Articles | Volume 8, issue 10
Research article 02 Oct 2015
Research article | 02 Oct 2015
Altitude misestimation caused by the Vaisala RS80 pressure bias and its impact on meteorological profiles
Y. Inai et al.
No articles found.
Bruce Ingleby, Martin Motl, Graeme Marlton, David Edwards, Michael Sommer, Christoph von Rohden, Holger Vömel, and Hannu Jauhiainen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
Radiosondes keep measuring and transmitting atmospheric data after balloon burst – potentially providing an extra profile at minimal cost. We show that a subset of RS41 descent data is currently usable, and similar quality to the ascent data. Parachutes reduce the temperature and pressure biases seen. In the near future improved processing should mean that a larger subset is usable.
Holger Vömel, Mack Goodstein, Laura Tudor, Jacquelyn Witte, Željka Fuchs-Stone, Stipo Sentić, David Raymond, Jose Martinez-Claros, Ana Juračić, Vijit Maithel, and Justin W. Whitaker
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1107–1117,Short summary
We provide an extensive data set of in situ vertical profile observations for pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds from 648 NCAR NRD41 dropsondes during the Organization of Tropical East Pacific Convection (OTREC) field campaign. The measurements were taken during 22 flights of the NSF/NCAR G-V research aircraft in August and September 2019 over the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The data allow a detailed study of atmospheric dynamics and convection over the tropical ocean.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Tetsu Sakai, Tomohiro Nagai, Koichi Shiraishi, Yoichi Inai, Sergey Khaykin, Haosen Xi, Takashi Shibata, Masato Shiotani, and Laura L. Pan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3073–3090,Short summary
Lidar aerosol particle measurements in Japan during the summer of 2018 were found to detect the eastward extension of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer from the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone in the lower stratosphere. Analysis of various other data indicates that the observed enhanced particle levels are due to eastward-shedding vortices from the anticyclone, originating from pollutants emitted in Asian countries and transported vertically by convection in the Asian summer monsoon region.
Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Simone Brunamonti, Suvarna Fadnavis, Dan Li, Peter Ölsner, Manish Naja, Bhupendra Bahadur Singh, Kunchala Ravi Kumar, Sunil Sonbawne, Hannu Jauhiainen, Holger Vömel, Beiping Luo, Teresa Jorge, Frank G. Wienhold, Ruud Dirkson, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14273–14302,Short summary
During boreal summer, anthropogenic sources yield the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL), found in Asia between about 13 and 18 km altitude. Balloon-borne measurements of the ATAL conducted in northern India in 2016 show the strong variability of the ATAL. To explain its observed variability, model simulations are performed to deduce the origin of air masses on the Earth's surface, which is important to develop recommendations for regulations of anthropogenic surface emissions of the ATAL.
Holger Vömel, Herman G. J. Smit, David Tarasick, Bryan Johnson, Samuel J. Oltmans, Henry Selkirk, Anne M. Thompson, Ryan M. Stauffer, Jacquelyn C. Witte, Jonathan Davies, Roeland van Malderen, Gary A. Morris, Tatsumi Nakano, and Rene Stübi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5667–5680,Short summary
The time response of electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes points to at least two distinct reaction pathways with time constants of approximately 20 s and 25 min. Properly considering these time constants eliminates the need for a poorly defined "background" and allows reducing ad hoc corrections based on laboratory tests. This reduces the uncertainty of ECC ozonesonde measurements throughout the profile and especially in regions of low ozone and strong gradients of ozone.
Stephanie Evan, Jerome Brioude, Karen Rosenlof, Sean M. Davis, Holger Vömel, Damien Héron, Françoise Posny, Jean-Marc Metzger, Valentin Duflot, Guillaume Payen, Hélène Vérèmes, Philippe Keckhut, and Jean-Pierre Cammas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10565–10586,Short summary
The role of deep convection in the southwest Indian Ocean (the 3rd most active tropical cyclone basin) on the composition of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and the climate system is less understood due to scarce observations. Balloon-borne lidar and satellite measurements in the southwest Indian Ocean were used to study tropical cyclones' influence on TTL composition. This study compares the impact of a tropical storm and cyclone on the humidification of the TTL over the SW Indian Ocean.
Yoshio Kawatani, Toshihiko Hirooka, Kevin Hamilton, Anne K. Smith, and Masatomo Fujiwara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9115–9133,Short summary
This paper reports on a project to compare the representation of the semiannual oscillation (SAO) among six major global atmospheric reanalyses and with recent satellite observations. The differences among the zonal mean zonal wind as represented by the various reanalyses display a prominent equatorial maximum that increases with height. It is shown that assimilation of satellite temperature measurements is crucial for the realistic representation of the tropical upper stratospheric circulation.
Fabio Madonna, Rigel Kivi, Jean-Charles Dupont, Bruce Ingleby, Masatomo Fujiwara, Gonzague Romanens, Miguel Hernandez, Xavier Calbet, Marco Rosoldi, Aldo Giunta, Tomi Karppinen, Masami Iwabuchi, Shunsuke Hoshino, Christoph von Rohden, and Peter William Thorne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3621–3649,Short summary
Radiosondes are one of the primary sources of upper-air data for weather and climate monitoring. In the last two decades, technological progress made available automated radiosonde launchers (ARLs), which are able to replace measurements typically performed manually. This work presents a comparative analysis of the technical performance of the ARLs currently available on the market and contribute to define a strategy to achieve the full traceability of the ARL products.
Daan Hubert, Klaus-Peter Heue, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Tijl Verhoelst, Marc Allaart, Steven Compernolle, Patrick D. Cullis, Angelika Dehn, Christian Félix, Bryan J. Johnson, Arno Keppens, Debra E. Kollonige, Christophe Lerot, Diego Loyola, Matakite Maata, Sukarni Mitro, Maznorizan Mohamad, Ankie Piters, Fabian Romahn, Henry B. Selkirk, Francisco R. da Silva, Ryan M. Stauffer, Anne M. Thompson, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Holger Vömel, Jacquelyn C. Witte, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We assess the first two years of TROPOMI tropical tropospheric ozone column data. Comparisons to reference measurements by ozonesonde and satellite sensors show that TROPOMI bias (−0.1 to +2.3 DU) and precision (1.5 to 2.5 DU) meet mission requirements. Potential causes of bias and its spatio-temporal structure are discussed, as well as ways to identify sampling errors. The analysis of the known geophysical patterns demonstrates the improved performance of TROPOMI with respect to predecessors.
Hanh T. Nguyen, Kentaro Ishijima, Satoshi Sugawara, and Fumio Hasebe
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The velocity of stratospheric circulation is often measured by the time since the air entered the stratosphere. This study tries to understand its vertical profile in the tropics by comparing observational data and model simulations. Our interpretation mutually consistent among them is encouraging, while some limitations such as the treatment of seasonal variation of CO2 and mesospheric loss of SF6 are reconfirmed stressing a need of using multiple variables in the future.
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Jianchun Bian, Gebhard Günther, Felix Ploeger, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Zhixuan Bai, Holger Vömel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4133–4152,Short summary
Low ozone and low water vapour signatures in the UTLS were investigated using balloon-borne measurements and trajectory calculations. The results show that deep convection in tropical cyclones over the western Pacific transports boundary air parcels with low ozone into the tropopause region. Subsequently, these air parcels are dehydrated when passing the lowest temperature region (< 190 K) during quasi-horizontal advection.
Philippe Baron, Satoshi Ochiai, Eric Dupuy, Richard Larsson, Huixin Liu, Naohiro Manago, Donal Murtagh, Shin-ichiro Oyama, Hideo Sagawa, Akinori Saito, Takatoshi Sakazaki, Masato Shiotani, and Makoto Suzuki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 219–237,Short summary
Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder 2 (SMILES-2) is a satellite mission proposed in Japan to probe the middle and upper atmosphere (20–160 km). The key products are wind, temperature and density. If selected, this mission could provide new insights into vertical coupling in the atmosphere and could help improve weather and climate models. We conducted simulation studies to assess the measurement performances in the altitude range 60–110 km, with a special focus on the geomagnetic effects.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Patrick Martineau, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 345–374,Short summary
The global response of surface air temperature (SST) to the eruptions of Mount Agung in 1963, El Chichón in 1982, and Mount Pinatubo in 1991 is investigated using 11 global atmospheric reanalysis data sets. Multiple linear regression is applied, with a set of climatic indices orthogonalized, and the residuals are investigated. It is found that careful treatment of tropical SST variability is necessary to evaluate the surface response to volcanic eruptions in observations and reanalyses.
Quentin Errera, Simon Chabrillat, Yves Christophe, Jonas Debosscher, Daan Hubert, William Lahoz, Michelle L. Santee, Masato Shiotani, Sergey Skachko, Thomas von Clarmann, and Kaley Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13647–13679,Short summary
BRAM2 is a 13-year reanalysis of the chemical composition from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere based on the assimilation of the Microwave Limb Sounder observations where eight species are assimilated: O3, H2O, N2O, HNO3, HCl, ClO, CH3Cl and CO. BRAM2 agrees generally well with independent observations in the middle stratosphere, the polar vortex and the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere but also shows several issues in the model and in the observations.
Young-Ha Kim, George N. Kiladis, John R. Albers, Juliana Dias, Masatomo Fujiwara, James A. Anstey, In-Sun Song, Corwin J. Wright, Yoshio Kawatani, François Lott, and Changhyun Yoo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10027–10050,Short summary
Reanalyses are widely used products of meteorological variables, generated using observational data and assimilation systems. We compare six modern reanalyses, with focus on their representation of equatorial waves which are important in stratospheric variability and stratosphere–troposphere exchange. Agreement/spreads among the reanalyses in the spectral properties and spatial distributions of the waves are examined, and satellite impacts on the wave representation in reanalyses are discussed.
Dan Weaver, Kimberly Strong, Kaley A. Walker, Chris Sioris, Matthias Schneider, C. Thomas McElroy, Holger Vömel, Michael Sommer, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, John P. Burrows, William G. Read, Evan Fishbein, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4039–4063,Short summary
This work assesses water vapour profiles acquired by Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) using comparisons to radiosondes and ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer measurements acquired at a Canadian high Arctic measurement site in Eureka, Nunavut. Additional comparisons are made between these Eureka measurements and other water vapour satellite datasets for context, including AIRS, MLS, and others.
Qianshan He, Jianzhong Ma, Xiangdong Zheng, Xiaolu Yan, Holger Vömel, Frank G. Wienhold, Wei Gao, Dongwei Liu, Guangming Shi, and Tiantao Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8399–8406,Short summary
An enhanced aerosol layer in the upper troposphere--lower stratosphere was observed by a COBALD over the Tibetan Plateau, in the summer of 2014. The color index of the enhanced aerosol layer indicates the prevalence of dominant fine particles with a mode radius < 0.1 μm. Unlike the very small particles at low relative humidity (RHi < 40%), the relatively large particles in the aerosol layer were generally very hydrophilic as their size increased dramatically with relative humidity.
Eriko Kobayashi, Shunsuke Hoshino, Masami Iwabuchi, Takuji Sugidachi, Kensaku Shimizu, and Masatomo Fujiwara
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3039–3065,Short summary
The authors carried out dual flights of RS-11G and RS92-SGP radiosondes and investigated the differences in the performance of the radiosondes to help characterize GRUAN data products. A novel aspect of GRUAN data products is that vertically resolved uncertainty estimates and metadata are provided for each sounding and comparison of GRUAN data products is important in securing the temporal homogeneity of climate data records.
Noersomadi, Toshitaka Tsuda, and Masatomo Fujiwara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6985–7000,Short summary
Characteristics of static stability (N2) in the tropical tropopause are analyzed using 0.1 km vertical resolution temperature profiles retrieved from COSMIC GNSS-RO. We define the tropopause inversion layer (TIL) by the sharp increase in N2 across the cold point tropopause (CPT) and the thickness of the enhanced peak in N2 just above the CPT. We investigated the TIL at the intraseasonal to interannual timescales above the Maritime Continent and Pacific Ocean with different land–sea distribution.
Dmitry Belikov, Satoshi Sugawara, Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Fumio Hasebe, Shamil Maksyutov, Shuji Aoki, Shinji Morimoto, and Takakiyo Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5349–5361,
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Jianchun Bian, Gebhard Günther, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Zhixuan Bai, Holger Vömel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17979–17994,Short summary
Balloon-borne measurements performed over Lhasa in August 2013 are investigated using CLaMS trajectory calculations. Here, we focus on high ozone mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Our findings demonstrate that both stratospheric intrusions and convective transport of air pollution play a major role in enhancing middle and upper tropospheric ozone.
Patrick Martineau, Jonathon S. Wright, Nuanliang Zhu, and Masatomo Fujiwara
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1925–1941,Short summary
This data set provides 6-hourly zonal-mean diagnostics derived from global atmospheric reanalyses on pressure levels. Data include basic variables, such as temperature and three-dimensional winds, advanced diagnostics based on the momentum and thermodynamic equations, and model-generated diabatic heating rates. Diagnostics are provided both on latitude–vertical grids corresponding to data as originally obtained from the reanalysis centers and on a standardized grid to facilitate intercomparison.
Satoshi Sugawara, Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Shuji Aoki, Shinji Morimoto, Takakiyo Nakazawa, Sakae Toyoda, Yoichi Inai, Fumio Hasebe, Chusaku Ikeda, Hideyuki Honda, Daisuke Goto, and Fanny A. Putri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1819–1833,Short summary
This is the first research that shows concrete evidence of gravitational separation in the tropical stratosphere. This implies that gravitational separation occurs within the entire stratosphere, which gives us new insight into atmospheric dynamics.
Takatoshi Sakazaki, Masatomo Fujiwara, and Masato Shiotani
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1437–1456,Short summary
Atmospheric solar tides in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere are examined using temperature data from five reanalyses and satellite measurements. The reanalyses agree reasonably well with each other and with the satellite observations, but the agreement among the reanalyses is weaker in the mesosphere. The assimilation of satellite data improves the representation of tides in the reanalyses, while long-term changes are mostly artificial and driven by changes in the input data employed.
Sakae Toyoda, Naohiro Yoshida, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, Takakiyo Nakazawa, Satoshi Sugawara, Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Mitsuo Uematsu, Yoichi Inai, Fumio Hasebe, Chusaku Ikeda, Hideyuki Honda, and Kentaro Ishijima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 833–844,Short summary
By analysis of whole air samples collected by balloon-borne compact cryogenic samplers, we found that apparent isotope effect for stratospheric N2O between 25 and 30 km over the Equator is larger than that observed in other latitudes and that it is almost equal to the effect predicted by laboratory simulation experiments. These results suggest that equatorial middle stratosphere can be treated as an isolated region when we consider the decomposition of N2O by photochemical processes.
Craig S. Long, Masatomo Fujiwara, Sean Davis, Daniel M. Mitchell, and Corwin J. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14593–14629,Short summary
As part of the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project, we evaluate the temperature and wind structure of all the recent and past reanalyses with 2.5-degree monthly zonal mean data sets from 1979–2014. There is a distinct change in the temperature structure in the stratosphere in 1998. Zonal winds are in greater agreement than temperatures. All reanalyses have issues analysing the tropical stratospheric winds. Caution is advised for using reanalysis temperatures for trend detection.
Sean M. Davis, Michaela I. Hegglin, Masatomo Fujiwara, Rossana Dragani, Yayoi Harada, Chiaki Kobayashi, Craig Long, Gloria L. Manney, Eric R. Nash, Gerald L. Potter, Susann Tegtmeier, Tao Wang, Krzysztof Wargan, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12743–12778,Short summary
Ozone and water vapor in the stratosphere are important gases that affect surface climate and absorb incoming solar ultraviolet radiation. These gases are represented in reanalyses, which create a complete picture of the state of Earth's atmosphere using limited observations. We evaluate reanalysis water vapor and ozone fidelity by intercomparing them, and comparing them to independent observations. Generally reanalyses do a good job at representing ozone, but have problems with water vapor.
Dan Weaver, Kimberly Strong, Matthias Schneider, Penny M. Rowe, Chris Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, Zen Mariani, Taneil Uttal, C. Thomas McElroy, Holger Vömel, Alessio Spassiani, and James R. Drummond
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2851–2880,Short summary
We have compared techniques used by several PEARL instruments to measure atmospheric water vapour. No single instrument can comprehensively map the atmosphere. We documented how well these techniques perform and quantified the agreement and biases between them. This work showed that new FTIR datasets at PEARL capture accurate measurements of High Arctic water vapour.
Guanyu Huang, Xiong Liu, Kelly Chance, Kai Yang, Pawan K. Bhartia, Zhaonan Cai, Marc Allaart, Gérard Ancellet, Bertrand Calpini, Gerrie J. R. Coetzee, Emilio Cuevas-Agulló, Manuel Cupeiro, Hugo De Backer, Manvendra K. Dubey, Henry E. Fuelberg, Masatomo Fujiwara, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Tristan J. Hall, Bryan Johnson, Everette Joseph, Rigel Kivi, Bogumil Kois, Ninong Komala, Gert König-Langlo, Giovanni Laneve, Thierry Leblanc, Marion Marchand, Kenneth R. Minschwaner, Gary Morris, Michael J. Newchurch, Shin-Ya Ogino, Nozomu Ohkawara, Ankie J. M. Piters, Françoise Posny, Richard Querel, Rinus Scheele, Frank J. Schmidlin, Russell C. Schnell, Otto Schrems, Henry Selkirk, Masato Shiotani, Pavla Skrivánková, René Stübi, Ghassan Taha, David W. Tarasick, Anne M. Thompson, Valérie Thouret, Matthew B. Tully, Roeland Van Malderen, Holger Vömel, Peter von der Gathen, Jacquelyn C. Witte, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2455–2475,Short summary
It is essential to understand the data quality of +10-year OMI ozone product and impacts of the “row anomaly” (RA). We validate the OMI Ozone Profile (PROFOZ) product from Oct 2004 to Dec 2014 against ozonesonde observations globally. Generally, OMI has good agreement with ozonesondes. The spatiotemporal variation of retrieval performance suggests the need to improve OMI’s radiometric calibration especially during the post-RA period to maintain the long-term stability.
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Jianchun Bian, Rolf Müller, Laura L. Pan, Gebhard Günther, Zhixuan Bai, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Qiujun Fan, and Holger Vömel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4657–4672,Short summary
High-resolution ozone and water vapour profiles over Lhasa, China, were measured in August 2013. The correlations between ozone and water vapour profiles show a strong variability in the upper troposphere. These relationships were investigated using CLaMS trajectory calculations. The model results demonstrate that three tropical cyclones (Jebi, Utor, and Trami), occurring over the western Pacific, had a strong impact on the vertical structure of ozone and water vapour profiles.
Shu-peng Ho, Liang Peng, and Holger Vömel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4493–4511,Short summary
Radiosonde observations (RAOBs) have provided the only long-term global in situ temperature measurements since 1958. In this study, we use Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) temperature data from 2006 to 2014 to characterize the inter-seasonal and interannual variability of temperature biases in the lower stratosphere. Results from this study also demonstrate the feasibility to use RO data to correct RAOB temperature biases for different sensor types.
Hélène Vérèmes, Guillaume Payen, Philippe Keckhut, Valentin Duflot, Jean-Luc Baray, Jean-Pierre Cammas, Jimmy Leclair De Bellevue, Stéphanie Evan, Françoise Posny, Franck Gabarrot, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nicolas Marquestaut, Susanne Meier, Holger Vömel, and Ruud Dirksen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Masatomo Fujiwara, Jonathon S. Wright, Gloria L. Manney, Lesley J. Gray, James Anstey, Thomas Birner, Sean Davis, Edwin P. Gerber, V. Lynn Harvey, Michaela I. Hegglin, Cameron R. Homeyer, John A. Knox, Kirstin Krüger, Alyn Lambert, Craig S. Long, Patrick Martineau, Andrea Molod, Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Michelle L. Santee, Susann Tegtmeier, Simon Chabrillat, David G. H. Tan, David R. Jackson, Saroja Polavarapu, Gilbert P. Compo, Rossana Dragani, Wesley Ebisuzaki, Yayoi Harada, Chiaki Kobayashi, Will McCarty, Kazutoshi Onogi, Steven Pawson, Adrian Simmons, Krzysztof Wargan, Jeffrey S. Whitaker, and Cheng-Zhi Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1417–1452,Short summary
We introduce the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP), review key concepts and elements of atmospheric reanalysis systems, and summarize the technical details of and differences among 11 of these systems. This work supports scientific studies and intercomparisons of reanalysis products by collecting these background materials and technical details into a single reference. We also address several common misunderstandings and points of confusion regarding reanalyses.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Takuji Sugidachi, Toru Arai, Kensaku Shimizu, Mayumi Hayashi, Yasuhisa Noma, Hideaki Kawagita, Kazuo Sagara, Taro Nakagawa, Satoshi Okumura, Yoichi Inai, Takashi Shibata, Suginori Iwasaki, and Atsushi Shimizu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5911–5931,Short summary
A meteorological balloon-borne cloud sensor called the cloud particle sensor (CPS) has been developed. The CPS can count the number of particles per second and can obtain the cloud phase information (i.e. liquid, ice, or mixed). Twenty-five test flights have been made between 2012 and 2015 at midlatitude and tropical sites. The results from the four flights are discussed.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Chris A. McLinden, Peter F. Bernath, Adam E. Bourassa, John P. Burrows, Doug A. Degenstein, Bernd Funke, Didier Fussen, Gloria L. Manney, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, Cora E. Randall, Piera Raspollini, Alexei Rozanov, James M. Russell III, Makoto Suzuki, Masato Shiotani, Joachim Urban, Thomas von Clarmann, and Joseph M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5781–5810,Short summary
This study validates version 3.5 of the ACE-FTS NOy species data sets by comparing diurnally scaled ACE-FTS data to correlative data from 11 other satellite limb sounders. For all five species examined (NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2), there is good agreement between ACE-FTS and the other data sets in various regions of the atmosphere. In these validated regions, these NOy data products can be used for further investigation into the composition, dynamics, and climate of the stratosphere.
Sean M. Davis, Karen H. Rosenlof, Birgit Hassler, Dale F. Hurst, William G. Read, Holger Vömel, Henry Selkirk, Masatomo Fujiwara, and Robert Damadeo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 461–490,Short summary
This paper describes the construction of the Stratospheric Water and Ozone Satellite Homogenized (SWOOSH) database, whose main feature is a combined data product created by homogenizing multiple satellite records. This motivation for SWOOSH is that in order to study multiyear to decadal variability in ozone and water vapor concentrations, it is necessary to have a continuous and smooth record without artificial jumps in the data.
Dale F. Hurst, William G. Read, Holger Vömel, Henry B. Selkirk, Karen H. Rosenlof, Sean M. Davis, Emrys G. Hall, Allen F. Jordan, and Samuel J. Oltmans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4447–4457,Short summary
This study compares stratospheric water vapor measurements by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and balloon-borne frost point hygrometers (FPs) at five sites that launch two different types of FPs. The results demonstrate that FP and MLS measurements have been diverging at statistically significant rates of 0.6 to 1.5 % per year since approximately 2010. Similarities in the divergences at different sites suggest a positive drift in MLS retrievals since approximately 2010.
Emrys G. Hall, Allen F. Jordan, Dale F. Hurst, Samuel J. Oltmans, Holger Vömel, Benjamin Kühnreich, and Volker Ebert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4295–4310,Short summary
This work focuses on the balloon borne NOAA frost point hygrometer (FPH) instrument flown at three locations around the world: Boulder, Colorado, Lauder, New Zealand, and Hilo, Hawaii. The ongoing 36-year record is the longest continuous water vapor record with profiles reaching 28 km. Significant instrument updates in 2008 decreased the weight, cost, power consumption, and manufacturing time offering greater precision and ease of use.
Holger Vömel, Tatjana Naebert, Ruud Dirksen, and Michael Sommer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3755–3768,Short summary
This paper describes the fidelity of vertical profile measurements of atmospheric water vapor using the Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH), which depends on the stability of the calibration, instrument behaviour, and validation of these measurements with respect to a reference. Being able to characterize each of these elements is essential in the understanding long time series of atmospheric water vapor measurements and in the interpretation of water vapor process studies.
Xiaolu Yan, Jonathon S. Wright, Xiangdong Zheng, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Holger Vömel, and Xiuji Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3547–3566,Short summary
We evaluate Aura Microwave Limb Sounder retrievals of temperature, water vapour and ozone over the eastern Tibetan Plateau against measurements from balloon-borne instruments. The newest version of the retrievals (v4) represents a slight improvement over the previous version, particularly with respect to data yields and upper tropospheric ozone. We identify several biases that did not appear in evaluations conducted elsewhere, highlighting the unique challenges of remote sensing in this region.
Thomas Trickl, Hannes Vogelmann, Andreas Fix, Andreas Schäfler, Martin Wirth, Bertrand Calpini, Gilbert Levrat, Gonzague Romanens, Arnoud Apituley, Keith M. Wilson, Robert Begbie, Jens Reichardt, Holger Vömel, and Michael Sprenger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8791–8815,Short summary
A rather homogeneous deep stratospheric intrusion event was mapped by vertical sounding over central Europe and by model calculations along the transport path. The very low minimum H2O mixing ratios demonstrate almost negligible mixing with tropospheric air during the downward transport. The vertical distributions of O3 and aerosol were transferred from the source region to Europe without major change. A rather shallow outflow from the stratosphere was found.
Yoshio Kawatani, Kevin Hamilton, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Masatomo Fujiwara, and James A. Anstey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6681–6699,Short summary
This paper compares the representation of the monthly-mean zonal wind in the equatorial stratosphere among major global atmospheric reanalysis data sets. Differences among reanalysis display a prominent equatorial maximum, indicating the particularly challenging nature of the reanalysis problem in the low-latitude stratosphere. Our study confirms that the high accuracy in situ wind measurements have provided important constraints to reanalyses of circulation in the tropical stratosphere.
Fumio Hasebe and Taisuke Noguchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4235–4249,Short summary
This paper tries to answer the long-standing question in middle-atmosphere science on the mechanism of the sudden drop in stratospheric water vapor around the year 2000. Our findings indicate that the location where the air experiences cold temperature before entering the stratosphere shifted in the northern summer of 2000. It may have been led by the eastward expansion of warm water in the tropical Pacific causing the interaction of the heating between Pacific Ocean and the Tibetan Plateau.
M. Fujiwara, T. Hibino, S. K. Mehta, L. Gray, D. Mitchell, and J. Anstey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13507–13518,Short summary
This paper evaluates the temperature response in the troposphere and the stratosphere to the three major volcanic eruptions between the 1960s and the 1990s by comparing nine reanalysis data sets. It was found that the volcanic temperature response patterns differ among the major eruptions and that in general, more recent reanalysis data sets show a more consistent response pattern.
M. Antón, D. Loyola, R. Román, and H. Vömel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1135–1145,Short summary
The main goal of this article was to validate the total water vapour column (TWVC) measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) satellite sensor highly accurate sounding measurements. The smallest relative differences found in this satellite-sounding comparison (below 10%) were achieved for those cloud-free cases with satellite SZA below 50º which can be considered as a good result for satellite retrievals.
T. Sakazaki, M. Shiotani, M. Suzuki, D. Kinnison, J. M. Zawodny, M. McHugh, and K. A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 829–843,Short summary
The solar occultation measurements measure the atmosphere at sunrise (SR) and sunset (SS). It has been reported that there is a significant difference in the observed amount of stratospheric ozone between SR and SS. This study first revealed that this difference can be largely explained by diurnal variations in ozone, particularly those caused by vertical transport by the atmospheric tidal winds. Our results would be helpful for the construction of combined data sets from SR and SS profiles.
R. J. Dirksen, M. Sommer, F. J. Immler, D. F. Hurst, R. Kivi, and H. Vömel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4463–4490,
D. W. Fahey, R.-S. Gao, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, C. Schiller, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, T. Peter, N. Amarouche, L. M. Avallone, R. Bauer, Z. Bozóki, L. E. Christensen, S. M. Davis, G. Durry, C. Dyroff, R. L. Herman, S. Hunsmann, S. M. Khaykin, P. Mackrodt, J. Meyer, J. B. Smith, N. Spelten, R. F. Troy, H. Vömel, S. Wagner, and F. G. Wienhold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3177–3213,
A. Parrish, I. S. Boyd, G. E. Nedoluha, P. K. Bhartia, S. M. Frith, N. A. Kramarova, B. J. Connor, G. E. Bodeker, L. Froidevaux, M. Shiotani, and T. Sakazaki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7255–7272,
B. Hassler, I. Petropavlovskikh, J. Staehelin, T. August, P. K. Bhartia, C. Clerbaux, D. Degenstein, M. De Mazière, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Dufour, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Granville, N. R. P. Harris, K. Hoppel, D. Hubert, Y. Kasai, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, J.-C. Lambert, P. F. Levelt, C. T. McElroy, R. D. McPeters, R. Munro, H. Nakajima, A. Parrish, P. Raspollini, E. E. Remsberg, K. H. Rosenlof, A. Rozanov, T. Sano, Y. Sasano, M. Shiotani, H. G. J. Smit, G. Stiller, J. Tamminen, D. W. Tarasick, J. Urban, R. J. van der A, J. P. Veefkind, C. Vigouroux, T. von Clarmann, C. von Savigny, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1395–1427,
I. Engel, B. P. Luo, S. M. Khaykin, F. G. Wienhold, H. Vömel, R. Kivi, C. R. Hoyle, J.-U. Grooß, M. C. Pitts, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3231–3246,
J.-U. Grooß, I. Engel, S. Borrmann, W. Frey, G. Günther, C. R. Hoyle, R. Kivi, B. P. Luo, S. Molleker, T. Peter, M. C. Pitts, H. Schlager, G. Stiller, H. Vömel, K. A. Walker, and R. Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1055–1073,
S. M. Khaykin, I. Engel, H. Vömel, I. M. Formanyuk, R. Kivi, L. I. Korshunov, M. Krämer, A. D. Lykov, S. Meier, T. Naebert, M. C. Pitts, M. L. Santee, N. Spelten, F. G. Wienhold, V. A. Yushkov, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11503–11517,
T. Sugita, Y. Kasai, Y. Terao, S. Hayashida, G. L. Manney, W. H. Daffer, H. Sagawa, M. Suzuki, M. Shiotani, K. A. Walker, C. D. Boone, and P. F. Bernath
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3099–3113,
Y. Kasai, H. Sagawa, D. Kreyling, E. Dupuy, P. Baron, J. Mendrok, K. Suzuki, T. O. Sato, T. Nishibori, S. Mizobuchi, K. Kikuchi, T. Manabe, H. Ozeki, T. Sugita, M. Fujiwara, Y. Irimajiri, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath, C. Boone, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, J. Orphal, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, D. Degenstein, A. E. Bourassa, N. D. Lloyd, L. Froidevaux, M. Birk, G. Wagner, F. Schreier, J. Xu, P. Vogt, T. Trautmann, and M. Yasui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2311–2338,
Y. Inai, F. Hasebe, M. Fujiwara, M. Shiotani, N. Nishi, S.-Y. Ogino, H. Vömel, S. Iwasaki, and T. Shibata
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8623–8642,
M. Khosravi, P. Baron, J. Urban, L. Froidevaux, A. I. Jonsson, Y. Kasai, K. Kuribayashi, C. Mitsuda, D. P. Murtagh, H. Sagawa, M. L. Santee, T. O. Sato, M. Shiotani, M. Suzuki, T. von Clarmann, K. A. Walker, and S. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7587–7606,
F. Hasebe, Y. Inai, M. Shiotani, M. Fujiwara, H. Vömel, N. Nishi, S.-Y. Ogino, T. Shibata, S. Iwasaki, N. Komala, T. Peter, and S. J. Oltmans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4393–4411,
R. Wilson, H. Luce, H. Hashiguchi, M. Shiotani, and F. Dalaudier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 697–702,
G. A. Morris, G. Labow, H. Akimoto, M. Takigawa, M. Fujiwara, F. Hasebe, J. Hirokawa, and T. Koide
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1243–1260,
Related subject area
Subject: Others (Wind, Precipitation, Temperature, etc.) | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalA new zenith hydrostatic delay model for real-time retrievals of GNSS-PWVReconstruction of the mass and geometry of snowfall particles from multi angle snowflake camera (MASC) imagesSampling error in aircraft flux measurements based on a high-resolution large eddy simulation of the marine boundary layerSeparation of convective and stratiform precipitation using polarimetric radar data with a support vector machine methodAn approach to minimize aircraft motion bias in multi-hole probe wind measurements made by small unmanned aerial systemsInterpolation uncertainty of atmospheric temperature profilesUnsupervised classification of snowflake images using a generative adversarial network and K-medoids classificationAn improved post-processing technique for automatic precipitation gauge time seriesRetrieval of eddy dissipation rate from derived equivalent vertical gust included in Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR)Atmospheric condition identification in multivariate data through a metric for total variationIdentifying persistent temperature inversion events in a subalpine basin using radon-222Evaluation of wake influence on high-resolution balloon-sonde measurementsImproving the mean and uncertainty of ultraviolet multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer in situ calibration factors: utilizing Gaussian process regression with a new method to estimate dynamic input uncertaintyEmpirical high-resolution wind field and gust model in mountainous and hilly terrain based on the dense WegenerNet station networksPerformance of the FMI cosine error correction method for the Brewer spectral UV measurementsComputational efficiency for the surface renewal methodRaindrop fall velocities from an optical array probe and 2-D video disdrometerNovel approaches to estimating the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate from low- and moderate-resolution velocity fluctuation time seriesSmoothing data series by means of cubic splines: quality of approximation and introduction of a repeating spline approachData-driven clustering of rain events: microphysics information derived from macro-scale observationsSolid hydrometeor classification and riming degree estimation from pictures collected with a Multi-Angle Snowflake CameraDust opacities inside the dust devil column in the Taklimakan DesertComparison of GPS tropospheric delays derived from two consecutive EPN reprocessing campaigns from the point of view of climate monitoringEnsemble mean density and its connection to other microphysical properties of falling snow as observed in Southern FinlandAn automated nowcasting model of significant instability events in the flight terminal area of Rio de Janeiro, BrazilRetrieving atmospheric turbulence information from regular commercial aircraft using Mode-S and ADS-BAn automatic precipitation-phase distinction algorithm for optical disdrometer data over the global oceanCalibration methods for rotating shadowband irradiometers and optimizing the calibration durationError estimation for localized signal properties: application to atmospheric mixing height retrievalsA study of turbulent fluxes and their measurement errors for different wind regimes over the tropical Zongo Glacier (16° S) during the dry seasonMethodology for determining multilayered temperature inversionsTechniques for analyses of trends in GRUAN dataThe Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysisAdaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for temperature and humidity profile retrieval from microwave radiometer observationsCorrection of raindrop size distributions measured by Parsivel disdrometers, using a two-dimensional video disdrometer as a referenceUsing digital image processing to characterize the Campbell–Stokes sunshine recorder and to derive high-temporal resolution direct solar irradianceReference quality upper-air measurements: GRUAN data processing for the Vaisala RS92 radiosondeReconstruction of global solar radiation time series from 1933 to 2013 at the Izaña Atmospheric ObservatoryHydrometeor classification from two-dimensional video disdrometer dataFunctional derivatives applied to error propagation of uncertainties in topography to large-aperture scintillometer-derived heat fluxesValidation of spectral sky radiance derived from all-sky camera images – a case studyThe response of superpressure balloons to gravity wave motionsCharacterization of video disdrometer uncertainties and impacts on estimates of snowfall rate and radar reflectivityImplementation of a 3D-Var system for atmospheric profiling data assimilation into the RAMS model: initial resultsOn the effect of moisture on the detection of tropospheric turbulence from in situ measurementsNote on the application of planar-fit rotation for non-omnidirectional sonic anemometersImproved mixing height monitoring through a combination of lidar and radon measurementsModeling the ascent of sounding balloons: derivation of the vertical air motionCan one detect small-scale turbulence from standard meteorological radiosondes?Assessment of BSRN radiation records for the computation of monthly means
Longjiang Li, Suqin Wu, Kefei Zhang, Xiaoming Wang, Wang Li, Zhen Shen, Dantong Zhu, Qimin He, and Moufeng Wan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6379–6394,Short summary
The zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD) derived from blind models are of low accuracy, especially in mid- and high-latitude regions. To address this issue, the ratio of the ZHD to zenith total delay (ZTD) is firstly investigated; then, based on the relationship between the ZHD and ZTD, a new ZHD model was developed using the back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) method which took the ZTD as an input variable. The model outperforms blind models.
Jussi Leinonen, Jacopo Grazioli, and Berne Alexis
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Measuring the shape, size and mass of a large number of snowflakes is a challenging task; hard to achieve in an automatic and instrumented manner. We present a method to retrieve these properties of individual snowflakes using as input a triplet of images/pictures automatically collected by a Multi-Angle-Snowflake-Camera (MASC) instrument. Our method, based on machine learning, is trained on artificially generated snowflakes and evaluated on 3d-printed snowflake replicas.
Grant W. Petty
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1959–1976,Short summary
Aircraft measurements of turbulent fluxes of matter and energy are important in field investigations of the interaction of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. Because these measurements are of randomly fluctuating quantities, averages must be taken over longer flight tracks to reduce uncertainty. This paper investigates the relationship between track length and measurement error using a computer model simulation of a marine environment and compares the results with published theory.
Yadong Wang, Lin Tang, Pao-Liang Chang, and Yu-Shuang Tang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 185–197,Short summary
The motivation of this work is to develop a precipitation separation approach that can be implemented on those radars with fast scanning schemes. In these schemes, the higher tilt radar data are not available, which poses a challenge for the traditional approaches. This approach uses artificial intelligence, which integrates polarimetric radar variables. The quantitative precipitation estimation will benefit from the output of this algorithm.
Loiy Al-Ghussain and Sean C. C. Bailey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 173–184,Short summary
Unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with multi-hole probes are an effective approach to measure the wind vector with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, the aircraft motion must be removed from the measured signal first, a process often introducing bias due to small errors in the relative orientation of coordinates. We present an approach that has successfully been applied in post-processing, which was found to minimize the influence of aircraft motion on wind measurements.
Alessandro Fassò, Michael Sommer, and Christoph von Rohden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6445–6458,Short summary
Modern radiosonde balloons fly from ground level up to the lower stratosphere and take temperature measurements. What is the uncertainty of interpolated values in the resulting atmospheric temperature profiles? To answer this question, we introduce a general statistical–mathematical model for the computation of interpolation uncertainty. Analysing more than 51 million measurements, we provide some understanding of the consequences of filling missing data with interpolated ones.
Jussi Leinonen and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2949–2964,Short summary
The appearance of snowflakes provides a signature of the atmospheric processes that created them. To get this information from large numbers of snowflake images, automated analysis using computer image recognition is needed. In this work, we use a neural network that learns the structure of the snowflake images to divide a snowflake dataset into classes corresponding to different sizes and structures. Unlike with most comparable methods, only minimal input from a human expert is needed.
Amber Ross, Craig D. Smith, and Alan Barr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2979–2994,Short summary
The raw data derived from most automated accumulating precipitation gauges often suffer from non-precipitation-related fluctuations in the measurement of the gauge bucket weights from which the precipitation amount is determined. This noise can be caused by electrical interference, mechanical noise, and evaporation. This paper presents an automated filtering technique that builds on the principle of iteratively balancing noise to produce a clean precipitation time series.
Soo-Hyun Kim, Hye-Yeong Chun, Jung-Hoon Kim, Robert D. Sharman, and Matt Strahan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1373–1385,Short summary
We retrieve the eddy dissipation rate (EDR) from the derived equivalent vertical gust included in the Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay data for more reliable and consistent observations of aviation turbulence globally with the single preferred EDR metric. We convert the DEVG to the EDR using two methods (lognormal mapping scheme and best-fit curve between EDR and DEVG), and the DEVG-derived EDRs are evaluated against in situ EDR data reported by US-operated carriers.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1019–1032,Short summary
The identification of atmospheric conditions within a multivariable atmospheric data set is an important step in validating emerging and existing models used to simulate wind plant flows and operational strategies. The total variation approach developed here offers a method founded in tested mathematical metrics and can be used to identify and characterize periods corresponding to quiescent conditions or specific events of interest for study or wind energy development.
Dafina Kikaj, Janja Vaupotič, and Scott D. Chambers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4455–4477,Short summary
A new method was developed to identify persistent temperature inversion events in a subalpine basin using a radon-based method (RBM). By comparing with an existing pseudo-vertical temperature gradient method, the RBM was shown to be more reliable and seasonally independent. The RBM has the potential to increase the understanding of meteorological controls on air pollution episodes in complex terrain beyond the capability of contemporary atmospheric stability classification tools.
Jens Söder, Michael Gerding, Andreas Schneider, Andreas Dörnbrack, Henrike Wilms, Johannes Wagner, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4191–4210,Short summary
Atmospheric measurements on rising balloons can be compromised by the balloon's wake. The aim of this study is to provide a tool for assessing the likelihood of encountering the balloon's wake at the position of the gondola. This includes an uncertainty analysis of the calculation and a retrieval of vertical winds. We find an average wake encounter probability of 28 % for a standard radiosonde. Additionally, we evaluate the influence of wake from smaller objects on turbulence measurements.
Maosi Chen, Zhibin Sun, John M. Davis, Yan-An Liu, Chelsea A. Corr, and Wei Gao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 935–953,Short summary
Combining a new dynamic uncertainty estimation method with Gaussian process regression (GP), we provide a generic and robust solution to estimate the underlying mean and uncertainty functions of time series with variable mean, noise, sampling density, and length of gaps. The GP solution was applied and validated on three UV-MFRSR Vo time series at three ground sites with improved accuracy of the smoothed time series in terms of aerosol optical depth compared with two other smoothing methods.
Christoph Schlager, Gottfried Kirchengast, and Juergen Fuchsberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5607–5627,Short summary
In this work we further developed and evaluated an operational weather diagnostic application, the WegenerNet Wind Product Generator (WPG), and applied it to the WegenerNet Johnsbachtal (JBT), a dense meteorological station network located in a mountainous Alpine region. The WPG automatically generates gridded high-resolution wind fields in near-real time with a temporal resolution of 30 min and a spatial resolution of 100 m x 100 m.
Kaisa Lakkala, Antti Arola, Julian Gröbner, Sergio Fabian León-Luis, Alberto Redondas, Stelios Kazadzis, Tomi Karppinen, Juha Matti Karhu, Luca Egli, Anu Heikkilä, Tapani Koskela, Antonio Serrano, and José Manuel Vilaplana
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5167–5180,Short summary
The performance of the cosine error correction method for correcting spectral UV measurements of the Brewer spectroradiometer was studied. The correction depends on the sky radiation distribution, which can change during one spectral scan. The results showed that the correction varied between 4 and 14 %, and that the relative differences between the reference and the Brewer diminished by 10 %. The method is applicable to other instruments as long as the required input parameters are available.
Jason Kelley and Chad Higgins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2151–2158,Short summary
Measuring fluxes of energy and trace gases using the surface renewal (SR) method can be economical and robust, but it requires computationally intensive calculations. Several new algorithms were written to perform the required calculations more efficiently and rapidly, and were tested with field data and computationally rigorous SR methods. These efficient algorithms facilitate expanded use of SR in atmospheric experiments, for applied monitoring, and in novel field implementations.
Viswanathan Bringi, Merhala Thurai, and Darrel Baumgardner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1377–1384,Short summary
Raindrop fall velocities are important for rain rate estimation, soil erosion studies and in numerical modelling of rain formation in clouds. The assumption that the fall velocity is uniquely related to drop size is made inherently based on laboratory measurements under still air conditions from nearly 68 years ago. There have been very few measurements of drop fall speeds in natural rain under both still and turbulent wind conditions. We report on fall speed measurements in natural rain shafts.
Marta Wacławczyk, Yong-Feng Ma, Jacek M. Kopeć, and Szymon P. Malinowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4573–4585,Short summary
We propose two novel methods to estimate turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate applicable to airborne measurements. In this way we increase robustness of the dissipation rate retrieval and extend its applicability to a wider range of data sets. The new approaches relate the predicted form of the dissipation spectrum to the mean of zero crossings of the measured velocity fluctuations. The methods are easy to implement numerically, and estimates remain unaffected by certain measurement errors.
Sabine Wüst, Verena Wendt, Ricarda Linz, and Michael Bittner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3453–3462,Short summary
Cubic splines with equidistant spline sampling points are a common method in atmospheric science for the approximation of background conditions by means of filtering superimposed fluctuations from a data series. However, splines can generate considerable artificial oscillations in the background and the residuals. We introduce a repeating spline approach which is able to significantly reduce this phenomenon and to apply it to TIMED-SABER vertical temperature profiles from 2010 to 2014.
Mohamed Djallel Dilmi, Cécile Mallet, Laurent Barthes, and Aymeric Chazottes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1557–1574,Short summary
The concept of a rain event is used to obtain a parsimonious characterisation of rain events using a minimal subset of variables at macrophysical scale. A classification in five classes is obtained in a unsupervised way from this subset. Relationships between these classes of microphysical parameters of precipitation are highlighted. There are several implications especially for remote sensing in the context of weather radar applications and quantitative precipitation estimation.
Christophe Praz, Yves-Alain Roulet, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1335–1357,Short summary
The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) provides high-resolution pictures of individual falling snowflakes and ice crystals. A method is proposed to automatically classify these pictures into six classes of snowflakes as well to estimate the degree of riming and to detect whether or not the particles are melting. Multinomial logistic regression is used with a manually classified reference set. The evaluation demonstrates the good and reliable performance of the proposed technique.
Zhaopeng Luan, Yongxiang Han, Tianliang Zhao, Feng Liu, Chong Liu, Mark J. Rood, Xinghua Yang, Qing He, and Huichao Lu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 273–279,
Zofia Baldysz, Grzegorz Nykiel, Andrzej Araszkiewicz, Mariusz Figurski, and Karolina Szafranek
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4861–4877,Short summary
In this paper two official processing strategies of GPS observations were analysed. The main purpose was to assess differences in long-term (linear trends) and short-term (oscillations) changes between these two sets of data. Investigation was based on 18-year and 16-year time series and showed that, despite the general consistency, for selected stations a change of processing strategy may have caused significant differences (compared to the uncertainties) in estimated linear trend values.
Jussi Tiira, Dmitri N. Moisseev, Annakaisa von Lerber, Davide Ori, Ali Tokay, Larry F. Bliven, and Walter Petersen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4825–4841,Short summary
In this study winter measurements collected in Southern Finland are used to document microphysical properties of falling snow. It is shown that a new video imager can be used for such studies. Snow properties do vary between winters.
Gutemberg Borges França, Manoel Valdonel de Almeida, and Alessana C. Rosette
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2335–2344,Short summary
This paper presents a novel model, based on neural network techniques, to produce short-term and locally specific forecasts of significant instability for flights in the terminal area of Rio de Janeiro's airport, Brazil. Twelve years of data were used for neural network training/validation and test. The test showed that the proposed model can grab the physical content inside the data set, and its performance is encouraging for the first and second hours to nowcast significant instability events.
Jacek M. Kopeć, Kamil Kwiatkowski, Siebren de Haan, and Szymon P. Malinowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2253–2265,Short summary
This paper is presenting a feasibility study focused on methods of estimating the turbulence intensity based on a class of navigational messages routinely broadcast by the commercial aircraft (known as ADS-B and Mode-S). Using this kind of information could have potentially significant impact on aviation safety. Three methods have been investigated.
Jörg Burdanowitz, Christian Klepp, and Stephan Bakan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1637–1652,Short summary
We develop a new automatic algorithm to distinguish oceanic precipitation into rain, snow and mixed phase using optical disdrometers deployed on board research vessels. In combination, air temperature, relative humidity and the maximum precipitation particle diameter outperform human observer data and yield highest skill to predict the precipitation phase. This knowledge allows deriving accurate rain and snowfall rates with dense global ocean sampling, which enables satellite sensor validation.
Wilko Jessen, Stefan Wilbert, Bijan Nouri, Norbert Geuder, and Holger Fritz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1601–1612,Short summary
This paper covers procedures and requirements of two calibration methods and examines the necessary duration of acquisition of test measurements. Site-specific seasonal changes of environmental conditions cause small but noticeable fluctuation of calibration results. Calibration results within certain periods show a higher likelihood of deviation. These effects can partially be attenuated by including more measurements from outside these periods.
G. Biavati, D. G. Feist, C. Gerbig, and R. Kretschmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4215–4230,Short summary
The goal of this work is to present a method that can be used to estimate the uncertainty for a singular estimate for the mixing height. It is defined here as the localization error. The method is based on the actual signal (radiosonde) and its measurement errors, ant it does not consider the physics causing the signal. It can be applied to all kind of signals and algorithm when standard error propagation cannot be used to asses the uncertainty of a location of a localized property.
M. Litt, J.-E. Sicart, and W. Helgason
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3229–3250,Short summary
We deal with surface turbulent flux calculations on a tropical glacier and analyse the related errors. We use data from two eddy-covariance systems and wind speed and temperature profiles collected during a 2-month measurement campaign undertaken within the atmospheric surface layer of the glacier. We show the largest error sources are related to roughness length uncertainties and to nonstationarity of the flow induced by the interaction of outer-layer eddies with the surface-layer flow.
G. J. Fochesatto
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2051–2060,Short summary
Temperature inversion layers originate based on the combined forcing of local- and large-scale synoptic meteorology. A numerical procedure based on a linear interpolation function of variable length that minimizes an error function set a priori is proposed to extract thermodynamic information of the multilayered thermal structure. The method is demonstrated to detect surface-based inversion and multilayered elevated inversions present often in high-latitude atmospheres.
G. E. Bodeker and S. Kremser
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1673–1684,Short summary
This paper discusses, and demonstrates, the methodology for reliably determining long-term trends in upper air climate data records and how measurement uncertainties should be used in trend analyses. A pedagogical approach is taken whereby numerical recipes for key parts of the trend analysis process are explored. The paper describes the construction of linear least squares regression models for trend analysis and the boot-strapping approach to determine the uncertainty on the derived trends.
M. P. Jensen, T. Toto, D. Troyan, P. E. Ciesielski, D. Holdridge, J. Kyrouac, J. Schatz, Y. Zhang, and S. Xie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 421–434,Short summary
A major component of the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) was a six-site radiosonde array designed to capture the large-scale variability of the atmospheric state. This manuscript describes the details of the MC3E radiosonde operations including the instrumentation, data processing and analysis of the impacts of bias correction and algorithm assumptions on the determination of forcing data sets.
K. Ramesh, A. P. Kesarkar, J. Bhate, M. Venkat Ratnam, and A. Jayaraman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 369–384,Short summary
The study of atmospheric convection is important for the understanding of evolution of diurnal cycles of rainfall. High-resolution observations of vertical profiles of temperature and relative humidity are very useful for understanding the behaviour of these convections. Microwave radiometers are becoming useful tools for it. In this paper, we propose a new method to retrieve these profiles based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface systems and find that this method has a better skill of retrieval.
T. H. Raupach and A. Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 343–365,Short summary
Using the 2-D video disdrometer (2DVD) as a reference, a technique to correct the spectra of drop size distribution (DSD) measured by Parsivel disdrometers (1st and 2nd generation) is proposed. The measured velocities and equivolume diameters are corrected to better match those from the 2DVD. The correction is evaluated using data from southern France and the Swiss Plateau. It appears to be similar for both climatologies, and to improve the consistency with colocated 2DVDs and rain gauges.
A. Sanchez-Romero, J. A. González, J. Calbó, and A. Sanchez-Lorenzo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 183–194,
R. J. Dirksen, M. Sommer, F. J. Immler, D. F. Hurst, R. Kivi, and H. Vömel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4463–4490,
R. D. García, E. Cuevas, O. E. García, V. E. Cachorro, P. Pallé, J. J. Bustos, P. M. Romero-Campos, and A. M. de Frutos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3139–3150,
J. Grazioli, D. Tuia, S. Monhart, M. Schneebeli, T. Raupach, and A. Berne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2869–2882,
M. A. Gruber, G. J. Fochesatto, O. K. Hartogensis, and M. Lysy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2361–2371,
K. Tohsing, M. Schrempf, S. Riechelmann, and G. Seckmeyer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2137–2146,
R. A. Vincent and A. Hertzog
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1043–1055,
N. B. Wood, T. S. L'Ecuyer, F. L. Bliven, and G. L. Stephens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3635–3648,
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3563–3576,
R. Wilson, H. Luce, H. Hashiguchi, M. Shiotani, and F. Dalaudier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 697–702,
M. Li, W. Babel, K. Tanaka, and T. Foken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 221–229,
A. D. Griffiths, S. D. Parkes, S. D. Chambers, M. F. McCabe, and A. G. Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 207–218,
A. Gallice, F. G. Wienhold, C. R. Hoyle, F. Immler, and T. Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2235–2253,
R. Wilson, F. Dalaudier, and H. Luce
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 795–804,
A. Roesch, M. Wild, A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, C. N. Long, and T. Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 339–354,
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For conventional soundings, the pressure bias of radiosonde leads to an altitude misestimation, which can lead to offsets in any meteorological profile. Therefore, we must take this issue into account to improve historical data sets.
For conventional soundings, the pressure bias of radiosonde leads to an altitude misestimation,...