Articles | Volume 5, issue 6
Research article 01 Jun 2012
Research article | 01 Jun 2012
MIPAS-STR measurements in the Arctic UTLS in winter/spring 2010: instrument characterization, retrieval and validation
W. Woiwode et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalEstimating real driving emissions from multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements at the A60 motorway near Mainz, GermanyMethane retrieved from TROPOMI: improvement of the data product and validation of the first 2 years of measurementsAccounting for the photochemical variation in stratospheric NO2 in the SAGE III/ISS solar occultation retrievalOzone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Aura nitrogen dioxide standard product version 4.0 with improved surface and cloud treatmentsA local- to national-scale inverse modeling system to assess the potential of spaceborne CO2 measurements for the monitoring of anthropogenic emissionsXCO2 estimates from the OCO-2 measurements using a neural network approachQuantifying the impact of aerosol scattering on the retrieval of methane from airborne remote sensing measurementsQuantifying CO2 emissions of a city with the Copernicus Anthropogenic CO2 Monitoring satellite missionAn improved TROPOMI tropospheric HCHO retrieval over ChinaRetrieval of daytime mesospheric ozone using OSIRIS observations of O2 (a1Δg) emissionVersion 2 Ozone Monitoring Instrument SO2 product (OMSO2 V2): new anthropogenic SO2 vertical column density datasetThe quantification of NOx and SO2 point source emission flux errors of mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy on the basis of the Gaussian dispersion model: a simulation studyProbabilistic retrieval of volcanic SO2 layer height and partial column density using the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)Impact of using a new ultraviolet ozone absorption cross-section dataset on OMI ozone profile retrievalsAn examination of enhanced atmospheric methane detection methods for predicting performance of a novel multiband uncooled radiometer imagerGround-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) O3 retrievals from the 3040 cm−1 spectral range at Xianghe, ChinaRadiative transfer acceleration based on the Principal Component Analysis and Look-Up Table of corrections: Optimization and application to UV ozone profile retrievalsEstablishment of AIRS climate-level radiometric stability using radiance anomaly retrievals of minor gases and sea surface temperatureDetection and Quantification of CH4 Plumes using the WFM-DOAS retrieval on AVIRIS-NG hyperspectral dataMAX-DOAS measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO in Munich and the comparison to OMI and TROPOMI satellite observationsOverview: Estimating and reporting uncertainties in remotely sensed atmospheric composition and temperatureCLIMCAPS observing capability for temperature, moisture, and trace gases from AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMSThree-dimensional radiative transfer effects on airborne and ground-based trace gas remote sensingA new TROPOMI product for tropospheric NO2 columns over East Asia with explicit aerosol correctionsTotal column water vapor retrieval for Global Ozone Monitoring Experience-2 (GOME-2) visible blue observationsInstrumental characteristics and potential greenhouse gas measurement capabilities of the Compact High-Spectral-Resolution Infrared Spectrometer: CHRISAnthropogenic CO2 monitoring satellite mission: the need for multi-angle polarimetric observationsCan statistics of turbulent tracer dispersion be inferred from camera observations of SO2 in the ultraviolet? A modelling studyA comparison of OH nightglow volume emission rates as measured by SCIAMACHY and SABERNet CO2 fossil fuel emissions of Tokyo estimated directly from measurements of the Tsukuba TCCON site and radiosondesDevelopment of on-site self-calibration and retrieval methods for sky-radiometer observations of precipitable water vaporDiscrete-wavelength DOAS NO2 slant column retrievals from OMI and TROPOMIEstimates of lightning NOx production based on high-resolution OMI NO2 retrievals over the continental USS5P TROPOMI NO2 slant column retrieval: method, stability, uncertainties and comparisons with OMIApplying FP_ILM to the retrieval of geometry-dependent effective Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (GE_LER) daily maps from UVN satellite measurementsEnsemble-based satellite-derived carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged dry-air mole fraction data sets (2003–2018) for carbon and climate applicationsAn improved air mass factor calculation for nitrogen dioxide measurements from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2)XCO2 observations using satellite measurements with moderate spectral resolution: investigation using GOSAT and OCO-2 measurementsAtmospheric ammonia retrieval from the TANSO-FTS/GOSAT thermal infrared sounderFirst data set of H2O/HDO columns from the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI)A scientific algorithm to simultaneously retrieve carbon monoxide and methane from TROPOMI onboard Sentinel-5 PrecursorDetectability of CO2 emission plumes of cities and power plants with the Copernicus Anthropogenic CO2 Monitoring (CO2M) missionLee wave detection over the Mediterranean Sea using the Advanced Infra-Red WAter Vapour Estimator (AIRWAVE) total column water vapour (TCWV) datasetThe Complete Data Fusion for a Full Exploitation of Copernicus Atmospheric Sentinel Level 2 ProductsTowards accurate methane point-source quantification from high-resolution 2-D plume imageryA study of synthetic 13CH4 retrievals from TROPOMI and Sentinel-5/UVNSMonitoring of compliance with fuel sulfur content regulations through unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) measurements of ship emissionsRetrieval of atmospheric CH4 vertical information from ground-based FTS near-infrared spectraFull-physics carbon dioxide retrievals from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite by only using the 2.06 µm bandStudies of the horizontal inhomogeneities in NO2 concentrations above a shipping lane using ground-based multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements and validation with airborne imaging DOAS measurements
Bianca Lauster, Steffen Dörner, Steffen Beirle, Sebastian Donner, Sergey Gromov, Katharina Uhlmannsiek, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 769–783,Short summary
In urban areas, road traffic is a dominant source of nitrogen oxides. In this study, two multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instruments on opposite sides of a motorway were used to measure the nitrogen dioxide absorption near Mainz, Germany. Total nitrogen oxide emissions are estimated for the occurring traffic flux. We show that the measured emissions systematically exceed the maximum expected emissions calculated from the European emission standards.
Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Andre Butz, Otto Hasekamp, Joost aan de Brugh, Andreas Schneider, Lianghai Wu, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Debra Wunch, David F. Pollard, Kei Shiomi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Coleen M. Roehl, Paul O. Wennberg, Thorsten Warneke, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 665–684,Short summary
TROPOMI aboard Sentinel-5P satellite provides methane (CH4) measurements with exceptional temporal and spatial resolution. The study describes a series of improvements developed to retrieve CH4 from TROPOMI. The updated CH4 product features (among others) a more accurate a posteriori correction derived independently of any reference data. The validation of the improved data product shows good agreement with ground-based and satellite measurements, which highlights the quality of the TROPOMI CH4.
Kimberlee Dubé, Adam Bourassa, Daniel Zawada, Douglas Degenstein, Robert Damadeo, David Flittner, and William Randel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 557–566,Short summary
SAGE III/ISS measures profiles of NO2; however the algorithm to convert raw measurements to NO2 concentration neglects variations caused by changes in chemistry over the course of a day. We devised a procedure to account for these diurnal variations and assess their impact on NO2 measurements from SAGE III/ISS. We find that the new NO2 concentration is more than 10 % lower than NO2 from the standard algorithm below 30 km, showing that this effect is important to consider at lower altitudes.
Lok N. Lamsal, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Alexander Vasilkov, Sergey Marchenko, Wenhan Qin, Eun-Su Yang, Zachary Fasnacht, Joanna Joiner, Sungyeon Choi, David Haffner, William H. Swartz, Bradford Fisher, and Eric Bucsela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 455–479,Short summary
The NASA standard nitrogen dioxide (NO2) version 4.0 product for OMI Aura incorporates the most salient improvements. It represents the first global satellite trace gas retrieval with OMI–MODIS synergy accounting for surface reflectance anisotropy in cloud and NO2 retrievals. Improved spectral fitting procedures for NO2 and oxygen dimer (for cloud) retrievals and reliance on high-resolution field-of-view-specific input information for NO2 and cloud retrievals help enhance the NO2 data quality.
Diego Santaren, Grégoire Broquet, François-Marie Bréon, Frédéric Chevallier, Denis Siméoni, Bo Zheng, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 403–433,Short summary
Atmospheric transport inversions with synthetic data are used to assess the potential of new satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 to monitor anthropogenic emissions from regions, cities and large industrial plants. The analysis, applied to a large ensemble of sources in western Europe, shows a strong dependence of the results on different characteristics of the spaceborne instrument, on the source emission budgets and spreads, and on the wind conditions.
Leslie David, François-Marie Bréon, and Frédéric Chevallier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 117–132,Short summary
This paper shows that a neural network (NN) approach can be used to process spaceborne observations from the OCO-2 satellite and retrieve both surface pressure and atmospheric CO2 content. The accuracy evaluation indicates that the retrievals have an accuracy that is at least as good as those of the operational approach, which relies on complex algorithms and is computer intensive. The NN approach is therefore a promising alternative for the processing of CO2-monitoring missions.
Yunxia Huang, Vijay Natraj, Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Pushkar Kopparla, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6755–6769,Short summary
As a greenhouse gas with strong global warming potential, atmospheric methane emissions have attracted a great deal of attention. However, accurate assessment of these emissions is challenging in the presence of atmospheric particulates called aerosols. We quantify the aerosol impact on methane quantification from airborne measurements using two techniques, one that has traditionally been used by the imaging spectroscopy community and the other commonly employed in trace gas remote sensing.
Gerrit Kuhlmann, Dominik Brunner, Grégoire Broquet, and Yasjka Meijer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6733–6754,Short summary
The European CO2M mission is a proposed constellation of CO2 imaging satellites expected to monitor CO2 emissions of large cities. Using synthetic observations, we show that a constellation of two or more satellites should be able to quantify Berlin's annual emissions with 10–20 % accuracy, even when considering atmospheric transport model errors. We therefore expect that CO2M will make an important contribution to the monitoring and verification of CO2 emissions from cities worldwide.
Wenjing Su, Cheng Liu, Ka Lok Chan, Qihou Hu, Haoran Liu, Xiangguang Ji, Yizhi Zhu, Ting Liu, Chengxin Zhang, Yujia Chen, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6271–6292,Short summary
The paper presents an improved retrieval of the TROPOMI tropospheric HCHO column over China. The new retrieval optimized both slant column retrieval and air mass factor calculation for TROPOMI observations of HCHO over China. The improved TROPOMI HCHO is subsequently validated by MAX-DOAS observations. Compared to the operational product, the improved HCHO agrees better with the MAX-DOAS data and thus is better suited for the analysis of regional- and city-scale pollution in China.
Anqi Li, Chris Z. Roth, Kristell Pérot, Ole Martin Christensen, Adam Bourassa, Doug A. Degenstein, and Donal P. Murtagh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6215–6236,Short summary
The OSIRIS IR imager, one of the instruments on the Odin satellite, routinely measures the oxygen airglow at 1.27 μm. In this study, we primarily focus on the steps done for retrieving the calibrated IRA band limb radiance, the volume emission rate of O2(a1∆g) and finally the ozone number density. Specifically, we use a novel approach to address the issue of the measurements that were made close to the local sunrise, where the O2(a1∆g) diverges from the equilibrium state.
Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Peter J. T. Leonard, Simon Carn, Joanna Joiner, Robert J. D. Spurr, and Alexander Vasilkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6175–6191,Short summary
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important pollutant that causes haze and acid rain. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been providing global observation of SO2 from space for over 15 years. In this paper, we introduce a new OMI SO2 dataset for global pollution monitoring. The dataset better accounts for the influences of different factors such as location and sun and satellite angles, leading to improved data quality. The new OMI SO2 dataset is publicly available through NASA's data center.
Yeyuan Huang, Ang Li, Thomas Wagner, Yang Wang, Zhaokun Hu, Pinhua Xie, Jin Xu, Hongmei Ren, Julia Remmers, Xiaoyi Fang, and Bing Dang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6025–6051,Short summary
Mobile DOAS has become an important tool for the quantification of emission sources. In this study, we focused on the error budget of mobile DOAS measurements from NOx and SO2 point sources based on the model simulations, and we also offered recommendations for the optimum settings of such measurements.
David M. Hyman and Michael J. Pavolonis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5891–5921,Short summary
Understanding the lateral extent, altitude, and amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important for studying volcanic clouds in support of aviation safety and for analyzing the effects of volcanoes on global climate. In this study, we detail an enhanced satellite measurement that provides probability distributions for the altitude and concentration of SO2 instead of single estimates using the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of satellites.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Manfred Birk, Georg Wagner, Iouli E. Gordon, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5845–5854,Short summary
This paper evaluates different sets of high-resolution ozone absorption cross-section data for use in atmospheric ozone profile measurements in the Hartley and Huggins bands with a particular focus on BDM 1995 (Daumont et al. 1992; Brion et al., 1993; Malicet et al., 1995) currently used in our retrievals and a new laboratory dataset by Birk and Wagner (BW) (2018).
Cody M. Webber and John P. Kerekes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5359–5367,Short summary
Here we present a study performed to determine the methane detection capabilities of a novel remote thermal instrument, the Multiband Uncooled Radiometer Imager. We utilize a novel methane detection approach, the normalized differential methane index, that when applied to simulated multispectral thermal imagery with a single spectral channel dedicated to methane detection shows similar results to a state-of-the-art method, the matched-filter approach.
Minqiang Zhou, Pucai Wang, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Ting Wang, Yang Yang, Denghui Ji, Liang Ran, Jinqiang Zhang, Yuejian Xuan, Hongbin Chen, Françoise Posny, Valentin Duflot, Jean-Marc Metzger, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5379–5394,Short summary
We study O3 retrievals in the 3040 cm-1 spectral range from FTIR measurements at Xianghe China (39.75° N, 116.96° E; 50 m a.s.l.) between June 2018 and December 2019. It was found that the FTIR O3 (3040 cm-1) retrievals capture the seasonal and synoptic variations of O3 very well. The systematic and random uncertainties of FTIR O3 (3040 cm-1) total column are about 13.6 % and 1.4 %, respectively. The DOFS is 2.4±0.3 (1σ), with two individual pieces of information in surface–20 km and 20–40 km.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Robert Spurr, Kai Yang, Caroline R. Nowlan, Christopher Chan Miller, Gonzalo Gonzalez Abad, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
we apply a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach combined with look-up tables (LUTs) of corrections to accelerate the VLIDORT radiative transfer (RT) model used in the retrieval of ozone profiles from backscattered ultraviolet (UV) measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI).
L. Larrabee Strow and Sergio DeSouza-Machado
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4619–4644,Short summary
The NASA AIRS satellite instrument has measured the infrared emission of the Earth continuously since 2002. If AIRS measurements are stable, these radiances can provide globally consistent multi-decadal trends of important climate variables, including the Earth's surface temperature, and the atmospheric temperature and humidity vs. height. Using the sensitivity of the AIRS radiances to well-known carbon dioxide trends, we show that AIRS is stable to 0.02 K per decade, well below climate trends.
Jakob Borchardt, Konstantin Gerilowski, Sven Krautwurst, Heinrich Bovensmann, Andrew Kenji Thorpe, David Ray Thompson, Christian Frankenberg, Charles E. Miller, Riley M. Duren, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The AVIRIS-NG hyperspectral imager has been used successfully to identify and quantify anthropogenic methane sources utilizing different retrieval and inversion methods. In this paper, we examine the adaption and application of the WFM-DOAS retrieval algorithm to AVIRIS-NG measurements to retrieve local methane column enhancements. The uncertainties resulting from the retrieval method are quantified. Additionally, we estimate the emissions from four detected methane plumes.
Ka Lok Chan, Matthias Wiegner, Jos van Geffen, Isabelle De Smedt, Carlos Alberti, Zhibin Cheng, Sheng Ye, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4499–4520,Short summary
The paper presents 2D MAX-DOAS observations of vertical distributions of aerosol extinction, NO2 and HCHO in Munich. The measured surface aerosol extinction coefficients and NO2 mixing ratios are compared to in situ monitoring data. The NO2 and HCHO data are subsequently used to validate satellite measurements. The MAX-DOAS measurements are also used to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristic of NO2 and HCHO in Munich.
Thomas von Clarmann, Douglas A. Degenstein, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Stefan Bender, Amy Braverman, André Butz, Steven Compernolle, Robert Damadeo, Seth Dueck, Patrick Eriksson, Bernd Funke, Margaret C. Johnson, Yasuko Kasai, Arno Keppens, Anne Kleinert, Natalya A. Kramarova, Alexandra Laeng, Bavo Langerock, Vivienne H. Payne, Alexei Rozanov, Tomohiro O. Sato, Matthias Schneider, Patrick Sheese, Viktoria Sofieva, Gabriele P. Stiller, Christian von Savigny, and Daniel Zawada
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4393–4436,Short summary
Remote sensing of atmospheric state variables typically relies on the inverse solution of the radiative transfer equation. An adequately characterized retrieval provides information on the uncertainties of the estimated state variables as well as on how any constraint or a priori assumption affects the estimate. This paper summarizes related techniques and provides recommendations for unified error reporting.
Nadia Smith and Christopher D. Barnet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4437–4459,Short summary
We diagnose CLIMCAPS observing capability from two different instrument suites and satellite platforms using averaging kernels that quantify information content at every retrieval scene. CLIMCAPS retrieves atmospheric state variables from infrared and microwave measurements and is designed to maintain consistency across time to support climate science and applications. We use averaging kernels to characterize the degree to which we achieved consistency in CLIMCAPS V2 observing capability.
Marc Schwaerzel, Claudia Emde, Dominik Brunner, Randulph Morales, Thomas Wagner, Alexis Berne, Brigitte Buchmann, and Gerrit Kuhlmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4277–4293,Short summary
Horizontal homogeneity is often assumed for trace gases remote sensing, although it is not valid where trace gas concentrations have high spatial variability, e.g., in cities. We show the importance of 3D effects for MAX-DOAS and airborne imaging spectrometers using 3D-box air mass factors implemented in the MYSTIC radiative transfer solver. In both cases, 3D information is invaluable for interpreting the measurements, as not considering 3D effects can lead to misinterpretation of measurements.
Mengyao Liu, Jintai Lin, Hao Kong, K. Folkert Boersma, Henk Eskes, Yugo Kanaya, Qin He, Xin Tian, Kai Qin, Pinhua Xie, Robert Spurr, Ruijing Ni, Yingying Yan, Hongjian Weng, and Jingxu Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4247–4259,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are important air pollutants in the troposphere and play crucial roles in the formation of ozone and particulate matter. The recently launched TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) provides an opportunity to retrieve tropospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at an unprecedented high horizontal resolution. This work presents a new NO2 retrieval product over East Asia and further quantifies key factors affecting the retrieval, including aerosol.
Ka Lok Chan, Pieter Valks, Sander Slijkhuis, Claas Köhler, and Diego Loyola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4169–4193,Short summary
The paper presents a new water vapor retrieval algorithm in the blue spectral band for the Global Ozone Monitoring Experience-2 (GOME-2) satellite instruments. The new retrieval features a dynamic a priori optimization module, which makes it less dependent on input from chemistry transport models and better suited for climate studies. As the blue band wavelength is available to various satellites, retrieving water vapor in the blue band potentially extends the water vapor climate record.
Marie-Thérèse El Kattar, Frédérique Auriol, and Hervé Herbin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3769–3786,Short summary
This paper is submitted as part of my thesis project. It highlights the importance of ground-based measurements for future satellite validations. This paper represents the characteristics of a new prototype called CHRIS, which is the MIR version of the EM27/SUN. Our primary concern is the exploitation of the data of the MAGIC campaign, which is a French initiative in collaboration with the CoMet project, to monitor greenhouse gases.
Stephanie P. Rusli, Otto Hasekamp, Joost aan de Brugh, Guangliang Fu, Yasjka Meijer, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
This study investigates the added value of multi-angle polarimeter (MAP) measurements for XCO2 retrievals, particularly in the context of the Copernicus Anthropogenic CO2 Monitoring (CO2M) mission. In this paper, we derive the required MAP instrument specification and we demonstrate that MAP observations significantly improve the retrieval performance, and are needed to meet the XCO2 precision and accuracy requirements of the CO2M mission.
Arve Kylling, Hamidreza Ardeshiri, Massimo Cassiani, Anna Solvejg Dinger, Soon-Young Park, Ignacio Pisso, Norbert Schmidbauer, Kerstin Stebel, and Andreas Stohl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3303–3318,Short summary
Atmospheric turbulence and its effect on tracer dispersion in particular may be measured by cameras sensitive to the absorption of ultraviolet (UV) sunlight by sulfur dioxide (SO2). Using large eddy simulation and 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer modelling of a SO2 plume, we demonstrate that UV camera images of SO2 plumes may be used to derive plume statistics of relevance for the study of atmospheric turbulent dispersion.
Yajun Zhu, Martin Kaufmann, Qiuyu Chen, Jiyao Xu, Qiucheng Gong, Jilin Liu, Daikang Wei, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3033–3042,Short summary
OH airglow emissions can be used to derive rotational temperature and trace constituents in the mesopause region, but systematic differences exist for the follow-up data using OH emission radiance as measured by SCIAMACHY and SABER. This paper makes a comparison of OH emission radiance as measured by them and shows the systematic differences between the two measurements. The radiometric calibration of the two instruments could potentially explain the differences between the two measurements.
Arne Babenhauserheide, Frank Hase, and Isamu Morino
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2697–2710,Short summary
This paper demonstrates that the carbon dioxide emissions of Tokyo can be estimated from long-term ground-based measurements of column-averaged atmospheric carbon dioxide abundances recorded at the TCCON site Tsukuba.
Masahiro Momoi, Rei Kudo, Kazuma Aoki, Tatsuhiro Mori, Kazuhiko Miura, Hiroshi Okamoto, Hitoshi Irie, Yoshinori Shoji, Akihiro Uchiyama, Osamu Ijima, Matsumi Takano, and Teruyuki Nakajima
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2635–2658,Short summary
The water vapor channel of sun photometers, such as a sky radiometer, has been calibrated at limited observation sites (e.g., Mauna Loa) in previous studies, but our procedure has made on-site calibration possible by using sky radiances in addition to direct solar irradiance. The retrieved precipitable water vapor values correspond well to those derived from a global-navigation-satellite-system–global-positioning-system receiver, a microwave radiometer, and an AERONET sun–sky radiometer.
Cristina Ruiz Villena, Jasdeep S. Anand, Roland J. Leigh, Paul S. Monks, Claire E. Parfitt, and Joshua D. Vande Hey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1735–1756,Short summary
We present a new method to derive NO2 concentrations from satellite observations that uses up to 30 times less spectral information than traditional methods. We tested the method using data from existing instruments OMI and TROPOMI and found our results agree with the reference data to 5 % and 11 %, respectively. Our method could allow for simpler instrument designs that can be used in low-cost constellations of small satellites for air quality monitoring at high spatial and temporal resolution.
Xin Zhang, Yan Yin, Ronald van der A, Jeff L. Lapierre, Qian Chen, Xiang Kuang, Shuqi Yan, Jinghua Chen, Chuan He, and Rulin Shi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1709–1734,Short summary
Lightning NOx has a strong impact on ozone and the hydroxyl radical production. However, the production efficiency of lightning NOx is still quite uncertain. This work develops the algorithm of estimating lightning NOx for both clean and polluted regions and evaluates the sensitivity of estimates to the model setting of lightning NO. Results reveal that our method reduces the sensitivity to the background NO2 and includes much of the below-cloud LNO2.
Jos van Geffen, K. Folkert Boersma, Henk Eskes, Maarten Sneep, Mark ter Linden, Marina Zara, and J. Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1315–1335,Short summary
The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) provides atmospheric trace gase and cloud and aerosol property measurements at unprecedented spatial resolution. This study focusses on the TROPOMI NO2 slant column density (SCD) retrieval: the retrieval method used, the stability of and uncertainties in the SCDs, and a comparison with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 SCDs. TROPOMI shows a superior performance compared to OMI/QA4ECV and operates as anticipated from instrument specifications.
Diego G. Loyola, Jian Xu, Klaus-Peter Heue, and Walter Zimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 985–999,Short summary
In this paper we present a novel algorithm for the retrieval of geometry-dependent effective Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (GE_LER) from UVN sensors based on the full-physics inverse learning machine (FP_ILM) retrieval. The GE_LER retrieval is optimized for the trace gas retrievals using the DOAS technique and the large amount of data of TROPOMI on board the EU/ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor mission.
Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Boesch, Antonio Di Noia, Jasdeep Anand, Robert J. Parker, Peter Somkuti, Lianghai Wu, Otto P. Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Kei Shiomi, Yukio Yoshida, Isamu Morino, David Crisp, Christopher W. O'Dell, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Rigel Kivi, David F. Pollard, Frank Hase, Ralf Sussmann, Yao V. Té, Kimberly Strong, Sébastien Roche, Mahesh K. Sha, Martine De Mazière, Dietrich G. Feist, Laura T. Iraci, Coleen M. Roehl, Christian Retscher, and Dinand Schepers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 789–819,Short summary
We present new satellite-derived data sets of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The data products are column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 and XCH4. The products cover the years 2003–2018 and are merged Level 2 (satellite footprints) and merged Level 3 (gridded at monthly time and 5° x 5° spatial resolution) products obtained from combining several individual sensor products. We present the merging algorithms and product validation results.
Song Liu, Pieter Valks, Gaia Pinardi, Jian Xu, Athina Argyrouli, Ronny Lutz, L. Gijsbert Tilstra, Vincent Huijnen, François Hendrick, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 755–787,Short summary
This paper presents an improved tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrieval algorithm from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) instrument based on air mass factor (AMF) calculations that are performed with a more accurate knowledge of surface albedo, the a priori NO2 profile, and cloud and aerosol corrections.
Lianghai Wu, Joost aan de Brugh, Yasjka Meijer, Bernd Sierk, Otto Hasekamp, Andre Butz, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 713–729,Short summary
The future European CO2 monitoring constellation is targeting a moderate spectral resolution of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.3–0.55 nm in the spectral bands of 0.76, 1.61, and 2.06 μm. To assess this choice, we perform XCO2 retrievals using both satellite (OCO-2 and GOSAT) and synthetic observations, which we spectrally degrade to the target spectral resolution. We see that moderate spectral resolution mainly reduces XCO2 precision and has little effect on the the systematic error.
Yu Someya, Ryoichi Imasu, Kei Shiomi, and Naoko Saitoh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 309–321,Short summary
This study presents a novel ammonia retrieval system we developed GOSAT. This system was used to derive estimates of global atmospheric ammonia concentrations between 2009 and 2014. The results demonstrated significantly high concentrations stemming from six anthropogenic emission source areas and four biomass burning ones. Their horizontal and temporal distributions were compared with those from IASI. They were totally consistent and the causes of the differences were discussed.
Andreas Schneider, Tobias Borsdorff, Joost aan de Brugh, Franziska Aemisegger, Dietrich G. Feist, Rigel Kivi, Frank Hase, Matthias Schneider, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 85–100,Short summary
This paper presents a new H2O/HDO data set from TROPOMI short-wave infrared measurements. It is validated against recent ground-based FTIR measurements from the TCCON network. A bias in TCCON HDO (which is not verified) is corrected by fitting a correction factor for the HDO column to match MUSICA δD for common observations. The use of the new TROPOMI data set is demonstrated using a case study of a blocking anticyclone over Europe in July 2018.
Oliver Schneising, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Tobias Borsdorff, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Christian Hermans, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Jochen Landgraf, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Sébastien Roche, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6771–6802,Short summary
We introduce an algorithm that is used to simultaneously derive the abundances of the important atmospheric constituents carbon monoxide and methane from the TROPOMI instrument onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, which enables the determination of both gases with an unprecedented level of detail on a global scale. The quality of the resulting data sets is assessed and the first results are presented.
Gerrit Kuhlmann, Grégoire Broquet, Julia Marshall, Valentin Clément, Armin Löscher, Yasjka Meijer, and Dominik Brunner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6695–6719,Short summary
The Copernicus Anthropogenic CO2 Monitoring (CO2M) mission is a proposed constellation of imaging satellites with a CO2 instrument as main payload and optionally instruments for NO2, CO and aerosols. This study demonstrates the huge benefit of an NO2 instrument for detecting city plumes and weak point sources. Its main advantages are the higher signal-to-noise ratio and the lower sensitivity to clouds that significantly increases the number of observations available for quantifying CO2 emission.
Enzo Papandrea, Stefano Casadio, Elisa Castelli, Bianca Maria Dinelli, and Mario Marcello Miglietta
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6683–6693,Short summary
Lee waves have been detected in clear-sky conditions over the Mediterranean Sea using the total column water vapour (TCWV) fields. The products were generated applying the Advanced Infra-Red WAter Vapour Estimator (AIRWAVE) retrieval algorithm to the thermal infrared measurements of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) instrument series. A subset of the occurrences has been compared with both independent observations and model simulations.
Nicola Zoppetti, Simone Ceccherini, Bruno Carli, Samuele Del Bianco, Marco Gai, Cecilia Tirelli, Flavio Barbara, Rossana Dragani, Antti Arola, Jukka Kujanpää, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Ronald van der A, and Ugo Cortesi
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The atmospheric Sentinels will provide an enormous amount of data that can be hard to exploit as a whole. The Complete Data Fusion algorithm is able to reduce the data volume while retaining the information of the full data set. In this work, the Complete Data Fusion is applied to simulated ozone profiles and the results show that the fused products are characterized by higher information content compared to individual L2 products.
Siraput Jongaramrungruang, Christian Frankenberg, Georgios Matheou, Andrew K. Thorpe, David R. Thompson, Le Kuai, and Riley M. Duren
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6667–6681,Short summary
This paper demonstrates the use of high-resolution 2-D plume imagery from airborne remote sensing retrievals to quantify methane point-source emissions. It shows significant improvements on the flux estimates without the need for direct wind speed measurements. This paves the way for enhanced flux estimates in future field campaign and space-based observations to better understand the magnitude and distribution of various point sources of methane.
Edward Malina, Haili Hu, Jochen Landgraf, and Ben Veihelmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6273–6301,Short summary
We present a feasibility study on retrieving 12CH4 and 13CH4 using the recently launched TROPOMI on the Copernicus Sentinel 5P satellite and the future UVNS instrument on Sentinel 5. The ratio of 12CH4 and 13CH4 can be used to calculate the δ13C value, which has been shown to be able to distinguish between biological and non-biological sources of methane. We show that Sentinel 5/UVNS may be used to distinguish between methane source types, while Sentinel 5P/TROPOMI is subject to large biases.
Fan Zhou, Shengda Pan, Wei Chen, Xunpeng Ni, and Bowen An
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6113–6124,Short summary
This study developed a measurement system based on an unmanned aerial vehicle for determining the fuel sulfur content from the exhaust gas of ships. The proposed measurement could be used to determine the smoke plume at about 5 m from the funnel mouth of ships, providing a rapid high-precision monitoring of emission control areas for compliance with sulfur fuel content. The results show that, in general, the deviation of the estimated value for fuel sulfur content is less than 0.03 % (m/m).
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Nicolas Kumps, Christian Hermans, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Huilin Chen, Jean-Marc Metzger, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Michel Ramonet, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6125–6141,Short summary
In this study, CH4 vertical profile is retrieved by SFIT4 code from FTIR NIR spectra based on six sites during 2016–2017. The degree of freedom for signal of the SFIT4NIR retrieval is about 2.4, with two distinct species of information in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. By comparison against other measurements, e.g. TCCON standard products, satellite observations and AirCore measurements, the uncertainties of the SFIT4NIR total column and partial columns are estimated and discussed.
Lianghai Wu, Otto Hasekamp, Haili Hu, Joost aan de Brugh, Jochen Landgraf, Andre Butz, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6049–6058,Short summary
We propose a one–band XCO2 retrieval technique which uses only the 2.06 µm band measurements from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory–2 (OCO–2) satellite. Compared to the current state–of–the–art three–band retrievals, XCO2 retrievals using only the 2.06 µm band have similar retrieval accuracy, precision, and data yield. For future missions it may be better to replace the O2 A band with measurements that have larger information content on aerosols, like a multi–angle polarimeter (MAP).
André Seyler, Andreas C. Meier, Folkard Wittrock, Lisa Kattner, Barbara Mathieu-Üffing, Enno Peters, Andreas Richter, Thomas Ruhtz, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan Schmolke, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5959–5977,Short summary
This study describes a novel application of an
onion-peelingapproach to MAX-DOAS measurements of shipping emissions to study the inhomogeneous NO2 field above a shipping lane. It is shown how the method can be used to derive the approximate plume positions in the observed area, and, by using a simple Gaussian plume model, to calculate in-plume NO2 volume mixing ratios. For validation, a comparison to airborne imaging DOAS measurements during the NOSE campaign in July 2013 is included.
Andreae, M. O. and Crutzen, P. J.: Atmospheric Aerosols: Biogeochemical Sources and Role in Atmospheric Chemistry, Science, 276, 1052–1058, 1997.
Arnold, F. and Bührke, Th.: New H2SO4 and HSO3 vapour measurements in the stratosphere – evidence for a volcanic influence, Nature, 301, 293–295, 1983.
Blom, C. E., Gulde, T., Keim, C., Kimmig, W., Piesch, C., Sartorius, C., and Fischer, H.: MIPAS-STR: Entwicklung eines Instruments für Stratosphärenflugzeuge, Statusseminar des Ozonforschungsprogramms, 1998.
Blom, C. E., Camy-Peyret, C., Catoire, V., Chance, K., Oelhaf, H., Ovarlez, J., Payan, S., Pirre, M., Piesch, C., and Wetzel, G: Validation of MIPAS temperature profiles by stratospheric balloon and aircraft measurements, Proc. ACVE-2 meeting, 3–7 May 2004, Frascati, Italy, 2004.
Boone, C. D., Walker, K. A., and Bernath, P. F.: Speed-dependent Voigt profile for water vapor in infrared remote-sensing applications, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 105, 525–532, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2006.11.015, 2007.
Brault, J. W.: New approach to high precision Fourier transform spectrometer design, Appl. Opt., 35, 2891–2896, 1996.
Ciurylo, R.: Shapes of pressure- and Doppler-broadened spectral lines in the core and near wings, Phys. Rev. A, 58, 1029–1039, 1998.
Cortesi, U., Lambert, J. C., De Clercq, C., Bianchini, G., Blumenstock, T., Bracher, A., Castelli, E., Catoire, V., Chance, K. V., De Mazière, M., Demoulin, P., Godin-Beekmann, S., Jones, N., Jucks, K., Keim, C., Kerzenmacher, T., Kuellmann, H., Kuttippurath, J., Iarlori, M., Liu, G. Y., Liu, Y., McDermid, I. S., Meijer, Y. J., Mencaraglia, F., Mikuteit, S., Oelhaf, H., Piccolo, C., Pirre, M., Raspollini, P., Ravegnani, F., Reburn, W. J., Redaelli, G., Remedios, J. J., Sembhi, H., Smale, D., Steck, T., Taddei, A., Varotsos, C., Vigouroux, C., Waterfall, A., Wetzel, G., and Wood, S.: Geophysical validation of MIPAS-ENVISAT operational ozone data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4807–4867, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-4807-2007, 2007.
Curtius, J., Weigel, R., Vössing, H.-J., Wernli, H., Werner, A., Volk, C.-M., Konopka, P., Krebsbach, M., Schiller, C., Roiger, A., Schlager, H., Dreiling, V., and Borrmann, S.: Observations of meteoric material and implications for aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere derived from in- situ particle measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 3053–3069, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-3053-2005, 2005.
Dinelli, B. M., Castelli, E., Carli, B., Del Bianco, S., Gai, M., Santurri, L., Moyna, B. P., Oldfield, M., Siddans, R., Gerber, D., Reburn, W. J., Kerridge, B. J., and Keim, C.: Technical Note: Measurement of the tropical UTLS composition in presence of clouds using millimetre-wave heterodyne spectroscopy, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 1191–1207, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-1191-2009, 2009.
Dörnbrack, A., Pitts, M. C., Poole, L. R., Orsolini, Y. J., Nishii, K., and Nakamura, H.: The 2009–2010 Arctic stratospheric winter – general evolution, mountain waves and predictability of an operational weather forecast model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3659–3675, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-3659-2012, 2012.
Ewen, G. B. L., Grainger, R. G., Lambert, A., and Baran, A. J.: Infrared radiative transfer modelling in a 3D scattering cloudy atmosphere: Application to limb sounding measurements of cirrus, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 96, 45–74, 2005.
Fabian, B. and Borchers, R.: Halocarbons in the stratosphere, Nature, 294, 733–735, 1981.
Fischer, H. and Oelhaf, H.: Remote Sensing of vertical profiles of atmospheric trace constitutents with MIPAS limb-emission spectrometers, Appl. Opt., 35, 2787–2796, 1996.
Fischer, H., Birk, M., Blom, C., Carli, B., Carlotti, M., von Clarmann, T., Delbouille, L., Dudhia, A., Ehhalt, D., Endemann, M., Flaud, J. M., Gessner, R., Kleinert, A., Koopman, R., Langen, J., López-Puertas, M., Mosner, P., Nett, H., Oelhaf, H., Perron, G., Remedios, J., Ridolfi, M., Stiller, G., and Zander, R.: MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2151–2188, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-2151-2008, 2008.
Flaud, J.-M., Piccolo, C., and Carli, B.: A spectroscopic database for MIPAS, in: Proceedings of the ENVISAT validation workshop, ESRIN, Italy, 2002.
Flaud, J.-M., Brizzi, G., Carlotti, M., Perrin, A., and Ridolfi, M.: MIPAS database: Validation of HNO3 line parameters using MIPAS satellite measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 5037–5048, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-5037-2006, 2006.
Forman, M. L., Steel, W. H., and Vanasse, G.: Correction of asymmetric interferograms obtained in Fourier spectroscopy, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 56, 59–63, 1966.
Friedl-Vallon, F., Maucher, G., Seefeldner, M. Trieschmann, O., Kleinert, A., Lengel, A., Keim, C., Oelhaf, H., and Fischer, H.: Design and characterization of the balloon-borne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B2), Appl. Opt., 43, 3335–3355, 2004.
Funke, B., Stiller, G. P., von Clarmann, T., Echle, G., and Fischer, H.: CO2 line mixing in MIPAS limb emission spectra and its influence on retrieval of atmospheric parameters, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 59, 215–230, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4073(97)00121-0, 1998.
Hofmann, D. J.: Increase in the Stratospheric Background Sulfuric Acid Aerosol Mass in the Past 10 Years, Science, 248, 996–1000, 1990.
Höpfner, M., Blom, C. E., von Clarmann, T., Fischer, H., Glatthor, N., Gulde, T., Hase, F., Keim, C., Kimmig, W., Lessenich, K., Piesch, C., Sartorius, C., and Stiller, G. P.: MIPAS-STR data analysis of APE–GAIA measurements, Paper presented in: IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, edited by: Smith, W. L. and Timofeyev, Yu. M., A. Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Virginia, 1136–1139, 2000.
Höpfner, M., Blom, C. E., Echle, G., Glatthor, N., Hase, F., and Stiller, G.: Retrieval simulations for MIPAS-STR measurements, edited by: Smith, W. L., IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation; Proc. of the Internat. Radiation Symp., St. Petersburg, Russia, 24–29 July 2000 Hampton, Va., DEEPAK Publ., 2001.
Höpfner, M., Luo, B. P., Massoli, P., Cairo, F., Spang, R., Snels, M., Di Donfrancesco, G., Stiller, G., von Clarmann, T., Fischer, H., and Biermann, U.: Spectroscopic evidence for NAT, STS, and ice in MIPAS infrared limb emission measurements of polar stratospheric clouds, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1201–1219, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-1201-2006, 2006.
Höpfner, M., von Clarmann, T., Fischer, H., Funke, B., Glatthor, N., Grabowski, U., Kellmann, S., Kiefer, M., Linden, A., Milz, M., Steck, T., Stiller, G. P., Bernath, P., Blom, C. E., Blumenstock, Th., Boone, C., Chance, K., Coffey, M. T., Friedl-Vallon, F., Griffith, D., Hannigan, J. W., Hase, F., Jones, N., Jucks, K. W., Keim, C., Kleinert, A., Kouker, W., Liu, G. Y., Mahieu, E., Mellqvist, J., Mikuteit, S., Notholt, J., Oelhaf, H., Piesch, C., Reddmann, T., Ruhnke, R., Schneider, M., Strandberg, A., Toon, G., Walker, K. A., Warneke, T., Wetzel, G., Wood, S., and Zander, R.: Validation of MIPAS ClONO2 measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 257–281, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-257-2007, 2007.
Junge, C. E., Chagnon, C. W., and Manson, J. E.: A World-wide Stratospheric Aerosol Layer, Science, 133, 1478–1479, 1961.
Keim, C.: Entwicklung und Verifikation der Sichtlinienstabilisierung für MIPAS auf dem hochfliegenden Forschungsflugzeug M55 Geophysica, Wissenschafltiche Berichte, FZKA 6729, Dissertation, Universität Karlsruhe, 2002.
Keim, C., Blom, C. E., von der Gathen, P., Gulde, T., Höpfner, M., Liu, G. Y., Oulanovsky, A., Piesch, C., Ravegnani, F., Sartorius, C., Schlager, H., and Volk, C. M.: Validation of MIPAS-ENVISAT by correlative measurements of MIPAS-STR, Proc. ACVE-2 meeting, 3–7 May 2004, Frascati, Italy, 2004.
Keim, C., Liu, G. Y., Blom, C. E., Fischer, H., Gulde, T., Höpfner, M., Piesch, C., Ravegnani, F., Roiger, A., Schlager, H., and Sitnikov, N.: Vertical profile of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) from MIPAS-STR measurements over Brazil in February 2005 and its contribution to tropical UT NO$_y$ partitioning, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 4891–4902, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-4891-2008, 2008.
Kimmig, W.: Das Abtastverfahren der Interferogramme des flugzeuggetragenen Fourierspektrometers MIPAS-STR, Wissenschaftliche Berichte, FZKA 6665, Dissertation, Universität Karlsruhe, 2001.
Kleinert, A.: Correction of detector nonlinearity for the balloonborne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, Appl. Opt., 45, 425–431, 2006.
Kleinert, A. and Trieschmann, O.: Phase determination for a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer in emission mode, Appl. Opt., 46, 2307–2319, 2007.
Manuilova, R. O., Gusev, O. A., Kutepov, A. A., von Clarmann, T., Oelhaf, H., Stiller, G. P., Wegner, A., Lopez-Puertas, M., Martin-Torres, F. J., Zaragoza, G., and Flaud, J.-M.: Modelling of non-LTE limb spectra of i.r. ozone bands for the MIPAS space experiment, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 59, 405–422, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4073(97)00120-9, 1998.
Moore, D. P., Waterfall, A. M., and Remedios, J. J.: The potential for radiometric retrievals of halocarbon concentrations from the MIPAS-E instrument, Adv. Space Res., 37, 2238–2246, 2006.
Murphy, D. M., Thomson, D. S., and Mahoney, M. J.: In-Situ Measurements of Organics, Meteoritic Material, Mercury, and Other Elements in Aerosols at 5 to 19 Kilometers, Science, 282, 1664–1669, 1998.
Norton, H. and Beer, R.: New apodizing functions for Fourier spectrometry, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 66, 259–264, (Errata J. Opt. Soc. Am., 67, 419, 1977), 1976.
Peter, T.: Microphysics and heterogeneous chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem., 48, 785–822, 1997.
Phillips, C.: A Technique for the Numerical Solution of Certain Integral Equations of the First Kind, J. Assoc. Comput. Math., 9, 84–97, 2003.
Piesch, C., Gulde, T., Sartorius, C., Friedl-Vallon, F., Seefeldner, M., Wölfel, M., Blom, C. E., and Fischer, H.: Design of a MIPAS instrument for high-altitude aircraft, Proc. of the 2nd Internat. Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition, ERIM, Ann Arbor, MI, Vol. II, 199–208, 1996.
Purser, R. J. and Huang, H.-L.: Estimating effective data density in a satellite retrieval or an objective analysis, J. Appl. Meteorol., 32, 1092–1107, 1993.
Remedios, J. J., Leigh, R. J., Waterfall, A. M., Moore, D. P., Sembhi, H., Parkes, I., Greenhough, J., Chipperfield, M.P., and Hauglustaine, D.: MIPAS reference atmospheres and comparisons to V4.61/V4.62 MIPAS level 2 geophysical data sets, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 7, 9973–10017, https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-7-9973-2007, 2007.
Riediger, O., Volk, C. M., Strunk, M., and Schmidt, U.: HAGAR – A new in- situ tracer instrument for stratospheric balloons and high altitude aircraft, Eur. Comm. Air Pollut. Res. Report, 73, 727–730, 2000.
Rodgers, C. D.: Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, edited by: Taylor, F. W., World Scientific, 2000.
Schneider, M., Hase, F., Blavier, J.-F., Toon, G.C., and Leblanc, T.: An empirical study on the importance of a speed-dependent Voigt line shape model for tropospheric water vapor profile remote sensing, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 112, 465–474, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2010.09.008, 2011.
Shur, G. N., Yushkov, V. A., Drynkov, A. V., Fadeeva, G. V., and Potertikova, G. A.: Study of Thermodynamics of the Stratosphere at High Latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere on the M-55 Geofizika Flying Laboratory, Russ. Meteorol. Hydrol., 8, 43–53, 2006.
Sitnikov, N. M., Yushkov, V. A., Afchine, A. A., Korshunov, L. I., Astakhov, V. I., Ulanovskii, A. E., Krämer, M., Mangold, A., Schiller, C., and Ravegnani, F.: The FLASH instrument for water vapor measurements on board the high-altitude airplane, Instrum. Exp. Tech., 50, 113–121, https://doi.org/10.1134/S0020441207010174, 2007.
Spang, R., Eidmann, G., Riese, M., Offermann, D., Preusse, P., Pfister, L., and Wang, P.-H.: CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8174, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000698, 2002.
Spang, R., Remedios, J. J., and Barkley, M. P.: Colour indices for the detection and differentiation of cloud types in infra-red limb emission spectra, Adv. Space Res., 33, 1041–1047, 2004.
Spang, R., Hoffmann, L., Kullmann, A., Olschewski, F., Preusse, P., Knieling, P., Schroeder, S., Stroh, F., Weigel, K., and Riese, M.: High resolution limb observations of clouds by the CRISTA–NF experiment during the SCOUT-O3 tropical aircraft campaign, J. Adv. Space, Res., 42, 1765–1775, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2007.09.036, 2008.
Steck, T.: Methods for determining regularization for atmospheric retrieval problems, Appl. Opt., 41, 1788–1797, 2002.
Stiller, G. P. (Ed.) with contributions from von Clarmann, T., Dudhia, A., Echle, G., Funke, B., Glatthor, N., Hase, F., Höpfner, M., Kellmann, S., Kemnitzer, H., Kuntz, M., Linden, A., Linder, M., Stiller, G. P., and Zorn, S.: The Karlsruhe Optimized and Precise Radiative Transfer Algorithm (KOPRA), Wissenschaftliche Berichte, FZKA 6487, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 2000.
Stiller, G. P., von Clarmann, T., Funke, B., Glatthor, N., Hase, F., Höpfner, M., and Linden, A.: Sensitivity of trace gas abundances retrievals from infrared limb emission spectra to simplifying approximations in radiative transfer modelling, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 72, 249–280, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4073(01)00123-6, 2002.
Tikhonov, A.: On the Solution of Incorrectly Stated Problems and a Method of Regularisation, Dokl. Acad. Nauk SSSR, 151, 501–504, 1963.
Trieschmann, O., Friedl-Vallon, F., Lengel, A., Oelhaf, H., Wetzel, G., and Fischer H.: An advanced phase correction approach to obtain radiometric calibrated spectra of the optically well balanced balloon borne Fourier Transform Spectrometer MIPAS-B2, Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, edited by: Larar, A. M., SPIE, 3756, 17–24, 1999.
Ulanovsky, A. E., Yushkov, V. A., Sitnikov, N. M., and Ravegnani, F.: The FOZAN-II Fast-Response Chemiluminescent Airborne Ozone Analyzer, Instrum. Exp. Tech., 44, 249–256, 2001.
Ungermann, J., Kalicinsky, C., Olschewski, F., Knieling, P., Hoffmann, L., Blank, J., Woiwode, W., Oelhaf, H., Hösen, E., Volk, C. M., Ulanovsky, A., Ravegnani, F., Weigel, K., Stroh, F., and Riese, M.: CRISTA–NF measurements with unprecedented vertical resolution during the RECONCILE aircraft campaign, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 4, 6915–6967, https://doi.org/10.5194/amtd-4-6915-2011, 2011.
von Clarmann, T.: Zur Fernerkundung der Erdatmosphäre mittels Infrarotspektroskopie: Rekonstruktionstheorie und Anwendung, Wissenschaftliche Berichte, FZKA 6928, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 2003.
Wagner, G. and Birk, M.: New infrared spectroscopic database for chlorine nitrate, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 82, 443–460, 2003.
Wang, D. Y., Höpfner, M., Blom, C. E., Ward, W. E., Fischer, H., Blumenstock, T., Hase, F., Keim, C., Liu, G. Y., Mikuteit, S., Oelhaf, H., Wetzel, G., Cortesi, U., Mencaraglia, F., Bianchini, G., Redaelli, G., Pirre, M., Catoire, V., Huret, N., Vigouroux, C., De Mazière, M., Mahieu, E., Demoulin, P., Wood, S., Smale, D., Jones, N., Nakajima, H., Sugita, T., Urban, J., Murtagh, D., Boone, C. D., Bernath, P. F., Walker, K. A., Kuttippurath, J., Kleinböhl, A., Toon, G., and Piccolo, C.: Validation of MIPAS HNO3 operational data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4905–4934, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-4905-2007, 2007.
Werner, A., Volk, C. M., Ivanova, E. V., Wetter, T., Schiller, C., Schlager, H., and Konopka, P.: Quantifying transport into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11623–11639, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-11623-2010, 2010.
Wetzel, G., Oelhaf, H., Ruhnke, R., Friedl-Vallon, F., Kleinert, A., Kouker, W., Maucher, G., Reddmann, T., Seefeldner, M., Stowasser, M., Trieschmann, O., von Clarmann, T., and Fischer, H.: NO$_y$ partitioning and budget and its correlation with N2O in the Arctic vortex and in summer midlatitudes in 1997, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4280, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000916, 2002.