Articles | Volume 6, issue 2
Research article 13 Feb 2013
Research article | 13 Feb 2013
Cluster analysis of WIBS single-particle bioaerosol data
N. H. Robinson et al.
I. Crawford, N. H. Robinson, M. J. Flynn, V. E. Foot, M. W. Gallagher, J. A. Huffman, W. R. Stanley, and P. H. Kaye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8559–8578,
J. F. Hamilton, M. R. Alfarra, N. Robinson, M. W. Ward, A. C. Lewis, G. B. McFiggans, H. Coe, and J. D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11295–11305,
A. M. Gabey, M. Vaitilingom, E. Freney, J. Boulon, K. Sellegri, M. W. Gallagher, I. P. Crawford, N. H. Robinson, W. R. Stanley, and P. H. Kaye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7415–7428,
Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Hongyu Guo, Paul J. Wooldridge, Ronald C. Cohen, Kenneth S. Docherty, J. Alex Huffman, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Particle-phase nitrates are an important component of atmospheric aerosols and chemistry. In this manuscript, we systematically explore the application of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the organic and inorganic nitrate fractions of aerosols in the atmosphere. While AMS has been used for a decade to quantify nitrates, methods are not standardized. We make recommendations for a more universal approach based on this analysis of a large range of field and laboratory observations.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4067–4119,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next-generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing trade wind clouds.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Upasana Panda, Eoghan Darbyshire, James M. Cash, Rutambhara Joshi, Ben Langford, Chiara F. Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, Mohammed S. Alam, Leigh R. Crilley, Daniel J. Rooney, W. Joe F. Acton, Will Drysdale, Eiko Nemitz, Michael Flynn, Aristeidis Voliotis, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, James Lee, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Mathew R. Heal, Sachin S. Gunthe, Tuhin K. Mandal, Bhola R. Gurjar, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Siddhartha Singh, Vijay Soni, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11655–11667,Short summary
This paper shows the first multisite online measurements of PM1 in Delhi, India, with measurements over different seasons in Old Delhi and New Delhi in 2018. Organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorisation (PMF). Traffic was the main primary aerosol source for both OAs and black carbon, seen with PMF and Aethalometer model analysis, indicating that control of primary traffic exhaust emissions would make a significant reduction to Delhi air pollution.
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11201–11224,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions is predictable and is explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated with SOA in urban regions.
Zainab Bibi, Hugh Coe, James Brooks, Paul I. Williams, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Michael Priestley, Carl J. Percival, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10763–10777,Short summary
We are presenting a new method to apportion black carbon/soot into multiple sources through the inclusion of fullerene and metal data into HR-SP-AMS factorisation. While this itself would be considered a technical development, we can present a budget of contributions to measured BC during the event studied, including the conclusion that fireworks contributed little compared to the bonfire, traffic, and domestic wood-burning emissions.
James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Chiara Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, James Allan, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ruthambara Joshi, Mathew R. Heal, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Pawel K. Misztal, Will Drysdale, Tuhin K. Mandal, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Bhola Ram Gurjar, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10133–10158,Short summary
We present the first real-time composition of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in Old Delhi using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. Seasonal analysis shows peak concentrations occur during the post-monsoon, and novel-tracers reveal the largest sources are a combination of local open and regional crop residue burning. Strong links between increased chloride aerosol concentrations and burning sources of PM1 suggest burning sources are responsible for the post-monsoon chloride peak.
Huihui Wu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Justin M. Langridge, Chenjie Yu, James D. Allan, Kate Szpek, Michael I. Cotterell, Paul I. Williams, Michael Flynn, Patrick Barker, Cathryn Fox, Grant Allen, James Lee, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9417–9440,Short summary
Seasonal biomass burning over West Africa is a globally significant source of carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere, which have important climate impacts but are poorly constrained. We conducted in situ airborne measurements to investigate the evolution of smoke aerosol properties in this region. We observed absorption enhancement for both black carbon and brown carbon after emission, which provides new field results and constraints on aerosol parameterizations for future climate models.
Dawei Hu, M. Rami Alfarra, Kate Szpek, Justin M. Langridge, Michael Cotterell, Claire Belcher, Ian Rule, Zixia Liu, Chenjie Yu, Yunqi Shao, Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Brett Smith, Greg Smallwood, Prem Lobo, Dantong Liu, Jim M. Haywood, Hugh Coe, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Here, we developed new techniques for investigating these properties in the laboratory and applied these to BC and BrC from different sources, including diesel exhaust, inverted propane flame and wood combustion. These have allowed us to quantify the changes in shape and chemical composition of different soots according to source and variables such as the moisture content of wood.
Graciela B. Raga, Darrel Baumgardner, Blanca Rios, Yanet Díaz-Esteban, Alejandro Jaramillo, Martin Gallagher, Bastien Sauvage, Pawel Wolff, and Gary Lloyd
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The In-Service Aircraft for a Global Observing System (IAGOS) is a small fleet of commercial aircraft that carry a suite of meteorological, gas, aerosol and cloud sensors and have been measuring worldwide for almost 9 years, since late 2011. Extreme Ice Events (EIE) have ben identified from the IAGOS cloud measurements and linked to surface emissions for biomass and fossil fuel consumption. The results reported here are highly relevant for climate change and flight operations forecasting.
Ruud H. H. Janssen, Colette L. Heald, Allison L. Steiner, Anne E. Perring, J. Alex Huffman, Ellis S. Robinson, Cynthia H. Twohy, and Luke D. Ziemba
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4381–4401,Short summary
Bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have the potential to affect cloud formation, as well as human and ecosystem health. However, their emissions are not well quantified, which hinders the assessment of their role in atmospheric processes. Here, we develop two new emission schemes for fungal spores based on multi-annual datasets of spore counts. We find that our modeled global emissions and burden are an order of magnitude lower than previous estimates.
Rutambhara Joshi, Dantong Liu, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Neil Mullinger, Freya Squires, James Lee, Yunfei Wu, Xiaole Pan, Pingqing Fu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Qiang Zhang, Ruili Wu, Oliver Wild, Michael Flynn, Hugh Coe, and James Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 147–162,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is a component of particulate matter which has significant effects on climate and human health. Sources of BC include biomass burning, transport, industry and domestic cooking and heating. In this study, we measured BC emissions in Beijing, finding a dominance of traffic emissions over all other sources. The quantitative method presented here has benefits for revising widely used emissions inventories and for understanding BC sources with impacts on air quality and climate.
Patrick A. Barker, Grant Allen, Martin Gallagher, Joseph R. Pitt, Rebecca E. Fisher, Thomas Bannan, Euan G. Nisbet, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Dominika Pasternak, Samuel Cliff, Marina B. Schimpf, Archit Mehra, Keith N. Bower, James D. Lee, Hugh Coe, and Carl J. Percival
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15443–15459,Short summary
Africa is estimated to account for approximately 52 % of global biomass burning (BB) carbon emissions. Despite this, there has been little previous in situ study of African BB emissions. This work presents BB emission factors for various atmospheric trace gases sampled from an aircraft in two distinct areas of Africa (Senegal and Uganda). Intracontinental variability in biomass burning methane emission is identified, which is attributed to difference in the specific fuel mixtures burnt.
Douglas Morrison, Ian Crawford, Nicholas Marsden, Michael Flynn, Katie Read, Luis Neves, Virginia Foot, Paul Kaye, Warren Stanley, Hugh Coe, David Topping, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14473–14490,Short summary
We provide conservative estimates of the concentrations of bacteria within transatlantic dust clouds, originating from the African continent. We observe significant seasonal differences in the overall concentrations of particles but no seasonal variation in the ratio between bacteria and dust. With bacteria contributing to ice formation at warmer temperatures than dust, our observations should improve the accuracy of climate models.
Huihui Wu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Kate Szpek, Justin M. Langridge, Paul I. Williams, Michael Flynn, James D. Allan, Steven J. Abel, Joseph Pitt, Michael I. Cotterell, Cathryn Fox, Nicholas W. Davies, Jim Haywood, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12697–12719,Short summary
Airborne measurements of highly aged biomass burning aerosols (BBAs) over the remote southeast Atlantic provide unique aerosol parameters for climate models. Our observations demonstrate the persistence of strongly absorbing BBAs across wide regions of the South Atlantic. We also found significant vertical variation in the single-scattering albedo of these BBAs, as a function of relative chemical composition and size. Aerosol properties in the marine BL are suggested to be separated from the FT.
Jill S. Johnson, Leighton A. Regayre, Masaru Yoshioka, Kirsty J. Pringle, Steven T. Turnock, Jo Browse, David M. H. Sexton, John W. Rostron, Nick A. J. Schutgens, Daniel G. Partridge, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Aijun Ding, David D. Cohen, Armand Atanacio, Ville Vakkari, Eija Asmi, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9491–9524,Short summary
We use over 9000 monthly aggregated grid-box measurements of aerosol to constrain the uncertainty in the HadGEM3-UKCA climate model. Measurements of AOD, PM2.5, particle number concentrations, sulfate and organic mass concentrations are compared to 1 million
variantsof the model using an implausibility metric. Despite many compensating effects in the model, the procedure constrains the probability distributions of many parameters, and direct radiative forcing uncertainty is reduced by 34 %.
William T. Morgan, James D. Allan, Stéphane Bauguitte, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael J. Flynn, James Lee, Dantong Liu, Ben Johnson, Jim Haywood, Karla M. Longo, Paulo E. Artaxo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5309–5326,Short summary
We flew a large atmospheric research aircraft across a number of different environments in the Amazon basin during the 2012 biomass burning season. Smoke from fires builds up and has a significant impact on weather, climate, health and natural ecosystems. Our goal was to quantify changes in the properties of the smoke emitted by fires as it is transported through the atmosphere. We found that the major control on the properties of the smoke was due to differences in the fires themselves.
Sobhan Kumar Kompalli, Surendran Nair Suresh Babu, Sreedharan Krishnakumari Satheesh, Krishnaswamy Krishna Moorthy, Trupti Das, Ramasamy Boopathy, Dantong Liu, Eoghan Darbyshire, James D. Allan, James Brooks, Michael J. Flynn, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3965–3985,
Gary Lloyd, Thomas Choularton, Keith Bower, Jonathan Crosier, Martin Gallagher, Michael Flynn, James Dorsey, Dantong Liu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Oliver Schlenczek, Jacob Fugal, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, Paul Field, and Alan Blyth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3895–3904,Short summary
Measurements of liquid and ice cloud particles were made using an aircraft to penetrate fresh growing convective clouds in the tropical Atlantic. We found small ice particles at surprisingly high temperatures just below freezing. At colder temperatures secondary ice processes rapidly generated high concentrations of ice crystals.
Adil Shah, Joseph R. Pitt, Hugo Ricketts, J. Brian Leen, Paul I. Williams, Khristopher Kabbabe, Martin W. Gallagher, and Grant Allen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1467–1484,Short summary
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, with large flux uncertainties from facility-scale sources, such as natural gas extraction infrastructure. A recently developed flux quantification method was successfully tested by flying an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) downwind of 22 controlled atmospheric methane releases. The UAVs were used to derive high-precision atmospheric methane measurements. The UAV methodology was successful in both detecting the release and providing a rough flux estimate.
Chenjie Yu, Dantong Liu, Kurtis Broda, Rutambhara Joshi, Jason Olfert, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Hugh Coe, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3645–3661,Short summary
This study presents the first atmospheric application of a new morphology-independent measurement for the quantification of the mixing state of rBC-containing particles in urban Beijing as part of the UK–China APHH campaign. An inversion method has been applied for better quantification of rBC mixing state. The mass-resolved rBC mixing state information presented here has implications for detailed models of BC, its optical properties and its atmospheric life cycle.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Bin Ouyang, Jun Duan, Wenqian Zhang, Shengrui Tong, Maofa Ge, Ke Tang, Min Qin, Pinhua Xie, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, James Allan, Carl J. Percival, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Roderic L. Jones, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6449–6463,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is key species for understanding tropospheric chemistry, yet accurate and precise measurements are challenging. Here we report an inter–comparison exercise of a number of instruments that measured HONO in a highly polluted location (Beijing). All instruments agreed on the temporal trends yet displayed divergence in absolute concentrations. The cause of this divergence was unclear, but it may in part be due to spatial variability in instrument location.
James Brooks, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, Paul I. Williams, Jim Haywood, Ellie J. Highwood, Sobhan K. Kompalli, S. Suresh Babu, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Andrew G. Turner, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13079–13096,Short summary
Our study presents an analysis of the vertical and horizontal black carbon properties across northern India using aircraft measurements. The Indo-Gangetic Plain saw the greatest black carbon mass concentrations during the pre-monsoon season. Two black carbon modes were recorded: a small black carbon mode (traffic emissions) in the north-west and a moderately coated mode (solid-fuel emissions) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In the vertical profile, absorption properties increase with height.
Duncan Watson-Parris, Nick Schutgens, Carly Reddington, Kirsty J. Pringle, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Ken S. Carslaw, and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11765–11790,Short summary
The vertical distribution of aerosol in the atmosphere affects its ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei and changes the amount of sunlight it absorbs or reflects. Common global measurements of aerosol provide no information about this vertical distribution. Using a global collection of in situ aircraft measurements to compare with an aerosol–climate model (ECHAM-HAM), we explore the key processes controlling this distribution and find that wet removal plays a key role.
Valentin Duflot, Pierre Tulet, Olivier Flores, Christelle Barthe, Aurélie Colomb, Laurent Deguillaume, Mickael Vaïtilingom, Anne Perring, Alex Huffman, Mark T. Hernandez, Karine Sellegri, Ellis Robinson, David J. O'Connor, Odessa M. Gomez, Frédéric Burnet, Thierry Bourrianne, Dominique Strasberg, Manon Rocco, Allan K. Bertram, Patrick Chazette, Julien Totems, Jacques Fournel, Pierre Stamenoff, Jean-Marc Metzger, Mathilde Chabasset, Clothilde Rousseau, Eric Bourrianne, Martine Sancelme, Anne-Marie Delort, Rachel E. Wegener, Cedric Chou, and Pablo Elizondo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10591–10618,Short summary
The Forests gAses aeRosols Clouds Exploratory (FARCE) campaign was conducted in March–April 2015 on the tropical island of La Réunion. For the first time, several scientific teams from different disciplines collaborated to provide reference measurements and characterization of La Réunion vegetation, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), biogenic VOCs (BVOCs), (bio)aerosols and composition of clouds, with a strong focus on the Maïdo mount slope area.
Joseph R. Pitt, Grant Allen, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Martin W. Gallagher, James D. Lee, Will Drysdale, Beth Nelson, Alistair J. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8931–8945,Short summary
This paper presents a new method to assess inventory estimates of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions for large cities and their surrounding regions. A case study using data sampled by a research aircraft around London was used to test the method. We found that the UK national inventory agrees with our observations for CO but needed lower emissions for CH4 to agree with the measured data. Repeated studies could help determine how these emissions vary on different timescales.
Nicholas W. Davies, Cathryn Fox, Kate Szpek, Michael I. Cotterell, Jonathan W. Taylor, James D. Allan, Paul I. Williams, Jamie Trembath, Jim M. Haywood, and Justin M. Langridge
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3417–3434,Short summary
This research project assesses biases in traditional, filter-based, aerosol absorption measurements by comparison to state-of-the-art, non-filter-based, or in situ, measurements. We assess biases in traditional absorption measurements for three main aerosol types, including dust and fresh and aged biomass burning aerosols. The main results of this study are that the traditional and state-of-the-art absorption measurements are well correlated and that biases in the former are up to 45 %.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Dantong Liu, Rutambhara Joshi, Junfeng Wang, Chenjie Yu, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Michael J. Flynn, Conghui Xie, James Lee, Freya Squires, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Xinlei Ge, Yele Sun, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6749–6769,Short summary
This study provides source attribution and characterization of BC in the Beijing urban environment in both winter and summer. For the first time, the physically and chemically based source apportionments are compared to evaluate the primary source contribution and secondary processing of BC-containing particles. A method is proposed to isolate the BC from the transportation sector and coal combustion sources.
Eoghan Darbyshire, William T. Morgan, James D. Allan, Dantong Liu, Michael J. Flynn, James R. Dorsey, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Douglas Lowe, Kate Szpek, Franco Marenco, Ben T. Johnson, Stephane Bauguitte, Jim M. Haywood, Joel F. Brito, Paulo Artaxo, Karla M. Longo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5771–5790,Short summary
A novel analysis of aerosol and gas-phase vertical profiles shows a marked regional pollution contrast: composition is driven by the fire regime and vertical distribution is driven by thermodynamics. These drivers ought to be well represented in simulations to ensure realistic prediction of climate and air quality impacts. The BC : CO ratio in haze and plumes increases with altitude – long-range transport or fire stage coupled to plume dynamics may be responsible. Further enquiry is advocated.
James Brooks, James D. Allan, Paul I. Williams, Dantong Liu, Cathryn Fox, Jim Haywood, Justin M. Langridge, Ellie J. Highwood, Sobhan K. Kompalli, Debbie O'Sullivan, Suresh S. Babu, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Andrew G. Turner, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5615–5634,Short summary
Our study, for the first time, presents measurements of aerosol chemical composition and physical characteristics across northern India in the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of 2016 using the FAAM BAe-146 UK research aircraft. Across northern India, an elevated aerosol layer dominated by sulfate aerosol exists that diminishes with monsoon arrival. The Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) boundary layer is dominated by organics, whereas outside the IGP sulfate dominates with increased scattering aerosol.
Meryem Tanarhte, Sara Bacer, Susannah M. Burrows, J. Alex Huffman, Kyle M. Pierce, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Sarda-Estève, Nicole J. Savage, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
Bioaerosols have been an important topic in atmospheric science in the last two decades. This paper compares different emission parametrizations used in fungal spores modeling and compare their results to two sets of new observational datasets. It emphasises their uncertainties in order to improve their modeling in the future. This comparison is addressed primarily to the scientific community (publishing in ACP) interested in this type of modeling and the related experimental work in this field.
Tobias Könemann, Nicole Savage, Thomas Klimach, David Walter, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Hang Su, Ulrich Pöschl, J. Alex Huffman, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1337–1363,Short summary
This study presents a comprehensive assessment of the SIBS, an instrument for spectrally resolved fluorescence detection of single particles. Exemplary ambient data and fluorescence spectra obtained for 16 reference compounds (biofluorophores and PSLs) show that the SIBS has the ability to expand the scope of fluorescent bioaerosol quantification and classification. Detailed technical insights will be broadly beneficial for users of various WIBS generations and other LIF instruments.
Nicholas A. Marsden, Romy Ullrich, Ottmar Möhler, Stine Eriksen Hammer, Konrad Kandler, Zhiqiang Cui, Paul I. Williams, Michael J. Flynn, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2259–2281,Short summary
The composition of airborne dust influences climate and ecosystems but its measurements presents a huge analytical challenge. Using online single-particle mass spectrometry, we demonstrate differences in mineralogy and mixing state can be detected in real time in both laboratory studies and ambient measurements. The results provide insights into the temporal and spatial evolution of dust properties that will be useful for aerosol–cloud interaction studies and dust cycle modelling.
Elizabeth Forde, Martin Gallagher, Virginia Foot, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Ian Crawford, Paul Kaye, Warren Stanley, and David Topping
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1665–1684,Short summary
The abundance and diversity of airborne biological particles in different environments remains poorly constrained. Measurements of such particles were conducted at four sites in the United Kingdom, using real-time fluorescence instrumentation. Using local land cover types, sources of suspected particle types were identified and compared. Most sites exhibited a wet-discharged fungal spore dominance, with the exception of one site, which was inferred to be influenced by a local dairy farm.
Junfeng Wang, Dantong Liu, Xinlei Ge, Yangzhou Wu, Fuzhen Shen, Mindong Chen, Jian Zhao, Conghui Xie, Qingqing Wang, Weiqi Xu, Jie Zhang, Jianlin Hu, James Allan, Rutambhara Joshi, Pingqing Fu, Hugh Coe, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 447–458,Short summary
This work is part of the UK-China APHH campaign. We used a laser-only Aerodyne soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer, for the first time, to investigate the concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions for those ambient submicron aerosol particles only with black carbon as cores. Our findings are valuable to understand the BC properties and processes in the densely populated megacities.
Conghui Xie, Weiqi Xu, Junfeng Wang, Qingqing Wang, Dantong Liu, Guiqian Tang, Ping Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Yingjie Zhang, Wei Zhou, Tingting Han, Qingyun Bian, Jie Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Xinlei Ge, James Allan, Hugh Coe, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 165–179,Short summary
We present the first simultaneous real-time online measurements of aerosol optical properties at ground level and at 260 m on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing in winter. The vertical similarities and differences in scattering and absorption coefficients were characterized. The increases in MAC of BC were mainly associated with the coating materials on rBC. Coal combustion was the dominant source contribution of brown carbon followed by biomass burning and SOA in winter in Beijing.
Franco Marenco, Claire Ryder, Victor Estellés, Debbie O'Sullivan, Jennifer Brooke, Luke Orgill, Gary Lloyd, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17655–17668,Short summary
The AER-D airborne campaign characterised Saharan dust in the eastern Atlantic. We report an instance of unusual vertical structure of the Saharan Air Layer during an intense event, showing a large radiative impact and correlated with anomalous lightning activity. Moreover, we report a significant presence of giant dust particles. This is important because most models would miss the giant particles. Our findings may change the way we represent dust transport and deposition in the Atlantic.
Claire L. Ryder, Franco Marenco, Jennifer K. Brooke, Victor Estelles, Richard Cotton, Paola Formenti, James B. McQuaid, Hannah C. Price, Dantong Liu, Patrick Ausset, Phil D. Rosenberg, Jonathan W. Taylor, Tom Choularton, Keith Bower, Hugh Coe, Martin Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Gary Lloyd, Eleanor J. Highwood, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17225–17257,Short summary
Every year, millions of tons of Saharan dust particles are carried across the Atlantic by the wind, where they can affect weather patterns and climate. Their sizes span orders of magnitude, but the largest (over 10 microns – around the width of a human hair) are difficult to measure and few observations exist. Here we show new aircraft observations of large dust particles, finding more than we would expect, and we quantify their properties which allow them to interact with atmospheric radiation.
Gary Lloyd, Thomas W. Choularton, Keith N. Bower, Martin W. Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Sebastian O'Shea, Steven J. Abel, Stuart Fox, Richard Cotton, and Ian A. Boutle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17191–17206,Short summary
The work deals with cold weather outbreaks at high latitudes that often bring severe weather such as heavy snow, lightning and high winds but are poorly forecast by weather models. Here we made measurements of these events and the clouds associated with them using a research aircraft. We found that the properties of these clouds were often very different to what the models predicted, and these results can potentially be used to bring significant improvement to the forecasting of these events.
Simon Ruske, David O. Topping, Virginia E. Foot, Andrew P. Morse, and Martin W. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6203–6230,Short summary
Pollen, bacteria and fungal spores are common in the environment, can have very important implications for public health and may influence the weather. Biological sensors potentially could be used to monitor quantities of these types of particles. However, it is important to transform the measurements from these instruments into counts of these biological particles. The paper tests a variety of approaches for achieving this aim on data collected in a laboratory.
Michael Priestley, Michael le Breton, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Andrew R. D. Smedley, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Archit Mehra, James Allan, Ann R. Webb, Dudley E. Shallcross, Hugh Coe, and Carl J. Percival
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13481–13493,
Nicole J. Savage and J. Alex Huffman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4929–4942,Short summary
We show the systematic application of hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC) to comprehensive bioaerosol and non-bioaerosol laboratory data collected with the wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS-4A). This study investigated various input conditions and used individual matchups and computational mixtures of particles; it will help improve clustering results applied to data from the ultraviolet laser and light-induced fluorescence instruments commonly used for bioaerosol research.
Paul I. Palmer, Simon O'Doherty, Grant Allen, Keith Bower, Hartmut Bösch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sarah Connors, Sandip Dhomse, Liang Feng, Douglas P. Finch, Martin W. Gallagher, Emanuel Gloor, Siegfried Gonzi, Neil R. P. Harris, Carole Helfter, Neil Humpage, Brian Kerridge, Diane Knappett, Roderic L. Jones, Michael Le Breton, Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Matthiesen, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Sebastian O'Shea, Robert J. Parker, Carl J. Percival, Joseph Pitt, Stuart N. Riddick, Matthew Rigby, Harjinder Sembhi, Richard Siddans, Robert L. Skelton, Paul Smith, Hannah Sonderfeld, Kieran Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Angelina Wenger, Emily White, Christopher Wilson, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11753–11777,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) experiment. GAUGE was designed to quantify nationwide GHG emissions of the UK, bringing together measurements and atmospheric transport models. This novel experiment is the first of its kind. We anticipate it will inform the blueprint for countries that are building a measurement infrastructure in preparation for global stocktakes, which are a key part of the Paris Agreement.
Kelly L. Pereira, Rachel Dunmore, James Whitehead, M. Rami Alfarra, James D. Allan, Mohammed S. Alam, Roy M. Harrison, Gordon McFiggans, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11073–11096,Short summary
Exhaust emissions from a light-duty diesel engine were introduced into an atmospheric simulation chamber which was used as a holding-cell for sampling, allowing instruments capable of providing detailed chemical speciation of exhaust gas emissions to be used. The effect of different engine conditions on the exhaust gas composition was investigated. The exhaust composition changed considerably due to two influencing factors, engine combustion and diesel oxidative catalyst efficiency.
Tobias Könemann, Nicole J. Savage, J. Alex Huffman, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3987–4003,Short summary
This study presents an overview of fluorescence properties of polystyrene latex spheres (PSLs), which are widely used in numerous scientific disciplines. By using different spectroscopic techniques, we show that the
fluorescence landscapeof PSLs is more complex than the information provided by manufacturers may imply. By understanding general fluorescence properties of PSLs, individual researchers may probe specific spectral features important to the operation of their own instruments.
Meryem Tanarhte, Sara Bacer, Susannah M. Burrows, J. Alex Huffman, Kyle M. Pierce, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Sarda-Estève, Nicole J. Savage, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Amy K. Hodgson, William T. Morgan, Sebastian O'Shea, Stéphane Bauguitte, James D. Allan, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael J. Flynn, Dantong Liu, James Lee, Ben Johnson, Jim M. Haywood, Karla M. Longo, Paulo E. Artaxo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5619–5638,Short summary
We flew a large atmospheric research aircraft across a number of different biomass burning environments in the Amazon Basin in September and October 2012. In this paper, we focus on smoke sampled very close to fresh fires (only 600–900 m above the fires and smoke that was 4–6 min old) to examine the chemical components that make up the smoke and their abundance. We found substantial differences in the emitted smoke that are due to the fuel type and combustion processes driving the fires.
Riinu Ots, Mathew R. Heal, Dominique E. Young, Leah R. Williams, James D. Allan, Eiko Nemitz, Chiara Di Marco, Anais Detournay, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, Hugh Coe, Scott C. Herndon, Ian A. Mackenzie, David C. Green, Jeroen J. P. Kuenen, Stefan Reis, and Massimo Vieno
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4497–4518,Short summary
The main hypothesis of this paper is that people who live in large cities in the UK disobey the
smoke control lawas it has not been actively enforced for decades now. However, the use of wood in residential heating has increased, partly due to renewable energy targets, but also for discretionary (i.e. pleasant fireplaces) reasons. Our study is based mainly in London, but similar struggles with urban air quality due to residential wood and coal burning are seen in other major European cities.
James D. Lee, Stephen D. Mobbs, Axel Wellpott, Grant Allen, Stephane J.-B. Bauguitte, Ralph R. Burton, Richard Camilli, Hugh Coe, Rebecca E. Fisher, James L. France, Martin Gallagher, James R. Hopkins, Mathias Lanoiselle, Alastair C. Lewis, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, Ruth M. Purvis, Sebastian O'Shea, John A. Pyle, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1725–1739,Short summary
This work describes measurements, made from an aircraft platform, of the emission of methane and other organic gases from an uncontrolled leak from an oil platform in the North Sea (Total Elgin). The measurements made helped the platform operators to devise a strategy for repairing the leak and serve as a methodology for assessing future similar incidents.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Michael Priestley, Yu-Chieh Ting, Sophie Haslett, Thomas Bannan, Michael Le Breton, Paul I. Williams, Asan Bacak, Michael J. Flynn, Hugh Coe, Carl Percival, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4093–4111,Short summary
This work presents the analysis of a special event with high biomass burning emissions, named Bonfire Night. Nitrogen chemistry was observed and it was possible to study the night time chemistry. It was possible to quantify particulate organic oxides of nitrogen (PON) concentrations of 2.8 µg m−3 using 46 : 30 ratios from aerosol mass spectrometry measurements. The use of the receptor model positive matrix factorization (PMF) allowed to separate organic aerosols into different sources.
Dantong Liu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Jonathan Crosier, Nicholas Marsden, Keith N. Bower, Gary Lloyd, Claire L. Ryder, Jennifer K. Brooke, Richard Cotton, Franco Marenco, Alan Blyth, Zhiqiang Cui, Victor Estelles, Martin Gallagher, Hugh Coe, and Tom W. Choularton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3817–3838,Short summary
This article presents measurements of aerosol properties off the coast of west Africa during August 2015. For the first time, an airborne laser-induced incandescence instrument was deployed to measure the hematite content of dust. The single scattering albedo of dust was found to be influenced by the hematite content, but depended on the dust source and potential dust age. This highlights the importance of size-dependent composition in determining the optical properties of dust.
Sophie L. Haslett, J. Chris Thomas, William T. Morgan, Rory Hadden, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, Paul I. Williams, Sekou Keita, Cathy Liousse, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 385–403,Short summary
Wood burning is chaotic, so the particles emitted can be difficult to study in a repeatable way. Here, we addressed this problem by carefully controlling small wood fires in the lab. We saw three burning phases, which could be told apart chemically; we also saw evidence of these in measurements of wood burning in London in 2012. Controlled experiments like this help us to understand why emissions are so variable and to recognise burning conditions just from the particles seen in the atmosphere.
Nicholas A. Marsden, Michael J. Flynn, James D. Allan, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 195–213,Short summary
Mineralogy of silicate mineral dust has a strong influence on climate and ecosystems due to variation in physiochemical properties that result from differences in composition and crystal structure (mineral phase). Traditional offline methods of analysing mineral phase are labour intensive and the temporal resolution of the data is lost. We introduce a novel technique that enables the online differentiation of mineral phase in silicate particles by single-particle mass spectrometry.
Ian Crawford, Martin W. Gallagher, Keith N. Bower, Thomas W. Choularton, Michael J. Flynn, Simon Ruske, Constantino Listowski, Neil Brough, Thomas Lachlan-Cope, Zoë L. Fleming, Virginia E. Foot, and Warren R. Stanley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14291–14307,Short summary
We present the first real-time detection of bioparticles on the Antarctic continent using a novel UV-LIF technique. The high time resolution of the technique allowed us to examine the relationships between bioparticle concentrations and airmass history and local winds, which would not have been possible with conventional high-volume filter sampling techniques. We also show evidence of episodic long-range transport of pollen from coastal South America to the continent.
Nicole J. Savage, Christine E. Krentz, Tobias Könemann, Taewon T. Han, Gediminas Mainelis, Christopher Pöhlker, and J. Alex Huffman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4279–4302,Short summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of a commonly used commercial instrument (WIBS) for the real-time detection of fluorescent bioaerosols and suggest improved analysis and threshold strategies. Summaries of both biological and potential interfering, non-biological particles (70 aerosol types in total) are discussed in detail. The strategies we suggest will minimize interference from non-biological particles and will aid instrument users’ interpretation of ambient particle data.
Sebastian J. O'Shea, Thomas W. Choularton, Michael Flynn, Keith N. Bower, Martin Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Paul Williams, Ian Crawford, Zoë L. Fleming, Constantino Listowski, Amélie Kirchgaessner, Russell S. Ladkin, and Thomas Lachlan-Cope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13049–13070,Short summary
Few direct measurements have been made of Antarctic cloud and aerosol properties. As part of the 2015 Microphysics of Antarctic Clouds (MAC) field campaign, detailed airborne and ground-based measurements were made over the Weddell Sea and Antarctic coastal continent. This paper presents the first results from this campaign and discusses the cloud properties and processes important in this region.
Anja Costa, Jessica Meyer, Armin Afchine, Anna Luebke, Gebhard Günther, James R. Dorsey, Martin W. Gallagher, Andre Ehrlich, Manfred Wendisch, Darrel Baumgardner, Heike Wex, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12219–12238,Short summary
The paper presents 38 h of in situ cloud spectrometer observations of microphysical cloud properties in the Arctic, midlatitudes and tropics. The clouds are classified via particle concentrations, size distributions, and – as a novelty – small particle aspherical fractions. Cloud-type profiles are given for different temperatures and locations. The results confine regions where different cloud transformation processes occurred and emphasise the importance of small particle shape detection.
Paul J. DeMott, Thomas C. J. Hill, Markus D. Petters, Allan K. Bertram, Yutaka Tobo, Ryan H. Mason, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Christina S. McCluskey, Ezra J. T. Levin, Gregory P. Schill, Yvonne Boose, Anne Marie Rauker, Anna J. Miller, Jake Zaragoza, Katherine Rocci, Nicholas E. Rothfuss, Hans P. Taylor, John D. Hader, Cedric Chou, J. Alex Huffman, Ulrich Pöschl, Anthony J. Prenni, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11227–11245,Short summary
The consistency and complementarity of different methods for measuring the numbers of particles capable of forming ice in clouds are examined in the atmosphere. Four methods for collecting particles for later (offline) freezing studies are compared to a common instantaneous method. Results support very good agreement in many cases but also biases that require further research. Present capabilities and uncertainties for obtaining global data on these climate-relevant aerosols are thus defined.
Leonid Nichman, Emma Järvinen, James Dorsey, Paul Connolly, Jonathan Duplissy, Claudia Fuchs, Karoliina Ignatius, Kamalika Sengupta, Frank Stratmann, Ottmar Möhler, Martin Schnaiter, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3231–3248,Short summary
Optical probes are frequently used for the detection of cloud particles. The detected microphysical properties may affect particle growth and accretion mechanisms and the light scattering properties of cirrus clouds. In the CLOUD chamber study at CERN, we compared four optical measurement techniques. We show that shape derivation alone is not sufficient to determine the phase of the small cloud particles. None of the instruments were able to unambiguously determine the phase of small particles.
David O. Topping, James Allan, M. Rami Alfarra, and Bernard Aumont
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2365–2377,Short summary
Our ability to model the chemical and thermodynamic processes that lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is thought to be hampered by the complexity of the system. In this proof of concept study, the ability to train supervised methods to predict electron impact ionisation (EI) mass spectra for the AMS is evaluated to facilitate improved model evaluation. The study demonstrates the use of a methodology that would be improved with more training data and data from simple mixed systems.
Simon Ruske, David O. Topping, Virginia E. Foot, Paul H. Kaye, Warren R. Stanley, Ian Crawford, Andrew P. Morse, and Martin W. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 695–708,Short summary
Particles such as bacteria, pollen and fungal spores have important implications within the environment and public health sectors. Here we evaluate the performance of various different methods for distinguishing between these different types of particles using a new instrument. We demonstrate that there may be better alternatives to the currently used methods which can be further investigated in future research.
Alexandra Tsekeri, Vassilis Amiridis, Franco Marenco, Athanasios Nenes, Eleni Marinou, Stavros Solomos, Phil Rosenberg, Jamie Trembath, Graeme J. Nott, James Allan, Michael Le Breton, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl Percival, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 83–107,Short summary
The In situ/Remote sensing aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (IRRA) provides vertical profiles of aerosol optical, microphysical and hygroscopic properties from airborne in situ and remote sensing measurements. The algorithm is highly advantageous for aerosol characterization in humid conditions, employing the ISORROPIA II model for acquiring the particle hygroscopic growth. IRRA can find valuable applications in aerosol–cloud interaction schemes and in validation of active space-borne sensors.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, David C. Green, Max Priestman, Francesco Canonaco, Hugh Coe, André S. H. Prévôt, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15545–15559,Short summary
For the first time in the UK, an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor was used to measure aerosol concentrations in London in March–December 2013, with further organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment using the ME-2 factorization tool. Five OA sources were identified: biomass burning OA, hydrocarbon-like OA, cooking OA, semivolatile oxygenated OA and low-volatility oxygenated OA. This information can be used to take future action on the respective legislation in order to improve the air quality.
Nicholas Marsden, Michael J. Flynn, Jonathan W. Taylor, James D. Allan, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 6051–6068,
Marie Ila Gosselin, Chathurika M. Rathnayake, Ian Crawford, Christopher Pöhlker, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Beatrice Schmer, Viviane R. Després, Guenter Engling, Martin Gallagher, Elizabeth Stone, Ulrich Pöschl, and J. Alex Huffman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15165–15184,Short summary
We present an analysis of bioaerosol measurements using two real-time fluorescence instruments in combination with molecular tracer techniques for quantifying airborne fungal spores in a semi-arid forest. Both techniques provide fungal spore concentrations of the order of 104 m−3 and up to 30 % of particle mass. Rainy periods exhibited higher concentrations and stronger correlations between fluorescent bioparticle and molecular tracer measurements. Fungal culture results are also presented.
Gillian Young, Hazel M. Jones, Thomas W. Choularton, Jonathan Crosier, Keith N. Bower, Martin W. Gallagher, Rhiannon S. Davies, Ian A. Renfrew, Andrew D. Elvidge, Eoghan Darbyshire, Franco Marenco, Philip R. A. Brown, Hugo M. A. Ricketts, Paul J. Connolly, Gary Lloyd, Paul I. Williams, James D. Allan, Jonathan W. Taylor, Dantong Liu, and Michael J. Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13945–13967,Short summary
Clouds are intricately coupled to the Arctic sea ice. Our inability to accurately model cloud fractions causes large uncertainties in predicted radiative interactions in this region, therefore, affecting sea ice forecasts. Here, we present measurements of cloud microphysics, aerosol properties, and thermodynamic structure over the transition from sea ice to ocean to improve our understanding of the relationship between the Arctic atmosphere and clouds which develop in this region.
Riinu Ots, Massimo Vieno, James D. Allan, Stefan Reis, Eiko Nemitz, Dominique E. Young, Hugh Coe, Chiara Di Marco, Anais Detournay, Ian A. Mackenzie, David C. Green, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13773–13789,Short summary
Emissions of cooking organic aerosol (COA; from charbroiling, frying, etc.) are currently absent in European emissions inventories yet measurements have pointed to significant COA concentrations. In this study, emissions of COA were developed for the UK by model iteration against year-long measurements at two sites in London. Modelled COA dropped rapidly outside of major urban areas, suggesting that although a notable component in UK urban air, COA does not have a significant effect on rural PM.
Jonathan W. Taylor, Thomas W. Choularton, Alan M. Blyth, Michael J. Flynn, Paul I. Williams, Gillian Young, Keith N. Bower, Jonathan Crosier, Martin W. Gallagher, James R. Dorsey, Zixia Liu, and Philip D. Rosenberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11687–11709,Short summary
We present measurements of boundary layer aerosol concentration, size and composition from research flights performed over the southwest peninsula of the UK during the COnvective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) of summer 2013. We compare case studies of aerosol in cleaner marine air from the Atlantic with anthropogenic pollution from the UK. These measurements are then used to investigate the possible sources of CCN and IN in the region.
Donald R. Huffman, Benjamin E. Swanson, and J. Alex Huffman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3987–3998,Short summary
We describe a low-cost instrument to characterize fluorescence and spectral properties of single particles collected onto a substrate. The instrument combines relatively old astronomy concepts with a new platform applied especially toward the analysis of bioaerosols. We discuss a laboratory-based instrument as well as an iPhone-enabled device that could encourage collaborations with citizen scientists for expanded data collection and at a cost orders of magnitude less than existing instruments.
A. E. Valsan, R. Ravikrishna, C. V. Biju, C. Pöhlker, V. R. Després, J. A. Huffman, U. Pöschl, and S. S. Gunthe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9805–9830,
James D. Whitehead, Eoghan Darbyshire, Joel Brito, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Ian Crawford, Rafael Stern, Martin W. Gallagher, Paul H. Kaye, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9727–9743,Short summary
We present measurements of aerosols during the transition from wet to dry seasons at a pristine rainforest site in central Amazonia. By excluding pollution episodes, we focus on natural biogenic aerosols. Submicron aerosols are dominated by organic material, similar to previous wet season measurements. Larger particles are dominated by biological material, mostly fungal spores, with higher concentrations at night. This study provides important data on the nature of particles above the Amazon.
Karoliina Ignatius, Thomas B. Kristensen, Emma Järvinen, Leonid Nichman, Claudia Fuchs, Hamish Gordon, Paul Herenz, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jonathan Duplissy, Sarvesh Garimella, Antonio Dias, Carla Frege, Niko Höppel, Jasmin Tröstl, Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Martin W. Gallagher, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Martin Schnaiter, Antonio Tomé, Annele Virtanen, Douglas Worsnop, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6495–6509,Short summary
Viscous solid or semi-solid secondary organic aerosol (SOA) may influence cloud properties through ice nucleation in the atmosphere. Here, we observed heterogeneous ice nucleation of viscous α-pinene SOA at temperatures between −39 °C and −37.2 °C with ice saturation ratios significantly below the homogeneous freezing limit. Global modelling suggests that viscous biogenic SOA are present in regions where cirrus formation takes place and could contribute to the global ice nuclei budget.
Riinu Ots, Dominique E. Young, Massimo Vieno, Lu Xu, Rachel E. Dunmore, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Leah R. Williams, Scott C. Herndon, Nga L. Ng, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Robert Bergström, Chiara Di Marco, Eiko Nemitz, Ian A. Mackenzie, Jeroen J. P. Kuenen, David C. Green, Stefan Reis, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6453–6473,Short summary
This study investigates the contribution of diesel vehicle emissions to organic aerosol formation and particulate matter concentrations in London. Comparisons of simulated pollutant concentrations with observations show good agreement and give confidence in the skill of the model applied. The contribution of diesel vehicle emissions, which are currently not included in official emissions inventories, is demonstrated to be substantial, indicating that more research on this topic is required.
Robert J. Farrington, Paul J. Connolly, Gary Lloyd, Keith N. Bower, Michael J. Flynn, Martin W. Gallagher, Paul R. Field, Chris Dearden, and Thomas W. Choularton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4945–4966,Short summary
This paper assesses the reasons for high ice number concentrations observed in orographic clouds by comparing observations with model simulations over Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. The results suggest that ice nuclei do not significantly contribute to the high concentrations and that a surface source of ice crystals is responsible for the witnessed ice number concentrations.
Rebecca M. McKenzie, Mustafa Z. Özel, J. Neil Cape, Julia Drewer, Kerry J. Dinsmore, Eiko Nemitz, Y. Sim Tang, Netty van Dijk, Margaret Anderson, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Mark A. Sutton, Martin W. Gallagher, and Ute Skiba
Biogeosciences, 13, 2353–2365,Short summary
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) contributes significantly to the overall nitrogen budget and can potentially be biologically available as a source of N. Despite this it is not routinely measured. This study found that DON contributed up to 10 % of the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) found in precipitation and was the most dominant fraction in soil water (99 %) and stream water (75 %).
Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Leonid Nichman, Thomas B. Kristensen, Claudia Fuchs, Christopher R. Hoyle, Niko Höppel, Joel C. Corbin, Jill Craven, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El Haddad, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Tuija Jokinen, Peter Kallinger, Jasper Kirkby, Alexei Kiselev, Karl-Heinz Naumann, Tuukka Petäjä, Tamara Pinterich, Andre S. H. Prevot, Harald Saathoff, Thea Schiebel, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Jay G. Slowik, Jasmin Tröstl, Annele Virtanen, Paul Vochezer, Steffen Vogt, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Paul M. Winkler, Chao Yan, Urs Baltensperger, Neil M. Donahue, Rick C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ottmar Möhler, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4423–4438,
G. Young, H. M. Jones, E. Darbyshire, K. J. Baustian, J. B. McQuaid, K. N. Bower, P. J. Connolly, M. W. Gallagher, and T. W. Choularton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4063–4079,
Leonid Nichman, Claudia Fuchs, Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Niko Florian Höppel, Antonio Dias, Martin Heinritzi, Mario Simon, Jasmin Tröstl, Andrea Christine Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Chao Yan, Paul James Connolly, James Robert Dorsey, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Christopher Robert Hoyle, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, Gerhard Steiner, Neil McPherson Donahue, Richard Flagan, Martin William Gallagher, Jasper Kirkby, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Martin Schnaiter, Frank Stratmann, and António Tomé
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3651–3664,Short summary
Processes in the atmosphere are often governed by the physical and chemical properties of small cloud particles. Ice, water, and mixed clouds, as well as viscous aerosols, were formed under controlled conditions at the CLOUD-CERN facility. The experimental results show a link between cloud particle properties and their unique optical fingerprints. The classification map presented here allows easier discrimination between various particles such as viscous organic aerosol, salt, ice, and liquid.
J. D. Lee, L. K. Whalley, D. E. Heard, D. Stone, R. E. Dunmore, J. F. Hamilton, D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, S. Laufs, and J. Kleffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2747–2764,Short summary
This paper presents field measurements of HONO and a range of other gas phase and particulate species from an urban background site in London. The measured daytime HONO cannot be reproduced with a simple box model and thus a significant daytime missing source of HONO is present. We show that this missing source could be responsible for 40 % of the OH radical source and 57 % of the OH initiation; hence its potential importance for atmospheric oxidation and ozone production.
I. Crawford, G. Lloyd, E. Herrmann, C. R. Hoyle, K. N. Bower, P. J. Connolly, M. J. Flynn, P. H. Kaye, T. W. Choularton, and M. W. Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2273–2284,Short summary
In this manuscript we discuss observations of fluorescent aerosol and their interactions with cloud at a high-alpine site in the wintertime under background conditions. We find the majority of the fluorescent aerosol to be consistent in nature to mineral dust and no apparent trend was observed between the fluorescent aerosol fraction and meteorological or cloud microphysical parameters, suggesting that particle fluorescence does not impact cloud evolution or formation at the site.
C. R. Hoyle, C. Fuchs, E. Järvinen, H. Saathoff, A. Dias, I. El Haddad, M. Gysel, S. C. Coburn, J. Tröstl, A.-K. Bernhammer, F. Bianchi, M. Breitenlechner, J. C. Corbin, J. Craven, N. M. Donahue, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, C. Frege, H. Gordon, N. Höppel, M. Heinritzi, T. B. Kristensen, U. Molteni, L. Nichman, T. Pinterich, A. S. H. Prévôt, M. Simon, J. G. Slowik, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, A. L. Vogel, R. Volkamer, A. C. Wagner, R. Wagner, A. S. Wexler, C. Williamson, P. M. Winkler, C. Yan, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Curtius, M. W. Gallagher, R. C. Flagan, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, M. Kulmala, O. Möhler, F. Stratmann, D. R. Worsnop, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1693–1712,Short summary
A significant portion of sulphate, an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols, is formed via the aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone. The rate of this reaction has previously only been measured over a relatively small temperature range. Here, we use the state of the art CLOUD chamber at CERN to perform the first measurements of this reaction rate in super-cooled droplets, confirming that the existing extrapolation of the reaction rate to sub-zero temperatures is accurate.
R. H. Mason, M. Si, C. Chou, V. E. Irish, R. Dickie, P. Elizondo, R. Wong, M. Brintnell, M. Elsasser, W. M. Lassar, K. M. Pierce, W. R. Leaitch, A. M. MacDonald, A. Platt, D. Toom-Sauntry, R. Sarda-Estève, C. L. Schiller, K. J. Suski, T. C. J. Hill, J. P. D. Abbatt, J. A. Huffman, P. J. DeMott, and A. K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1637–1651,
L. Xu, L. R. Williams, D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, P. Massoli, E. Fortner, P. Chhabra, S. Herndon, W. A. Brooks, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, A. C. Aiken, S. Liu, K. Gorkowski, M. K. Dubey, Z. L. Fleming, S. Visser, A. S. H. Prévôt, and N. L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1139–1160,Short summary
We investigate the spatial distribution of submicron aerosol in the greater London area as part of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Although the concentrations of organic aerosol (OA) are similar between a rural and an urban site, the OA sources are different. We also examine the volatility of submicron aerosol at the rural site and find that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical processing as refractory black carbon.
J. W. Taylor, T. W. Choularton, A. M. Blyth, Z. Liu, K. N. Bower, J. Crosier, M. W. Gallagher, P. I. Williams, J. R. Dorsey, M. J. Flynn, L. J. Bennett, Y. Huang, J. French, A. Korolev, and P. R. A. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 799–826,Short summary
We present microphysical observations of cumulus clouds measured over south-west England during COPE in summer 2013. Detailed sampling focused on an isolated liquid cloud that glaciated as it matured to merge with a band of cloud downwind. The first ice particles observed were frozen drizzle, while columnar ice dominated in the mature stages. We discuss the interactions between the warm rain and secondary ice processes, and their importance for the formation of precipitation.
J. R. Pitt, M. Le Breton, G. Allen, C. J. Percival, M. W. Gallagher, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. J. O'Shea, J. B. A. Muller, M. S. Zahniser, J. Pyle, and P. I. Palmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 63–77,Short summary
We present details of an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS) used to make airborne measurements of N2O and CH4, including its configuration for use on board an aircraft. Two different methods to correct for the influence of water vapour on the measurements are evaluated. We diagnose a sensitivity of the instrument to changes in pressure, introduce a new calibration procedure to account for this effect, and assess its performance.
I. Crawford, S. Ruske, D. O. Topping, and M. W. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4979–4991,Short summary
HCA analysis methods were evaluated for the purpose of identifying primary biological aerosol sampled with a WIBS. The ward linkage with z-score normalisation could discriminate between five test particles with 98% accuracy. We applied these methods to a previously studied ambient data set, where both methods produced similar results with some minor differences in cluster partitioning. Finally we compared to previous approaches and found our new method offered improved quantification of PBA.
G. Lloyd, T. W. Choularton, K. N. Bower, M. W. Gallagher, P. J. Connolly, M. Flynn, R. Farrington, J. Crosier, O. Schlenczek, J. Fugal, and J. Henneberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12953–12969,Short summary
The paper explores the microphysical structure of clouds at the high-alpine measurement site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. High concentrations of ice crystals were measured by a range of instruments. The presence of these high concentrations could not be explained through conventional understanding of ice formation processes in clouds and the possibility that the surface provides a significant source of ice crystals is investigated.
R. H. Mason, M. Si, J. Li, C. Chou, R. Dickie, D. Toom-Sauntry, C. Pöhlker, J. D. Yakobi-Hancock, L. A. Ladino, K. Jones, W. R. Leaitch, C. L. Schiller, J. P. D. Abbatt, J. A. Huffman, and A. K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12547–12566,
J. C. Corbin, A. Othman, J. D. Allan, D. R. Worsnop, J. D. Haskins, B. Sierau, U. Lohmann, and A. A. Mensah
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4615–4636,Short summary
Peak-integration uncertainties in the Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) are analyzed in detail using a combination of empirical data analysis and Monte Carlo approaches. The most general conclusion, applicable to any mass spectrometer, is that non-zero mass accuracy leads to a percentage error in constrained peak fits, even for well-resolved peaks. For overlapping peaks, this mass-accuracy effect may be viewed as a reduction in the effective m/z-calibration precision.
W. W. Hu, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, D. A. Day, A. M. Ortega, P. L. Hayes, J. E. Krechmer, Q. Chen, M. Kuwata, Y. J. Liu, S. S. de Sá, K. McKinney, S. T. Martin, M. Hu, S. H. Budisulistiorini, M. Riva, J. D. Surratt, J. M. St. Clair, G. Isaacman-Van Wertz, L. D. Yee, A. H. Goldstein, S. Carbone, J. Brito, P. Artaxo, J. A. de Gouw, A. Koss, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, T. Karl, L. Kaser, W. Jud, A. Hansel, K. S. Docherty, M. L. Alexander, N. H. Robinson, H. Coe, J. D. Allan, M. R. Canagaratna, F. Paulot, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11807–11833,Short summary
This work summarized all the studies reporting isoprene epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) measured globally by aerosol mass spectrometer and compare them with modeled gas-phase IEPOX, with results suggestive of the importance of IEPOX-SOA for regional and global OA budgets. A real-time tracer of IEPOX-SOA is thoroughly evaluated for the first time by combing multiple field and chamber studies. A quick and easy empirical method on IEPOX-SOA estimation is also presented.
D. Liu, B. Quennehen, E. Darbyshire, J. D. Allan, P. I. Williams, J. W. Taylor, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, M. J. Flynn, D. Lowe, M. W. Gallagher, K. N. Bower, T. W. Choularton, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11537–11555,Short summary
We show that during the springtime of 2013, the anthropogenic pollution particularly from sources in Asia, contributed significantly to black carbon across the European Arctic free troposphere. In contrast to previous studies, the contribution from open wildfires was minimal. Given that Asian pollution is likely to continue to rise over the coming years, it is likely that the radiative forcing in the Arctic will also continue to increase.
S. Visser, J. G. Slowik, M. Furger, P. Zotter, N. Bukowiecki, F. Canonaco, U. Flechsig, K. Appel, D. C. Green, A. H. Tremper, D. E. Young, P. I. Williams, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, L. R. Williams, C. Mohr, L. Xu, N. L. Ng, E. Nemitz, J. F. Barlow, C. H. Halios, Z. L. Fleming, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11291–11309,Short summary
Trace element measurements in three particle size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3) were performed with 2h time resolution at kerbside, urban background and rural sites during the ClearfLo winter 2012 campaign in London. The environment-dependent variability of emissions was characterized using the Multilinear Engine implementation of the positive matrix factorization model. A total of nine different factors were resolved from local, regional and natural origin.
E. Athanasopoulou, A. P. Protonotariou, E. Bossioli, A. Dandou, M. Tombrou, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, N. Mihalopoulos, J. Kalogiros, A. Bacak, J. Sciare, and G. Biskos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8401–8421,Short summary
A model system is evaluated versus ground and airborne aerosol measurements, towards the identification of its competencies and deficiencies over the eastern Mediterranean (EM) during summer. Secondary organic aerosol (OA) formation is investigated towards improving OA behaviour. Biomass burning is a significant particle source, largely explaining OA underestimation (ca. 50%). More than 70% of the aerosol mass over the EM is related to trans-boundary transport during strong northeastern winds.
R. H. Mason, C. Chou, C. S. McCluskey, E. J. T. Levin, C. L. Schiller, T. C. J. Hill, J. A. Huffman, P. J. DeMott, and A. K. Bertram
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2449–2462,
D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, P. I. Williams, D. C. Green, M. J. Flynn, R. M. Harrison, J. Yin, M. W. Gallagher, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6351–6366,Short summary
For the first time, the behaviour of non-refractory inorganic and organic submicron particulates through an entire annual cycle is investigated at a UK urban background site. We show secondary aerosols account for a significant fraction of the submicron aerosol burden, high concentration events are governed by different factors depending on season, and on an annual basis there is no variability in the extent of secondary organic aerosol oxidation.
M. Hummel, C. Hoose, M. Gallagher, D. A. Healy, J. A. Huffman, D. O'Connor, U. Pöschl, C. Pöhlker, N. H. Robinson, M. Schnaiter, J. R. Sodeau, M. Stengel, E. Toprak, and H. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6127–6146,
J. D. Allan, P. I. Williams, J. Najera, J. D. Whitehead, M. J. Flynn, J. W. Taylor, D. Liu, E. Darbyshire, L. J. Carpenter, R. Chance, S. J. Andrews, S. C. Hackenberg, and G. McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5599–5609,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is an important contributor to aerosol number concentrations in the Arctic and thus has a major role in dictating cloud properties and climate in this region. Here we present direct evidence that the oxidation of iodine in the atmosphere causes NPF in the Greenland Sea. This is important because this is a NPF mechanism that has not previously been considered in modelling studies at these latitudes.
J. W. Taylor, J. D. Allan, D. Liu, M. Flynn, R. Weber, X. Zhang, B. L. Lefer, N. Grossberg, J. Flynn, and H. Coe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1701–1718,Short summary
When using the SP2 to report black carbon core/shell coating thickness, the core density and refractive index must be estimated from literature values. We systematically vary the assumed parameters and the instrument calibration, and quantify the effects in the derived coatings. The technique is highly sensitive to the core refractive index but has only a minor sensitivity to the core density and coating refractive index. We identify the most appropriate values to use in future analysis.
Q. Chen, D. K. Farmer, L. V. Rizzo, T. Pauliquevis, M. Kuwata, T. G. Karl, A. Guenther, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, J. L. Jimenez, P. Artaxo, and S. T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3687–3701,Short summary
Submicron particle mass concentration in the Amazon during the wet season of 2008 was dominated by organic material. The PMF analysis finds a comparable importance of gas-phase (gas-to-particle condensation) and particle-phase (reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products, especially of epoxydiols to acidic haze, fog, or cloud droplets) production of secondary organic material during the study period, together accounting for >70% of the organic-particle mass concentration.
G. Lloyd, T. W. Choularton, K. N. Bower, J. Crosier, H. Jones, J. R. Dorsey, M. W. Gallagher, P. Connolly, A. C. R. Kirchgaessner, and T. Lachlan-Cope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3719–3737,Short summary
Measurements of cloud microphysics are reported from the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling And Climate Interactions (ACCACIA) campaign. Concentrations of ice particles from two spring and two summer cases are compared with particular attention to the role of secondary ice in these clouds. In addition aerosol measurements were used as input to a primary ice nucleation parameterisation which was compared with observed values of primary ice in these clouds. We found higher concentrations of ice during summer.
L. R. Crilley, W. J. Bloss, J. Yin, D. C. S. Beddows, R. M. Harrison, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, M. Flynn, P. Williams, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prevot, M. R. Heal, J. F. Barlow, C. H. Halios, J. D. Lee, S. Szidat, and C. Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3149–3171,Short summary
Wood is a renewable fuel but its combustion for residential heating releases a number of locally acting air pollutants, most notably particulate matter known to have adverse effects on human health. This paper used chemical tracers for wood smoke to estimate the contribution that burning wood makes to concentrations of airborne particles in the atmosphere of southern England and most particularly in London.
D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, P. I. Williams, D. C. Green, R. M. Harrison, J. Yin, M. J. Flynn, M. W. Gallagher, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2429–2443,Short summary
Two solid fuel organic aerosol (SFOA) factors, both associated with domestic space heating activities, were derived from positive matrix factorisation (PMF) applied to organic aerosol data from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) deployed at an urban background site in London during winter 2012. The factors controlling the split between the two SFOA factors were assessed, and it is concluded the split is likely governed predominantly by differences in burn conditions.
S. Visser, J. G. Slowik, M. Furger, P. Zotter, N. Bukowiecki, R. Dressler, U. Flechsig, K. Appel, D. C. Green, A. H. Tremper, D. E. Young, P. I. Williams, J. D. Allan, S. C. Herndon, L. R. Williams, C. Mohr, L. Xu, N. L. Ng, A. Detournay, J. F. Barlow, C. H. Halios, Z. L. Fleming, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2367–2386,Short summary
Ambient concentrations of trace elements with 2h time resolution were measured in three size ranges (PM10–2.5, PM2.5–1.0, PM1.0–0.3) at kerbside, urban background and rural sites in London during the ClearfLo (Clean Air for London) field campaign. Quantification of kerb and urban increments, and assessment of diurnal and weekly variability provided insight into sources governing urban air quality and the effects of urban micro-environments on human exposure.
J. Yin, S. A. Cumberland, R. M. Harrison, J. Allan, D. E. Young, P. I. Williams, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2139–2158,Short summary
Breathing particles from polluted air is known to cause increased health complaints and higher death rates. Airborne particles come from a range of sources; in order to implement cost-effective control measures, it is necessary to understand the amount contributed by each. In this paper, two advanced procedures for estimating the contributions of particle sources in London are compared with one another, revealing a wide range of sources including traffic, woodsmoke and cooking particles.
K. M. Sakamoto, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, J. W. Taylor, T. J. Duck, and J. R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1633–1646,
D. Lowe, S. Archer-Nicholls, W. Morgan, J. Allan, S. Utembe, B. Ouyang, E. Aruffo, M. Le Breton, R. A. Zaveri, P. Di Carlo, C. Percival, H. Coe, R. Jones, and G. McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1385–1409,
W. T. Morgan, B. Ouyang, J. D. Allan, E. Aruffo, P. Di Carlo, O. J. Kennedy, D. Lowe, M. J. Flynn, P. D. Rosenberg, P. I. Williams, R. Jones, G. B. McFiggans, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 973–990,Short summary
This paper used observations from a research aircraft flying around the UK to investigate how air pollution in north-western Europe can alter nighttime chemical reactions in the atmosphere. These chemical reactions can worsen air quality in the region, as well as influence regional climate change. Ammonium nitrate aerosol appears to play an important role. The paper indicates that representation of these chemical reactions is poorly represented in models used for air quality and climate.
J. W. Taylor, J. D. Allan, G. Allen, H. Coe, P. I. Williams, M. J. Flynn, M. Le Breton, J. B. A. Muller, C. J. Percival, D. Oram, G. Forster, J. D. Lee, A. R. Rickard, M. Parrington, and P. I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13755–13771,Short summary
We present a case study of BC wet removal by examining aerosol properties in three biomass burning plumes, one of which passed through a precipitating cloud. Nucleation scavenging preferentially removed the largest and most coated BC-containing particles. Calculated single-scattering albedo (SSA) showed little variation, as a large number of non-BC particles were also present in the precipitation-affected plume.
G. Allen, S. M. Illingworth, S. J. O'Shea, S. Newman, A. Vance, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, F. Marenco, J. Kent, K. Bower, M. W. Gallagher, J. Muller, C. J. Percival, C. Harlow, J. Lee, and J. P. Taylor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4401–4416,Short summary
This paper presents a validated method and data set for new retrievals of trace gas concentrations and temperature from the ARIES infrared spectrometer instrument on the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft (www.faam.ac.uk). This new capability for the aircraft will allow new science to be done because of the way it can sense information about the atmosphere without having to physically pass through it (remote sensing). This will allow us to better understand the make-up of the lower atmosphere.
S. J. O'Shea, G. Allen, M. W. Gallagher, K. Bower, S. M. Illingworth, J. B. A. Muller, B. T. Jones, C. J. Percival, S. J-B. Bauguitte, M. Cain, N. Warwick, A. Quiquet, U. Skiba, J. Drewer, K. Dinsmore, E. G. Nisbet, D. Lowry, R. E. Fisher, J. L. France, M. Aurela, A. Lohila, G. Hayman, C. George, D. B. Clark, A. J. Manning, A. D. Friend, and J. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13159–13174,Short summary
This paper presents airborne measurements of greenhouse gases collected in the European Arctic. Regional scale flux estimates for the northern Scandinavian wetlands are derived. These fluxes are found to be in excellent agreement with coincident surface measurements within the aircraft's sampling domain. This has allowed a significant low bias to be identified in two commonly used process-based land surface models.
J. D. Yakobi-Hancock, L. A. Ladino, A. K. Bertram, J. A. Huffman, K. Jones, W. R. Leaitch, R. H. Mason, C. L. Schiller, D. Toom-Sauntry, J. P. S. Wong, and J. P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12307–12317,Short summary
As one aspect of the NETwork on Climate and Aerosols: addressing key uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environments, measurements of the cloud condensation nucleation properties of 50 nm and 100 nm aerosol particles were conducted at Ucluelet on the west coast of Vancouver Island in August 2013. The most efficient cloud condensation nuclei arose when the organic to sulfate ratio of the aerosol was lowest and when winds arrived from the west after transport through the marine boundary layer.
S. Decesari, J. Allan, C. Plass-Duelmer, B. J. Williams, M. Paglione, M. C. Facchini, C. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, J. K. Gietl, H. Coe, L. Giulianelli, G. P. Gobbi, C. Lanconelli, C. Carbone, D. Worsnop, A. T. Lambe, A. T. Ahern, F. Moretti, E. Tagliavini, T. Elste, S. Gilge, Y. Zhang, and M. Dall'Osto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12109–12132,Short summary
We made use of multiple spectrometric techniques for characterizing the aerosol chemical composition and mixing in the Po Valley in the summer. The oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) concentrations were correlated with simple tracers for recirculated planetary boundary layer air. A full internal mixing between black carbon (BC) and the non-refractory aerosol components was never observed. Local sources in the Po Valley were responsible for the production of organic particles unmixed with BC.
J. D. Whitehead, M. Irwin, J. D. Allan, N. Good, and G. McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11833–11841,Short summary
Water uptake of ambient particles was measured by 2 independent techniques at a wide range of locations between 2007 and 2013. The agreement between the techniques was mixed and hence the number of potential cloud seeds calculated from the measurements frequently showed discrepancies. Whilst there is sensitivity to how well we measure the size of the particles, much of the difference depends on how the particles behave when exposed to moisture in the different techniques (and in the atmosphere).
S. Archer-Nicholls, D. Lowe, S. Utembe, J. Allan, R. A. Zaveri, J. D. Fast, Ø. Hodnebrog, H. Denier van der Gon, and G. McFiggans
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2557–2579,
J. D. Allan, W. T. Morgan, E. Darbyshire, M. J. Flynn, P. I. Williams, D. E. Oram, P. Artaxo, J. Brito, J. D. Lee, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11393–11407,
J. D. Fast, J. Allan, R. Bahreini, J. Craven, L. Emmons, R. Ferrare, P. L. Hayes, A. Hodzic, J. Holloway, C. Hostetler, J. L. Jimenez, H. Jonsson, S. Liu, Y. Liu, A. Metcalf, A. Middlebrook, J. Nowak, M. Pekour, A. Perring, L. Russell, A. Sedlacek, J. Seinfeld, A. Setyan, J. Shilling, M. Shrivastava, S. Springston, C. Song, R. Subramanian, J. W. Taylor, V. Vinoj, Q. Yang, R. A. Zaveri, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10013–10060,
D. Liu, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, H. Coe, D. Beddows, Z. L. Fleming, M. J. Flynn, M. W. Gallagher, R. M. Harrison, J. Lee, A. S. H. Prevot, J. W. Taylor, J. Yin, P. I. Williams, and P. Zotter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10061–10084,
C. Fountoukis, A. G. Megaritis, K. Skyllakou, P. E. Charalampidis, C. Pilinis, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Crippa, F. Canonaco, C. Mohr, A. S. H. Prévôt, J. D. Allan, L. Poulain, T. Petäjä, P. Tiitta, S. Carbone, A. Kiendler-Scharr, E. Nemitz, C. O'Dowd, E. Swietlicki, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9061–9076,
I. Crawford, N. H. Robinson, M. J. Flynn, V. E. Foot, M. W. Gallagher, J. A. Huffman, W. R. Stanley, and P. H. Kaye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8559–8578,
J. E. Franklin, J. R. Drummond, D. Griffin, J. R. Pierce, D. L. Waugh, P. I. Palmer, M. Parrington, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, J. W. Taylor, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. A. Walker, L. Chisholm, T. J. Duck, J. T. Hopper, Y. Blanchard, M. D. Gibson, K. R. Curry, K. M. Sakamoto, G. Lesins, L. Dan, J. Kliever, and A. Saha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8449–8460,
D. A. Healy, J. A. Huffman, D. J. O'Connor, C. Pöhlker, U. Pöschl, and J. R. Sodeau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8055–8069,
J. Ortega, A. Turnipseed, A. B. Guenther, T. G. Karl, D. A. Day, D. Gochis, J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, P. J. DeMott, Y. Tobo, E. G. Patton, A. Hodzic, Y. Y. Cui, P. C. Harley, R. S. Hornbrook, E. C. Apel, R. K. Monson, A. S. D. Eller, J. P. Greenberg, M. C. Barth, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, J. L. Jimenez, A. C. Aiken, M. K. Dubey, C. Geron, J. Offenberg, M. G. Ryan, P. J. Fornwalt, S. C. Pryor, F. N. Keutsch, J. P. DiGangi, A. W. H. Chan, A. H. Goldstein, G. M. Wolfe, S. Kim, L. Kaser, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Hansel, C. A. Cantrell, R. L. Mauldin, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6345–6367,
M. Crippa, F. Canonaco, V. A. Lanz, M. Äijälä, J. D. Allan, S. Carbone, G. Capes, D. Ceburnis, M. Dall'Osto, D. A. Day, P. F. DeCarlo, M. Ehn, A. Eriksson, E. Freney, L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, R. Hillamo, J. L. Jimenez, H. Junninen, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A.-M. Kortelainen, M. Kulmala, A. Laaksonen, A. A. Mensah, C. Mohr, E. Nemitz, C. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, S. N. Pandis, T. Petäjä, L. Poulain, S. Saarikoski, K. Sellegri, E. Swietlicki, P. Tiitta, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6159–6176,
K. Beswick, D. Baumgardner, M. Gallagher, A. Volz-Thomas, P. Nedelec, K.-Y. Wang, and S. Lance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1443–1457,
Z. Ulanowski, P. H. Kaye, E. Hirst, R. S. Greenaway, R. J. Cotton, E. Hesse, and C. T. Collier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1649–1662,
S. J. O'Shea, G. Allen, M. W. Gallagher, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. M. Illingworth, M. Le Breton, J. B. A. Muller, C. J. Percival, A. T. Archibald, D. E. Oram, M. Parrington, P. I. Palmer, and A. C. Lewis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12451–12467,
C. J. Schumacher, C. Pöhlker, P. Aalto, V. Hiltunen, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, U. Pöschl, and J. A. Huffman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11987–12001,
C. Pöhlker, J. A. Huffman, J.-D. Förster, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3369–3392,
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11595–11608,
J. F. Hamilton, M. R. Alfarra, N. Robinson, M. W. Ward, A. C. Lewis, G. B. McFiggans, H. Coe, and J. D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11295–11305,
A. M. Gabey, M. Vaitilingom, E. Freney, J. Boulon, K. Sellegri, M. W. Gallagher, I. P. Crawford, N. H. Robinson, W. R. Stanley, and P. H. Kaye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7415–7428,
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6151–6164,
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Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalData imputation in in situ-measured particle size distributions by means of neural networksAnalysis of mobile monitoring data from the microAeth® MA200 for measuring changes in black carbon on the roadside in AugsburgNew correction method for the scattering coefficient measurements of a three-wavelength nephelometerEstimating mean molecular weight, carbon number, and OM∕OC with mid-infrared spectroscopy in organic particulate matter samples from a monitoring networkModeled source apportionment of black carbon particles coated with a light-scattering shellEstimation of particulate organic nitrates from thermodenuder–aerosol mass spectrometer measurements in the North China PlainAerosol pH indicator and organosulfate detectability from aerosol mass spectrometry measurementsDetermination of equivalent black carbon mass concentration from aerosol light absorption using variable mass absorption cross sectionEffects of multi-charge on aerosol hygroscopicity measurement by a HTDMAA new method for long-term source apportionment with time-dependent factor profiles and uncertainty assessment using SoFi Pro: application to 1 year of organic aerosol dataEstimation of pollen counts from light scattering intensity when sampling multiple pollen taxa – establishment of an automated multi-taxa pollen counting estimation system (AME system)A novel lidar gradient cluster analysis method of nocturnal boundary layer detection during air pollution episodesAssessment of particle size magnifier inversion methods to obtain the particle size distribution from atmospheric measurementsA global analysis of climate-relevant aerosol properties retrieved from the network of Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) near-surface observatoriesDevelopment of an automatic linear calibration method for high-resolution single-particle mass spectrometry: improved chemical species identification for atmospheric aerosolsA hybrid method for reconstructing the historical evolution of aerosol optical depth from sunshine duration measurementsThe influence of the baseline drift on the resulting extinction values of a cavity attenuated phase shift-based extinction monitor (CAPS PMex)Evaluation of equivalent black carbon source apportionment using observations from Switzerland between 2008 and 2018Analysis of functional groups in atmospheric aerosols by infrared spectroscopy: method development for probabilistic modeling of organic carbon and organic matter concentrationsFilling the gaps of in situ hourly PM2.5 concentration data with the aid of empirical orthogonal function analysis constrained by diurnal cyclesGaussian process regression model for dynamically calibrating and surveilling a wireless low-cost particulate matter sensor network in DelhiMethods for identifying aged ship plumes and estimating contribution to aerosol exposure downwind of shipping lanesAutomatic pollen recognition with the Rapid-E particle counter: the first-level procedure, experience and next stepsAn open platform for Aerosol InfraRed Spectroscopy analysis – AIRSpecUnderstanding atmospheric aerosol particles with improved particle identification and quantification by single-particle mass spectrometryMulti-scale measurements of mesospheric aerosols and electrons during the MAXIDUSTY campaignA new method of inferring the size, number density, and charge of mesospheric dust from its in situ collection by the DUSTY probeAtmospheric particulate matter characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: a review of statistical calibration strategies for carbonaceous aerosol quantification in US measurement networksData inversion methods to determine sub-3 nm aerosol size distributions using the particle size magnifierA novel method for calculating ambient aerosol liquid water content based on measurements of a humidified nephelometer systemEvaluation of linear regression techniques for atmospheric applications: the importance of appropriate weightingImproved source apportionment of organic aerosols in complex urban air pollution using the multilinear engine (ME-2)On Aethalometer measurement uncertainties and an instrument correction factor for the ArcticAethalometer multiple scattering correction Cref for mineral dust aerosolsComparison of different Aethalometer correction schemes and a reference multi-wavelength absorption technique for ambient aerosol dataFATES: a flexible analysis toolkit for the exploration of single-particle mass spectrometer dataRetrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties from Imaging Polar Nephelometer scattering measurementsA technique for rapid source apportionment applied to ambient organic aerosol measurements from a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG)A new approach for retrieving the UV–vis optical properties of ambient aerosolsSampling strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of organic aerosol measurements requiring long sample-collection timesAnalysis of functional groups in atmospheric aerosols by infrared spectroscopy: sparse methods for statistical selection of relevant absorption bandsAn automated baseline correction protocol for infrared spectra of atmospheric aerosols collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) filtersNotably improved inversion of differential mobility particle sizer data obtained under conditions of fluctuating particle number concentrationsEvaluation of hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis methods for discrimination of primary biological aerosolOn the interpretation of the loading correction of the aethalometerFinding candidate locations for aerosol pollution monitoring at street level using a data-driven methodologyAtmospheric extinction in solar tower plants: absorption and broadband correction for MOR measurementsPlume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emittersStatistical precision of the intensities retrieved from constrained fitting of overlapping peaks in high-resolution mass spectraDifferences in aerosol absorption Ångström exponents between correction algorithms for a particle soot absorption photometer measured on the South African Highveld
Pak Lun Fung, Martha Arbayani Zaidan, Ola Surakhi, Sasu Tarkoma, Tuukka Petäjä, and Tareq Hussein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5535–5554,Short summary
Aerosol size distribution measurements rely on a variety of techniques to classify the aerosol size and measure the size distribution. However, due to the instrumental insufficiency and inversion limitations, the raw dataset contains missing gaps or negative values, which hinder further analysis. With a merged particle size distribution in Jordan, this paper suggests a neural network method to estimate number concentrations at a particular size bin by the number concentration at other size bins.
Xiansheng Liu, Hadiatullah Hadiatullah, Xun Zhang, L. Drew Hill, Andrew H. A. White, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Jan Bendl, Gert Jakobi, Brigitte Schloter-Hai, and Ralf Zimmermann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5139–5151,Short summary
A monitoring campaign was conducted in Augsburg to determine a suitable noise reduction algorithm for the MA200 Aethalometer. Results showed that centred moving average (CMA) post-processing effectively removed spurious negative concentrations without major bias and reliably highlighted effects from local sources, effectively increasing spatio-temporal resolution in mobile measurements. Evaluation of each method on peak sample reduction and background correction further supports the reliability.
Jie Qiu, Wangshu Tan, Gang Zhao, Yingli Yu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4879–4891,Short summary
Considering nephelometers' major problems of a nonideal Lambertian light source and angle truncation, a new correction method based on a machine learning model is proposed. Our method has the advantage of obtaining data with high accuracy while achieving self-correction, which means that researchers can get more accurate scattering coefficients without the need for additional observation data. This method provides a more precise estimation of the aerosol’s direct radiative forcing.
Amir Yazdani, Ann M. Dillner, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4805–4827,Short summary
We propose a spectroscopic method for estimating several mixture-averaged molecular properties (carbon number and molecular weight) in particulate matter relevant for understanding its chemical origins. This estimation is enabled by calibration models built and tested using laboratory standards containing molecules with known structure, and can be applied to filter samples of PM2.5 currently collected in existing air pollution monitoring networks and field campaigns.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3707–3719,Short summary
The Aethalometer model is used widely for estimating the contributions of fossil fuel emissions and biomass burning to black carbon. The calculation is based on measured absorption Ångström exponents, which is ambiguous since it not only depends on the dominant absorber but also on the size and internal structure of the particles, core size, and shell thickness. The uncertainties of the fractions of absorption by eBC from fossil fuel and biomass burning are evaluated with a core–shell Mie model.
Weiqi Xu, Masayuki Takeuchi, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Conghui Xie, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3693–3705,Short summary
Here we developed a method for estimation of particulate organic nitrates (pON) from the measurements of a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a thermodenuder based on the volatility differences between inorganic nitrate and pON. The results generally had improvements in reducing negative values due to the influences of a high concentration of inorganic nitrate and a constant ratio of NO+ to NO2+ of organic nitrates (RON).
Melinda K. Schueneman, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Duseong S. Jo, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Brett B. Palm, Alma Hodzic, Jack E. Dibb, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2237–2260,Short summary
This work focuses on two important properties of the aerosol, acidity, and sulfate composition, which is important for our understanding of aerosol health and environmental impacts. We explore different methods to understand the composition of the aerosol with measurements from a specific instrument and apply those methods to a large dataset. These measurements are confounded by other factors, making it challenging to predict aerosol sulfate composition; pH estimations, however, show promise.
Weilun Zhao, Wangshu Tan, Gang Zhao, Chuanyang Shen, Yingli Yu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1319–1331,
Chuanyang Shen, Gang Zhao, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1293–1301,Short summary
Aerosol hygroscopicity measured by the humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) is affected by multiply charged particles from two aspects: (1) number contribution and (2) the weakening effect. An algorithm is proposed to do the multi-charge correction and applied to a field measurement. Results show that the difference between corrected and measured size-resolved κ can reach 0.05, highlighting that special attention needs to be paid to the multi-charge effect when using HTDMA.
Francesco Canonaco, Anna Tobler, Gang Chen, Yulia Sosedova, Jay Gates Slowik, Carlo Bozzetti, Kaspar Rudolf Daellenbach, Imad El Haddad, Monica Crippa, Ru-Jin Huang, Markus Furger, Urs Baltensperger, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 923–943,Short summary
Long-term ambient aerosol mass spectrometric data were analyzed with a statistical model (PMF) to obtain source contributions and fingerprints. The new aspects of this paper involve time-dependent source fingerprints by a rolling technique and the replacement of the full visual inspection of each run by a user-defined set of criteria to monitor the quality of each of these runs more efficiently. More reliable sources will finally provide better instruments for political mitigation strategies.
Kenji Miki and Shigeto Kawashima
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 685–693,Short summary
Laser optics have long been used in pollen counting systems. To clarify the limitations and potential new applications of laser optics for automatic pollen counting and discrimination, we determined the light scattering patterns of various pollen types, tracked temporal changes in these distributions, and introduced a new theory for automatic pollen discrimination.
Yinchao Zhang, Su Chen, Siying Chen, He Chen, and Pan Guo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6675–6689,Short summary
Air pollution has an important impact on human health, climatic patterns, and the ecological environment. The complexity of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), combined with its strong physio-chemical effect, induces worse polluted episodes. Therefore, we present a new approach named cluster analysis of gradient method (CA-GM) to overcome the multilayer structure and remove the fluctuation of NBL height using raw data resolution.
Tommy Chan, Runlong Cai, Lauri R. Ahonen, Yiliang Liu, Ying Zhou, Joonas Vanhanen, Lubna Dada, Yan Chao, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4885–4898,Short summary
Using a particle size magnifier (PSM; Airmodus, Finland), we determined the particle size distribution using four inversion methods and compared each method to the others to establish their strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, we provided a step-by-step procedure on how to invert measured data using the PSM. Finally, we provided recommendations, code and data related to the data inversion. This is an important paper, as no operating procedure exists regarding how to process measured PSM data.
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Shengqiang Zhu, Lei Li, Shurong Wang, Mei Li, Yaxi Liu, Xiaohui Lu, Hong Chen, Lin Wang, Jianmin Chen, Zhen Zhou, Xin Yang, and Xiaofei Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4111–4121,Short summary
Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) is widely used to detect chemical compositions and sizes of individual aerosol particles. However, it has a major issue: the mass accuracy of high-resolution SPAMS is relatively low. Here we developed an automatic linear calibration method to greatly improve the mass accuracy of SPAMS spectra so that the elemental compositions of organic peaks, such as Cx, CxHy, CxHyOz and CxHyNO peaks, can be directly identified just based on their m / z values.
William Wandji Nyamsi, Antti Lipponen, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Martin Wild, and Antti Arola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3061–3079,Short summary
This paper proposes a novel and accurate method for estimating and reconstructing aerosol optical depth from sunshine duration measurements under cloud-free conditions at any place and time since the late 19th century. The method performs very well when compared to AErosol RObotic NETwork measurements and operates an efficient detection of signals from massive volcanic eruptions. Reconstructed long-term aerosol optical depths are in agreement with the dimming/brightening phenomenon.
Sascha Pfeifer, Thomas Müller, Andrew Freedman, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2161–2167,Short summary
The effect of the baseline drift on the resulting extinction values of three CAPS PMex monitors with different wavelengths was analysed for an urban background station. A significant baseline drift was observed, which leads to characteristic measurement artefacts for particle extinction. Two alternative methods for recalculating the baseline are shown. With these methods the extinction artefacts are diminished and the effective scattering of the resulting extinction values is reduced.
Stuart K. Grange, Hanspeter Lötscher, Andrea Fischer, Lukas Emmenegger, and Christoph Hueglin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1867–1885,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is an important atmospheric pollutant and can be monitored by instruments called aethalometers. A pragmatic data processing technique called the
aethalometer modelcan be used to apportion aethalometer observations into traffic and woodburning components. We present an exploratory data analysis evaluating the aethalometer model and use the outputs for BC trend analysis across Switzerland. The aethalometer model's robustness and utility for such analyses is discussed.
Charlotte Bürki, Matteo Reggente, Ann M. Dillner, Jenny L. Hand, Stephanie L. Shaw, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1517–1538,Short summary
Infrared spectroscopy is a chemically informative method for particulate matter characterization. However, recent work has demonstrated that predictions depend heavily on the choice of calibration model parameters. We propose a means for managing parameter uncertainties by combining available data from laboratory standards, molecular databases, and collocated ambient measurements to provide useful characterization of atmospheric organic matter on a large scale.
Kaixu Bai, Ke Li, Jianping Guo, Yuanjian Yang, and Ni-Bin Chang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1213–1226,Short summary
A novel gap-filling method called the diurnal-cycle-constrained empirical orthogonal function (DCCEOF) is proposed. Cross validation indicates that this method gives high accuracy in predicting missing values in daily PM2.5 time series by accounting for the local diurnal phases, especially by reconstructing daily extrema that cannot be accurately restored by other approaches. The DCCEOF method can be easily applied to other data sets because of its self-consistent capability.
Tongshu Zheng, Michael H. Bergin, Ronak Sutaria, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Robert Caldow, and David E. Carlson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5161–5181,Short summary
Here we present a simultaneous Gaussian process regression (GPR) and linear regression pipeline to calibrate and monitor dense wireless low-cost particulate matter sensor networks (WLPMSNs) on the fly by using all available reference monitors across an area. Our approach can achieve an overall 30 % prediction error at a 24 h scale, can differentiate malfunctioning nodes, and track drift. Our solution can substantially reduce manual labor for managing WLPMSNs and prolong their lifetimes.
Stina Ausmeel, Axel Eriksson, Erik Ahlberg, and Adam Kristensson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4479–4493,Short summary
We present a method for identifying individual exhaust plumes of air pollution emitted from shipping, by linking these to specific ships using identification information which all ships transmit. We also quantify the contribution of these plumes to local particle levels, which has relevance for health effects. Ships emit a lot of nanometre-sized particles, which proved to be a good indicator of plumes at a distance of about 10 km downwind of a shipping lane in the Baltic Sea.
Ingrida Šaulienė, Laura Šukienė, Gintautas Daunys, Gediminas Valiulis, Lukas Vaitkevičius, Predrag Matavulj, Sanja Brdar, Marko Panic, Branko Sikoparija, Bernard Clot, Benoît Crouzy, and Mikhail Sofiev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3435–3452,Short summary
The goal is to evaluate the capabilities of the new Rapid-E monitor and to construct a first-level pollen recognition algorithm. The output data were treated with ANN aiming at classification of the injected pollen. Algorithms based on scattering and fluorescence data alone fall short of acceptable quality. The combinations of these exceeded 80 % accuracy for 5 out of 11 pollen species. Constructing multistep algorithms with sequential discrimination of pollen can be a possible way forward.
Matteo Reggente, Rudolf Höhn, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2313–2329,Short summary
The infrared spectra of atmospheric particles are rich in chemical information but require sophisticated statistical methods to extract information on account of their complex absorption profiles. We present an open software suite which makes current algorithms used for analysis of such spectra available to the community, with a browser-based interface for general users and modular architecture that facilitates addition of new methods by developers.
Xiaoli Shen, Harald Saathoff, Wei Huang, Claudia Mohr, Ramakrishna Ramisetty, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2219–2240,Short summary
Based on single-particle mass spectra from field measurements in the upper Rhine valley, we identified characteristic particle classes and estimated their mass contributions without the need of a reference instrument in the field. Our study provides a good example for quantitative interpretation of single-particle data. Together with the complimentary results from bulk measurements, we have shown how a better understanding of the mixing state of ambient aerosol particles can be achieved.
Tarjei Antonsen, Ove Havnes, and Andres Spicher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2139–2153,Short summary
This paper presents measurements of changes in mesospheric aerosol populations on different length scales, as detected by the DUSTY and MUDD probes on the MAXIDUSTY-1B rocket on 8 July 2016. Identical probes recorded very different currents, which we attribute to adverse flow effects. We find a general anti-correlation for charged aerosols and electrons, but not consistently on all length scales. We conclude that there is no simple relationship between aerosols and PMSE (radar echoes).
Ove Havnes, Tarjei Antonsen, Gerd Baumgarten, Thomas W. Hartquist, Alexander Biebricher, Åshild Fredriksen, Martin Friedrich, and Jonas Hedin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1673–1683,Short summary
We present a new method of analyzing data from rocket-borne aerosol detectors of the Faraday cup type (DUSTY). By using models for how aerosols are charged in the mesosphere and how they interact in a collision with the probes, fundamental parameters like aerosol radius, charge, and number density can be derived. The resolution can be down to ~ 10 cm, which is much lower than other available methods. The theory is furthermore used to analyze DUSTY data from the 2016 rocket campaign MAXIDUSTY.
Satoshi Takahama, Ann M. Dillner, Andrew T. Weakley, Matteo Reggente, Charlotte Bürki, Mária Lbadaoui-Darvas, Bruno Debus, Adele Kuzmiakova, and Anthony S. Wexler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 525–567,Short summary
Mid-infrared spectra of particulate matter (PM) samples are complex but chemically informative and present an opportunity for cost-effective measurement of PM provided that quantitative calibration models can be built. We review an emerging strategy for building statistical calibration models using collocated measurements, interpreting the physical bases for such models and evaluating the suitability of existing calibration models to new samples.
Runlong Cai, Dongsen Yang, Lauri R. Ahonen, Linlin Shi, Frans Korhonen, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Tuukka Petäjä, Jun Zheng, Juha Kangasluoma, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4477–4491,Short summary
We tested the performance of four inversion methods to recover sub-3 nm aerosol size distributions using the particle size magnifier (PSM). The PSM is widely used in new particle formation study; however, the inversion methods used in previous studies may report false particle concentrations. Due to the results, we suggest using the expectation–maximization algorithm to address the PSM inversion problem. We also gave practical suggestions on PSM operation based on the inversion analysis.
Ye Kuang, Chun Sheng Zhao, Gang Zhao, Jiang Chuan Tao, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, and Yu Xuan Bian
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2967–2982,Short summary
Aerosol water has become an important topic recently because of its implications for multiphase secondary aerosol formation during severe haze events in Asia. This is a timely paper on this topic; a novel method is proposed to calculate ambient aerosol liquid water contents based only on measurements of a three-wavelength humidified nephelometer system. The advantage of this method is that this technique can provide continuous measurements of the changing ambient conditions.
Cheng Wu and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1233–1250,Short summary
A new data generation scheme that employs the Mersenne twister (MT) pseudorandom number generator is proposed to conduct benchmark tests on a variety of linear regression techniques. With an appropriate weighting, Deming regression (DR), weighted ODR (WODR), and York regression (YR) are recommended for atmospheric studies when both x and y data have measurement errors. An Igor-based program (Scatter Plot) is developed to facilitate the regression implementation.
Qiao Zhu, Xiao-Feng Huang, Li-Ming Cao, Lin-Tong Wei, Bin Zhang, Ling-Yan He, Miriam Elser, Francesco Canonaco, Jay G. Slowik, Carlo Bozzetti, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1049–1060,Short summary
Organic aerosol constitutes one of the major components of atmospheric particulate matter globally and is emitted from various sources. Therefore, identifying and quantifying the sources of organic aerosol accurately is a key task in the field. In this study, we applied a rather novel procedure for an improved source apportionment method (ME-2) to resolve the
less meaningful or mixed factorsproblems for organic aerosol using the traditional method (PMF).
John Backman, Lauren Schmeisser, Aki Virkkula, John A. Ogren, Eija Asmi, Sandra Starkweather, Sangeeta Sharma, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Taneil Uttal, Anne Jefferson, Michael Bergin, Alexander Makshtas, Peter Tunved, and Markus Fiebig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 5039–5062,Short summary
Light absorption by aerosol particles is of climatic importance. A widely used means to measure aerosol light absorption is a filter-based measurement technique. In remote areas, such as the Arctic, filter-based instruments operate close to their detection limit. The study presents how a lower detection limit can be achieved for one such instrument, the Aethalometer. Additionally, the Aethalometer is compared to similar instruments, thus improving measurement inter-comparability in the Arctic.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Nicolas Marchand, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2923–2939,Short summary
Mineral dust is one of the most abundant aerosol species at the global scale and an accurate estimation of its absorption at solar wavelengths is crucial to assess its impact on climate. In this work we provide an estimate of the Aethalometer multiple scattering correction for mineral dust aerosols at 450 and 660 nm. Our results suggest that the use of an optimized correction factor can lead to up to 11 % higher absorption coefficient and to 3 % higher single scattering albedo for mineral dust.
Jorge Saturno, Christopher Pöhlker, Dario Massabò, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Florian Ditas, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Daniel Morán-Zuloaga, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, David Walter, Qiaoqiao Wang, Paulo Artaxo, Paolo Prati, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2837–2850,Short summary
Different Aethalometer correction schemes were compared to a multi-wavelength absorption reference measurement. One of the correction schemes was found to artificially increase the short-wavelength absorption coefficients. It was found that accounting for aerosol scattering properties in the correction is crucial to retrieve the proper absorption Ångström exponent (AAE). We found that the raw AAE of uncompensated Aethalometer attenuation significantly correlates with a measured reference AAE.
Camille M. Sultana, Gavin C. Cornwell, Paul Rodriguez, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1323–1334,Short summary
Single-particle mass spectrometers (SPMSs) can determine the size and chemical composition of single particles in real time. We developed the first open-source SPMS toolkit to allow creative script-based data mining along with GUI-based visual data exploration and calibration all within a single programming environment. We believe that this software will be adopted by many in the SPMS community and improve the efficiency of knowledge discovery from these atmospherically critical data sets.
W. Reed Espinosa, Lorraine A. Remer, Oleg Dubovik, Luke Ziemba, Andreas Beyersdorf, Daniel Orozco, Gregory Schuster, Tatyana Lapyonok, David Fuertes, and J. Vanderlei Martins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 811–824,Short summary
Aerosols, and their interaction with clouds, play a key role in the climate of our planet but many of their properties are poorly understood. We present a new method for estimating the size, shape and optical constants of atmospheric particles from light-scattering measurements made both in the laboratory and aboard an aircraft. This method is shown to have sufficient accuracy to potentially reduce existing uncertainties, particularly in airborne measurements.
Yaping Zhang, Brent J. Williams, Allen H. Goldstein, Kenneth S. Docherty, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5637–5653,Short summary
The binning method provides an alternate way to process GC–MS data in a very fast manner. It only takes a very small portion of time (days versus years) compared to the traditional GC–MS data analysis method (peak identification and integration). Furthermore, the binning method can also be applied to any data set from a measurement (mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, etc.) with additional separations (volatility, polarity, size, etc.).
Nir Bluvshtein, J. Michel Flores, Lior Segev, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3477–3490,Short summary
Understanding spectrally dependent optical properties of aerosols is needed to quantify the effective radiative forcing due to aerosol–radiation interactions. We describe a new approach to retrieve extensive and intensive optical properties of the aerosol population over 300 to 650 nm wavelength. This new approach was validated with retrieval simulations, laboratory and continuous ambient aerosols measurements. Results showed low errors and good agreement with expected values.
Rob L. Modini and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3337–3354,Short summary
Aerosol measurement techniques with high detection limits often result in poorly time-resolved measurements. We investigated sampling strategies and post-processing methods for constructing hourly resolved aerosol concentration time series from samples collected for 4 to 8 h. We show that this is an effective way to increase measurement time resolution, and that under realistic experimental conditions, simple methods can perform as well as more sophisticated methods.
Satoshi Takahama, Giulia Ruggeri, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3429–3454,Short summary
We introduce the application of statistical algorithms that allow us to associate various dimensions of aerosol composition to vibrational modes measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. We demonstrate their use on four organic functional groups for which absorption bands are known and extend the application to interpret bands associated with ambient organic carbon and elemental carbon quantified by an independent measurement technique that is widely used in aerosol monitoring networks.
Adele Kuzmiakova, Ann M. Dillner, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2615–2631,Short summary
We describe a new method for removing Teflon substrate interference from ambient aerosol infrared spectra such that functional group quantification and spectral clustering (for source classification) can be applied. We demonstrate that this technique produces similar results to a more labor-intensive method used in many field campaigns over the past several years, but is simpler and better constrained by physical criteria that we impose, leading to the possibility of widespread adoption.
Bjarke Mølgaard, Jarno Vanhatalo, Pasi P. Aalto, Nønne L. Prisle, and Kaarle Hämeri
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 741–751,Short summary
We have improved the reliability of submicron aerosol particle size distributions measured in urban locations. This improvement was obtained by processing the data in a new way and avoiding a problematic assumption of a stationary aerosol during each size distribution measurement.
I. Crawford, S. Ruske, D. O. Topping, and M. W. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4979–4991,Short summary
HCA analysis methods were evaluated for the purpose of identifying primary biological aerosol sampled with a WIBS. The ward linkage with z-score normalisation could discriminate between five test particles with 98% accuracy. We applied these methods to a previously studied ambient data set, where both methods produced similar results with some minor differences in cluster partitioning. Finally we compared to previous approaches and found our new method offered improved quantification of PBA.
A. Virkkula, X. Chi, A. Ding, Y. Shen, W. Nie, X. Qi, L. Zheng, X. Huang, Y. Xie, J. Wang, T. Petäjä, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4415–4427,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties were measured with a seven-wavelength aethalometer and a three-wavelength nephelometer in Nanjing, China, in September 2013–January 2015. The aethalometer compensation parameter k depended on the backscatter fraction, measured with an independent method, the integrating nephelometer. The compensation parameter decreased with increasing single-scattering albedo.
V. Moosavi, G. Aschwanden, and E. Velasco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3563–3575,Short summary
Complexity of urban environments makes the problem of locating air quality monitoring stations at ground level challenging. In this work a data-driven methodology is proposed where using Self Organizing Maps along with several urban parameters and few direct measurements of aerosols at the street level, the concentration of those aerosols in a larger area is estimated. Finally, via clustering of areas with similar urban patterns, the potential locations of monitoring stations are identified.
N. Hanrieder, S. Wilbert, R. Pitz-Paal, C. Emde, J. Gasteiger, B. Mayer, and J. Polo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3467–3480,
J. M. Wang, C.-H. Jeong, N. Zimmerman, R. M. Healy, D. K. Wang, F. Ke, and G. J. Evans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3263–3275,
M. J. Cubison and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2333–2345,
J. Backman, A. Virkkula, V. Vakkari, J. P. Beukes, P. G. Van Zyl, M. Josipovic, S. Piketh, P. Tiitta, K. Chiloane, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and L. Laakso
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4285–4298,
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