Articles | Volume 13, issue 9
Research article
17 Sep 2020
Research article |  | 17 Sep 2020

Monitoring the compliance of sailing ships with fuel sulfur content regulations using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) measurements of ship emissions in open water

Fan Zhou, Liwei Hou, Rui Zhong, Wei Chen, Xunpeng Ni, Shengda Pan, Ming Zhao, and Bowen An

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Monitoring of compliance with fuel sulfur content regulations through unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) measurements of ship emissions
Fan Zhou, Shengda Pan, Wei Chen, Xunpeng Ni, and Bowen An
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Cited articles

Alföldy, B., Lööv, J. B., Lagler, F., Mellqvist, J., Berg, N., Beecken, J., Weststrate, H., Duyzer, J., Bencs, L., Horemans, B., Cavalli, F., Putaud, J.-P., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Csordás, A. P., Van Grieken, R., Borowiak, A., and Hjorth, J.: Measurements of air pollution emission factors for marine transportation in SECA, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1777–1791,, 2013. 
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Beecken, J., Mellqvist, J., Salo, K., Ekholm, J., and Jalkanen, J.-P.: Airborne emission measurements of SO2, NOx and particles from individual ships using a sniffer technique, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1957–1968,, 2014. 
Beecken, J., Mellqvist, J., Salo, K., Ekholm, J., Jalkanen, J.-P., Johansson, L., Litvinenko, V., Volodin, K., and Frank-Kamenetsky, D. A.: Emission factors of SO2, NOx and particles from ships in Neva Bay from ground-based and helicopter-borne measurements and AIS-based modeling, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5229–5241,, 2015. 
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Short summary
On 15 July 2019, using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), maritime authorities ferreted out a sailing ship whose fuel sulfur content (FSC) failed to meet Chinese regulations. This was the first time that a sailing ship had been caught for having failed the FSC regulations in China. The UAV system, method, and monitoring result utilized are discussed in this paper. We recommend that emissions from sailing ships be monitored more often in the open water in the future.