Articles | Volume 6, issue 9
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Microwave radiometer to retrieve temperature profiles from the surface to the stratopause
Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
F. Navas-Guzmán, O. Stähli, and N. Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1619–1628,
Adrià Amell, Simon Pfreundschuh, and Patrick Eriksson
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).Short summary
The representation of clouds in numerical weather and climate models remains a major challenge that is difficult to address because of the limited amount of observations of clouds that are currently available. Our work proposes to address this by using machine learning to extract novel information on ice clouds from a long record of satellite observations. Through extensive validation, we show that this novel approach provides surprisingly accurate estimates of clouds and their properties.
Michael Kiefer, Dale F. Hurst, Gabriele P. Stiller, Stefan Lossow, Holger Vömel, John Anderson, Faiza Azam, Jean-Loup Bertaux, Laurent Blanot, Klaus Bramstedt, John P. Burrows, Robert Damadeo, Bianca Maria Dinelli, Patrick Eriksson, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Mark Hervig, Yasuko Kasai, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Donal Murtagh, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen H. Rosenlof, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Takafumi Sugita, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4589–4642,Short summary
We quantify biases and drifts (and their uncertainties) between the stratospheric water vapor measurement records of 15 satellite-based instruments (SATs, with 31 different retrievals) and balloon-borne frost point hygrometers (FPs) launched at 27 globally distributed stations. These comparisons of measurements during the period 2000–2016 are made using robust, consistent statistical methods. With some exceptions, the biases and drifts determined for most SAT–FP pairs are < 10 % and < 1 % yr−1.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Clément Guilloteau, Paula J. Brown, Christian D. Kummerow, and Patrick Eriksson
The latest version of the GPROF retrieval algorithm that produces global precipitation estimates from the Global Precipitation Measurement mission observations is validated against ground-based radars. The validation shows that the algorithm accurately estimates from continental to regional scales. In addition, we validate candidates for the next version of the algorithm and identify principal challenges for further improving space-borne rain measurements.
Karina McCusker, Anthony J. Baran, Chris Westbrook, Stuart Fox, Patrick Eriksson, Richard Cotton, Julien Delanoë, and Florian Ewald
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Polarised radiative transfer simulations are performed using an atmospheric model based on in-situ measurements. These are compared to large polarisation measurements, to explore whether such measurements can provide information on cloud ice, e.g. particle shape and orientation. We find that using oriented particle models with shapes based on imagery generally allows for accurate simulations. However, results are sensitive to shape assumptions such as the choice of single crystals or aggregates.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Ingrid Ingemarsson, Patrick Eriksson, Daniel A. Vila, and Alan J. P. Calheiros
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6907–6933,Short summary
We used methods from the field of artificial intelligence to train an algorithm to estimate rain from satellite observations. In contrast to other methods, our algorithm not only estimates rain, but also the uncertainty of the estimate. Using independent measurements from rain gauges, we show that our method performs better than currently available methods and that the provided uncertainty estimates are reliable. Our method makes satellite-based measurements of rain more accurate and reliable.
Adrià Amell, Patrick Eriksson, and Simon Pfreundschuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5701–5717,Short summary
Geostationary satellites continuously image a given location on Earth, a feature that satellites designed to characterize atmospheric ice lack. However, the relationship between geostationary images and atmospheric ice is complex. Machine learning is used here to leverage such images to characterize atmospheric ice throughout the day in a probabilistic manner. Using structural information from the image improves the characterization, and this approach compares favourably to traditional methods.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Paula J. Brown, Christian D. Kummerow, Patrick Eriksson, and Teodor Norrestad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5033–5060,Short summary
The Global Precipitation Measurement mission is an international satellite mission providing regular global rain measurements. We present two newly developed machine-learning-based implementations of one of the algorithms responsible for turning the satellite observations into rain measurements. We show that replacing the current algorithm with a neural network improves the accuracy of the measurements. A neural network that also makes use of spatial information unlocks further improvements.
William G. Read, Gabriele Stiller, Stefan Lossow, Michael Kiefer, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Dale Hurst, Holger Vömel, Karen Rosenlof, Bianca M. Dinelli, Piera Raspollini, Gerald E. Nedoluha, John C. Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Patrick Eriksson, Christopher E. Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, Katja Weigel, John P. Burrows, and Alexei Rozanov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3377–3400,Short summary
This paper attempts to provide an assessment of the accuracy of 21 satellite-based instruments that remotely measure atmospheric humidity in the upper troposphere of the Earth's atmosphere. The instruments made their measurements from 1984 to the present time; however, most of these instruments began operations after 2000, and only a few are still operational. The objective of this study is to quantify the accuracy of each satellite humidity data set.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Stuart Fox, Patrick Eriksson, David Duncan, Stefan A. Buehler, Manfred Brath, Richard Cotton, and Florian Ewald
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 677–699,Short summary
We test a novel method to remotely measure ice particles in clouds. This is important because such measurements are required to improve climate and weather models. The method combines a radar with newly developed sensors measuring microwave radiation at very short wavelengths. We use observations made from aircraft flying above the cloud and compare them to real measurements from inside the cloud. This works well given that one can model the ice particles in the cloud sufficiently well.
Alan J. Geer, Peter Bauer, Katrin Lonitz, Vasileios Barlakas, Patrick Eriksson, Jana Mendrok, Amy Doherty, James Hocking, and Philippe Chambon
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7497–7526,Short summary
Satellite observations of radiation from the earth can have strong sensitivity to cloud and precipitation in the atmosphere, with applications in weather forecasting and the development of models. Computing the radiation received at the satellite sensor using radiative transfer theory requires a simulation of the optical properties of a volume containing a large number of cloud and precipitation particles. This article describes the physics used to generate these
Jie Gong, Dong L. Wu, and Patrick Eriksson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5369–5387,Short summary
Launched from the International Space Station, the IceCube radiometer orbited the Earth for 15 months and collected the first spaceborne radiance measurements at 874–883 GHz. This channel is uniquely important to fill in the sensitivity gap between operational visible–infrared and microwave remote sensing for atmospheric cloud ice and snow. This paper delivers the IceCube Level 1 radiance data processing algorithm and provides a data quality evaluation and discussion on its scientific merit.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Bengt Rydberg, Michael Kiefer, Maya Garcia-Comas, Alyn Lambert, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5823–5857,Short summary
We present improved Odin/SMR mesospheric H2O concentration and temperature data sets, reprocessed assuming a bigger sideband leakage of the instrument. The validation study shows how the improved SMR data sets agree better with other instruments' observations than the old SMR version did. Given their unique time extension and geographical coverage, and H2O being a good tracer of mesospheric circulation, the new data sets are valuable for the study of dynamical processes and multi-year trends.
Vasileios Barlakas, Alan J. Geer, and Patrick Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3427–3447,Short summary
Oriented nonspherical ice particles induce polarization that is ignored when cloud-sensitive satellite observations are used in numerical weather prediction systems. We present a simple approach for approximating particle orientation, requiring minor adaption of software and no additional calculation burden. With this approach, the system realistically simulates the observed polarization patterns, increasing the physical consistency between instruments with different polarizations.
Inderpreet Kaur, Patrick Eriksson, Simon Pfreundschuh, and David Ian Duncan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2957–2979,Short summary
Currently, cloud contamination in microwave humidity channels is addressed using filtering schemes. We present an approach to correct the cloud-affected microwave humidity radiances using a Bayesian machine learning technique. The technique combines orthogonal information from microwave channels to obtain a probabilistic prediction of the clear-sky radiances. With this approach, we are able to predict bias-free clear-sky radiances with well-represented case-specific uncertainty estimates.
Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, and Michael Kahnert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6933–6944,Short summary
Raindrops become flattened due to aerodynamic drag as they increase in mass and fall speed. This study calculated the electromagnetic interaction between microwave radiation and non-spheroidal raindrops. The calculations are made publicly available to the scientific community, in order to promote accurate representations of raindrops in measurements. Tests show that the drop shape can have a noticeable effect on microwave observations of heavy rainfall.
Leonie Bernet, Elmar Brockmann, Thomas von Clarmann, Niklaus Kämpfer, Emmanuel Mahieu, Christian Mätzler, Gunter Stober, and Klemens Hocke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11223–11244,Short summary
With global warming, water vapour increases in the atmosphere. Water vapour is an important gas because it is a natural greenhouse gas and affects the formation of clouds, rain and snow. How much water vapour increases can vary in different regions of the world. To verify if it increases as expected on a regional scale, we analysed water vapour measurements in Switzerland. We found that water vapour generally increases as expected from temperature changes, except in winter.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Peter Forkman, Bengt Rydberg, Bernd Funke, Kaley A. Walker, and Hugh C. Pumphrey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5013–5031,Short summary
We present a unique – by time extension and geographical coverage – dataset of satellite observations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the mesosphere which will allow us to study dynamical processes, since CO is a very good tracer of circulation in the mesosphere. Previously, the dataset was unusable due to instrumental artefacts that affected the measurements. We identify the cause of the artefacts, eliminate them and prove the quality of the results by comparing with other instrument measurements.
Franziska Schranz, Jonas Hagen, Gunter Stober, Klemens Hocke, Axel Murk, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10791–10806,Short summary
We measured middle-atmospheric ozone, water vapour and zonal and meridional wind with two ground-based microwave radiometers which are located at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, in the Arctic. In this article we present measurements of the small-scale horizontal ozone gradients during winter 2018/2019. We found a distinct seasonal variation of the ozone gradients which is linked to the planetary wave activity. We further present the signatures of the SSW in the ozone, water vapour and wind measurements.
Thomas von Clarmann, Douglas A. Degenstein, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Stefan Bender, Amy Braverman, André Butz, Steven Compernolle, Robert Damadeo, Seth Dueck, Patrick Eriksson, Bernd Funke, Margaret C. Johnson, Yasuko Kasai, Arno Keppens, Anne Kleinert, Natalya A. Kramarova, Alexandra Laeng, Bavo Langerock, Vivienne H. Payne, Alexei Rozanov, Tomohiro O. Sato, Matthias Schneider, Patrick Sheese, Viktoria Sofieva, Gabriele P. Stiller, Christian von Savigny, and Daniel Zawada
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4393–4436,Short summary
Remote sensing of atmospheric state variables typically relies on the inverse solution of the radiative transfer equation. An adequately characterized retrieval provides information on the uncertainties of the estimated state variables as well as on how any constraint or a priori assumption affects the estimate. This paper summarizes related techniques and provides recommendations for unified error reporting.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Patrick Eriksson, Stefan A. Buehler, Manfred Brath, David Duncan, Richard Larsson, and Robin Ekelund
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4219–4245,Short summary
The next generation of European operational weather satellites will carry a novel microwave sensor, the Ice Cloud Imager (ICI), which will provide observations of clouds at microwave frequencies that were not available before. We investigate the potential benefits of combining observations from ICI with that of a radar. We find that such combined observations provide additional information on the properties of the cloud and help to reduce uncertainties in retrieved mass and number densities.
Eliane Maillard Barras, Alexander Haefele, Liliane Nguyen, Fiona Tummon, William T. Ball, Eugene V. Rozanov, Rolf Rüfenacht, Klemens Hocke, Leonie Bernet, Niklaus Kämpfer, Gerald Nedoluha, and Ian Boyd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8453–8471,Short summary
To determine the part of the variability of the long-term ozone profile trends coming from measurement timing, we estimate microwave radiometer trends for each hour of the day with a multiple linear regression model. The variation in the trend with local solar time is not significant at the 95 % confidence level either in the stratosphere or in the low mesosphere. We conclude that systematic sampling differences between instruments cannot explain significant differences in trend estimates.
Manfred Brath, Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, Oliver Lemke, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2309–2333,Short summary
Microwave dual-polarization observations consistently show that larger atmospheric ice particles tend to have a preferred orientation. We provide a publicly available database of microwave and submillimeter wave scattering properties of oriented ice particles based on discrete dipole approximation scattering calculations. Detailed radiative transfer simulations, recreating observed polarization patterns, are additionally presented in this study.
Jonas Hagen, Klemens Hocke, Gunter Stober, Simon Pfreundschuh, Axel Murk, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2367–2386,Short summary
The middle atmosphere (30 to 70 km altitude) is stratified and, despite very strong horizontal winds, there is less mixing between the horizontal layers. An important driver for the energy exchange between the layers in this regime is atmospheric tides, which are waves that are driven by the diurnal cycle of solar heating. We measure these tides in the wind field for the first time using a ground-based passive instrument. Ultimately, such measurements could be used to improve atmospheric models.
Christine Aebi, Julian Gröbner, Stelios Kazadzis, Laurent Vuilleumier, Antonis Gkikas, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 907–923,Short summary
Clouds are one of the largest sources of uncertainties in climate models. The current study estimates the cloud optical thickness (COT), the effective droplet radius and the single scattering albedo of stratus–altostratus and cirrus–cirrostratus clouds in Payerne, Switzerland, by combining ground- and satellite-based measurements and radiative transfer models. The estimated values are thereafter compared with data retrieved from other methods. The mean COT is distinct for different seasons.
Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, and Simon Pfreundschuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 501–520,Short summary
Atmospheric ice particles (e.g. snow and ice crystals) are an important part of weather, climate, and the hydrological cycle. This study investigates whether combined satellite measurements by radar and radiometers at microwave wavelengths can be used to find the most likely shape of such ice particles. The method was limited when using only currently operating sensors (CloudSat radar and the GPM Microwave Imager) but shows promise if the upcoming Ice Cloud Imager is also considered.
Patrick Eriksson, Bengt Rydberg, Vinia Mattioli, Anke Thoss, Christophe Accadia, Ulf Klein, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 53–71,Short summary
The Ice Cloud Imager (ICI) will be the first operational satellite sensor operating at sub-millimetre wavelengths and this novel mission will thus provide important new data to weather forecasting and climate studies. The series of ICI instruments will together cover about 20 years. This article presents the basic technical characteristics of the sensor and outlines the day-one operational retrievals. An updated estimation of the expected retrieval performance is also presented.
David Ian Duncan, Patrick Eriksson, and Simon Pfreundschuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6341–6359,Short summary
The overlapping beams of some satellite observations contain spatial information that is discarded by most data processing techniques. This study applies an established technique in a new way to improve the spatial resolution of retrieval targets, effectively using the overlapping information to achieve a higher ultimate resolution. It is argued that this is a more optimal use of the total information available from current microwave sensors, using AMSR2 as an example.
Klemens Hocke, Leonie Bernet, Jonas Hagen, Axel Murk, Matthias Renker, and Christian Mätzler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12083–12090,Short summary
The Tropospheric Water Radiometer (TROWARA) observed an enhanced intensity of short-term integrated water vapour (IWV) fluctuations during daytime in summer. These IWV fluctuations are possibly related to latent heat flux and thermal convective activity in the lower troposphere. The observed climatology and spectra of IWV fluctuations might be useful for modelling studies of water vapour convection in the atmospheric boundary layer at mid latitudes.
Franziska Schranz, Brigitte Tschanz, Rolf Rüfenacht, Klemens Hocke, Mathias Palm, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9927–9947,Short summary
The dynamics of the Arctic middle atmosphere above Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79° N, 12° E) is investigated using 3 years of H2O and O3 measurements from ground-based microwave radiometers. We found the signals of atmospheric phenomena like sudden stratospheric warmings, polar vortex shifts, effective descent rates of water vapour and periodicities in our data. Additionally, a comprehensive intercomparison is performed with models and measurements from ground-based, in situ and satellite instruments.
David Ian Duncan, Patrick Eriksson, Simon Pfreundschuh, Christian Klepp, and Daniel C. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6969–6984,Short summary
Raindrop size distributions have not been systematically studied over the oceans but are significant for remotely sensing, assimilating, and modeling rain. Here we investigate raindrop populations with new global in situ data, compare them against satellite estimates, and explore a new technique to classify the shapes of these distributions. The results indicate the inadequacy of a commonly assumed shape in some regions and the sizable impact of shape variability on satellite measurements.
Martin Lainer, Klemens Hocke, Ellen Eckert, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6611–6620,Short summary
A middle atmospheric water vapor time series of more than 11 years (April 2007 to May 2018) from the NDACC microwave remote sensing site at Bern (Switzerland) is investigated to estimate the trend by means of a robust multilinear parametric trend model. Between 61 and 72 km altitude a significant decline in water vapor could be detected. The reduction of water vapor maximizes to about −12 % per decade at 72 km altitude.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Michael Kiefer, Kaley A. Walker, Jean-Loup Bertaux, Laurent Blanot, James M. Russell, Ellis E. Remsberg, John C. Gille, Takafumi Sugita, Christopher E. Sioris, Bianca M. Dinelli, Enzo Papandrea, Piera Raspollini, Maya García-Comas, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Anu Dudhia, William G. Read, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Robert P. Damadeo, Joseph M. Zawodny, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, Stefan Noël, John P. Burrows, Hideo Sagawa, Yasuko Kasai, Joachim Urban, Patrick Eriksson, Donal P. Murtagh, Mark E. Hervig, Charlotta Högberg, Dale F. Hurst, and Karen H. Rosenlof
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2693–2732,
Leonie Bernet, Thomas von Clarmann, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Gérard Ancellet, Eliane Maillard Barras, René Stübi, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Niklaus Kämpfer, and Klemens Hocke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4289–4309,Short summary
After severe ozone depletion, upper stratospheric ozone has started to recover in recent years. However, stratospheric ozone trends from various data sets still show differences. To partly explain such differences, we investigate how the trends are affected by different factors, for example, anomalies in the data. We show how trend estimates can be improved by considering such anomalies and present updated stratospheric ozone trends from ground data measured in central Europe.
Stuart Fox, Jana Mendrok, Patrick Eriksson, Robin Ekelund, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Keith N. Bower, Anthony J. Baran, R. Chawn Harlow, and Juliet C. Pickering
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1599–1617,Short summary
Airborne observations of ice clouds are used to validate radiative transfer simulations using a state-of-the-art database of cloud ice optical properties. Simulations at these wavelengths are required to make use of future satellite instruments such as the Ice Cloud Imager. We show that they can generally reproduce observed cloud signals, but for a given total ice mass there is considerable sensitivity to the cloud microphysics, including the particle shape and distribution of ice mass.
Charlotta Högberg, Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Ralf Bauer, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick Eriksson, Donal P. Murtagh, Gabriele P. Stiller, Jörg Steinwagner, and Qiong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2497–2526,Short summary
Five δD (H2O) data sets obtained from satellite observations have been evaluated using profile-to-profile and climatological comparisons. The focus is on stratospheric altitudes, but results from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere are also provided. There are clear quantitative differences in the δD ratio in key areas of scientific interest, resulting in difficulties drawing robust conclusions on atmospheric processes affecting the water vapour budget and distribution.
Christine Aebi, Julian Gröbner, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5549–5563,Short summary
A newly developed hemispherical thermal infrared cloud camera (IRCCAM) is presented. The IRCCAM allows automatic cloud detection during the day and at night-time. The cloud fraction determined from the IRCCAM is compared with the cloud fraction determined from other instruments over a time period of 2 years. The IRCCAM has an agreement of +/- 2 oktas cloud fraction in 90 % of the data compared to other instruments. There are no significant differences between seasons or different times of day.
Joonas Kiviranta, Kristell Pérot, Patrick Eriksson, and Donal Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13393–13410,Short summary
This paper investigates how the activity of the Sun affects the amount of nitric oxide (NO) in the upper atmosphere. If NO descends lower down in the atmosphere, it can destroy ozone. We analyze satellite measurements of NO to create a model that can simulate the amount of NO at any given time. This model can indeed simulate NO with reasonable accuracy and it can potentially be used as an input for a larger model of the atmosphere that attempts to explain how the Sun affects our atmosphere.
Jonas Hagen, Axel Murk, Rolf Rüfenacht, Sergey Khaykin, Alain Hauchecorne, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5007–5024,
Martin Lainer, Klemens Hocke, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12061–12074,Short summary
A long continuous record (in total 7 years) of middle atmospheric water vapor at the midlatitude NDACC station in Bern is investigated to study quasi 2-day wave oscillations (Q2DWs). We present monthly climatologies of the wave amplitudes and show the periods that the Q2DWs developed. What we observe is very-high-frequency variability. An autobicoherence analysis revealed nonlinear phase couplings between Q2DWs and other atmospheric waves. Our results are useful for model validation purposes.
David Ian Duncan and Patrick Eriksson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11205–11219,Short summary
Ice cloud mass is assessed on a global scale using the latest satellite and reanalysis datasets. While ice cloud variability driven by large-scale circulations is an area of relative consensus, models and observations disagree strongly on the overall magnitude and finer-scale variability of atmospheric ice mass. The results reflect limitations of the current Earth observing system and indicate ice microphysical assumptions as the likely culprit of disagreement.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Patrick Eriksson, David Duncan, Bengt Rydberg, Nina Håkansson, and Anke Thoss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4627–4643,Short summary
A novel neural-network-based retrieval method is proposed that combines the flexibility and computational efficiency of machine learning retrievals with the consistent treatment of uncertainties of Bayesian methods. Numerical experiments are presented that show the consistency of the proposed method with the Bayesian formulation as well as its ability to represent non-Gaussian retrieval errors. With this, the proposed method overcomes important limitations of traditional methods.
Philippe Baron, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Jana Mendrok, Satoshi Ochiai, Kristell Pérot, Hideo Sagawa, and Makoto Suzuki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4545–4566,Short summary
This paper investigates with computer simulations the measurement performances of the satellite Stratospheric Inferred Winds (SIW) in the altitude range 10–90 km. SIW is a Swedish mission that will be launched close to 2022. It is intended to fill the current altitude gap between 30 and 70 km in wind measurements and to pursue the monitoring of temperature and key stratospheric constituents for better understanding climate change effects.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Stefan Lossow, Gabriele P. Stiller, Karen H. Rosenlof, Joachim Urban, John P. Burrows, Robert P. Damadeo, Patrick Eriksson, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Michael Kiefer, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4435–4463,Short summary
Time series of stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour using 33 data sets from 15 satellite instruments were compared in the framework of the second SPARC water vapour assessment. We find that most data sets can be considered in observational and modelling studies addressing, e.g. stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour variability and trends if data-set-specific characteristics (e.g. a drift) and restrictions (e.g. temporal and spatial coverage) are taken into account.
Patrick Eriksson, Robin Ekelund, Jana Mendrok, Manfred Brath, Oliver Lemke, and Stefan A. Buehler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1301–1326,Short summary
A main application of microwave remote sensing is to observe atmospheric particles consisting of ice. This application requires data on how particles with different shapes and sizes affect the observations. A database of such properties has been developed. The database is the most comprehensive of its type. Main strengths are a good representation of particles of aggregate type and broad frequency coverage.
Verena Grützun, Stefan A. Buehler, Lukas Kluft, Jana Mendrok, Manfred Brath, and Patrick Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4217–4237,Short summary
The global observation of ice clouds is crucial because they are important factors in the climate system but still are amongst the greatest uncertainties for estimating the Earth's energy budget in a changing climate. However, reliable global long-term measurements are scarce. Using atmospheric model data from the ICON model in combination with the radiative transfer simulator ARTS we explore the potential of passive millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength measurements to fill that gap.
Stefan A. Buehler, Jana Mendrok, Patrick Eriksson, Agnès Perrin, Richard Larsson, and Oliver Lemke
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1537–1556,Short summary
The Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) is a public domain software for simulating how radiation in the microwave to infrared spectral range travels through an atmosphere. The program can simulate satellite observations, in cloudy and clear atmospheres, and can also be used to calculate radiative energy fluxes. The main feature of this release is a planetary toolbox that allows simulations for the planets Venus, Mars, and Jupiter, in addition to Earth.
Franziska Schranz, Susana Fernandez, Niklaus Kämpfer, and Mathias Palm
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4113–4130,Short summary
We present 1 year of ozone measurements form two ground-based microwave radiometers located at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. The ozone measurements cover an altitude range of 25–70 km altitude and have a high time resolution of 1–2 h. With these datasets and model data a comprehensive analysis of the ozone diurnal cycle in the Arctic is performed for the different insolation conditions throughout the year. In the stratosphere we find a diurnal cycle which persists over the whole polar day.
Manfred Brath, Stuart Fox, Patrick Eriksson, R. Chawn Harlow, Martin Burgdorf, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 611–632,Short summary
A method to estimate the amounts of ice, liquid water, and water vapor from aircraft radiation measurements at wavelengths just over and under 1 mm is presented and its performance is estimated. The method uses an ensemble of artificial neural networks. It strongly benefits from the submillimeter frequencies reducing the error for the estimated amount of ice by a factor of 2 compared to a traditional microwave method. The method was applied to measurement of a precipitating frontal system.
Martin Lainer, Klemens Hocke, Rolf Rüfenacht, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14905–14917,Short summary
We report on middle-atmospheric water vapor measurements above Bern from the ground-based microwave radiometer MIAWARA (NDACC affiliated) during two winter periods of 6 months. Quasi 18 h oscillations of mesospheric water vapor above 0.1 hPa are observed. Further, the 18 h wave is seen in a zonal wind data set from the Doppler wind radiometer WIRA. Inertia-gravity-wave-induced fluctuations or a nonlinear coupling between tides and quasi 2-day waves are considered as possible drivers.
Gerald E. Nedoluha, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Lossow, R. Michael Gomez, Niklaus Kämpfer, Martin Lainer, Peter Forkman, Ole Martin Christensen, Jung Jin Oh, Paul Hartogh, John Anderson, Klaus Bramstedt, Bianca M. Dinelli, Maya Garcia-Comas, Mark Hervig, Donal Murtagh, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen Rosenlof, Gabriele P. Stiller, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14543–14558,Short summary
As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere–troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate) water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II), we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. In the lower mesosphere, we quantify instrumental differences in the observed trends and annual variations at six sites. We then present a range of observed trends in water vapor over the past 20 years.
Christine Aebi, Julian Gröbner, Niklaus Kämpfer, and Laurent Vuilleumier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4587–4600,Short summary
The current study analyses the cloud radiative effect during the daytime depending on cloud fraction and cloud type at two stations in Switzerland over a time period of 3–5 years. Information about fractional cloud coverage and cloud type is retrieved from images taken by visible all-sky cameras. Cloud cover, cloud type and other atmospheric parameters have an influence on the magnitude of the longwave cloud effect as well as on the shortwave.
Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Niklaus Kämpfer, Franziska Schranz, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, and Alexander Haefele
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14085–14104,Short summary
The paper presents assessment of the stratospheric measurements of a relatively new temperature radiometer (TEMPERA) at 60 GHz. The temperature profiles from TEMPERA have been compared with measurements from different techniques such as radiosondes, MLS satellite and Rayleigh lidar and with the temperature outputs from the SD-WACCM model. The results showed absolute biases and standard deviations lower than 2 K for most of the altitudes and comparisons, proving the good performance of TEMPERA.
Leonie Bernet, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4421–4437,Short summary
Microwave radiometry is a suitable technique to measure atmospheric temperature profiles during clear sky and cloudy conditions. However clouds can influence the temperature measurements. In this study we analyse the influence of clouds on temperature measurements in the troposphere from a microwave radiometer. We found that the effect of clouds on the temperature measurements is important and that the measurements can be improved substantially by considering clouds in the retrieval process.
Klemens Hocke, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Lorena Moreira, Leonie Bernet, and Christian Mätzler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12121–12131,Short summary
We derive the annual and semi-annual oscillations in cloud fraction (CF), integrated liquid water (ILW) and integrated water vapour (IWV) from the long-term measurements of the TROWARA radiometer in Bern, Switzerland. Further, we find a weekly cycle of CF and ILW from June to September with increased values on Saturday, Sunday and Monday.
Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Lucien Froidevaux, Ryan Fuller, Ray Wang, John Anderson, Chris Roth, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Robert Damadeo, Joe Zawodny, Stacey Frith, Richard McPeters, Pawan Bhartia, Jeannette Wild, Craig Long, Sean Davis, Karen Rosenlof, Viktoria Sofieva, Kaley Walker, Nabiz Rahpoe, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele Stiller, Natalya Kramarova, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Thierry Leblanc, Richard Querel, Daan Swart, Ian Boyd, Klemens Hocke, Niklaus Kämpfer, Eliane Maillard Barras, Lorena Moreira, Gerald Nedoluha, Corinne Vigouroux, Thomas Blumenstock, Matthias Schneider, Omaira García, Nicholas Jones, Emmanuel Mahieu, Dan Smale, Michael Kotkamp, John Robinson, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Neil Harris, Birgit Hassler, Daan Hubert, and Fiona Tummon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10675–10690,Short summary
Thanks to the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments, ozone-depleting chlorine (and bromine) in the stratosphere has declined slowly since the late 1990s. Improved and extended long-term ozone profile observations from satellites and ground-based stations confirm that ozone is responding as expected and has increased by about 2 % per decade since 2000 in the upper stratosphere, around 40 km altitude. At lower altitudes, however, ozone has not changed significantly since 2000.
Lorena Moreira, Klemens Hocke, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10259–10268,Short summary
GROMOS (GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer) has provided ozone profiles for the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change since 1994. A new retrieval version for ozone profiles aims to improve the altitude range of profiles. We performed a comparison between coincident profiles of GROMOS and Aura MLS, resulting in agreement within 2% in the mid- and upper stratosphere from 2009 to 2016. We also observed extensions of the tertiary ozone maximum at midlatitudes.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, John. P. Burrows, Bianca M. Dinelli, Patrick Eriksson, Patrick J. Espy, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen H. Rosenlof, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Gabriele P. Stiller, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1111–1137,
Klemens Hocke, Franziska Schranz, Eliane Maillard Barras, Lorena Moreira, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3445–3452,Short summary
Observation and simulation show an Atlantic ozone streamer along the edge region of the polar vortex in the northern middle stratosphere during winter. The Atlantic streamer has wind speeds of about 100 m/s and turns equatorward at a vortex erosion region. We compare the fields of stratospheric ozone and water vapour from ground- and space-based microwave radiometry and SD-WACCM simulations for a better understanding of non-linear transport processes in the middle atmosphere.
Richard Larsson, Mathias Milz, Patrick Eriksson, Jana Mendrok, Yasuko Kasai, Stefan Alexander Buehler, Catherine Diéval, David Brain, and Paul Hartogh
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 27–37,Short summary
By computer simulations, we explore and quantify how to use radiation emitted by molecular oxygen in the Martian atmosphere to measure the magnetic field from the crust of the planet. This crustal magnetic field is important to understand the past evolution of Mars. Our method can measure the magnetic field at lower altitudes than has so far been done, which could give important information on the characteristics of the crustal sources if a mission with the required instrument is launched.
Ole Martin Christensen, Susanne Benze, Patrick Eriksson, Jörg Gumbel, Linda Megner, and Donal P. Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12587–12600,Short summary
This study investigates the properties of ice clouds forming in the upper summer mesosphere known as polar mesospheric clouds, and their relationship with the background atmosphere combining two different satellite instruments. We find that temperature variations in the atmosphere of the order of some hours reduce the amount of ice in these clouds and see indications of strong vertical transport in these clouds.
Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Niklaus Kämpfer, and Alexander Haefele
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4587–4600,Short summary
The paper presents the assessment of the tropospheric measurements of a new temperature radiometer (TEMPERA) at 60 GHz. The temperature profiles from TEMPERA are compared with independent in situ radiosonde measurements. The TEMPERA performance is also compared with that of a commercial microwave radiometer (HATPRO). In addition, the brightness temperatures from both microwave radiometers are compared with the ones simulated using a radiative transfer model, ARTS.
Juha Lemmetyinen, Anna Kontu, Jouni Pulliainen, Juho Vehviläinen, Kimmo Rautiainen, Andreas Wiesmann, Christian Mätzler, Charles Werner, Helmut Rott, Thomas Nagler, Martin Schneebeli, Martin Proksch, Dirk Schüttemeyer, Michael Kern, and Malcolm W. J. Davidson
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 403–415,
Lorena Moreira, Klemens Hocke, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Ellen Eckert, Thomas von Clarmann, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10455–10467,Short summary
The GROMOS radiometer in Bern has been part of the NDACC since 1994. Our time series of stratospheric ozone profiles allow the assessment of natural oscillations, which are essential for the evaluation of detected stratospheric ozone trends. Among our new findings are the link between the upper stratospheric O3-SAO and the polar stratopause warmings in winter. We have also detected a strong peak amplitude of 5 % related to the solar activity cycle and the ENSO effect in ozone at midlatitudes.
Susana Fernandez, Rolf Rüfenacht, Niklaus Kämpfer, Thierry Portafaix, Françoise Posny, and Guillaume Payen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7531–7543,Short summary
We present a new ground based microwave radiometer for campaigns, GROMOS-C. It measures the vertical distribution of ozone in the middle atmosphere by observing spectra at 110.836 GHz. The paper presents a validation campaign that took place on La Réunion Island. The ozone retrieved profiles are validated against ozone profiles from the Microwave Limb Sounder, the ozone lidar located in the observatory, ozone profiles from weekly radiosondes and with ECMWF model data.
Isaac Moradi, Philip Arkin, Ralph Ferraro, Patrick Eriksson, and Eric Fetzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6913–6929,Short summary
Measurements from the SAPHIR onboard Megha-Tropiques are used to evaluate the diurnal cycle of tropospheric humidity in the tropical region. The results show a large inhomogeneity in the amplitude and peak time of tropospheric humidity. The diurnal amplitude tends to be larger over convective regions than over subsidence regions. An early morning peak time is observed over most regions but there are substantial regions where the diurnal peak occurs at the other times of day.
Rolf Rüfenacht, Klemens Hocke, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4915–4925,Short summary
We quantitatively analyze oscillations with periods from 5 to 50 days in horizontal wind profiles between mid-stratosphere and mesopause based on more than 44 months of data from high, mid- and low latitudes measured by a novel instrument. For the first time, long time series of continuous wind measurements allow direct observations of dynamics throughout this altitude range. The observations agree remarkably well with the ECMWF model in the stratosphere but discrepancies exist in the mesosphere.
Richard Larsson, Mathias Milz, Peter Rayer, Roger Saunders, William Bell, Anna Booton, Stefan A. Buehler, Patrick Eriksson, and Viju O. John
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 841–857,Short summary
By modeling the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder's mesospheric measurements, inversions methods can be applied to retreive mesospheric temperatures. We compare the fast forward model used by Met Office with reference simulations and find that there is a reasonable agreement between both models and measurements. Thus we recommend that the fast model is used in data assimilation to improve mesospheric temperature retrievals.
P. Forkman, O. M. Christensen, P. Eriksson, B. Billade, V. Vassilev, and V. M. Shulga
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 27–44,Short summary
Microwave radiometry is the only ground-based technique that can provide vertical profiles of gases in the middle atmosphere both day and night, and even during cloudy conditions. Today these measurements are performed at relatively few sites, more simple and reliable instruments are required to make the measurement technique more widely spread. In this study a compact double-sideband frequency-switched radiometer system for simultaneous observations of mesospheric CO and O3 is presented.
L. Moreira, K. Hocke, E. Eckert, T. von Clarmann, and N. Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10999–11009,Short summary
GROMOS (GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer) has provided ozone profiles for the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) at Bern since 1994. We performed a trend analysis of our 20-year time series of stratospheric ozone profiles with a multilinear parametric trend estimation method. With our estimated ozone trends we are able to support the stratospheric ozone turnaround, besides a statistically significant negative trend in the lower mesosphere.
M. Lainer, N. Kämpfer, B. Tschanz, G. E. Nedoluha, S. Ka, and J. J. Oh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9711–9730,Short summary
We use water vapor profiles from ground-based microwave radiometers at five locations distributed over the Northern Hemisphere and operated in the frame of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) to generate hemispheric water vapor maps based on the so-called trajectory mapping technique. The novelty is to show that a mini network of instruments is capable of providing information about the hemispheric distribution of water vapor under most conditions.
M. Proksch, C. Mätzler, A. Wiesmann, J. Lemmetyinen, M. Schwank, H. Löwe, and M. Schneebeli
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2611–2626,Short summary
The measurement of snow properties on global scale relies on microwave remote sensing data. The interpretation of the data is however challenging. Here we introduce MEMLS3&a, an extension of the snow emission model MEMLS, to include a backscatter model for active microwave remote sensing. In MEMLS3&a, snow input parameters can be derived by objective measurement methods, which avoids fitting the scattering efficiency of snow. The model is validated with combined active and passive measurements.
D. Hofmann, G. Preuss, and C. Mätzler
Biogeosciences, 12, 4261–4273,Short summary
We investigated an unusual ice type, called hair ice. It grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0°C. We describe this phenomenon and present our biological, physical, and chemical investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice: we found, that a winter-acive fungus in the wood is required. Ice segregation is the common mechanism. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand lignin/tannin compounds.
S. Fernandez, A. Murk, and N. Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2649–2662,
O. M. Christensen, P. Eriksson, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, K. Hultgren, and J. Gumbel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1981–1999,Short summary
Polar mesospheric clouds are clouds that form in the summer polar mesopause, 80km above the surface. In this study we present new measurements by the Odin satellite, which are able to determine water vapour, temperature and cloud coverage with a high resolution and a large geographical coverage. Using these data we can see structures in the clouds and background atmosphere that have not been detectable by previous measurements.
B. Tschanz and N. Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5099–5108,
P. Eriksson, M. Jamali, J. Mendrok, and S. A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1913–1933,Short summary
The optical properties of randomly oriented ice hydrometeors are reviewed from a perspective of microwave mass retrievals. The soft particle approximation is found to be highly problematic, and the alternative approach presented by Geer and Baordo (2014) should instead be used. We present a simplified version of this approach, and point out several critical limitations of existing DDA data.
F. Navas-Guzmán, N. Kämpfer, A. Murk, R. Larsson, S. A. Buehler, and P. Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1863–1874,Short summary
In this work we study the Zeeman effect on stratospheric O2 using ground-based microwave radiometer measurements. The interaction of the Earth magnetic field with the oxygen dipole leads to a splitting of O2 energy states which polarizes the emission spectra. A special campaign was carried out in order to measure for the first time the polarization state of the radiation due to the Zeeman effect in the main isotopologue of oxygen from ground-based microwave measurements.
V. S. Galligani, C. Prigent, E. Defer, C. Jimenez, P. Eriksson, J.-P. Pinty, and J.-P. Chaboureau
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1605–1616,
A. Schanz, K. Hocke, N. Kämpfer, S. Chabrillat, A. Inness, M. Palm, J. Notholt, I. Boyd, A. Parrish, and Y. Kasai
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The manuscript describes novel findings in the diurnal variation of stratospheric ozone by means of the MACC reanalysis, the ERA-Interim reanalysis and the WACCM model. The diurnal variation in ozone has dynamical and photochemical origins which lead to substantial amplitudes especially in the polar, stratospheric regions. The unprecedented, global view on diurnal ozone variation strengthens the implication to correct diurnally sampled satellite observations used for ozone trend estimates.
R. Rüfenacht, A. Murk, N. Kämpfer, P. Eriksson, and S. A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4491–4505,Short summary
Only very few techniques for wind measurements in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere exist. Moreover, none of these instruments is running on a continuous basis. This paper describes the development of ground-based microwave Doppler radiometry. Time series of daily wind profile measurements from four different locations at polar, mid- and tropical latitudes are presented. The agreement with ECMWF model data is good in the stratosphere, but discrepancies were found in the mesosphere.
P. Eriksson, B. Rydberg, H. Sagawa, M. S. Johnston, and Y. Kasai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12613–12629,Short summary
The sub-millimetre wavelength region has been identified as very useful for measurements of cloud ice mass. The only satellite sensors operating in this wavelength region are so far limb sounders, and results from two such instruments are presented and sample applications are demonstrated. The results have high intrinsic value, but serve also as a practical preparation for planned dedicated sub-millimetre cloud missions.
M. S. Johnston, S. Eliasson, P. Eriksson, R. M. Forbes, A. Gettelman, P. Räisänen, and M. D. Zelinka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8701–8721,
A. Schanz, K. Hocke, and N. Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7645–7663,
D. Scheiben, B. Tschanz, K. Hocke, N. Kämpfer, S. Ka, and J. J. Oh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6511–6522,
S. Studer, K. Hocke, A. Schanz, H. Schmidt, and N. Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5905–5919,
F. Navas-Guzmán, O. Stähli, and N. Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1619–1628,
M. S. Johnston, S. Eliasson, P. Eriksson, R. M. Forbes, K. Wyser, and M. D. Zelinka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12043–12058,
D. Scheiben, A. Schanz, B. Tschanz, and N. Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6877–6886,
B. Tschanz, C. Straub, D. Scheiben, K. A. Walker, G. P. Stiller, and N. Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1725–1745,
O. M. Christensen and P. Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1597–1609,
S. Studer, K. Hocke, M. Pastel, S. Godin-Beekmann, and N. Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
K. Hocke, S. Studer, O. Martius, D. Scheiben, and N. Kämpfer
Ann. Geophys., 31, 755–764,
Related subject area
Subject: Others (Wind, Precipitation, Temperature, etc.) | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsAdvancing airborne Doppler lidar wind profiling in turbulent boundary layer flow – an LES-based optimization of traditional scanning-beam versus novel fixed-beam measurement systemsObserving atmospheric convection with dual-scanning lidarsEvaluation of error components in rainfall retrieval from collocated commercial microwave linksAbsolute radiance calibration in the UV and visible spectral range using atmospheric observations during twilightIn-orbit cross-calibration of millimeter conically scanning spaceborne radarsMeasurement uncertainties of scanning microwave radiometers and their influence on temperature profilingThe Far-Infrared Radiation Mobile Observation System (FIRMOS) for spectral characterization of the atmospheric emissionCalibrating radar wind profiler reflectivity factor using surface disdrometer observationsPseudorandom modulation continuous-wave narrowband sodium temperature and wind lidarStratospheric temperature measurements from nanosatellite stellar occultation observations of refractive bendingAirborne coherent wind lidar measurements of the momentum flux profile from orographically induced gravity wavesGNSS radio occultation soundings from commercial off-the-shelf receivers on board balloon platformsComplementarity of wind measurements from co-located X-band weather radar and Doppler lidarEvaluation of the New York State Mesonet Profiler Network dataQuantification of motion-induced measurement error on floating lidar systemsObservation error analysis for the WInd VElocity Radar Nephoscope W-band Doppler conically scanning spaceborne radar via end-to-end simulationsEvaluating convective planetary boundary layer height estimations resolved by both active and passive remote sensing instruments during the CHEESEHEAD19 field campaignAtmospheric precipitable water vapor and its correlation with clear-sky infrared temperature observationsSpectral performance analysis of the Aeolus Fabry–Pérot and Fizeau interferometers during the first years of operationModerate spectral resolution solar irradiance measurements, aerosol optical depth, and solar transmission, from 360 to 1070 nm, using the refurbished rotating shadow band spectroradiometer (RSS)Mitigation of bias sources for atmospheric temperature and humidity in the mobile Raman Weather and Aerosol Lidar (WALI)Gravity wave instability structures and turbulence from more than 1.5 years of OH* airglow imager observations in SloveniaALADIN laser frequency stability and its impact on the Aeolus wind errorA compact static birefringent interferometer for the measurement of upper atmospheric winds: concept, design and lab performanceThe COTUR project: remote sensing of offshore turbulence for wind energy applicationCharacterization of dark current signal measurements of the ACCDs used on board the Aeolus satelliteRelationship between wind observation accuracy and the ascending node of the sun-synchronous orbit for the Aeolus-type spaceborne Doppler wind lidarA new lidar design for operational atmospheric wind and cloud/aerosol survey from spaceVAHCOLI, a new concept for lidars: technical setup, science applications, and first measurementsA Compact Rayleigh Autonomous Lidar (CORAL) for the middle atmosphereMeasurement characteristics of an airborne microwave temperature profiler (MTP)Towards accurate and practical drone-based wind measurements with an ultrasonic anemometerAtmospheric observations with E-band microwave links – challenges and opportunitiesTomographic retrieval algorithm of OH concentration profiles using double spatial heterodyne spectrometersWuhan MST radar: technical features and validation of wind observationsJoint analysis of convective structure from the APR-2 precipitation radar and the DAWN Doppler wind lidar during the 2017 Convective Processes Experiment (CPEX)First observations of the McMurdo–South Pole oblique ionospheric HF channelVertical wind profiling from the troposphere to the lower mesosphere based on high-resolution heterodyne near-infrared spectroradiometryEffect of OH emission on the temperature and wind measurements derived from limb-viewing observations of the 1.27 µm O2 dayglowDoppler lidar at Observatoire de Haute-Provence for wind profiling up to 75 km altitude: performance evaluation and observationsQuantifying hail size distributions from the sky – application of drone aerial photogrammetryWind sensing with drone-mounted wind lidars: proof of conceptSAETTA: high-resolution 3-D mapping of the total lightning activity in the Mediterranean Basin over Corsica, with a focus on a mesoscale convective system eventApplication of parametric speakers to radio acoustic sounding systemSimulating precipitation radar observations from a geostationary satelliteNovel specular meteor radar systems using coherent MIMO techniques to study the mesosphere and lower thermosphereDual-wavelength radar technique development for snow rate estimation: a case study from GCPExA Fourier transform spectroradiometer for ground-based remote sensing of the atmospheric downwelling long-wave radianceAutomated compact mobile Raman lidar for water vapor measurement: instrument description and validation by comparison with radiosonde, GNSS, and high-resolution objective analysisImplementation of polarization diversity pulse-pair technique using airborne W-band radar
Philipp Gasch, James Kasic, Oliver Maas, and Zhien Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5495–5523,Short summary
This paper rethinks airborne wind measurements and investigates a new design for airborne Doppler lidar systems. Recent advances in lidar technology allow the use of multiple lidar systems with fixed viewing directions instead of a single lidar attached to a scanner. Our simulation results show that the proposed new design offers great potential for both higher accuracy and higher-resolution airborne wind measurements.
Christiane Duscha, Juraj Pálenik, Thomas Spengler, and Joachim Reuder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5103–5123,Short summary
We combine observations from two scanning Doppler lidars to obtain new and unique insights into the dynamic processes inherent to atmospheric convection. The approach complements and enhances conventional methods to probe convection and has the potential to substantially deepen our understanding of this complex process, which is crucial to improving our weather and climate models.
Anna Špačková, Martin Fencl, and Vojtěch Bareš
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3865–3879,Short summary
Commercial microwave links as rainfall sensors have been investigated and evaluated in numerous studies with gauge-adjusted radar used for reference for rainfall observations. We evaluate collocated commercial microwave links, which are thus exposed to identical atmospheric conditions. This set-up enables the exploration of inconsistencies in observations of independent sensors using data from a real telecommunication network. The sensors are in agreement and are homogeneous in their behaviour.
Thomas Wagner and Jānis Puķīte
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We present an radiance calibration method based on the comparison of measurements and radiative transfer simulations of the zenith-scattered sun radiance during twilight. Cloud-free conditions are required. The method can be applied to measurements in the filed, and no laboratory measurements are required. The accuracy is estimated to range from about 4 % at 340 nm to about 10 % at 700 nm.
Alessandro Battaglia, Filippo Emilio Scarsi, Kamil Mroz, and Anthony Illingworth
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3283–3297,Short summary
Some of the new generation of cloud and precipitation spaceborne radars will adopt conical scanning. This will make some of the standard calibration techniques impractical. This work presents a methodology to cross-calibrate radars in orbits by matching the reflectivity probability density function of ice clouds observed by the to-be-calibrated and by the reference radar in quasi-coincident locations. Results show that cross-calibration within 1 dB (26 %) is feasible.
Tobias Böck, Bernhard Pospichal, and Ulrich Löhnert
In this study, measurement uncertainties from microwave radiometers and their impact on temperature profiling are analyzed. These measurement uncertainties include horizontal inhomogeneities of the atmosphere, pointing errors or tilts of the instrument, physical obstacles which are in the line of sight of the radiometer, and radio frequency interferences. Impacts on temperature profiles from these uncertainties is usually small in real life scenarios and when obstacles are far enough away.
Claudio Belotti, Flavio Barbara, Marco Barucci, Giovanni Bianchini, Francesco D'Amato, Samuele Del Bianco, Gianluca Di Natale, Marco Gai, Alessio Montori, Filippo Pratesi, Markus Rettinger, Christian Rolf, Ralf Sussmann, Thomas Trickl, Silvia Viciani, Hannes Vogelmann, and Luca Palchetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2511–2529,Short summary
FIRMOS (Far-Infrared Radiation Mobile Observation System) is a spectroradiometer measuring in the far-infrared, developed to support the preparation of the FORUM (Far-infrared Outgoing Radiation Understanding and Monitoring) satellite mission. In this paper, we describe the instrument, its data products, and the results of the comparison with a suite of observations made from a high-altitude site during a field campaign, in winter 2018–2019.
Christopher R. Williams, Joshua Barrio, Paul E. Johnston, Paytsar Muradyan, and Scott E. Giangrande
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2381–2398,Short summary
This study uses surface disdrometer observations to calibrate 8 years of 915 MHz radar wind profiler deployed in the central United States in northern Oklahoma. This study had two key findings. First, the radar wind profiler sensitivity decreased approximately 3 to 4 dB/year as the hardware aged. Second, this drift was slow enough that calibration can be performed using 3-month intervals. Calibrated radar wind profiler observations and Python processing code are available on public repositories.
Xin Fang, Feng Li, Lei-lei Sun, and Tao Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2263–2272,Short summary
We successfully developed the first pseudorandom modulation continuous-wave narrowband sodium lidar (PMCW-NSL) system for simultaneous measurements of the mesopause region's temperature and wind. Based on the innovative decoded technique and algorithm for CW lidar, both the main and residual lights modulated by M-code are used and directed to the atmosphere in the vertical and eastward directions, tilted 20° from the zenith. The PMCW-NSL system can applied to airborne and space-borne purposes.
Dana L. McGuffin, Philip J. Cameron-Smith, Matthew A. Horsley, Brian J. Bauman, Wim De Vries, Denis Healy, Alex Pertica, Chris Shaffer, and Lance M. Simms
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2129–2144,Short summary
This work demonstrates the viability of a remote sensing technique using nanosatellites to measure stratospheric temperature. This measurement technique can probe the stratosphere and mesosphere at a fine vertical scale around the globe unlike other high-altitude measurement techniques, which would provide an opportunity to observe atmospheric gravity waves and turbulence. We analyze observations from two satellite platforms to provide a proof of concept and characterize measurement uncertainty.
Benjamin Witschas, Sonja Gisinger, Stephan Rahm, Andreas Dörnbrack, David C. Fritts, and Markus Rapp
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1087–1101,Short summary
In this paper, a novel scan technique is applied to an airborne coherent Doppler wind lidar, enabling us to measure the vertical wind speed and the horizontal wind speed along flight direction simultaneously with a horizontal resolution of about 800 m and a vertical resolution of 100 m. The performed observations are valuable for gravity wave characterization as they allow us to calculate the leg-averaged momentum flux profile and, with that, the propagation direction of excited gravity waves.
Kevin J. Nelson, Feiqin Xie, Bryan C. Chan, Ashish Goel, Jonathan Kosh, Tyler G. R. Reid, Corey R. Snyder, and Paul M. Tarantino
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 941–954,Short summary
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) remote sensing is effective for atmospheric profiling. The capability of a low-cost and scalable commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) GNSS receiver on board high-altitude balloons is tested in two campaigns. Preliminary results demonstrate high-quality refractivity observations from the COTS RO receiver, which is worth further improvement for dense atmospheric observations over a targeted region.
Jenna Ritvanen, Ewan O'Connor, Dmitri Moisseev, Raisa Lehtinen, Jani Tyynelä, and Ludovic Thobois
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6507–6519,Short summary
Doppler lidars and weather radars provide accurate wind measurements, with Doppler lidar usually performing better in dry weather conditions and weather radar performing better when there is precipitation. Operating both instruments together should therefore improve the overall performance. We investigate how well a co-located Doppler lidar and X-band radar perform with respect to various weather conditions, including changes in horizontal visibility, cloud altitude, and precipitation.
Bhupal Shrestha, Jerald A. Brotzge, and Junhong Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6011–6033,Short summary
The NYS Mesonet Profiler Network is comprised of 17 profiler sites, each equipped with a Doppler lidar, microwave radiometer, and sun photometer. This study presents a multi-year, multi-station evaluation based on well-defined reference measurements. Results demonstrate robust technologies that can aid real-time weather operations and a network test bed that can be used for further expansion, evaluation, and integration of such technologies at a large scale.
Felix Kelberlau and Jakob Mann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5323–5341,Short summary
Floating lidar systems are used for measuring wind speeds offshore, and their motion influences the measurements. This study describes the motion-induced bias on mean wind speed estimates by simulating the lidar sampling pattern of a moving lidar. An analytic model is used to validate the simulations. The bias is low and depends on amplitude and frequency of motion as well as on wind shear. It has been estimated for the example of the Fugro SEAWATCH wind lidar buoy carrying a ZX 300M lidar.
Alessandro Battaglia, Paolo Martire, Eric Caubet, Laurent Phalippou, Fabrizio Stesina, Pavlos Kollias, and Anthony Illingworth
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3011–3030,Short summary
We present an instrument simulator for a new sensor, WIVERN (WInd VElocity Radar Nephoscope), a conically scanning radar payload with Doppler capabilities, recently down-selected as one of the four candidates for the European Space Agency Earth Explorer 11 program. The mission aims at measuring horizontal winds in cloudy areas. The simulator is instrumental in the definition and consolidation of the mission requirements and the evaluation of mission performances.
James B. Duncan Jr., Laura Bianco, Bianca Adler, Tyler Bell, Irina V. Djalalova, Laura Riihimaki, Joseph Sedlar, Elizabeth N. Smith, David D. Turner, Timothy J. Wagner, and James M. Wilczak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2479–2502,Short summary
In this study, several ground-based remote sensing instruments are used to estimate the height of the convective planetary boundary layer, and their performance is compared against independent boundary layer depth estimates obtained from radiosondes launched as part of the CHEESEHEAD19 field campaign. The impact of clouds (particularly boundary layer clouds) on the estimation of the boundary layer depth is also investigated.
Vicki Kelsey, Spencer Riley, and Kenneth Minschwaner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1563–1576,Short summary
In the interior western USA there are distances of hundreds of kilometers between weather balloon launch sites for weather forecasting. Satellite coverage can also be sparse or with poor resolution. Using infrared thermometers, clear-sky temperatures were collected and compared with data from weather balloons. A correlation between clear-sky temperatures and precipitable water measurements from weather balloons was found. This means that citizen scientists can collect data.
Benjamin Witschas, Christian Lemmerz, Oliver Lux, Uwe Marksteiner, Oliver Reitebuch, Fabian Weiler, Frederic Fabre, Alain Dabas, Thomas Flament, Dorit Huber, and Michael Vaughan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1465–1489,Short summary
In August 2018, the ESA launched the first Doppler wind lidar into space. In order to calibrate the instrument and to monitor the overall instrument conditions, instrument spectral registration measurements have been performed with Aeolus on a weekly basis. Based on these measurements, the alignment drift of the Aeolus satellite instrument is estimated by applying tools and mathematical model functions to analyze the spectrometer transmission curves.
Joseph J. Michalsky and Peter W. Kiedron
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 353–364,Short summary
This paper describes an instrument that measures spectrally from 360 nm (ultraviolet) to 1070 nm (near-infrared) at 1002 separate wavelengths. The measurements were made every minute from the late summer of 2009 to the winter of 2014 at a site in northern Oklahoma (USA; 36.605° N, 97.486° W). Methods are described that enable the normalized transmission across the spectrum to be measured and, subsequently, used to calculate the aerosol optical depth and spectra irradiance.
Julien Totems, Patrick Chazette, and Alexandre Baron
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7525–7544,Short summary
We describe in detail the design and calibration of the new Raman channels for the WALI system, going over the important sources of bias and uncertainty on retrieved temperature profiles. For the first time, their impact is investigated using horizontal shots in a homogenous atmosphere: the magnitude of the highlighted biases can be much larger than the targeted absolute accuracy of 1° C. Actual measurement errors are quantified using radiosoundings launched close to the lidar site.
René Sedlak, Patrick Hannawald, Carsten Schmidt, Sabine Wüst, Michael Bittner, and Samo Stanič
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6821–6833,Short summary
High-resolution images of the OH* airglow layer (ca. 87 km height) acquired at Otlica Observatory, Slovenia, have been analysed. A statistical analysis of small-scale wave structures with horizontal wavelengths up to 4.5 km suggests strong presence of instability features in the upper mesosphere or lower thermosphere. The dissipated energy of breaking gravity waves is derived from observations of turbulent vortices. It is concluded that dynamical heating plays a vital role in the atmosphere.
Oliver Lux, Christian Lemmerz, Fabian Weiler, Thomas Kanitz, Denny Wernham, Gonçalo Rodrigues, Andrew Hyslop, Olivier Lecrenier, Phil McGoldrick, Frédéric Fabre, Paolo Bravetti, Tommaso Parrinello, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6305–6333,Short summary
The work assesses the frequency stability of the laser transmitters on board Aeolus and discusses its influence on the quality of the global wind data. Excellent frequency stability of the space lasers is evident, although enhanced frequency noise occurs at certain locations along the orbit due to micro-vibrations that are introduced by the satellite’s reaction wheels. The study elaborates on this finding and investigates the extent to which the enhanced frequency noise increases the wind error.
Tingyu Yan, Jeffery A. Langille, William E. Ward, William A. Gault, Alan Scott, Andrew Bell, Driss Touahiri, Sheng-Hai Zheng, and Chunmin Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6213–6232,Short summary
High-resolution interferometers are routinely used to measure upper atmospheric motions by measuring small Doppler shifts in spectrally isolated airglow emissions. The birefringent interferometer presented in this paper has similar capabilities as several existing state-of-the-art instruments but is smaller and less complex to construct and operate. This paper presents the measurement technique and characterization of a lab prototype and examines the performance of the instrument.
Etienne Cheynet, Martin Flügge, Joachim Reuder, Jasna B. Jakobsen, Yngve Heggelund, Benny Svardal, Pablo Saavedra Garfias, Charlotte Obhrai, Nicolò Daniotti, Jarle Berge, Christiane Duscha, Norman Wildmann, Ingrid H. Onarheim, and Marte Godvik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6137–6157,Short summary
The COTUR campaign explored the structure of wind turbulence above the ocean to improve the design of future multi-megawatt offshore wind turbines. Deploying scientific instruments offshore is both a financial and technological challenge. Therefore, lidar technology was used to remotely measure the wind above the ocean from instruments located on the seaside. The experimental setup is tailored to the study of the spatial correlation of wind gusts, which governs the wind loading on structures.
Fabian Weiler, Thomas Kanitz, Denny Wernham, Michael Rennie, Dorit Huber, Marc Schillinger, Olivier Saint-Pe, Ray Bell, Tommaso Parrinello, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5153–5177,Short summary
This paper reports on dark current signal anomalies of the detectors used on board the ESA's Earth Explorer satellite Aeolus during the first 1.5 years in orbit. After introducing sophisticated algorithms to classify dark current anomalies according to their characteristics, the impact of the different kinds of anomalies on wind measurements is discussed. In addition, mitigation approaches for the wind retrieval are presented and potential root causes are discussed.
Chuanliang Zhang, Xuejin Sun, Wen Lu, Yingni Shi, Naiying Dou, and Shaohui Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4787–4803,Short summary
The first spaceborne doppler wind lidar (DWL) Aeolus operates on sun-synchronous dawn–dusk orbit to lower the impact of solar background radiation (SBR) on wind observation accuracy. Increased SBR leads to an increment of averaged wind observation uncertainties from 0.19 to 0.27 m s-1 comparing Aeolus and two added spaceborne DWLs operating on orbits with local ascending times of 15:00 and 12:00 LT. A quantitative design of laser pulse energy according to accuracy requirements is also proposed.
Didier Bruneau and Jacques Pelon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4375–4402,Short summary
Taking advantage of Aeolus success and of our airborne lidar system expertise, we present a new spaceborne wind lidar design for operational Aeolus follow-on missions, keeping most of the initial lidar system but relying on a single Mach–Zehnder interferometer to relax operational constraints and reduce measurement bias. System parameters are optimized. Random and systematic errors are shown to be compliant with the initial mission requirements. In addition, the system allows unbiased retrieval.
Franz-Josef Lübken and Josef Höffner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3815–3836,Short summary
We present a new concept for a cluster of lidars that allows us to measure time-resolved profiles of temperatures, winds, and aerosols in the entire middle atmosphere for the first time, also covering regional horizontal scales (
four-dimensional coverage). Measurements are performed during day and night. The essential component is a newly developed laser with unprecedented performance. We present the first measurements. New observational capabilities in atmospheric physics are established.
Bernd Kaifler and Natalie Kaifler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1715–1732,Short summary
This paper describes the Compact Rayleigh Autonomous Lidar (CORAL), which is the first lidar instrument to make fully automatic high-resolution measurements of atmospheric density and temperature between 15 and 90 km altitude. CORAL achieves a much larger measurement cadence than conventional lidars and thus facilitates studies of rare atmospheric phenomena.
Mareike Heckl, Andreas Fix, Matthias Jirousek, Franz Schreier, Jian Xu, and Markus Rapp
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1689–1713,
William Thielicke, Waldemar Hübert, Ulrich Müller, Michael Eggert, and Paul Wilhelm
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1303–1318,Short summary
We developed a wind-measuring drone with exceptional measuring accuracy and a very long flight time. Measurements are extensively validated at different levels. A comparison with a bistatic lidar reveals very small bias and RMSEs. We also present a demonstration measurement in the wake of a wind turbine. We think that our solution is a significant enhancement to existing designs, and other researchers can benefit from the details that we are giving in the paper.
Martin Fencl, Michal Dohnal, Pavel Valtr, Martin Grabner, and Vojtěch Bareš
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6559–6578,Short summary
Commercial microwave links operating at E-band frequencies are increasingly being updated and are frequently replacing older infrastructure. We show that E-band microwave links are able to observe even light rainfalls, a feat practically impossible to achieve by older 15–40 GHz devices. Furthermore, water vapor retrieval may be possible from long E-band microwave links, although the efficient separation of gaseous attenuation from other signal losses will be challenging in practice.
Yuan An, Jinji Ma, Yibo Gao, Wei Xiong, and Xianhua Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6521–6542,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH) plays a significant role in atmospheric chemical and physical reactions. The superiority and feasibility of a new satellite sensor, which consists of two spatial heterodyne spectrometers in the orthogonal layout to monitor OH in the middle and upper atmosphere, is proved by the forward model. An inversion algorithm to obtain OH concentrations based on the simulated observation data of sensors and the errors in results are also given.
Lei Qiao, Gang Chen, Shaodong Zhang, Qi Yao, Wanlin Gong, Mingkun Su, Feilong Chen, Erxiao Liu, Weifan Zhang, Huangyuan Zeng, Xuesi Cai, Huina Song, Huan Zhang, and Liangliang Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5697–5713,
F. Joseph Turk, Svetla Hristova-Veleva, Stephen L. Durden, Simone Tanelli, Ousmane Sy, G. David Emmitt, Steve Greco, and Sara Q. Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4521–4537,Short summary
The mechanisms linking convection and air motion are major factors in much of the uncertainty in weather prediction, but complementary measurements of these quantities are rarely taken in close proximity. These quantities are shown from the 2017 Convective Processes Experiment (CPEX), wherein cloud and vertical air motion winds derived from the APR-2 airborne Doppler radar are combined with joint Doppler wind lidar (DAWN) measurements in the aerosol-rich regions surrounding the convection.
Alex T. Chartier, Juha Vierinen, and Geonhwa Jee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3023–3031,Short summary
A novel oblique ionospheric radio sounder has been developed and demonstrated in Antarctica. The transmitter was located at McMurdo and the receiver at the South Pole (1356 km great-circle path). The system cycled through 12 frequencies each minute and recorded signal time of flight, intensity, and Doppler. This allowed for the estimation of peak ionospheric electron density, which validated well against independent data from the nearby Jang Bogo ionosonde and GPS TEC.
Alexander V. Rodin, Dmitry V. Churbanov, Sergei G. Zenevich, Artem Y. Klimchuk, Vladimir M. Semenov, Maxim V. Spiridonov, and Iskander S. Gazizov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2299–2308,Short summary
The paper presents a new technique in remote wind measurements that may potentially complement conventional aerological observations and eventually greatly improve our knowledge about our climate system, especially concerning processes related to troposphere–stratosphere coupling. The technique may be implemented at relatively low cost in various applications from meteorological observation posts to remote sensing spacecraft.
Kuijun Wu, Weiwei He, Yutao Feng, Yuanhui Xiong, and Faquan Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1817–1824,Short summary
The 1.27 μm O2 dayglow is well-suited for remote sensing in near-space. The main goal of this paper is to discuss the effect of OH radiance on the wind and temperature measurements derived from limb-viewing observations of the O2 dayglow. It is apparent from the simulations that the presence of OH radiance as an interfering species decreases the wind and temperature accuracy at all altitudes, but this effect can be reduced considerably by improving OH radiance knowledge.
Sergey M. Khaykin, Alain Hauchecorne, Robin Wing, Philippe Keckhut, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Jacques Porteneuve, Jean-Francois Mariscal, and Jerome Schmitt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1501–1516,Short summary
The article presents a powerful atmospheric instrument based on a laser radar (lidar), capable of measuring horizontal wind velocity at a wide range of altitudes. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the wind lidar at Observatoire de Haute-Provence and demonstrate the application of its measurements for studies of atmospheric dynamical processes. Finally, we present an example of early validation of the ESA Aeolus space-borne wind lidar using its ground-based predecessor.
Joshua S. Soderholm, Matthew R. Kumjian, Nicholas McCarthy, Paula Maldonado, and Minzheng Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 747–754,Short summary
Collecting measurements of hail size and shape is difficult due to the infrequent and dangerous nature of hailstorms. To improve upon this, a new technique called
HailPixelis introduced for measuring hail using aerial imagery collected by a drone. A combination of machine learning and computer vision methods is used to extract the shape of thousands of hailstones from the aerial imagery. The improved statistics from the much larger HailPixel dataset show significant benefits.
Nikola Vasiljević, Michael Harris, Anders Tegtmeier Pedersen, Gunhild Rolighed Thorsen, Mark Pitter, Jane Harris, Kieran Bajpai, and Michael Courtney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 521–536,Short summary
In this paper we present the preliminary results of the proof-of-concept (POC) stage of a drone-based wind lidar system development process. To test the POC drone–lidar system we hovered the drone next to mast-mounted sonic anemometers at the Risø test center. The preliminary results of the intercomparison between the measurements derived from the POC system and those of the sonic anemometers show good agreement.
Sylvain Coquillat, Eric Defer, Pierre de Guibert, Dominique Lambert, Jean-Pierre Pinty, Véronique Pont, Serge Prieur, Ronald J. Thomas, Paul R. Krehbiel, and William Rison
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5765–5790,Short summary
Characteristics of SAETTA lightning imager installed in Corsica are presented, with original observations of lightning activity at regional and lightning scales. SAETTA monitors thunderstorms in a maritime and mountainous region, complex for weather forecasting and sensitive to global warming. A 3-year lightning climatology highlights frequent activity over a specific region due to relief. Uncommonly high discharge in stratiform thundercloud may support a recent model of charging processes.
Ahoro Adachi and Hiroyuki Hashiguchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5699–5715,Short summary
The radio acoustic sounding system is a remote sensing technique that provides vertical profiles of temperature in the air. Since RASS is accompanied with loud noise around the site, acoustic sources having low side lobe levels are desired. Thus, the application of parametric acoustic array as a high-directivity acoustic source was exploited in this study. The results show that the PAA–RASS has accuracy and precision comparable with conventional RASS despite its high directivity of sound.
Atsushi Okazaki, Takumi Honda, Shunji Kotsuki, Moeka Yamaji, Takuji Kubota, Riko Oki, Toshio Iguchi, and Takemasa Miyoshi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3985–3996,Short summary
The JAXA is surveying the feasibility of a potential satellite mission equipped with a precipitation radar on a geostationary orbit, as a successor of the GPM Core Observatory. We investigate what kind of observation data will be available from the radar using simulation techniques. Although the quality of the observation depends on the radar specifications and the position of precipitation systems, the results demonstrate that it would be possible to obtain three-dimensional precipitation data.
Jorge Luis Chau, Juan Miguel Urco, Juha Pekka Vierinen, Ryan Andrew Volz, Matthias Clahsen, Nico Pfeffer, and Jörg Trautner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2113–2127,Short summary
New systems to study the mesosphere are introduced. They result from the reengineering of previous systems, by making use of MIMO, spread-spectrum and compressed-sensing techniques that are widely used in telecommunications. The interferometer configuration is now implemented in transmission, making the location of meteor echoes possible with just one antenna on reception. Our novel concept makes the study of a mesosphere volume from different viewing points on the ground feasible and easy.
Gwo-Jong Huang, Viswanathan N. Bringi, Andrew J. Newman, Gyuwon Lee, Dmitri Moisseev, and Branislav M. Notaroš
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1409–1427,Short summary
This paper proposes a method for snow rate (SR) estimation using observations collected by NASA dual-frequency dual-polarized (D3R) radar during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx). The new method utilizes dual-wavelength radar reflectivity ratio (DWR) and 2-D-video disdrometer (2DVD) measurements to improve SR estimation accuracy. It is validated by comparing the D3R radar-retrieved SR with accumulated SR directly measured by a Pluvio gauge for an entire GCPEx synoptic event.
Giovanni Bianchini, Francesco Castagnoli, Gianluca Di Natale, and Luca Palchetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 619–635,Short summary
The characterization of infrared radiation emitted by the atmosphere is a crucial task in the study of the Earth's climate. The Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared (REFIR) spectroradiometer allows us to perform this task adding the capability of resolving, through spectroscopy, the atmospheric components responsible for the measured radiative effects. The analysis of the measurements also allows us to retrieve the atmospheric structure, making REFIR a complete tool for atmospheric studies.
Tetsu Sakai, Tomohiro Nagai, Toshiharu Izumi, Satoru Yoshida, and Yoshinori Shoji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 313–326,Short summary
We developed an automated compact mobile Raman lidar (MRL) system for measuring the vertical distribution of the water vapor mixing ratio in the lower troposphere, which has an affordable cost and is easy to operate. The MRL was installed in a small trailer for easy deployment and can start measurement in a few hours, and it is capable of unattended operation for several months. We describe the MRL system and present validation results obtained by comparing with the other humidity sensors.
Mengistu Wolde, Alessandro Battaglia, Cuong Nguyen, Andrew L. Pazmany, and Anthony Illingworth
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 253–269,Short summary
This paper presents an implementation of polarization diversity pulse-pair processing (PDPP) on the National Research Council of Canada airborne W-band radar (NAW) system. A description of the NAW PDPP pulsing schemes and an analysis of comprehensive airborne data collected in diverse weather conditions in Canada is presented. The analysis shows a successful airborne measurement of Doppler velocity exceeding 100 m s−1 using PDPP approach, the first such measurement from a moving platform.
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