. Low-cost dryers are very promising for different sensor applications.
Svetlana Sofieva, Eija Asmi, Nina S. Atanasova, Aino E. Heikkinen, Emeline Vidal, Jonathan Duplissy, Martin Romantschuk, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Jaakko Kukkonen, Dennis H. Bamford, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, and Mikhail Sofiev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6201–6219,Short summary
A new bubble-generating glass chamber design with an extensive set of aerosol production experiments is presented to re-evaluate bubble-bursting-mediated aerosol production as a function of water parameters: bubbling air flow, water salinity, and temperature. Our main findings suggest modest dependence of aerosol production on the water salinity and a strong dependence on temperature below ~ 10 °C.
Kristian J. Kiland, Kevin L. Marroquin, Natalie R. Smith, Shaun Xu, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5545–5561,Short summary
Information on the viscosity of secondary organic aerosols is needed when making air quality, climate, and atmospheric chemistry predictions. Viscosity depends on temperature, so we developed a new method for measuring the temperature-dependent viscosity of small samples. As an application of the method, we measured the viscosity of farnesene secondary organic aerosol at different temperatures.
Sabin Kasparoglu, Mohammad Maksimul Islam, Nicholas Meskhidze, and Markus D. Petters
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5007–5018,Short summary
A modified version of a Handix Scientific printed optical particle spectrometer is introduced. The paper presents characterization experiments, including concentration, size, and time responses. Integration of an external multichannel analyzer card removes counting limitations of the original instrument. It is shown that the high-resolution light-scattering amplitude data can be used to sense particle-phase transitions.
Martin Rauber, Gary Salazar, Karl Espen Yttri, and Sönke Szidat
Carbon-containing aerosols from ambient air are analysed for the radioactive isotope radiocarbon to determine the contribution from fossil-fuel emissions. Light-absorbing soot-like aerosols were isolated by water extraction and thermal separation. This separation is affected by artefacts, for which we developed a new correction method. The investigation of aerosols from the Arctic shows that our approach works well for such samples, where many artefacts are expected.
Nikunj Dudani and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4693–4707,Short summary
We designed and fabricated an aerosol collector with high collection efficiency that enables quantitative infrared spectroscopy analysis. By collecting particles on optical windows, typical substrate interferences are eliminated. New methods for fabricating aerosol devices using 3D printing with post-treatment to reduce the time and cost of prototyping are described.
Mao Du, Aristeidis Voliotis, Yunqi Shao, Yu Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Kelly L. Pereira, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Carl J. Percival, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4385–4406,Short summary
Atmospheric chemistry plays a key role in the understanding of aerosol formation and air pollution. We designed chamber experiments for the characterization of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from a biogenic precursor with inorganic seed. Our results highlight the advantages of a combination of online FIGAERO-CIMS and offline LC-Orbitrap MS analytical techniques to characterize the chemical composition of SOA in chamber studies.
Chuan Ping Lee, Mihnea Surdu, David M. Bell, Josef Dommen, Mao Xiao, Xueqin Zhou, Andrea Baccarini, Stamatios Giannoukos, Günther Wehrle, Pascal André Schneider, Andre S. H. Prevot, Jay G. Slowik, Houssni Lamkaddam, Dongyu Wang, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3747–3760,Short summary
Real-time detection of both the gas and particle phase is needed to elucidate the sources and chemical reaction pathways of organic vapors and particulate matter. The Dual-EESI was developed to measure gas- and particle-phase species to provide new insights into aerosol sources or formation mechanisms. After characterizing the relative gas and particle response factors of EESI via organic aerosol uptake experiments, the Dual-EESI is more sensitive toward gas-phase analyes.
Martin I. Daily, Mark D. Tarn, Thomas F. Whale, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2635–2665,Short summary
Mineral dust and particles of biological origin are important types of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) that can trigger ice formation of supercooled cloud droplets. Heat treatments are used to detect the presence of biological INPs in samples collected from the environment as the activity of mineral INPs is assumed unchanged, although not fully assessed. We show that the ice-nucleating ability of some minerals can change after heating and discuss how INP heat tests should be interpreted.
Jiyan Wu, Chi Yang, Chunyan Zhang, Fang Cao, Aiping Wu, and Yanlin Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2623–2633,Short summary
We introduced an online method to simultaneously determine the content of inorganic salt ions and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PM2.5 hour by hour. We verified the accuracy and precision of the instrument. And we got the daily changes in ROS and the main sources that affect ROS. This breakthrough enables the quantitative assessment of atmospheric particulate matter ROS at the diurnal scale, providing an effective tool to study sources and environmental impacts of ROS.
Virginia Vernocchi, Marco Brunoldi, Silvia G. Danelli, Franco Parodi, Paolo Prati, and Dario Massabò
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2159–2175,Short summary
The performance of a mini inverted soot generator was investigated at a simulation chamber facility by studying the soot generated by ethylene and propane combustion, together with the number, size, optical properties, and EC / OC concentrations. Mass absorption coefficients and Ångström absorption exponents are compatible with the literature, with some differences. The characterization of MISG soot particles is fundamental to design and perform experiments in atmospheric simulation chambers.
Magdalena Vallon, Linyu Gao, Feng Jiang, Bianca Krumm, Jens Nadolny, Junwei Song, Thomas Leisner, and Harald Saathoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1795–1810,Short summary
A LED-based light source has been constructed for the AIDA simulation chamber at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. It allows aerosol formation and ageing studies under atmospherically relevant illumination intensities and spectral characteristics at temperatures from –90 °C to 30 °C with the possibility of changing the photon flux and irradiation spectrum at any point. The first results of photolysis experiments with 2,3-pentanedione, iron oxalate and a brown carbon component are shown.
Danaël Cholleton, Émilie Bialic, Antoine Dumas, Pascal Kaluzny, Patrick Rairoux, and Alain Miffre
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1021–1032,Short summary
While pollen impacts public health and the Earth’s climate, the identification of each pollen taxon remains challenging. In this context, a laboratory evaluation of the polarimetric light-scattering characteristics of ragweed, ash, birch and pine pollen, when embedded in ambient air, is here performed at two wavelengths. Interestingly, the achieved precision of the retrieved scattering matrix elements allows unequivocal light scattering characteristics of each studied taxon to be identified.
Kanishk Gohil and Akua A. Asa-Awuku
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1007–1019,Short summary
This work develops a methodology and software to study and analyze the cloud-droplet-forming ability of aerosols with an aerodynamic aerosol classifier (AAC). This work quantifies the uncertainties in size-resolved measurements and subsequent uncertainties propagated to cloud droplet parameterizations. Lastly, we present the best practices for AAC cloud droplet measurement.
Yunqi Shao, Yu Wang, Mao Du, Aristeidis Voliotis, M. Rami Alfarra, Simon P. O'Meara, S. Fiona Turner, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 539–559,Short summary
A comprehensive description and characterisation of the Manchester Aerosol Chamber (MAC) was conducted. The MAC has good temperature and relative humidity homogeneity, fast mixing times, and comparable losses of gases and particles with other chambers. The MAC's bespoke control system allows improved duty cycles and repeatable experiments. Moreover, the effect of contamination on performance was also investigated. It is highly recommended to regularly track the chamber's performance.
Sudheer Salana, Yixiang Wang, Joseph V. Puthussery, and Vishal Verma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7579–7593,Short summary
Oxidative potential (OP) of particulate matter (PM) is an important indicator of PM toxicity. However, no automated instrument has ever been developed to provide a rapid high-throughput analysis of cell-based OP measurements. Here, we developed a semi-automated instrument, the first of its kind, for measuring oxidative potential using rat alveolar cells. We also developed a dataset on the intrinsic cellular OP of several compounds commonly known to be present in ambient PM.
Kevin B. Fischer and Giuseppe A. Petrucci
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7565–7577,Short summary
The viscosity of organic particles in atmospheric aerosol is sometimes correlated to bounce factor. It is generally accepted that more viscous particles will be more likely to bounce following acceleration toward and impaction on a surface. We demonstrate that use of multi-stage low-pressure impactors for this purpose may result in measurement artifacts that depend on chemical composition, particle size, and changing relative humidity. A hypothesis for the observed effect is presented.
Najin Kim, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Mira L. Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Thomas F. Mentel, Ovid O. Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6991–7005,Short summary
A broad supersaturation scanning CCN (BS2-CCN) system, in which particles are exposed to a range of supersaturation simultaneously, can measure a broad range of CCN activity distribution with a high time resolution. We describe how the BS2-CCN system can be effectively calibrated and which factors can affect the calibration curve. Intercomparison experiments between typical DMA-CCN and BS2-CCN measurements to evaluate the BS2-CCN system showed high correlation and good agreement.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6551–6560,Short summary
Calibration techniques have been recently developed to log-linearly correlate analyte sensitivity with CIMS operating conditions particularly for compounds without authentic standards. In this work, we examine the previously ignored bias in the log-linear-based calibration method and estimate an average bias of 30 %, with 1 order of magnitude for less sensitive compounds in some circumstances. A step-by-step guide was provided to reduce and even remove the bias.
Chuan Ping Lee, Mihnea Surdu, David M. Bell, Houssni Lamkaddam, Mingyi Wang, Farnoush Ataei, Victoria Hofbauer, Brandon Lopez, Neil M. Donahue, Josef Dommen, Andre S. H. Prevot, Jay G. Slowik, Dongyu Wang, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5913–5923,Short summary
Extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been deployed for high throughput online detection of particles with minimal fragmentation. Our study elucidates the extraction mechanism between the particles and electrospray (ES) droplets of different properties. The results show that the extraction rate is likely affected by the coagulation rate between the particles and ES droplets. Once coagulated, the particles undergo complete extraction within the ES droplet.
Weimeng Kong, Stavros Amanatidis, Huajun Mai, Changhyuk Kim, Benjamin C. Schulze, Yuanlong Huang, Gregory S. Lewis, Susanne V. Hering, John H. Seinfeld, and Richard C. Flagan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5429–5445,Short summary
We present the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of the nano-scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (nSEMS), a recently developed instrument that probes particle physical properties in the 1.5–25 nm range. The nSEMS has proven to be extremely powerful in examining atmospheric nucleation and the subsequent growth of nanoparticles in the CERN CLOUD experiment, which provides a valuable asset to study atmospheric nanoparticles and to evaluate their impact on climate.
Jack M. Choczynski, Ravleen Kaur Kohli, Craig S. Sheldon, Chelsea L. Price, and James F. Davies
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5001–5013,Short summary
Relative humidity (RH) and hygroscopicity play an important role in regulating the physical, chemical, and optical properties of aerosol. In this work, we develop a new method to characterize hygroscopicity using particle levitation. We levitate two droplets with an electrodynamic balance and measure their size with light-scattering methods using one droplet as a probe of the RH. We demonstrate highly accurate and precise measurements of the RH and hygroscopic growth of a range of samples.
Yuhan Yang, Dong Gao, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4707–4719,Short summary
Iron and copper are commonly found in ambient aerosols and have been linked to adverse health effects. We describe a relatively simple benchtop instrument that can be used to quantify these metals in aqueous solutions and verify the method by comparison with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The approach is based on forming light-absorbing metal–ligand complexes that can be measured with high sensitivity utilizing a long-path liquid waveguide capillary cell.
Stavros Amanatidis, Yuanlong Huang, Buddhi Pushpawela, Benjamin C. Schulze, Christopher M. Kenseth, Ryan X. Ward, John H. Seinfeld, Susanne V. Hering, and Richard C. Flagan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4507–4516,Short summary
We assess the performance of a highly portable mobility analyzer, the Spider DMA, in measuring ambient aerosol particle size distributions, with specific attention to its moderate sizing resolution (R=3). Long-term field testing showed excellent correlation with a conventional mobility analyzer (R=10) over the 17–500 nm range, suggesting that moderate resolution may be sufficient to obtain key properties of ambient size distributions, enabling smaller instruments and better counting statistics.
Silvia G. Danelli, Marco Brunoldi, Dario Massabò, Franco Parodi, Virginia Vernocchi, and Paolo Prati
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4461–4470,Short summary
Experiments conducted inside confined artificial environments, such as atmospheric simulation chambers (ASCs), where atmospheric conditions and composition are controlled, can provide valuable information on bio-aerosol viability, dispersion, and impact. We focus here on the reproducible aerosolization and injection of viable microorganisms into an ASC, the first and crucial step of any experimental protocol to expose bio-aerosols to different atmospheric conditions.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Graham O. Frazier, Wen Xu, Andrew T. Lambe, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3895–3907,Short summary
Measurement techniques that can achieve molecular characterizations are necessary to understand the differences of fate and transport within isomers produced in the atmospheric oxidation process. In this work, we develop an instrument to conduct isomer-resolved measurements of particle-phase organics. We assess the number of isomers per chemical formula in atmospherically relevant samples and examine the feasibility of extending the use of an existing instrument to a broader range of analytes.
Theresa Haller, Eva Sommer, Thomas Steinkogler, Christian Rentenberger, Anna Wonaschuetz, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Hinrich Grothe, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3721–3735,Short summary
Structural changes of carbonaceous aerosol samples during thermal–optical measurement techniques cause a darkening of the sample during the heating procedure which can influence the attribution of the carbonaceous material to organic and elemental carbon. We analyzed structural changes of atmospheric aerosol samples occurring during the EUSAAR2 and NIOSH870 measurement protocols with Raman spectroscopy. We found that the darkening of the sample is not necessarily caused by graphitization.
Anna J. Miller, Killian P. Brennan, Claudia Mignani, Jörg Wieder, Robert O. David, and Nadine Borduas-Dedekind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3131–3151,Short summary
To characterize atmospheric ice nuclei, we present (1) the development of our home-built droplet freezing technique (DFT), which involves the Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), (2) an intercomparison campaign using NX-illite and an ambient sample with two other DFTs, and (3) the application of lignin as a soluble and commercial ice nuclei standard with three DFTs. We further compiled the growing number of DFTs in use for atmospheric ice nucleation since 2000 and add FINC.
Mutian Ma, Laura-Hélèna Rivellini, YuXi Cui, Megan D. Willis, Rio Wilkie, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Junfeng Wang, Xinlei Ge, and Alex K. Y. Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2799–2812,Short summary
Chemical characterization of organic coatings is important to advance our understanding of the physio-chemical properties and atmospheric processing of black carbon (BC) particles. This work develops two approaches to improve the elemental analysis of oxygenated organic coatings using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer. Analyzing ambient data with the new approaches indicated that secondary organics that coated on BC were likely less oxygenated compared to those externally mixed with BC.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Luis M. F. Barreira, Iida Pullinen, Angela Buchholz, John Jayne, Jordan E. Krechmer, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 355–367,Short summary
FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS enables online volatility measurements of chemical compounds in ambient aerosols. Previously published volatility calibration results however differ from each other significantly. In this study we investigate the reason for this discrepancy. We found a major source of error in the widely used syringe deposition method and propose a new method for volatility calibration by using atomized calibration compounds.
Bradley Visser, Jannis Röhrbein, Peter Steigmeier, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, and Ernest Weingartner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 7097–7111,Short summary
Here we report on the development of a novel single-beam photothermal interferometer and its use in the measurement of aerosol light absorption. We demonstrate how light-absorbing gases can be used to calibrate the instrument and how this absorption is automatically subtracted during normal operation. The performance of the instrument is compared to a standard filter-based instrument using a black carbon test aerosol. The 60 s detection limit is found to be less than 10 Mm-1.
Michael Rösch and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6807–6812,Short summary
The need for a simple atomizer with a high-output stability combined with the capabilities of CAD software and high-resolution 3D printing has allowed for the design, production and testing of the PRinted drOpleT Generator (PROTeGE) to generate liquid particles from solutions. The size and number concentrations of the generated particles have been characterized with different ammonium sulfate and PSL solutions. PROTeGE is easy to operate, requires minimal maintenance and is cost-effective.
Gourihar Kulkarni, Naruki Hiranuma, Ottmar Möhler, Kristina Höhler, Swarup China, Daniel J. Cziczo, and Paul J. DeMott
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6631–6643,Short summary
This study presents a new continuous-flow-diffusion-chamber-style operated ice chamber (Modified Compact Ice Chamber, MCIC) to measure the immersion-freezing efficiency of atmospheric particles. MCIC allowed us to obtain maximum droplet-freezing efficiency at higher time resolution without droplet breakthrough ambiguity. Its evaluation was performed by reproducing published data from the recent ice nucleation workshop and past laboratory data for standard and airborne ice-nucleating particles.
Christian Tauber, David Schmoll, Johannes Gruenwald, Sophia Brilke, Peter Josef Wlasits, Paul Martin Winkler, and Daniela Wimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5993–6006,Short summary
In this paper we show that a commercially available plasma charger with nitrogen as the working gas can enhance the charging probability for sub-12 nm particles. In addition, the charger ion mobilities and the chemical composition have been examined using an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (APi-TOF MS), and comparison of the experimental results revealed that the generated neutralizer ions are not dependent on the charging mechanism.
Marcel Weloe and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5725–5738,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometers (AMSs) are frequently applied in atmospheric aerosol research in connection with climate, environmental or health-related projects. The paper describes a new real-time technique for the measurement of organic peroxides, which play an important role in new particle formation and as
reactive oxygen speciesin aerosol–health-related aspects of atmospheric aerosols.
Ting Lei, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Thomas Tuch, Xin Wang, Zhibin Wang, Mira Pöhlker, Maofa Ge, Weigang Wang, Eugene Mikhailov, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5551–5567,Short summary
We present the design of a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) apparatus that enables high accuracy and precision in hygroscopic growth measurements of aerosol nanoparticles with diameters less than 10 nm. We further introduce comprehensive methods for system calibration and validation of the performance of the system. We then study the size dependence of the deliquescence and the efflorescence of aerosol nanoparticles for sizes down to 6 nm.
Seyyed Ali Davari and Anthony S. Wexler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5369–5377,Short summary
Traditional instruments for detection and quantification of toxic metals in the atmosphere are expensive. In this study, we have designed, fabricated, and tested a low-cost instrument, which employs cheap components to detect and quantify toxic metals. Advanced machine learning (ML) techniques have been used to improve the instrument's performance. This study demonstrates how the combination of low-cost sensors with ML can address problems that traditionally have been too expensive to be solved.
James F. Hurley, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Braden Stump, Chenyang Bi, Purushottam Kumar, Susanne V. Hering, Pat Keady, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4911–4925,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosols has implications for human and ecosystem health. Current methods for determining chemical composition are expensive and require highly trained personnel. Our method is promising for moderate-cost, low-maintenance measurements of oxygen / carbon ratios, a key chemical parameter, and other elements may also be studied. In this work, we coupled two commonly used detectors to assess O / C ratios in a variety of compounds and mixtures within an acceptable error.
Jia Liu, Qixing Zhang, Yinuo Huo, Jinjun Wang, and Yongming Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4097–4109,Short summary
Angular behaviors of light scattering properties for loess dust sampled from the Chinese Loess Plateau were investigated using a self-developed apparatus. Two samples with different size distributions were used to represent dust that can or cannot be transported over long ranges. Analyses of optical simulation results showed that differences of measurements are mainly caused by different sizes. This study is useful for the development of optical models of loess dust during transportation.
Peter Josef Wlasits, Dominik Stolzenburg, Christian Tauber, Sophia Brilke, Sebastian Harald Schmitt, Paul Martin Winkler, and Daniela Wimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3787–3798,Short summary
In this paper we show that chemical similarities between the seed particle material and the working fluid have an impact on the detection efficiency of commonly used CPCs. A remarkable set of CPCs, including the newly developed V-WCPC 3789, was tested. Among others, reproducibly generated organic seeds based on beta-caryophyllene were used. Theoretical simulations of supersaturation profiles were successfully linked to measured data.
Nir Bluvshtein, Ulrich K. Krieger, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3191–3203,Short summary
Light-absorbing organic particles undergo transformations during their exposure in the atmosphere. The role these particles play in the global radiative balance is uncertain. This study describes high-sensitivity and high-precision measurements of light absorption by a single particle levitated in an electrodynamic balance. This high level of sensitivity enables future studies to explore the major processes responsible for changes to the particle's light absorptivity.
Joel Kuula, Timo Mäkelä, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Samu Varjonen, Óscar González, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2413–2423,Short summary
Particle-size-dependent detection ranges of low-cost particulate matter sensors were evaluated in a laboratory experiment. Six different sensor models were evaluated altogether. The results showed that none of the sensor models adhered to the technical specifications provided by the manufacturers, and thus a high risk of sensor misuse is posed. It is paramount that the limitations regarding the particle size discrimination of low-cost sensors are acknowledged properly.
Raymond W. Friddle and Konrad Thürmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2209–2218,Short summary
An obstacle to predicting ice content in mixed-phase clouds is the inability to directly view atmospheric ice nucleation at the nanoscale, where this process occurs. Here we show how a cloud-like environment can be created in a small atomic-force microscopy (AFM) sample cell. By colocating video microscopy of ice formation with high-resolution AFM images, we quantitatively show how the surface topography, down to nanometer-length scales, can determine the preferential locations of ice formation.
Eugene F. Mikhailov and Sergey S. Vlasenko
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2035–2056,Short summary
Here we present the high-humidity tandem differential hygroscopicity analyzer (HHTDMA) and a new method to measure the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles with in situ restructuring to minimize the influence of particle shape. Our results demonstrate that the HHTDMA system described in this work allows us to determine the thermodynamic characteristics of aqueous solutions with an accuracy close to that obtained by bulk methods.
Xin Wang, Xueying Zhang, and Wenjing Di
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 39–52,Short summary
We developed an improved two-sphere integration (TSI) technique to quantify black carbon (BC) concentrations in the atmosphere and seasonal snow. The major advantage of this system is that it combines two distinct integrated spheres to reduce the scattering effect due to light-absorbing particles and thus provides accurate determinations of total light absorption from BC collected on Nuclepore filters.
Robert O. David, Maria Cascajo-Castresana, Killian P. Brennan, Michael Rösch, Nora Els, Julia Werz, Vera Weichlinger, Lin S. Boynton, Sophie Bogler, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, Claudia Marcolli, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6865–6888,Short summary
Here we present the development and applicability of the DRoplet Ice Nuclei Counter Zurich (DRINCZ). DRINCZ allows for ice nuclei in the immersion mode to be quantified between 0 and -25 °C with an uncertainty of ±0.9 °C. Furthermore, we present a new method for assessing biases in drop-freezing apparatuses and cumulative ice-nucleating-particle concentrations from snow samples collected in the Austrian Alps at the Sonnblick Observatory.
Jonas Svensson, Johan Ström, and Aki Virkkula
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5913–5925,Short summary
Collection of particles onto filters can be a valuable tool in several research disciplines. Here we experiment with quartz filters and their response to soot particles in an airborne and liquid state in order to better understand the sampling procedure. Soot particles in a liquid phase showed absorption of light nearly double that of airborne sampled particles.
Sebastian Düsing, Birgit Wehner, Thomas Müller, Almond Stöcker, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5879–5895,Short summary
This study examines the effect of changes in relative humidity on measurements made by two different filter-based absorption photometers. Different filter loads, loading materials, and filter types are considered. It was found that both instruments react opposingly and with different magnitudes. One of the devices showed a variation in the dependence on the loading material. For each of the two devices, a correction approach is provided. Recommendations based on the findings are given.
Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Duncan H. P. Hedges, Matthew Hiscock, Simon T. Parker, Philip D. Rosenberg, Jamie Trembath, Richard Walshaw, Ian T. Burke, James B. McQuaid, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5741–5763,Short summary
Sampling coarse-mode aerosol from a fast-moving research aircraft is challenging and can be subject to substantial losses and enhancements. We characterise these losses and enhancements for an inlet system designed to collect aerosol onto filters. We go on to present an application of this inlet system where we use electron microscopy to study the size and composition of the collected aerosol particles.
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Zanca, T., Kubečka, J., Zapadinsky, E., Passananti, M., Kurtén, T., and Vehkamäki, H.: Highly oxygenated organic molecule cluster decomposition in atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometers, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3581–3593, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-13-3581-2020, 2020.
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Zhao, J., Birmili, W., Hussein, T., Wehner, B., and Wiedensohler, A.: Particle number emission rates of aerosol sources in 40 German households and their contributions to ultrafine and fine particle exposure, Indoor Air, 31, 818–831, https://doi.org/10.1111/ina.12773, 2021.
To study what is happening in the atmosphere, it is important to be able to measure the molecules and clusters present in it. In our work, we studied an artifact that happens inside a mass spectrometer, in particular the fragmentation of clusters. We were able to quantify the fragmentation and retrieve the correct concentration and composition of the clusters using our dual (experimental and theoretical) approach.
To study what is happening in the atmosphere, it is important to be able to measure the...