Articles | Volume 12, issue 10
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Development of a balloon-borne instrument for CO2 vertical profile observations in the troposphere
Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research and Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601, Japan
Graduate School of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-14, Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
Meisei Electric Co., Ltd., 2223 Naganumamachi, Isesaki, Gunma 372-8585, Japan
Meisei Electric Co., Ltd., 2223 Naganumamachi, Isesaki, Gunma 372-8585, Japan
National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
Meteorological Research Institute, Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan
Meteorological Research Institute, Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan
National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Earth Observation Research Center, 2-1-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505, Japan
now at: NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field Mountain View, CA 94035, USA
Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568, Japan
No articles found.
Fengxin Xie, Tao Ren, Changying Zhao, Yuan Wen, Yilei Gu, Minqiang Zhou, Pucai Wang, Kei Shiomi, and Isamu Morino
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
This study demonstrates a new machine learning approach to efficiently and accurately estimate atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from satellite data. Rather than traditional complex physics-based retrieval methods, neural network models are trained on simulated data to rapidly predict CO2 concentrations directly from satellite spectral measurements.
Jean-François Müller, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Glenn-Michael Oomen, Beata Opacka, Isabelle De Smedt, Alex Guenther, Corinne Vigouroux, Bavo Langerock, Carlos Augusto Bauer Aquino, Michel Grutter, James Hannigan, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Erik Lutsch, Emmanuel Mahieu, Maria Makarova, Jean-Marc Metzger, Isamu Morino, Isao Murata, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Amelie Röhling, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, and Alan Fried
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
Formaldehyde observations from satellites can be used to constrain the emissions of volatile organic compounds, but those observations have biases. Using an atmospheric model, aircraft and ground-based remote sensing data, we quantify these biases, propose a correction to the data, and assess the consequence of this correction for the evaluation of emissions.
Julian Hofer, Patric Seifert, J. Ben Liley, Martin Radenz, Osamu Uchino, Isamu Morino, Tetsu Sakai, Tomohiro Nagai, and Albert Ansmann
An 11-year dataset of polarization lidar observations from Lauder NZ was used to distinguish the thermodynamic phase of natural clouds (ice/liquid). The cloud dataset was separated to assess the impact of air mass origin on the frequency of heterogeneous ice formation. Ice-formation efficiency in clouds above Lauder was found to be lower than in the polluted mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere, but higher than in very clean and pristine environments, such as Punta Arenas in Southern Chile.
Astrid Müller, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Takafumi Sugita, Prabir K. Patra, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Toshinobu Machida, Isamu Morino, André Butz, and Kei Shiomi
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Satellite CH4 observations with high accuracy are needed to understand changes in atmospheric CH4 concentrations. But over oceans, reference data are limited. We combine various ship and aircraft observations with the help of atmospheric chemistry models to derive observation-based column-averaged mixing ratios of CH4 (obs. XCH4). We discuss three different approaches and demonstrate the applicability of the new reference dataset for carbon cycle studies and satellite evaluation.
Rafaella Chiarella, Matthias Buschmann, Joshua Laughner, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Geoffrey Toon, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3987–4007,Short summary
The goal is to establish a window and strategy for xCO2 retrieval from ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers for NDACC. In the study we describe the spectroscopy of the region, the locations and instruments used, and the methods of calculating the retrieved xCO2. We performed tests to assess the sensitivity to diverse factors and sources of errors while comparing the retrieval to a well-established xCO2 retrieval from TCCON.
Nelson Bègue, Alexandre Baron, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Gwenaël Berthet, Hassan Bencherif, Corinna Kloss, Fabrice Jégou, Sergey Khaykin, Marion Ranaivombola, Tristan Millet, Thierry Portafaix, Valentin Duflot, Philippe Keckhut, Hélène Vérèmes, Guillaume Payen, Masha Kumar Sha, Pierre-François Coheur, Cathy Clerbaux, Michaël Sicard, Tetsu Sakai, Richard Querel, Ben Liley, Dan Smale, Isamu Morino, Osamu Ochino, Tomohiro Nagai, Penny Smale, and John Robinson
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
This study treats on the transport of the biomass burning (BB) products, induced during the 2019–20 extreme extreme Australian bushfire events, over the Southwest Indian Ocean. The BB activity in eastern Africa, weak during the wet season, contributed to modulate the atmospheric composition over this region. The simultaneous presence of African and Australian BB products has been recorded at Reunion. This reveals the complex variability of the atmospheric compostion over the SWIO basin.
Joshua L. Laughner, Geoffrey C. Toon, Joseph Mendonca, Christof Petri, Sébastien Roche, Debra Wunch, Jean-Francois Blavier, David W. T. Griffith, Pauli Heikkinen, Ralph F. Keeling, Matthäus Kiel, Rigel Kivi, Coleen M. Roehl, Britton B. Stephens, Bianca C. Baier, Huilin Chen, Yonghoon Choi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Joshua P. DiGangi, Jochen Gross, Benedikt Herkommer, Pascal Jeseck, Thomas Laemmel, Xin Lan, Erin McGee, Kathryn McKain, John Miller, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Haris Riris, Constantina Rousogenous, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Steven C. Wofsy, Minqiang Zhou, and Paul O. Wennberg
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
This paper describes a new version, called GGG2020, of a dataset containing column-integrated observations of greenhouse and related gases (including CO2, CH4, CO, and N2O) made by ground stations located around the world. Compared to the previous version (GGG2014), improvements have been made towards site-to-site consistency. This dataset plays a key role in validating space-based greenhouse gas observations and in understanding the carbon cycle.
Mukunda M. Gogoi, S. Suresh Babu, Ryoichi Imasu, and Makiko Hashimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8059–8079,Short summary
Considering the climate warming potential of atmospheric black carbon (BC), satellite-based retrieval is a novel idea. This study highlights the regional distribution of BC based on observations by the Cloud and Aerosol Imager-2 on board the GOSAT-2 satellite and near-surface measurements of BC in ARFINET. The satellite retrieval fairly depicts the regional and seasonal features of BC over the Indian region, which are similar to those recorded by surface observations.
Zhendong Wu, Alex Vermeulen, Yousuke Sawa, Ute Karstens, Wouter Peters, Remco de Kok, Xin Lan, Yasuyuki Nagai, Akinori Ogi, and Oksana Tarasova
This study focuses on exploring the differences in calculating global surface CO2 and its growth rate, considering the impact of analysis methodologies and site selection. Our study reveals that the current global CO2 network has a good capacity to represent global surface CO2 and its growth rate and trends in atmospheric CO2 mass changes, although small differences exist in different analyses due to the impact of methodology and site selection.
Sophie Wittig, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Marielle Saunois, Joël Thanwerdas, Adrien Martinez, Jean-Daniel Paris, Toshinobu Machida, Motoki Sasakawa, Douglas E. J. Worthy, Xin Lan, Rona L. Thompson, Espen Sollum, and Mikhail Arshinov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6457–6485,Short summary
Here, an inverse modelling approach is applied to estimate CH4 sources and sinks in the Arctic from 2008 to 2019. We study the magnitude, seasonal patterns and trends from different sources during recent years. We also assess how the current observation network helps to constrain fluxes. We find that constraints are only significant for North America and, to a lesser extent, West Siberia, where the observation network is relatively dense. We find no clear trend over the period of inversion.
Yifan Guan, Gretchen Keppel-Aleks, Scott C. Doney, Christof Petri, Dave Pollard, Debra Wunch, Frank Hase, Hirofumi Ohyama, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Kei Shiomi, Kim Strong, Rigel Kivi, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas Deutscher, Paul Wennberg, Ralf Sussmann, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Yao Té
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5355–5372,Short summary
We characterize spatial–temporal patterns of interannual variability (IAV) in atmospheric CO2 based on NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). CO2 variation is strongly impacted by climate events, with higher anomalies during El Nino years. We show high correlation in IAV between space-based and ground-based CO2 from long-term sites. Because OCO-2 has near-global coverage, our paper provides a roadmap to study IAV where in situ observation is sparse, such as open oceans and remote lands.
Nofel Lagrosas, Kosuke Okubo, Hitoshi Irie, Yutaka Matsumi, Tomoki Nakayama, Yutaka Sugita, Takashi Okada, and Tatsuo Shiina
This work examines the near-ground aerosol-weather relationship from seven-month continuous lidar and weather observations in Chiba, Japan. The optical parameters from lidar data are compared with weather parameters to understand and quantify aerosol-weather relationship and how these optical parameters are affected by weather and season. The results provide insights into analyzing optical properties of radioactive aerosols when the lidar system is continuously operated in a radioactive area.
Hirofumi Ohyama, Matthias Max Frey, Isamu Morino, Kei Shiomi, Masahide Nishihashi, Tatsuya Miyauchi, Hiroko Yamada, Makoto Saito, Masanobu Wakasa, Thomas Blumenstock, and Frank Hase
We conducted a field campaign for CO2 column measurements in the Tokyo metropolitan area with three ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers. The model simulations using prior CO2 fluxes were generally in good agreement with the observations. We developed an urban-scale inversion system in which spatially resolved CO2 fluxes and a scaling factor of large point source emissions were estimated. The posterior total CO2 emissions agreed with emission inventories within the posterior uncertainty.
Yu Someya, Yukio Yoshida, Hirofumi Ohyama, Shohei Nomura, Akihide Kamei, Isamu Morino, Hitoshi Mukai, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Joshua L. Laughner, Voltaire A. Velazco, Benedikt Herkommer, Yao Té, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Rigel Kivi, Minqiang Zhou, Young Suk Oh, Nicholas M. Deutscher, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1477–1501,Short summary
The updated retrieval algorithm for the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite level 2 product is presented. The main changes in the algorithm from the previous one are the treatment of cirrus clouds, the degradation model of the sensor, solar irradiance, and gas absorption coefficient tables. The retrieval results showed improvements in fitting accuracy and an increase in the data amount over land. On the other hand, there are still large biases of XCO2 which should be corrected over the ocean.
Brendan Byrne, David F. Baker, Sourish Basu, Michael Bertolacci, Kevin W. Bowman, Dustin Carroll, Abhishek Chatterjee, Frédéric Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Noel Cressie, David Crisp, Sean Crowell, Feng Deng, Zhu Deng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra K. Dubey, Sha Feng, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Benedikt Herkommer, Lei Hu, Andrew R. Jacobson, Rajesh Janardanan, Sujong Jeong, Matthew S. Johnson, Dylan B. A. Jones, Rigel Kivi, Junjie Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Shamil Maksyutov, John B. Miller, Scot M. Miller, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Tomohiro Oda, Christopher W. O'Dell, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Prabir K. Patra, Hélène Peiro, Christof Petri, Sajeev Philip, David F. Pollard, Benjamin Poulter, Marine Remaud, Andrew Schuh, Mahesh K. Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Colm Sweeney, Yao Té, Hanqin Tian, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Thorsten Warneke, John R. Worden, Debra Wunch, Yuanzhi Yao, Jeongmin Yun, Andrew Zammit-Mangion, and Ning Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 963–1004,Short summary
Changes in the carbon stocks of terrestrial ecosystems result in emissions and removals of CO2. These can be driven by anthropogenic activities (e.g., deforestation), natural processes (e.g., fires) or in response to rising CO2 (e.g., CO2 fertilization). This paper describes a dataset of CO2 emissions and removals derived from atmospheric CO2 observations. This pilot dataset informs current capabilities and future developments towards top-down monitoring and verification systems.
Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Hiroaki Kondo, Kentaro Ishijima, Nobuyuki Aoki, Hidekazu Matsueda, and Kazuyuki Saito
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A method evaluating techniques for carbon neutrality, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), is important. This study presents a method to evaluate CO2 emission from a cement plant based on atmospheric O2 and CO2 measurements. The method will also be useful for evaluating CO2 capture from flue gas at CCS plants, since the plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere without causing any O2 changes, just as cement plants do, differing only in the direction of CO2 exchange with the atmosphere.
Shunsuke Hoshino, Takuji Sugidachi, Kensaku Shimizu, Eriko Kobayashi, Masatomo Fujiwara, and Masami Iwabuchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5917–5948,Short summary
GRUAN data products (GDPs) from Meisei iMS-100 and Vaisala RS92 were compared with 59 dual sounding data. For daytime observations, the iMS-100 temperature is around 0.5 K lower than RS92-GDP in the stratosphere, but for nighttime observations, the difference is around −0.1 K, and data are mostly in agreement. For relative humidity (RH), iMS-100 is around 1–2 % RH higher in the troposphere and 1 % RH smaller in the stratosphere than RS92, but both GDPs are in agreement for most of the profile.
Matthias Schneider, Benjamin Ertl, Qiansi Tu, Christopher J. Diekmann, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Amelie N. Röhling, Frank Hase, Darko Dubravica, Omaira E. García, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Tobias Borsdorff, Jochen Landgraf, Alba Lorente, André Butz, Huilin Chen, Rigel Kivi, Thomas Laemmel, Michel Ramonet, Cyril Crevoisier, Jérome Pernin, Martin Steinbacher, Frank Meinhardt, Kimberly Strong, Debra Wunch, Thorsten Warneke, Coleen Roehl, Paul O. Wennberg, Isamu Morino, Laura T. Iraci, Kei Shiomi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, and David F. Pollard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4339–4371,Short summary
We present a computationally very efficient method for the synergetic use of level 2 remote-sensing data products. We apply the method to IASI vertical profile and TROPOMI total column space-borne methane observations and thus gain sensitivity for the tropospheric methane partial columns, which is not achievable by the individual use of TROPOMI and IASI. These synergetic effects are evaluated theoretically and empirically by inter-comparisons to independent references of TCCON, AirCore, and GAW.
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Oliver Schneising, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Robert J. Parker, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Coleen Roehl, Constantina Rousogenous, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3401–3437,Short summary
We present a new version (v3) of the GOSAT and GOSAT-2 FOCAL products. In addition to an increased number of XCO2 data, v3 also includes products for XCH4 (full-physics and proxy), XH2O and the relative ratio of HDO to H2O (δD). For GOSAT-2, we also present first XCO and XN2O results. All FOCAL data products show reasonable spatial distribution and temporal variations and agree well with TCCON. Global XN2O maps show a gradient from the tropics to higher latitudes on the order of 15 ppb.
Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Yosuke Niwa, Hidekazu Matsueda, Shohei Murayama, Kentaro Ishijima, and Kazuyuki Saito
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6953–6970,Short summary
The atmospheric O2 / N2 ratio and CO2 concentration over the western North Pacific are presented. We found significant modification of the seasonal APO cycle in the middle troposphere due to the interhemispheric mixing of air. APO driven by the net marine biological activities indicated annual sea–air O2 flux during El Niño. Terrestrial biospheric and oceanic CO2 uptakes during 2012–2019 were estimated to be 1.8 and 2.8 Pg C a−1, respectively.
Yange Deng, Hiroaki Fujinari, Hikari Yai, Kojiro Shimada, Yuzo Miyazaki, Eri Tachibana, Dhananjay K. Deshmukh, Kimitaka Kawamura, Tomoki Nakayama, Shiori Tatsuta, Mingfu Cai, Hanbing Xu, Fei Li, Haobo Tan, Sho Ohata, Yutaka Kondo, Akinori Takami, Shiro Hatakeyama, and Michihiro Mochida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5515–5533,Short summary
Offline analyses of the hygroscopicity and composition of atmospheric aerosols are complementary to online analyses in view of the applicability to broader sizes, specific compound groups, and investigations at remote sites. This offline study characterized the composition of water-soluble matter in aerosols and their humidity-dependent hygroscopicity on Okinawa, a receptor site of East Asian outflow. Further, comparison with online analyses showed the appropriateness of the offline method.
Carlos Alberti, Frank Hase, Matthias Frey, Darko Dubravica, Thomas Blumenstock, Angelika Dehn, Paolo Castracane, Gregor Surawicz, Roland Harig, Bianca C. Baier, Caroline Bès, Jianrong Bi, Hartmut Boesch, André Butz, Zhaonan Cai, Jia Chen, Sean M. Crowell, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dragos Ene, Jonathan E. Franklin, Omaira García, David Griffith, Bruno Grouiez, Michel Grutter, Abdelhamid Hamdouni, Sander Houweling, Neil Humpage, Nicole Jacobs, Sujong Jeong, Lilian Joly, Nicholas B. Jones, Denis Jouglet, Rigel Kivi, Ralph Kleinschek, Morgan Lopez, Diogo J. Medeiros, Isamu Morino, Nasrin Mostafavipak, Astrid Müller, Hirofumi Ohyama, Paul I. Palmer, Mahesh Pathakoti, David F. Pollard, Uwe Raffalski, Michel Ramonet, Robbie Ramsay, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, William Simpson, Wolfgang Stremme, Youwen Sun, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Yao Té, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Voltaire A. Velazco, Felix Vogel, Masataka Watanabe, Chong Wei, Debra Wunch, Marcia Yamasoe, Lu Zhang, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2433–2463,Short summary
Space-borne greenhouse gas missions require ground-based validation networks capable of providing fiducial reference measurements. Here, considerable refinements of the calibration procedures for the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) are presented. Laboratory and solar side-by-side procedures for the characterization of the spectrometers have been refined and extended. Revised calibration factors for XCO2, XCO and XCH4 are provided, incorporating 47 new spectrometers.
Edward Malina, Ben Veihelmann, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, and Isamu Morino
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2377–2406,Short summary
Methane retrievals from remote sensing instruments are fundamentally based on spectroscopic parameters, which indicate spectral-line positions, and their characteristics. These parameters are stored in several databases that vary in their make-up. Here we assess how concentrations of methane isotopologues measured from the same Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) instruments vary across a range of spectral windows using different spectroscopic databases and comment on the implications.
Thomas E. Taylor, Christopher W. O'Dell, David Crisp, Akhiko Kuze, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Paul O. Wennberg, Abhishek Chatterjee, Michael Gunson, Annmarie Eldering, Brendan Fisher, Matthäus Kiel, Robert R. Nelson, Aronne Merrelli, Greg Osterman, Frédéric Chevallier, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra K. Dubey, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Martine De Mazière, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Matthias Schneider, Coleen M. Roehl, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 325–360,Short summary
We provide an analysis of an 11-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations derived using an optimal estimation retrieval algorithm on measurements made by the GOSAT satellite. The new product (version 9) shows improvement over the previous version (v7.3) as evaluated against independent estimates of CO2 from ground-based sensors and atmospheric inversion systems. We also compare the new GOSAT CO2 values to collocated estimates from NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2.
Joseph Mendonca, Ray Nassar, Christopher W. O'Dell, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Kimberly Strong, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7511–7524,Short summary
Machine learning has become an important tool for pattern recognition in many applications. In this study, we used a neural network to improve the data quality of OCO-2 measurements made at northern high latitudes. The neural network was trained and used as a binary classifier to filter out bad OCO-2 measurements in order to increase the accuracy and precision of OCO-2 XCO2 measurements in the Boreal and Arctic regions.
Shohei Nomura, Manish Naja, M. Kawser Ahmed, Hitoshi Mukai, Yukio Terao, Toshinobu Machida, Motoki Sasakawa, and Prabir K. Patra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16427–16452,Short summary
Long-term measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in India and Bangladesh unveiled specific characteristics in their variations in these regions. Plants including rice cultivated in winter and summer strongly affected seasonal variations and levels in CO2 and CH4. Long-term variability of GHGs showed quite different features in their growth rates from those in Mauna Loa. GHG trends in this region seemed to be hardly affected by El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
Mahesh Kumar Sha, Bavo Langerock, Jean-François L. Blavier, Thomas Blumenstock, Tobias Borsdorff, Matthias Buschmann, Angelika Dehn, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Frank Hase, Pauli Heikkinen, Christian Hermans, Laura T. Iraci, Pascal Jeseck, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Nicolas Kumps, Jochen Landgraf, Alba Lorente, Emmanuel Mahieu, Maria V. Makarova, Johan Mellqvist, Jean-Marc Metzger, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, John Robinson, Sébastien Roche, Coleen M. Roehl, Amelie N. Röhling, Constantina Rousogenous, Matthias Schneider, Kei Shiomi, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Osamu Uchino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Corinne Vigouroux, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Pucai Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Tyler Wizenberg, Debra Wunch, Shoma Yamanouchi, Yang Yang, and Minqiang Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6249–6304,Short summary
This paper presents, for the first time, Sentinel-5 Precursor methane and carbon monoxide validation results covering a period from November 2017 to September 2020. For this study, we used global TCCON and NDACC-IRWG network data covering a wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions across different terrains. We also show the influence of a priori alignment, smoothing uncertainties and the sensitivity of the validation results towards the application of advanced co-location criteria.
Masanori Takeda, Hideaki Nakajima, Isao Murata, Tomoo Nagahama, Isamu Morino, Geoffrey C. Toon, Ray F. Weiss, Jens Mühle, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, and Hsiang-Jui Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5955–5976,Short summary
This paper presents the first observations of atmospheric HFC-23 abundances with a ground-based remote sensing technique. The increasing trend of the HFC-23 abundances analyzed by this study agrees with that derived from other existing in situ measurements. This study indicates that ground-based FTIR observation has the capability to monitor the trend of atmospheric HFC-23 and could allow for monitoring the distribution of global atmospheric HFC-23 abundances in more detail.
Matthias M. Frey, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Darko Dubravica, Jochen Groß, Frank Göttsche, Martin Handjaba, Petrus Amadhila, Roland Mushi, Isamu Morino, Kei Shiomi, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Martine de Mazière, and David F. Pollard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5887–5911,Short summary
In this study, we present measurements of carbon dioxide, methane and carbon monoxide from a recently established site in Gobabeb, Namibia. Gobabeb is the first site observing these gases on the African mainland and improves the global coverage of measurement sites. Gobabeb is a hyperarid desert site, offering unique characteristics. Measurements started 2015 as part of the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network. We compare our results with other datasets and find a good agreement.
Jun Zhou, Kei Sato, Yu Bai, Yukiko Fukusaki, Yuka Kousa, Sathiyamurthi Ramasamy, Akinori Takami, Ayako Yoshino, Tomoki Nakayama, Yasuhiro Sadanaga, Yoshihiro Nakashima, Jiaru Li, Kentaro Murano, Nanase Kohno, Yosuke Sakamoto, and Yoshizumi Kajii
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12243–12260,Short summary
HO2 radicals play key roles in tropospheric chemistry, their levels in ambient air not yet fully explained by sophisticated models. Here we measured HO2 uptake kinetics onto ambient aerosols in real time using a self-built online system and investigated the impacting factors on such processes by coupling with other instrumentations. The role of the HO2 uptake process in O3 formation is also discussed. Results give useful information for coordinated control of aerosol and ozone pollutants.
Matthieu Dogniaux, Cyril Crevoisier, Raymond Armante, Virginie Capelle, Thibault Delahaye, Vincent Cassé, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, David F. Pollard, Coleen M. Roehl, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4689–4706,Short summary
We present the Adaptable 4A Inversion (5AI), an implementation of the optimal estimation (OE) algorithm, relying on the Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas (4A/OP) radiative transfer model, that enables the retrieval of greenhouse gas atmospheric weighted columns from infrared measurements. It is tested on a sample of Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 observations, and its results satisfactorily compare to several reference products, thus showing the reliability of 5AI OE implementation.
Yosuke Niwa, Yousuke Sawa, Hideki Nara, Toshinobu Machida, Hidekazu Matsueda, Taku Umezawa, Akihiko Ito, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Hiroshi Tanimoto, and Yasunori Tohjima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9455–9473,Short summary
Fires in Equatorial Asia release a large amount of carbon into the atmosphere. Extensively using high-precision atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) data from a commercial aircraft observation project, we estimated fire carbon emissions in Equatorial Asia induced by the big El Niño event in 2015. Additional shipboard measurement data elucidated the validity of the analysis and the best estimate indicated 273 Tg C for fire emissions during September–October 2015.
Astrid Müller, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Takafumi Sugita, Toshinobu Machida, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Prabir K. Patra, Joshua Laughner, and David Crisp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8255–8271,Short summary
Over oceans, high uncertainties in satellite CO2 retrievals exist due to limited reference data. We combine commercial ship and aircraft observations and, with the aid of model calculations, obtain column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2 (XCO2) data over the Pacific Ocean. This new dataset has great potential as a robust reference for XCO2 measured from space and can help to better understand changes in the carbon cycle in response to climate change using satellite observations.
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, James R. Podolske, David F. Pollard, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3837–3869,Short summary
We present the first GOSAT and GOSAT-2 XCO2 data derived with the FOCAL retrieval algorithm. Comparisons of the GOSAT-FOCAL product with other data reveal long-term agreement within about 1 ppm over 1 decade, differences in seasonal variations of about 0.5 ppm, and a mean regional bias to ground-based TCCON data of 0.56 ppm with a mean scatter of 1.89 ppm. GOSAT-2-FOCAL data are preliminary only, but first comparisons show that they compare well with the GOSAT-FOCAL results and TCCON.
Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, Axel Keens, Denis Czurlok, Orfeo Colebatch, Omaira Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Pauli Heikkinen, Pascal Jeseck, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Erik Lutsch, Maria Makarova, Hamud K. Imhasin, Johan Mellqvist, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Uwe Raffalski, Markus Rettinger, John Robinson, Matthias Schneider, Christian Servais, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, and Voltaire A. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1239–1252,Short summary
This study investigates the level of channeling (optical resonances) of each FTIR spectrometer within the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). Since the air gap of the beam splitter is a significant source of channeling, we propose new beam splitters with an increased wedge of the air gap. This study shows the potential for reducing channeling in the FTIR spectrometers operated by the NDACC, thereby increasing the quality of recorded spectra across the network.
Shamil Maksyutov, Tomohiro Oda, Makoto Saito, Rajesh Janardanan, Dmitry Belikov, Johannes W. Kaiser, Ruslan Zhuravlev, Alexander Ganshin, Vinu K. Valsala, Arlyn Andrews, Lukasz Chmura, Edward Dlugokencky, László Haszpra, Ray L. Langenfelds, Toshinobu Machida, Takakiyo Nakazawa, Michel Ramonet, Colm Sweeney, and Douglas Worthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1245–1266,Short summary
In order to improve the top-down estimation of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, a high-resolution inverse modelling technique was developed for applications to global transport modelling of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. A coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian transport model and its adjoint are combined with surface fluxes at 0.1° resolution to provide high-resolution forward simulation and inverse modelling of surface fluxes accounting for signals from emission hot spots.
Robert J. Parker, Alex Webb, Hartmut Boesch, Peter Somkuti, Rocio Barrio Guillo, Antonio Di Noia, Nikoleta Kalaitzi, Jasdeep S. Anand, Peter Bergamaschi, Frederic Chevallier, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Coleen Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, and Debra Wunch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3383–3412,Short summary
This work presents the latest release of the University of Leicester GOSAT methane data and acts as the definitive description of this dataset. We detail the processing, validation and evaluation involved in producing these data and highlight its many applications. With now over a decade of global atmospheric methane observations, this dataset has helped, and will continue to help, us better understand the global methane budget and investigate how it may respond to a future changing climate.
Erik Lutsch, Kimberly Strong, Dylan B. A. Jones, Thomas Blumenstock, Stephanie Conway, Jenny A. Fisher, James W. Hannigan, Frank Hase, Yasuko Kasai, Emmanuel Mahieu, Maria Makarova, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Anatoly V. Poberovskii, Ralf Sussmann, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12813–12851,Short summary
This paper describes the use of a network of 10 Arctic and midlatitude ground-based FTIR measurement sites to detect enhancements of the wildfire tracers carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, and ethane from 2003 to 2018. A tagged CO GEOS-Chem simulation is used for source attribution and to evaluate the relative contribution of CO sources to the FTIR measurements. The use of FTIR measurements allowed for the emission ratios of hydrogen cyanide and ethane to be quantified.
Hirofumi Ohyama, Isamu Morino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Theresa Klausner, Gerry Bagtasa, Matthäus Kiel, Matthias Frey, Akihiro Hori, Osamu Uchino, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Alina Fiehn, Anke Roiger, Michael Lichtenstern, Hans Schlager, Pao K. Wang, Charles C.-K. Chou, Maria Dolores Andrés-Hernández, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5149–5163,Short summary
Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 measured by a solar viewing portable Fourier transform spectrometer (EM27/SUN) were validated with in situ profile data obtained during the transfer flights of two aircraft campaigns. Atmospheric dynamical properties based on ERA5 and WRF-Chem were used as criteria for selecting the best aircraft profiles for the validation. The resulting air-mass-independent correction factors for the EM27/SUN data were 0.9878 for CO2 and 0.9829 for CH4.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Corinne Vigouroux, Bavo Langerock, Carlos Augusto Bauer Aquino, Thomas Blumenstock, Zhibin Cheng, Martine De Mazière, Isabelle De Smedt, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Diego Loyola, Erik Lutsch, Emmanuel Mahieu, Maria Makarova, Jean-Marc Metzger, Isamu Morino, Isao Murata, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Gaia Pinardi, Amelie Röhling, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kim Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Michel van Roozendael, Pucai Wang, and Holger Winkler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3751–3767,Short summary
We validate the TROPOMI HCHO product with ground-based FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) measurements from 25 stations. We find that TROPOMI overestimates HCHO under clean conditions, while it underestimates it at high HCHO levels. Both TROPOMI precision and accuracy reach the pre-launch requirements, and its precision can even be 2 times better. The observed TROPOMI seasonal variability is in agreement with the FTIR data. The TROPOMI random uncertainty and data filtering should be refined.
Arne Babenhauserheide, Frank Hase, and Isamu Morino
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2697–2710,Short summary
This paper demonstrates that the carbon dioxide emissions of Tokyo can be estimated from long-term ground-based measurements of column-averaged atmospheric carbon dioxide abundances recorded at the TCCON site Tsukuba.
Youwen Sun, Cheng Liu, Lin Zhang, Mathias Palm, Justus Notholt, Hao Yin, Corinne Vigouroux, Erik Lutsch, Wei Wang, Changong Shan, Thomas Blumenstock, Tomoo Nagahama, Isamu Morino, Emmanuel Mahieu, Kimberly Strong, Bavo Langerock, Martine De Mazière, Qihou Hu, Huifang Zhang, Christof Petri, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5437–5456,Short summary
We present multiyear time series of ground-based Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements of HCN in densely populated eastern China. The seasonality and interannual variability of tropospheric HCN columns were investigated. The potential sources that drive the observed HCN seasonality and interannual variability were determined using a GEOS-Chem tagged CO simulation, global fire maps, and potential source contribution function values calculated using HYSPLIT back trajectories.
Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Boesch, Antonio Di Noia, Jasdeep Anand, Robert J. Parker, Peter Somkuti, Lianghai Wu, Otto P. Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Kei Shiomi, Yukio Yoshida, Isamu Morino, David Crisp, Christopher W. O'Dell, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Rigel Kivi, David F. Pollard, Frank Hase, Ralf Sussmann, Yao V. Té, Kimberly Strong, Sébastien Roche, Mahesh K. Sha, Martine De Mazière, Dietrich G. Feist, Laura T. Iraci, Coleen M. Roehl, Christian Retscher, and Dinand Schepers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 789–819,Short summary
We present new satellite-derived data sets of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The data products are column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 and XCH4. The products cover the years 2003–2018 and are merged Level 2 (satellite footprints) and merged Level 3 (gridded at monthly time and 5° x 5° spatial resolution) products obtained from combining several individual sensor products. We present the merging algorithms and product validation results.
Jonas Simon Wilzewski, Anke Roiger, Johan Strandgren, Jochen Landgraf, Dietrich G. Feist, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Isamu Morino, Hirofumi Ohyama, Yao Té, Rigel Kivi, Thorsten Warneke, Justus Notholt, Manvendra Dubey, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Frank Hase, Kei Shiomi, and André Butz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 731–745,Short summary
Through spectral degradation of GOSAT measurements in the 1.6 and 2.0 μm spectral bands, we mimic a single-band, passive satellite sensor for monitoring of CO2 emissions at fine spatial scales. We compare retrievals of XCO2 from these bands to TCCON and native GOSAT retrievals. At spectral resolutions near 1.3 nm, XCO2 retrievals from both bands show promising performance, but the 2.0 μm band is favorable due to better noise performance and the potential to retrieve some aerosol information.
Yu Someya, Ryoichi Imasu, Kei Shiomi, and Naoko Saitoh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 309–321,Short summary
This study presents a novel ammonia retrieval system we developed GOSAT. This system was used to derive estimates of global atmospheric ammonia concentrations between 2009 and 2014. The results demonstrated significantly high concentrations stemming from six anthropogenic emission source areas and four biomass burning ones. Their horizontal and temporal distributions were compared with those from IASI. They were totally consistent and the causes of the differences were discussed.
Oliver Schneising, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Tobias Borsdorff, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Christian Hermans, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Jochen Landgraf, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Sébastien Roche, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6771–6802,Short summary
We introduce an algorithm that is used to simultaneously derive the abundances of the important atmospheric constituents carbon monoxide and methane from the TROPOMI instrument onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, which enables the determination of both gases with an unprecedented level of detail on a global scale. The quality of the resulting data sets is assessed and the first results are presented.
Susan S. Kulawik, Sean Crowell, David Baker, Junjie Liu, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Sebastien C. Biraud, Steve Wofsy, Christopher W. O'Dell, Paul O. Wennberg, Debra Wunch, Coleen M. Roehl, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Matthäus Kiel, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, Justus Notholt, Thorsten Warneke, Christof Petri, Martine De Mazière, Mahesh K. Sha, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Dave F. Pollard, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Frank Hase, Dietrich G. Feist, Sébastien Roche, Kimberly Strong, Rigel Kivi, Laura Iraci, Kei Shiomi, Manvendra K. Dubey, Eliezer Sepulveda, Omaira Elena Garcia Rodriguez, Yao Té, Pascal Jeseck, Pauli Heikkinen, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Michael R. Gunson, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, Brendan Fisher, and Gregory B. Osterman
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseenShort summary
This paper provides a benchmark of OCO-2 v8 and ACOS-GOSAT v7.3 XCO2 and lowermost tropospheric (LMT) errors. The paper focuses on the systematic errors and subtracts out validation, co-location, and random errors, looks at the correlation scale-length (spatially and temporally) of systematic errors, finding that the scale lengths are similar to bias correction scale-lengths. The assimilates of the bias correction term is used to place an error on fluxes estimates.
Jacob K. Hedelius, Tai-Long He, Dylan B. A. Jones, Bianca C. Baier, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra K. Dubey, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Pascal Jeseck, Matthäus Kiel, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Sébastien Roche, Coleen M. Roehl, Matthias Schneider, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Colm Sweeney, Yao Té, Osamu Uchino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Wei Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, Helen M. Worden, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5547–5572,Short summary
We seek ways to improve the accuracy of column measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) – an important tracer of pollution – made from the MOPITT satellite instrument. We devise a filtering scheme which reduces the scatter and also eliminates bias among the MOPITT detectors. Compared to ground-based observations, MOPITT measurements are about 6 %–8 % higher. When MOPITT data are implemented in a global assimilation model, they tend to reduce the model mismatch with aircraft measurements.
Yasunori Tohjima, Hitoshi Mukai, Toshinobu Machida, Yu Hoshina, and Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9269–9285,Short summary
The amount of fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide that was taken up by land biosphere and ocean was evaluated from atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen observations in the western Pacific over a 15-year period. The results showed that about 30 % and 17 % of the fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide emitted during a 17-year period (2000–2016) was taken up by the ocean and land sinks, respectively. Long-term trends of land and ocean sinks for the decadal period were also evaluated.
Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Beata Bukosa, Masataka Ajiro, Akihide Kamei, Nicholas B. Jones, Clare Paton-Walsh, and David W. T. Griffith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 935–946,Short summary
We present ground-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide columns from a portable spectrometer taken in a semiarid region of Australia. We compared these measurements to space-based retrievals from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and calibrated them against a Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) instrument to ascertain a retrieval bias. We also present the unique opportunities that Central Australia could offer in the context of satellite product validation.
Eriko Kobayashi, Shunsuke Hoshino, Masami Iwabuchi, Takuji Sugidachi, Kensaku Shimizu, and Masatomo Fujiwara
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3039–3065,Short summary
The authors carried out dual flights of RS-11G and RS92-SGP radiosondes and investigated the differences in the performance of the radiosondes to help characterize GRUAN data products. A novel aspect of GRUAN data products is that vertically resolved uncertainty estimates and metadata are provided for each sounding and comparison of GRUAN data products is important in securing the temporal homogeneity of climate data records.
Ju-Mee Ryoo, Laura T. Iraci, Tomoaki Tanaka, Josette E. Marrero, Emma L. Yates, Inez Fung, Anna M. Michalak, Jovan Tadić, Warren Gore, T. Paul Bui, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, and Cecilia S. Chang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2949–2966,Short summary
We designed cylindrical flights and computed the emission fluxes using a kriging method and Gauss's theorem over Sacramento, California. Differences in wind treatment and background affect the emission estimates by a factor of 1.5 to 7. The effects of the vertical layer average and the vertical mass transfer on the emission estimates are found to be small, esp. local scale. The result also suggests a closed-shape flight profile can better contain total emissions than a one-sided curtain flight.
Yoichi Inai, Ryo Fujita, Toshinobu Machida, Hidekazu Matsueda, Yousuke Sawa, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Keiichi Katsumata, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, and Takakiyo Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7073–7103,
Yange Deng, Hikari Yai, Hiroaki Fujinari, Kaori Kawana, Tomoki Nakayama, and Michihiro Mochida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5889–5903,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) components account for 20–90 % of sub-micrometer aerosol mass and have a broad distribution of hygroscopicity. For the first time, the diurnal variation and size dependence of the hygroscopicity of OA were characterized for a forest in East Asia. The observed variation and dependence were assessed from the viewpoint of biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, and they strongly affected the contribution of OA to the CCN number concentration.
Christopher W. O'Dell, Annmarie Eldering, Paul O. Wennberg, David Crisp, Michael R. Gunson, Brendan Fisher, Christian Frankenberg, Matthäus Kiel, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Lukas Mandrake, Aronne Merrelli, Vijay Natraj, Robert R. Nelson, Gregory B. Osterman, Vivienne H. Payne, Thomas E. Taylor, Debra Wunch, Brian J. Drouin, Fabiano Oyafuso, Albert Chang, James McDuffie, Michael Smyth, David F. Baker, Sourish Basu, Frédéric Chevallier, Sean M. R. Crowell, Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Mavendra Dubey, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, Coleen M. Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Te, Osamu Uchino, and Voltaire A. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6539–6576,
Chang-Gong Shan, Wei Wang, Cheng Liu, You-Wen Sun, Yuan Tian, and Isamu Morino
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst. Discuss.,
Publication in GI not foreseenShort summary
Observations of the stable isotopes of water vapor by high-resolution ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) provide information on study of the variation of the atmospheric water vapor at Hefei site. In this paper, the percentage of atmospheric H2O(XH2O) and HDO (XHDO) have been retrieved based on a high-resolution ground-based FTIR at Hefei site, and also calculated the stable isotopes of water composition δD. The time series of XH2O were compared with the Greenhouse gase.
Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Stephan Henne, Rona L. Thompson, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Toshinobu Machida, Jean-Daniel Paris, Motoki Sasakawa, Arjo Segers, Colm Sweeney, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4469–4487,Short summary
A Lagrangian particle dispersion model is used to simulate global fields of methane, constrained by observations through nudging. We show that this rather simple and computationally inexpensive method can give results similar to or as good as a computationally expensive Eulerian chemistry transport model with a data assimilation scheme. The three-dimensional methane fields are of interest to applications such as inverse modelling and satellite retrievals.
Taku Umezawa, Hidekazu Matsueda, Yousuke Sawa, Yosuke Niwa, Toshinobu Machida, and Lingxi Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14851–14866,Short summary
Distribution of atmospheric CO2 is key to estimate surface CO2 sources and sinks. We present extensive analysis of a unique 10-year three-dimensional dataset of atmospheric CO2 achieved by the CONTRAIL commercial airliner measurements over the Asia-Pacific region. Aided by model simulations, we identified the influence of anthropogenic and biospheric CO2 fluxes in the seasonal evolution of the spatial CO2 distributions under the seasonally varying meteorology (e.g., Asian summer monsoon)
James S. Wang, S. Randolph Kawa, G. James Collatz, Motoki Sasakawa, Luciana V. Gatti, Toshinobu Machida, Yuping Liu, and Michael E. Manyin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11097–11124,Short summary
We used measurements of CO2 in the atmosphere from the GOSAT satellite and from surface sites around the world, together with a transport model and a unique estimation technique, to quantify CO2 sources and removals over a recent period. We find that climate variations can strongly influence uptake by vegetation and release in decay and fires. However, regional gaps in observations and inaccuracies to which current satellite technology is susceptible result in important estimation biases.
Yu Hoshina, Yasunori Tohjima, Keiichi Katsumata, Toshinobu Machida, and Shin-ichiro Nakaoka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9283–9295,Short summary
We installed a low flow rate measurement system on a cargo ship sailing between Japan and North America and started onboard continuous measurements for O2 and CO2. From the comparison between the in situ measurements and flask samples, we concluded that the uncertainties in the O2 and CO2 mole fraction for the in situ measurements are about 9 per meg and about 0.3 ppm, respectively.
Lianghai Wu, Otto Hasekamp, Haili Hu, Jochen Landgraf, Andre Butz, Joost aan de Brugh, Ilse Aben, Dave F. Pollard, David W. T. Griffith, Dietrich G. Feist, Dmitry Koshelev, Frank Hase, Geoffrey C. Toon, Hirofumi Ohyama, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Kei Shiomi, Laura Iraci, Matthias Schneider, Martine de Mazière, Ralf Sussmann, Rigel Kivi, Thorsten Warneke, Tae-Young Goo, and Yao Té
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3111–3130,
Ira Leifer, Christopher Melton, Marc L. Fischer, Matthew Fladeland, Jason Frash, Warren Gore, Laura T. Iraci, Josette E. Marrero, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Tomoaki Tanaka, and Emma L. Yates
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1689–1705,Short summary
Airborne/mobile-surface data were collected to derive active oil field trace gas emissions near Bakersfield, CA, characterizing the atmosphere from the surface to above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) by combining downwind concentration anomaly (plume) above background with normal winds. Air–surface comparison for a mountain profile (0.1–2.2 km) confirmed surface winds. Annualized oil field emissions were 31.3±16 Gg CH4 and 2.4±1.2 Tg CO2. The PBL was not well mixed even 10–20 km downwind.
Tomohiro O. Sato, Takao M. Sato, Hideo Sagawa, Katsuyuki Noguchi, Naoko Saitoh, Hitoshi Irie, Kazuyuki Kita, Mona E. Mahani, Koji Zettsu, Ryoichi Imasu, Sachiko Hayashida, and Yasuko Kasai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1653–1668,Short summary
Air pollution is one of the world's greatest environmental health risks. Ozone adversely affects human health and agricultural production, and the tropospheric ozone has been increasing globally over the past few decades. We report an advanced method to derive the ozone amount in the lowermost troposphere using multi-spectral measurements (UV, thermal infrared and microwave). Combining the MW measurement with the UV and thermal infrared measurements certainly increased the sensitivity.
Naoko Saitoh, Shuhei Kimoto, Ryo Sugimura, Ryoichi Imasu, Kei Shiomi, Akihiko Kuze, Yosuke Niwa, Toshinobu Machida, Yousuke Sawa, and Hidekazu Matsueda
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3877–3892,Short summary
This study evaluated biases in GOSAT/TANSO-FTS thermal infrared (TIR) V1 CO2 product on 736–287 hPa on the basis of comparisons with CONTRAIL CME CO2 data over airports. TIR V1 CO2 data had consistent negative biases of 1–1.5 %, with the largest negative biases at 541–398 hPa. Global comparisons between TIR CO2 data to which the bias-correction values were applied and CO2 data simulated by NICAM-TM confirmed the validity of the bias-correction values evaluated over airports in limited areas.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Ray Weiss, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11135–11161,Short summary
Following the Global Methane Budget 2000–2012 published in Saunois et al. (2016), we use the same dataset of bottom-up and top-down approaches to discuss the variations in methane emissions over the period 2000–2012. The changes in emissions are discussed both in terms of trends and quasi-decadal changes. The ensemble gathered here allows us to synthesise the robust changes in terms of regional and sectorial contributions to the increasing methane emissions.
Wei Wang, Yuan Tian, Cheng Liu, Youwen Sun, Wenqing Liu, Pinhua Xie, Jianguo Liu, Jin Xu, Isamu Morino, Voltaire A. Velazco, David W. T. Griffith, Justus Notholt, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2627–2643,Short summary
A ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) station has been established in Hefei, China to remotely measure CO2, CO and other greenhouse gases. Our research aim is to provide information for constraining regional sources and sinks, and validate satellite data, such as GOSAT, OCO-2 and TANSAT. We investigate the potential of FTS to determine the temporal variability of atmospheric CO2 and CO, and assess the ability of our observations to validate satellite data.
Yosuke Niwa, Yosuke Fujii, Yousuke Sawa, Yosuke Iida, Akihiko Ito, Masaki Satoh, Ryoichi Imasu, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Hidekazu Matsueda, and Nobuko Saigusa
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2201–2219,Short summary
A new 4D-Var inversion system based on the icosahedral grid model, NICAM, is introduced and tested. Adding to the offline forward and adjoint models, this study has introduced the optimization method of POpULar; it does not require difficult decomposition of a matrix that establishes the correlation among the prior flux errors. In identical twin experiments of atmospheric CO2 inversion, the system successfully reproduces the spatiotemporal variations of the surface fluxes.
Debra Wunch, Paul O. Wennberg, Gregory Osterman, Brendan Fisher, Bret Naylor, Coleen M. Roehl, Christopher O'Dell, Lukas Mandrake, Camille Viatte, Matthäus Kiel, David W. T. Griffith, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Justus Notholt, Thorsten Warneke, Christof Petri, Martine De Maziere, Mahesh K. Sha, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, David Pollard, John Robinson, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Dietrich G. Feist, Sabrina G. Arnold, Kimberly Strong, Joseph Mendonca, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Laura Iraci, James Podolske, Patrick W. Hillyard, Shuji Kawakami, Manvendra K. Dubey, Harrison A. Parker, Eliezer Sepulveda, Omaira E. García, Yao Te, Pascal Jeseck, Michael R. Gunson, David Crisp, and Annmarie Eldering
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2209–2238,Short summary
This paper describes the comparisons between NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 with its primary ground-based validation network, the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The paper shows that while the standard bias correction reduces much of the spurious variability in the satellite measurements, residual biases remain.
Susan S. Kulawik, Chris O'Dell, Vivienne H. Payne, Le Kuai, Helen M. Worden, Sebastien C. Biraud, Colm Sweeney, Britton Stephens, Laura T. Iraci, Emma L. Yates, and Tomoaki Tanaka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5407–5438,Short summary
We introduce new vertically resolved GOSAT products that better separate locally and remotely influenced CO2. Current GOSAT column results for CO2 (XCO2) are sensitive to fluxes on continental scales, whereas flux estimates from surface and tower measurements are affected by sampling bias and model transport uncertainty. These new GOSAT measurements of boundary layer CO2 are validated against aircraft and surface observations of CO2 and are compared to vertically resolved MOPITT CO.
Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Hartmut Bösch, Robert J. Parker, Alex J. Webb, Caio S. C. Correia, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Lucas G. Domingues, Dietrich G. Feist, Luciana V. Gatti, Emanuel Gloor, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Yi Liu, John B. Miller, Isamu Morino, Ralf Sussmann, Kimberly Strong, Osamu Uchino, Jing Wang, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4781–4797,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry and transport and an ensemble Kalman filter to simultaneously infer regional fluxes of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) directly from GOSAT retrievals of XCH4:XCO2, using sparse ground-based CH4 and CO2 mole fraction data to anchor the ratio. Our results show that assimilation of GOSAT data significantly reduced the posterior uncertainty and changed the a priori spatial distribution of CH4 emissions.
Yosuke Niwa, Hirofumi Tomita, Masaki Satoh, Ryoichi Imasu, Yousuke Sawa, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Hidekazu Matsueda, Toshinobu Machida, Motoki Sasakawa, Boris Belan, and Nobuko Saigusa
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1157–1174,Short summary
We have developed forward and adjoint models based on NICAM-TM, as part of the 4D-Var system for atmospheric GHGs inversions. The models are computationally efficient enough to make the 4D-Var iterative calculation feasible. Trajectory analysis for high-CO2 concentration events are performed to test adjoint sensitivities; we also demonstrate the potential usefulness of our adjoint model for diagnosing tracer transport.
Rona L. Thompson, Motoki Sasakawa, Toshinobu Machida, Tuula Aalto, Doug Worthy, Jost V. Lavric, Cathrine Lund Myhre, and Andreas Stohl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3553–3572,Short summary
Methane (CH4) fluxes were estimated for the high northern latitudes for 2005–2013 based on observations of atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios. Methane fluxes were found to be higher than prior estimates in northern Eurasia and Canada, especially in the Western Siberian Lowlands and the Canadian province Alberta. Significant inter-annual variations in the fluxes were found as well as a small positive trend. In Canada, the trend may be related to an increase in soil temperature over the study period.
Shohei Nomura, Hitoshi Mukai, Yukio Terao, Toshinobu Machida, and Yukihiro Nojiri
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 667–680,Short summary
We developed a battery-powered CO2 measurement system for monitoring at the summit of Mt. Fuji, which experiences severe environmental conditions without access to gridded electricity for 10 months. Our measurement system used 100 batteries to run the measurement unit during these months. CO2 mole fractions at Mt. Fuji demonstrated clear seasonal variation. The trend and the variability of the CO2 growth rate observed at Mt. Fuji was very similar to that of the Mauna Loa Observatory.
Jinwoong Kim, Hyun Mee Kim, Chun-Ho Cho, Kyung-On Boo, Andrew R. Jacobson, Motoki Sasakawa, Toshinobu Machida, Mikhail Arshinov, and Nikolay Fedoseev
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2881–2899,Short summary
To investigate the effect of CO2 observations in Siberia on the surface CO2 flux analyses, two experiments using observation data sets with and without Siberian measurements were performed. While the magnitude of the optimized surface CO2 flux uptake in Siberia decreased, that in the other regions of the Northern Hemisphere increased for the experiment with Siberian observations. It is expected that the Siberian observations play an important role in estimating surface CO2 flux in the future.
Whitney Bader, Benoît Bovy, Stephanie Conway, Kimberly Strong, Dan Smale, Alexander J. Turner, Thomas Blumenstock, Chris Boone, Martine Collaud Coen, Ancelin Coulon, Omaira Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Petra Hausmann, Nicholas Jones, Paul Krummel, Isao Murata, Isamu Morino, Hideaki Nakajima, Simon O'Doherty, Clare Paton-Walsh, John Robinson, Rodrigue Sandrin, Matthias Schneider, Christian Servais, Ralf Sussmann, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2255–2277,Short summary
An increase of 0.31 ± 0.03 % year−1 of atmospheric methane is reported using 10 years of solar observations performed at 10 ground-based stations since 2005. These trend agree with a GEOS-Chem-tagged simulation that accounts for the contribution of each emission source and one sink in the total methane. The GEOS-Chem simulation shows that anthropogenic emissions from coal mining and gas and oil transport and exploration have played a major role in the increase methane since 2005.
Osamu Uchino, Tetsu Sakai, Toshiharu Izumi, Tomohiro Nagai, Isamu Morino, Akihiro Yamazaki, Makoto Deushi, Keiya Yumimoto, Takashi Maki, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Taiga Akaho, Hiroshi Okumura, Kohei Arai, Takahiro Nakatsuru, Tsuneo Matsunaga, and Tatsuya Yokota
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1865–1879,Short summary
To validate products of GOSAT, we observed vertical profiles of aerosols, thin cirrus clouds, and tropospheric ozone with a mobile lidar system that consisted of a two-wavelength (532 and 1064 nm) polarization lidar and tropospheric ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL). We used these lidars to make continuous measurements over Saga (33.24° N, 130.29° E) during 20–31 March 2015. High ozone and high aerosol concentrations were observed almost simultaneously and impacted surface air quality.
Dmitry A. Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Alexander Ganshin, Ruslan Zhuravlev, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Debra Wunch, Dietrich G. Feist, Isamu Morino, Robert J. Parker, Kimberly Strong, Yukio Yoshida, Andrey Bril, Sergey Oshchepkov, Hartmut Boesch, Manvendra K. Dubey, David Griffith, Will Hewson, Rigel Kivi, Joseph Mendonca, Justus Notholt, Matthias Schneider, Ralf Sussmann, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Shuji Aoki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 143–157,
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Victor Brovkin, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles Curry, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Julia Marshall, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Paul Steele, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray Weiss, Christine Wiedinmyer, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 697–751,Short summary
An accurate assessment of the methane budget is important to understand the atmospheric methane concentrations and trends and to provide realistic pathways for climate change mitigation. The various and diffuse sources of methane as well and its oxidation by a very short lifetime radical challenge this assessment. We quantify the methane sources and sinks as well as their uncertainties based on both bottom-up and top-down approaches provided by a broad international scientific community.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Takuji Sugidachi, Toru Arai, Kensaku Shimizu, Mayumi Hayashi, Yasuhisa Noma, Hideaki Kawagita, Kazuo Sagara, Taro Nakagawa, Satoshi Okumura, Yoichi Inai, Takashi Shibata, Suginori Iwasaki, and Atsushi Shimizu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5911–5931,Short summary
A meteorological balloon-borne cloud sensor called the cloud particle sensor (CPS) has been developed. The CPS can count the number of particles per second and can obtain the cloud phase information (i.e. liquid, ice, or mixed). Twenty-five test flights have been made between 2012 and 2015 at midlatitude and tropical sites. The results from the four flights are discussed.
Zeli Tan, Qianlai Zhuang, Daven K. Henze, Christian Frankenberg, Ed Dlugokencky, Colm Sweeney, Alexander J. Turner, Motoki Sasakawa, and Toshinobu Machida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12649–12666,Short summary
Methane emissions from the pan-Arctic could be important in understanding the global carbon cycle but are still poorly constrained to date. This study demonstrated that satellite retrievals can be used to reduce the uncertainty of the estimates of these emissions. We also provided additional evidence for the existence of large methane emissions from pan-Arctic lakes in the Siberian yedoma permafrost region. We found that biogeochemical models should be improved for better estimates.
Enrico Dammers, Mathias Palm, Martin Van Damme, Corinne Vigouroux, Dan Smale, Stephanie Conway, Geoffrey C. Toon, Nicholas Jones, Eric Nussbaumer, Thorsten Warneke, Christof Petri, Lieven Clarisse, Cathy Clerbaux, Christian Hermans, Erik Lutsch, Kim Strong, James W. Hannigan, Hideaki Nakajima, Isamu Morino, Beatriz Herrera, Wolfgang Stremme, Michel Grutter, Martijn Schaap, Roy J. Wichink Kruit, Justus Notholt, Pierre-F. Coheur, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10351–10368,Short summary
Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) measured by the IASI satellite instrument is compared to observations from ground-based FTIR instruments. The seasonal cycles of NH3 in both datasets are consistent for most sites. Correlations are found to be high at sites with considerable NH3 levels, whereas correlations are lower at sites with low NH3 levels close to the detection limit of the IASI instrument. The study's results further indicate that the IASI-NH3 product performs better than earlier estimates.
Makoto Inoue, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Takahiro Nakatsuru, Yukio Yoshida, Tatsuya Yokota, Debra Wunch, Paul O. Wennberg, Coleen M. Roehl, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Thorsten Warneke, Justus Notholt, John Robinson, Vanessa Sherlock, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Markus Rettinger, Ralf Sussmann, Esko Kyrö, Rigel Kivi, Kei Shiomi, Shuji Kawakami, Martine De Mazière, Sabrina G. Arnold, Dietrich G. Feist, Erica A. Barrow, James Barney, Manvendra Dubey, Matthias Schneider, Laura T. Iraci, James R. Podolske, Patrick W. Hillyard, Toshinobu Machida, Yousuke Sawa, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Hidekazu Matsueda, Colm Sweeney, Pieter P. Tans, Arlyn E. Andrews, Sebastien C. Biraud, Yukio Fukuyama, Jasna V. Pittman, Eric A. Kort, and Tomoaki Tanaka
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3491–3512,Short summary
In this study, we correct the biases of GOSAT XCO2 and XCH4 using TCCON data. To evaluate the effectiveness of our correction method, uncorrected/corrected GOSAT data are compared to independent XCO2 and XCH4 data derived from aircraft measurements. Consequently, we suggest that this method is effective for reducing the biases of the GOSAT data. We consider that our work provides GOSAT data users with valuable information and contributes to the further development of studies on greenhouse gases.
Misa Ishizawa, Osamu Uchino, Isamu Morino, Makoto Inoue, Yukio Yoshida, Kazuo Mabuchi, Tomoko Shirai, Yasunori Tohjima, Shamil Maksyutov, Hirofumi Ohyama, Shuji Kawakami, Atsushi Takizawa, and Dmitry Belikov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9149–9161,Short summary
Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched to monitor CO2 and CH4 concentrations from the space. This paper analyses an extremely high XCH4 event over Northeast Asia observed by GOSAT in the summer of 2013. Results indicate that the high XCH4 event was caused by fast transport of CH4-rich air from East China to Japan due to anomalies of north Pacific high-pressure system over East Asia. This study demonstrates the capability of GOSAT to detect an XCH4 event on a synoptic scale.
Naoko Saitoh, Shuhei Kimoto, Ryo Sugimura, Ryoichi Imasu, Shuji Kawakami, Kei Shiomi, Akihiko Kuze, Toshinobu Machida, Yousuke Sawa, and Hidekazu Matsueda
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2119–2134,Short summary
This study compared GOSAT/TANSO-FTS thermal infrared (TIR) V1 and CONTRAIL CME CO2 data in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The TIR CO2 averages agreed with the CME CO2 averages within 0.1 and 0.5 % in the Southern and Northern Hemisphere. At northern low and middle latitudes, their agreements were worse in spring and summer. The negative bias there made the maximum of TIR data being lower than that of CME data, which leads to underestimating the amplitude of CO2 seasonal variation.
Yu Someya, Ryoichi Imasu, Naoko Saitoh, Yoshifumi Ota, and Kei Shiomi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1981–1992,Short summary
This article presents an algorithm for cloud detection using TIR radiance spectra based on the CO2 slicing technique for improvement of GHG observation from space. The key techniques of the algorithm are channel reconstruction and their optimization for increasing sensitivity and accuracy. The analysis results using GOSAT data show general agreement with those from CALIPSO. It can be expected that this algorithm would improve the accuracy of cloud screening and gas retrievals from GOSAT data.
Sudhanshu Pandey, Sander Houweling, Maarten Krol, Ilse Aben, Frédéric Chevallier, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Luciana V. Gatti, Emanuel Gloor, John B. Miller, Rob Detmers, Toshinobu Machida, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5043–5062,Short summary
This study investigates the constraint provided by measurements of Xratio (XCH4/XCO2) from space on surface fluxes of CH4 and CO2. We apply the ratio inversion method described in Pandey et al. (2015) to Xratio retrievals from the GOSAT with the TM5-4DVAR inverse modeling system, to constrain the surface fluxes of CH4 and CO2 for 2009 and 2010. The results are compared to proxy CH4 inversions using model-derived-XCO2 mixing ratios from CarbonTracker and MACC.
Sayako Ueda, Tomoki Nakayama, Fumikazu Taketani, Kouji Adachi, Atsushi Matsuki, Yoko Iwamoto, Yasuhiro Sadanaga, and Yutaka Matsumi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2525–2541,Short summary
Detailed understandings of the light absorption property of black carbon (BC) particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology are important. In this study, the enhancement of light absorption of BC due to coating (lensing effect) in a well-aged air mass was observed at an East Asian outflow site in Japan using a photoacoustic spectrometer, and its relation with mixing state and morphology of individual particles was examined based on transmission electron microscope analyses.
Susan Kulawik, Debra Wunch, Christopher O'Dell, Christian Frankenberg, Maximilian Reuter, Tomohiro Oda, Frederic Chevallier, Vanessa Sherlock, Michael Buchwitz, Greg Osterman, Charles E. Miller, Paul O. Wennberg, David Griffith, Isamu Morino, Manvendra K. Dubey, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Justus Notholt, Frank Hase, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, John Robinson, Kimberly Strong, Matthias Schneider, Martine De Mazière, Kei Shiomi, Dietrich G. Feist, Laura T. Iraci, and Joyce Wolf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 683–709,Short summary
To accurately estimate source and sink locations of carbon dioxide, systematic errors in satellite measurements and models must be characterized. This paper examines two satellite data sets (GOSAT, launched 2009, and SCIAMACHY, launched 2002), and two models (CarbonTracker and MACC) vs. the TCCON CO2 validation data set. We assess biases and errors by season and latitude, satellite performance under averaging, and diurnal variability. Our findings are useful for assimilation of satellite data.
L. Feng, P. I. Palmer, R. J. Parker, N. M. Deutscher, D. G. Feist, R. Kivi, I. Morino, and R. Sussmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1289–1302,Short summary
There is an on-going debate on the larger European biospheric uptake inferred from GOSAT XCO2 retrievals than those inferred from in situ data. Using a set of 15 experiments, we found that the elevated uptake over Europe could largely be explained by mis-fitting data due to regional XCO2 biases: 50–80 % of the elevated European uptake is due to retrievals outside the immediate European; and a varying monthly bias of up to 0.5 ppm for XCO2 retrievals over Europe could explain most of the remainder.
H. Ohyama, S. Kawakami, T. Tanaka, I. Morino, O. Uchino, M. Inoue, T. Sakai, T. Nagai, A. Yamazaki, A. Uchiyama, T. Fukamachi, M. Sakashita, T. Kawasaki, T. Akaho, K. Arai, and H. Okumura
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5263–5276,Short summary
We derived time series of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane (XCO2 and XCH4) at Saga, Japan, with a ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (g-b FTS). The g-b FTS XCO2 and XCH4 data were compared with those derived from a satellite-based instrument (TANSO-FTS onboard GOSAT). Using aerosol information measured simultaneously with a sky radiometer and a lidar at Saga, we evaluated the influence of aerosols on the satellite observations.
H. Lindqvist, C. W. O'Dell, S. Basu, H. Boesch, F. Chevallier, N. Deutscher, L. Feng, B. Fisher, F. Hase, M. Inoue, R. Kivi, I. Morino, P. I. Palmer, R. Parker, M. Schneider, R. Sussmann, and Y. Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13023–13040,Short summary
Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration varies seasonally mainly due to plant photosynthesis in the Northern Hemisphere. We found that the satellite GOSAT can capture this variability from space to within 1ppm. We also found that models can differ by more than 1ppm. This implies that the satellite measurements could be useful in evaluating models and their prior estimates of carbon dioxide sources and sinks.
A. Berchet, I. Pison, F. Chevallier, J.-D. Paris, P. Bousquet, J.-L. Bonne, M. Y. Arshinov, B. D. Belan, C. Cressot, D. K. Davydov, E. J. Dlugokencky, A. V. Fofonov, A. Galanin, J. Lavrič, T. Machida, R. Parker, M. Sasakawa, R. Spahni, B. D. Stocker, and J. Winderlich
Biogeosciences, 12, 5393–5414,
J. Heymann, M. Reuter, M. Hilker, M. Buchwitz, O. Schneising, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Kuze, H. Suto, N. M. Deutscher, M. K. Dubey, D. W. T. Griffith, F. Hase, S. Kawakami, R. Kivi, I. Morino, C. Petri, C. Roehl, M. Schneider, V. Sherlock, R. Sussmann, V. A. Velazco, T. Warneke, and D. Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2961–2980,Short summary
Long-term data sets of global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations based on observations from different satellite instruments may suffer from inconsistencies originating from the use of different retrieval algorithms. This issue has been addressed by applying the Bremen Optimal Estimation DOAS retrieval algorithm to SCIAMACHY and TANSO-FTS observations. Detailed comparisons with TCCON and CarbonTracker show good consistency between the SCIAMACHY and TANSO-FTS data sets.
H. Irie, T. Nakayama, A. Shimizu, A. Yamazaki, T. Nagai, A. Uchiyama, Y. Zaizen, S. Kagamitani, and Y. Matsumi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2775–2788,
N. Kurita, Y. Fujiyoshi, T. Nakayama, Y. Matsumi, and H. Kitagawa
Clim. Past, 11, 339–353,Short summary
This study demonstrates that the intensity of the East Asian summer and winter monsoon is the primary driver of variations of summer and winter precipitation isotopes in central Japan. Japan lies in the northeast limits of the East Asian monsoon region. Understanding the past monsoon changes in Japan is important for determining whether the isotopic variability recorded in Chinese stalagmite reflects the East Asian summer monsoon intensity or rainfall variability in the Indian summer monsoon.
M. Reuter, M. Buchwitz, M. Hilker, J. Heymann, O. Schneising, D. Pillai, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, H. Bösch, R. Parker, A. Butz, O. Hasekamp, C. W. O'Dell, Y. Yoshida, C. Gerbig, T. Nehrkorn, N. M. Deutscher, T. Warneke, J. Notholt, F. Hase, R. Kivi, R. Sussmann, T. Machida, H. Matsueda, and Y. Sawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13739–13753,Short summary
Current knowledge about the European terrestrial biospheric carbon sink relies upon bottom-up and global surface flux inverse model estimates using in situ measurements. Our analysis of five satellite data sets comprises a regional inversion designed to be insensitive to potential retrieval biases and transport errors. We show that the satellite-derived sink is larger (1.0±0.3GtC/a) than previous estimates (0.4±0.4GtC/a).
K. Nakamae, O. Uchino, I. Morino, B. Liley, T. Sakai, T. Nagai, and T. Yokota
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12099–12108,
P. Ricaud, B. Sič, L. El Amraoui, J.-L. Attié, R. Zbinden, P. Huszar, S. Szopa, J. Parmentier, N. Jaidan, M. Michou, R. Abida, F. Carminati, D. Hauglustaine, T. August, J. Warner, R. Imasu, N. Saitoh, and V.-H. Peuch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11427–11446,
F. Jiang, H. M. Wang, J. M. Chen, T. Machida, L. X. Zhou, W. M. Ju, H. Matsueda, and Y. Sawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10133–10144,
M. Inoue, I. Morino, O. Uchino, Y. Miyamoto, T. Saeki, Y. Yoshida, T. Yokota, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, S. C. Biraud, T. Machida, J. V. Pittman, E. A. Kort, T. Tanaka, S. Kawakami, Y. Sawa, K. Tsuboi, and H. Matsueda
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2987–3005,
Q. Zhu, Q. Zhuang, D. Henze, K. Bowman, M. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. He, H. Matsueda, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, and W. Oechel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
N. V. Rokotyan, V. I. Zakharov, K. G. Gribanov, M. Schneider, F.-M. Bréon, J. Jouzel, R. Imasu, M. Werner, M. Butzin, C. Petri, T. Warneke, and J. Notholt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2567–2580,
H. F. Zhang, B. Z. Chen, I. T. van der Laan-Luijk, T. Machida, H. Matsueda, Y. Sawa, Y. Fukuyama, R. Langenfelds, M. van der Schoot, G. Xu, J. W. Yan, M. L. Cheng, L. X. Zhou, P. P. Tans, and W. Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5807–5824,
O. Uchino, T. Sakai, T. Nagai, I. Morino, T. Maki, M. Deushi, K. Shibata, M. Kajino, T. Kawasaki, T. Akaho, S. Takubo, H. Okumura, K. Arai, M. Nakazato, T. Matsunaga, T. Yokota, S. Kawakami, K. Kita, and Y. Sasano
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1385–1394,
E. Saikawa, R. G. Prinn, E. Dlugokencky, K. Ishijima, G. S. Dutton, B. D. Hall, R. Langenfelds, Y. Tohjima, T. Machida, M. Manizza, M. Rigby, S. O'Doherty, P. K. Patra, C. M. Harth, R. F. Weiss, P. B. Krummel, M. van der Schoot, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, S. Aoki, T. Nakazawa, and J. W. Elkins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4617–4641,
S. Houweling, M. Krol, P. Bergamaschi, C. Frankenberg, E. J. Dlugokencky, I. Morino, J. Notholt, V. Sherlock, D. Wunch, V. Beck, C. Gerbig, H. Chen, E. A. Kort, T. Röckmann, and I. Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3991–4012,
Y. Tohjima, M. Kubo, C. Minejima, H. Mukai, H. Tanimoto, A. Ganshin, S. Maksyutov, K. Katsumata, T. Machida, and K. Kita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1663–1677,
M. Inoue, I. Morino, O. Uchino, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Yoshida, T. Yokota, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, H. Matsueda, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, A. E. Andrews, S. C. Biraud, T. Tanaka, S. Kawakami, and P. K. Patra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9771–9788,
S. Maksyutov, H. Takagi, V. K. Valsala, M. Saito, T. Oda, T. Saeki, D. A. Belikov, R. Saito, A. Ito, Y. Yoshida, I. Morino, O. Uchino, R. J. Andres, and T. Yokota
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9351–9373,
Y. Yoshida, N. Kikuchi, I. Morino, O. Uchino, S. Oshchepkov, A. Bril, T. Saeki, N. Schutgens, G. C. Toon, D. Wunch, C. M. Roehl, P. O. Wennberg, D. W. T. Griffith, N. M. Deutscher, T. Warneke, J. Notholt, J. Robinson, V. Sherlock, B. Connor, M. Rettinger, R. Sussmann, P. Ahonen, P. Heikkinen, E. Kyrö, J. Mendonca, K. Strong, F. Hase, S. Dohe, and T. Yokota
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1533–1547,
Y. Miyamoto, M. Inoue, I. Morino, O. Uchino, T. Yokota, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, H. Matsueda, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, A. E. Andrews, and P. K. Patra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5265–5275,
K. Tsuboi, H. Matsueda, Y. Sawa, Y. Niwa, M. Nakamura, D. Kuboike, K. Saito, H. Ohmori, S. Iwatsubo, H. Nishi, Y. Hanamiya, K. Tsuji, and Y. Baba
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1257–1270,
C. Crevoisier, D. Nobileau, R. Armante, L. Crépeau, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, H. Matsueda, T. Schuck, T. Thonat, J. Pernin, N. A. Scott, and A. Chédin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4279–4289,
D. Sakaizawa, S. Kawakami, M. Nakajima, T. Tanaka, I. Morino, and O. Uchino
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 387–396,
A. Wada, H. Matsueda, S. Murayama, S. Taguchi, A. Kamada, M. Nosaka, K. Tsuboi, and Y. Sawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 12119–12132,
O. Uchino, T. Sakai, T. Nagai, K. Nakamae, I. Morino, K. Arai, H. Okumura, S. Takubo, T. Kawasaki, Y. Mano, T. Matsunaga, and T. Yokota
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11975–11984,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsEffect of land–sea air mass transport on spatiotemporal distributions of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios over the southern Yellow SeaHYPHOP: a tool for high-altitude, long-range monitoring of hydrogen peroxide and higher organic peroxides in the atmospherePortable, low-cost samplers for distributed sampling of atmospheric gasesSI-traceable validation of a laser spectrometer for balloon-borne measurements of water vapor in the upper atmosphereField evaluation of low-cost electrochemical air quality gas sensors under extreme temperature and relative humidity conditionsA novel, cost-effective analytical method for measuring high-resolution vertical profiles of stratospheric trace gases using a gas chromatograph coupled with an electron capture detectorEthylene oxide monitor with part-per-trillion precision for in situ measurementsDevelopment of an automated pump-efficiency measuring system for ozonesondes utilizing an airbag-type flowmeterShort-term variability of atmospheric helium revealed through a cryo-enrichment methodUsing tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy for ambient hydrogen chloride detection: HCl-TILDASNew methods for the calibration of optical resonators: integrated calibration by means of optical modulation (ICOM) and narrow-band cavity ring-down (NB-CRD)A modular field system for near-surface, vertical profiling of the atmospheric composition in harsh environments using cavity ring-down spectroscopyField comparison of two novel open-path instruments that measure dry deposition and emission of ammonia using flux-gradient and eddy covariance methodsDevelopment of multi-channel whole-air sampling equipment onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle for investigating volatile organic compounds' vertical distribution in the planetary boundary layerElectrochemical sensors on board a Zeppelin NT: in-flight evaluation of low-cost trace gas measurementsEvaluating the performance of a Picarro G2207-i analyser for high-precision atmospheric O2 measurementsAirborne flux measurements of ammonia over the southern Great Plains using chemical ionization mass spectrometryOptical receiver characterizations and corrections for ground-based and airborne measurements of spectral actinic flux densitiesDevelopment and validation of a new in situ technique to measure total gaseous chlorine in airTrue eddy accumulation – Part 1: Solutions to the problem of non-vanishing mean vertical wind velocityTrue eddy accumulation – Part 2: Theory and experiment of the short-time eddy accumulation methodChemical ionization mass spectrometry utilizing ammonium ions (NH4+ CIMS) for measurements of organic compounds in the atmosphereDirect measurement of N2O5 heterogeneous uptake coefficients on ambient aerosols via an aerosol flow tube system: design, characterization and performanceOnline measurements of cycloalkanes based on NO+ chemical ionization in proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS)Intercomparison of in situ measurements of ambient NH3: instrument performance and application under field conditionsA lightweight broadband cavity-enhanced spectrometer for NO2 measurement on uncrewed aerial vehiclesOn the development of a new prototype PTR-ToF-MS instrument and its application to the detection of atmospheric aminesLow-complexity methods to mitigate the impact of environmental variables on low-cost UAS-based atmospheric carbon dioxide measurementsComparison of airborne measurements of NO, NO2, HONO, NOy, and CO during FIREX-AQDevelopment of a broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for simultaneous measurements of ambient NO3, NO2, and H2OImprovements of a low-cost CO2 commercial nondispersive near-infrared (NDIR) sensor for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) atmospheric mapping applicationsDevelopment and testing of a novel sulfur dioxide sondeTemperature-dependent sensitivity of iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometersA quadcopter unmanned aerial system (UAS)-based methodology for measuring biomass burning emission factorsAir quality observations onboard commercial and targeted Zeppelin flights in Germany – a platform for high-resolution trace-gas and aerosol measurements within the planetary boundary layerPerformance of open-path lasers and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic systems in agriculture emissions researchMetrology for low-cost CO2 sensors applications: the case of a steady-state through-flow (SS-TF) chamber for CO2 fluxes observationsA relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) LOPAP system for flux measurements of nitrous acid (HONO)Fill dynamics and sample mixing in the AirCoreIRIS analyser assessment reveals sub-hourly variability of isotope ratios in carbon dioxide at Baring Head, New Zealand's atmospheric observatory in the Southern OceanA versatile vacuum ultraviolet ion source for reduced pressure bipolar chemical ionization mass spectrometryDesign and characterization of a semi-open dynamic chamber for measuring biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plantsFirst eddy covariance flux measurements of semi-volatile organic compounds with the PTR3-TOF-MSAn unmanned aerial vehicle sampling platform for atmospheric water vapor isotopes in polar environmentsNovel approach to observing system simulation experiments improves information gain of surface–atmosphere field measurementsUAS Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS) – a versatile instrument for trace gas measurements on airborne platformsModification of a conventional photolytic converter for improving aircraft measurements of NO2 via chemiluminescenceBromine speciation in volcanic plumes: new in situ derivatization LC-MS method for the determination of gaseous hydrogen bromide by gas diffusion denuder samplingApplication of a mobile laboratory using a selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) for characterisation of volatile organic compounds and atmospheric trace gasesDevelopment of a laser-photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of nitrous acid and hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere
Jiaxin Li, Kunpeng Zang, Yi Lin, Yuanyuan Chen, Shuo Liu, Shanshan Qiu, Kai Jiang, Xuemei Qing, Haoyu Xiong, Haixiang Hong, Shuangxi Fang, Honghui Xu, and Yujun Jiang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4757–4768,Short summary
Based on observed data of CO2 and CH4 and meteorological parameters over the Yellow Sea in November 2012 and June 2013, a data process and quality control method was optimized and established to filter the data influenced by multiple factors. Spatial and seasonal variations in CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios were mainly controlled by the East Asian Monsoon, while the influence of air–sea exchange was slight.
Zaneta Hamryszczak, Antonia Hartmann, Dirk Dienhart, Sascha Hafermann, Bettina Brendel, Rainer Königstedt, Uwe Parchatka, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4741–4756,Short summary
Hydroperoxide measurements improve the understanding of atmospheric oxidation processes. We introduce an instrumental setup for airborne measurements. The aim of the work is the characterization of the measurement method with emphasis on interferences impacting instrumental uncertainty. Technical and physical challenges do not critically impact the instrumental performance. The instrument resolves dynamic processes, such as convective transport, as shown based on the CAFE-Brazil campaign.
James F. Hurley, Alejandra Caceres, Deborah F. McGlynn, Mary E. Tovillo, Suzanne Pinar, Roger Schürch, Ksenia Onufrieva, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4681–4692,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have a wide range of sources and impacts on environments and human health that make them spatially, temporally, and chemically varied. Current methods lack the ability to collect samples in ways that provide spatial and chemical resolution without complex, costly instrumentation. We describe and validate a low-cost, portable VOC sampler and demonstrate its utility in collecting distributed coordinated samples.
Simone Brunamonti, Manuel Graf, Tobias Bühlmann, Céline Pascale, Ivan Ilak, Lukas Emmenegger, and Béla Tuzson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4391–4407,Short summary
The abundance of water vapor (H2O) in the upper atmosphere has a significant impact on the rate of global warming. We developed a new lightweight spectrometer (ALBATROSS) for H2O measurements aboard meteorological balloons. Here, we assess the accuracy and precision of ALBATROSS using metrology-grade reference gases. The results demonstrate the exceptional potential of mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy as a new reference method for in situ measurements of H2O in the upper atmosphere.
Roubina Papaconstantinou, Marios Demosthenous, Spyros Bezantakos, Neoclis Hadjigeorgiou, Marinos Costi, Melina Stylianou, Elli Symeou, Chrysanthos Savvides, and George Biskos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3313–3329,Short summary
In this paper, we investigate the performance of low-cost electrochemical gas sensors. We carried out yearlong measurements at a traffic air quality monitoring station, where the low-cost sensors were collocated with reference instruments and exposed to highly variable environmental conditions with extremely high temperatures and low relative humidity (RH). Sensors provide measurements that exhibit increasing errors and decreasing correlations as temperature increases and RH decreases.
Jianghanyang Li, Bianca C. Baier, Fred Moore, Tim Newberger, Sonja Wolter, Jack Higgs, Geoff Dutton, Eric Hintsa, Bradley Hall, and Colm Sweeney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2851–2863,Short summary
Monitoring a suite of trace gases in the stratosphere will help us better understand the stratospheric circulation and its impact on the earth's radiation balance. However, such measurements are rare and usually expensive. We developed an instrument that can measure stratospheric trace gases using a low-cost sampling platform (AirCore). The results showed expected agreement with aircraft measurements, demonstrating this technique provides a low-cost and robust way to observe the stratosphere.
Tara I. Yacovitch, Christoph Dyroff, Joseph R. Roscioli, Conner Daube, J. Barry McManus, and Scott C. Herndon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1915–1921,Short summary
Ethylene oxide is a toxic, carcinogenic compound used in the medical and bulk sterilization industry. Here we describe a precise and fast laser-based ethylene oxide monitor. We report months-long concentrations at a Massachusetts site, and we show how they suggest a potential emission source 35 km away. This source, and another, is confirmed by driving the instrument downwind of the sites, where concentrations were tens to tens of thousands of times greater than background levels.
Tatsumi Nakano and Takashi Morofuji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1583–1595,Short summary
We have developed a system that can automatically measure the pump efficiency of the ECC-type ozonesonde. Operational measurement for 13 years by this system revealed that the efficiency fluctuates in each and slightly increases over time. Those can affect the estimation of total ozone amount by up to 4 %. This result indicates that it is necessary to understand the tendency of the pump correction factor of each ozonesonde in order to detect the actual atmospheric change with high accuracy.
Benjamin Birner, Eric Morgan, and Ralph F. Keeling
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1551–1561,Short summary
Atmospheric variations of helium (He) and CO2 are strongly linked due to the co-release of both gases from natural-gas burning. This implies that atmospheric He measurements may be a potentially powerful tool for verifying reported anthropogenic natural-gas usage. Here, we present the development and initial results of a novel measurement system of atmospheric He that paves the way for establishing a global monitoring network in the future.
John W. Halfacre, Jordan Stewart, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, Christoph Dyroff, Tara I. Yacovitch, Michael Flynn, Stephen J. Andrews, Steven S. Brown, Patrick R. Veres, and Pete M. Edwards
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1407–1429,Short summary
This study details a new sampling method for the optical detection of hydrogen chloride (HCl). HCl is an important atmospheric reservoir for chlorine atoms, which can affect nitrogen oxide cycling and the lifetimes of volatile organic compounds and ozone. However, HCl has a high affinity for interacting with surfaces, thereby preventing fast, quantitative measurements. The sampling technique in this study minimizes these surface interactions and provides a high-quality measurement of HCl.
Henning Finkenzeller, Denis Pöhler, Martin Horbanski, Johannes Lampel, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1343–1356,Short summary
Optical resonators enhance the light path in compact instruments, thereby improving their sensitivity. Determining the established path length in the instrument is a prerequisite for the accurate determination of trace gas concentrations but can be a significant complication in the use of such resonators. Here we show two calibration techniques which are relatively simple and free of consumables but still provide accurate calibrations. This facilitates the use of optical resonators.
Andrew W. Seidl, Harald Sodemann, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 769–790,Short summary
It is challenging to make field measurements of stable water isotopes in the Arctic. To this end, we present a modular stable-water-isotope analyzer profiling system. The system operated for a 2-week field campaign on Svalbard during the Arctic winter. We evaluate the system’s performance and analyze any potential impact that the field conditions might have had on the isotopic measurements and the system's ability to resolve isotope gradients in the lowermost layer of the atmosphere.
Daan Swart, Jun Zhang, Shelley van der Graaf, Susanna Rutledge-Jonker, Arjan Hensen, Stijn Berkhout, Pascal Wintjen, René van der Hoff, Marty Haaima, Arnoud Frumau, Pim van den Bulk, Ruben Schulte, Margreet van Zanten, and Thomas van Goethem
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 529–546,Short summary
During a 5-week comparison campaign, we tested two set-ups to measure half hourly ammonia fluxes. The eddy covariance and flux gradient systems showed very similar results when the upwind terrain was both homogeneous and free of obstacles. We discuss the technical performance and practical limitations of both systems. Measurements from these instruments can facilitate the study of processes behind ammonia deposition, an important contributor to eutrophication and acidificationin natural areas.
Suding Yang, Xin Li, Limin Zeng, Xuena Yu, Ying Liu, Sihua Lu, Xiaofeng Huang, Dongmei Zhang, Haibin Xu, Shuchen Lin, Hefan Liu, Miao Feng, Danlin Song, Qinwen Tan, Jinhui Cui, Lifan Wang, Ying Chen, Wenjie Wang, Haijiong Sun, Mengdi Song, Liuwei Kong, Yi Liu, Linhui Wei, Xianwu Zhu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 501–512,Short summary
Vertical observation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is essential to study the spatial distribution and evolution patterns of VOCs in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). This paper describes multi-channel whole-air sampling equipment onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for near-continuous VOC vertical observation. Vertical profiles of VOCs and trace gases during the evolution of the PBL in south-western China have been successfully obtained by deploying the newly developed UAV system.
Tobias Schuldt, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Christian Wesolek, Franz Rohrer, Benjamin Winter, Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Ralf Tillmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 373–386,Short summary
We report in situ measurements of air pollutant concentrations within the planetary boundary layer on board a Zeppelin NT in Germany. We highlight the in-flight evaluation of electrochemical sensors that were installed inside a hatch box located on the bottom of the Zeppelin. Results from this work emphasize the potential of these sensors for other in situ airborne applications, e.g., on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
Leigh S. Fleming, Andrew C. Manning, Penelope A. Pickers, Grant L. Forster, and Alex J. Etchells
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 387–401,Short summary
Measurements of atmospheric O2 can help constrain the carbon cycle processes and quantify fossil fuel CO2 emissions; however, measurement of atmospheric O2 is very challenging, and existing analysers are complex systems to build and maintain. We have tested a new O2 analyser (Picarro Inc. G2207-i) in the laboratory and at Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory. We have found that the G2207-i does not perform as well as an existing O2 analyser from Sable Systems Inc.
Siegfried Schobesberger, Emma L. D'Ambro, Lejish Vettikkat, Ben H. Lee, Qiaoyun Peng, David M. Bell, John E. Shilling, Manish Shrivastava, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome Fast, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 247–271,Short summary
We present a new, highly sensitive technique for measuring atmospheric ammonia, an important trace gas that is emitted mainly by agriculture. We deployed the instrument on an aircraft during research flights over rural Oklahoma. Due to its fast response, we could analyze correlations with turbulent winds and calculate ammonia emissions from nearby areas at 1 to 2 km resolution. We observed high spatial variability and point sources that are not resolved in the US National Emissions Inventory.
Birger Bohn and Insa Lohse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 209–233,Short summary
Optical receivers for solar spectral actinic radiation are designed for angle-independent sensitivities within a hemisphere. Remaining imperfections can be compensated for by receiver-specific corrections based on laboratory characterizations and radiative transfer calculations of spectral radiance distributions. The corrections cover a wide range of realistic atmospheric conditions and were applied to ground-based and airborne measurements in a wavelength range 280–660 nm.
Teles C. Furlani, RenXi Ye, Jordan Stewart, Leigh R. Crilley, Peter M. Edwards, Tara F. Kahan, and Cora J. Young
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 181–193,Short summary
This study describes a new technique to measure total gaseous chlorine, which is the sum of gas-phase chlorine-containing chemicals. The method converts any chlorine-containing molecule to hydrogen chloride that can be detected in real time using a cavity ring-down spectrometer. The new method was validated through laboratory experiments, as well as by making measurements of ambient outdoor air and indoor air during cleaning with a chlorine-based cleaner.
Anas Emad and Lukas Siebicke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 29–40,Short summary
The true eddy accumulation (TEA) method enables measuring atmospheric exchange with slow-response gas analyzers. TEA is formulated assuming ideal conditions with a zero mean vertical wind velocity during the averaging interval. This core assumption is rarely valid under field conditions. Here, we extend the TEA equation to accommodate nonideal conditions. The new equation allows constraining the systematic error term in the measured fluxes and the possibility to minimize or remove it.
Anas Emad and Lukas Siebicke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 41–55,Short summary
A new micrometeorological method to measure atmospheric exchange is proposed, and a prototype sampler is evaluated. The new method, called short-time eddy accumulation, is a variant of the eddy accumulation method, which is suited for use with slow gas analyzers. The new method enables adaptive time-varying accumulation intervals, which brings many advantages to flux measurements such as an improved dynamic range and the ability to run eddy accumulation in a continuous flow-through mode.
Lu Xu, Matthew M. Coggon, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Jessica B. Gilman, Michael A. Robinson, Martin Breitenlechner, Aaron Lamplugh, John D. Crounse, Paul O. Wennberg, J. Andrew Neuman, Gordon A. Novak, Patrick R. Veres, Steven S. Brown, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7353–7373,Short summary
We describe the development and operation of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer using an ammonium–water cluster (NH4+·H2O) as a reagent ion. NH4+·H2O is a highly versatile reagent ion for measurements of a wide range of oxygenated organic compounds. The major product ion is the cluster with NH4+ produced via ligand-switching reactions. The instrumental sensitivities of analytes depend on the binding energy of the analyte–NH4+ cluster; sensitivities can be estimated using voltage scanning.
Xiaorui Chen, Haichao Wang, Tianyu Zhai, Chunmeng Li, and Keding Lu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7019–7037,Short summary
N2O5 is an important reservoir of atmospheric nitrogen, on whose interface reaction ambient particles can largely influence the fate of nitrogen oxides and air quality. In this study, we develop an approach to enable the reactions of N2O5 on ambient particles directly in a tube reactor, deriving the reaction rates with high accuracy by means of a chemistry model. Its successful application helps complement the data scarcity and to fill the knowledge gap between laboratory and field results.
Yubin Chen, Bin Yuan, Chaomin Wang, Sihang Wang, Xianjun He, Caihong Wu, Xin Song, Yibo Huangfu, Xiao-Bing Li, Yijia Liao, and Min Shao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6935–6947,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrate that selective online measurements of cycloalkanes can be achieved using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry with NO+ chemical ionization (NO+ PTR-ToF-MS), with fast response and low detection limits. Applications of this method in both urban air and emission sources will be shown.
Marsailidh M. Twigg, Augustinus J. C. Berkhout, Nicholas Cowan, Sabine Crunaire, Enrico Dammers, Volker Ebert, Vincent Gaudion, Marty Haaima, Christoph Häni, Lewis John, Matthew R. Jones, Bjorn Kamps, John Kentisbeer, Thomas Kupper, Sarah R. Leeson, Daiana Leuenberger, Nils O. B. Lüttschwager, Ulla Makkonen, Nicholas A. Martin, David Missler, Duncan Mounsor, Albrecht Neftel, Chad Nelson, Eiko Nemitz, Rutger Oudwater, Celine Pascale, Jean-Eudes Petit, Andrea Pogany, Nathalie Redon, Jörg Sintermann, Amy Stephens, Mark A. Sutton, Yuk S. Tang, Rens Zijlmans, Christine F. Braban, and Bernhard Niederhauser
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6755–6787,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) gas in the atmosphere impacts the environment, human health, and, indirectly, climate. Historic NH3 monitoring was labour intensive, and the instruments were complicated. Over the last decade, there has been a rapid technology development, including “plug-and-play” instruments. This study is an extensive field comparison of the currently available technologies and provides evidence that for routine monitoring, standard operating protocols are required for datasets to be comparable.
Caroline C. Womack, Steven S. Brown, Steven J. Ciciora, Ru-Shan Gao, Richard J. McLaughlin, Michael A. Robinson, Yinon Rudich, and Rebecca A. Washenfelder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6643–6652,Short summary
We present a new miniature instrument to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. NO2 contributes to the formation of pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, and its concentration can vary widely near sources. We developed this lightweight (3.05 kg) low-power (<35 W) instrument to measure NO2 on uncrewed aircraft vehicles (UAVs) and demonstrate that it has the accuracy and precision needed for atmospheric field measurements.
Alexander Håland, Tomáš Mikoviny, Elisabeth Emilie Syse, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6297–6307,Short summary
PTR-MS is widely used in atmospheric sciences for the detection of non-methane organic trace gases. The two most widely used types of PTR-MS instruments differ in their ion source and drift tube design. We herein present a new prototype PTR-MS instrument that hybridizes these designs and combines a conventional hollow cathode glow discharge ion source with a focusing ion–molecule reactor. We also show how this new instrument performs in detecting atmospheric amines.
Gustavo Britto Hupsel de Azevedo, Bill Doyle, Christopher A. Fiebrich, and David Schvartzman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5599–5618,Short summary
Strong changes in pressure, temperature, and humidity occur when small scientific aircraft ascend through the atmosphere to measure carbon dioxide. These strong changes can produce errors in the carbon dioxide measurements. To avoid these errors, we present a low-cost and simple correction method. This low-complexity method allows more researchers to study atmospheric carbon dioxide, reducing entry barriers in this field.
Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, J. Andrew Neuman, Steven S. Brown, Hannah M. Allen, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Matthew M. Coggon, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Hongyu Guo, Hannah A. Halliday, Thomas F. Hanisco, Christopher D. Holmes, L. Gregory Huey, Jose L. Jimenez, Aaron D. Lamplugh, Young Ro Lee, Jakob Lindaas, Richard H. Moore, Benjamin A. Nault, John B. Nowak, Demetrios Pagonis, Pamela S. Rickly, Michael A. Robinson, Andrew W. Rollins, Vanessa Selimovic, Jason M. St. Clair, David Tanner, Krystal T. Vasquez, Patrick R. Veres, Carsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Caroline C. Womack, Lu Xu, Kyle J. Zarzana, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4901–4930,Short summary
Understanding fire emission impacts on the atmosphere is key to effective air quality management and requires accurate measurements. We present a comparison of airborne measurements of key atmospheric species in ambient air and in fire smoke. We show that most instruments performed within instrument uncertainties. In some cases, further work is needed to fully characterize instrument performance. Comparing independent measurements using different techniques is important to assess their accuracy.
Woohui Nam, Changmin Cho, Begie Perdigones, Tae Siek Rhee, and Kyung-Eun Min
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4473–4487,Short summary
We describe our vibration-resistant instrument for measuring ambient NO3, NO2, and H2O based on cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy. By simultaneous retrieval of H2O with the other species using a measured H2O absorption spectrum, direct quantifications among all species are possible without any pre-treatment for H2O. Our instrument achieves the effective light path to ~101.5 km, which allows the sensitive measurements of NO3 and NO2 as 1.41 pptv and 6.92 ppbv (1σ) in 1 s.
Yunsong Liu, Jean-Daniel Paris, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Panayiota Antoniou, Christos Constantinides, Maximilien Desservettaz, Christos Keleshis, Olivier Laurent, Andreas Leonidou, Carole Philippon, Panagiotis Vouterakos, Pierre-Yves Quéhé, Philippe Bousquet, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4431–4442,Short summary
This paper details laboratory-based and field developments of a cost-effective and compacted UAV CO2 sensor system to address the challenge of measuring CO2 with sufficient precision and acquisition frequency. We assess its performance extensively through laboratory and field tests and provide a case study in an urban area (Nicosia, Cyprus). We therefore expect that this portable system will be widely used for measuring CO2 emission and distribution in natural or urban environments.
Subin Yoon, Alexander Kotsakis, Sergio L. Alvarez, Mark G. Spychala, Elizabeth Klovenski, Paul Walter, Gary Morris, Ernesto Corrales, Alfredo Alan, Jorge A. Diaz, and James H. Flynn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4373–4384,Short summary
SO2 is adverse to human health and the environment. A single SO2 sonde was developed to provide direct SO2 measurement with a greater vertical extent, a lower limit of detection, and less uncertainty relative to the previous dual-sonde method. The single sonde was tested in the field near volcanoes and anthropogenic sources where the sonde measured SO2 ranging from 0.5 to 940 ppb. This lighter-weight payload can be a great candidate to attach to small drones and unmanned aerial vehicles.
Michael A. Robinson, J. Andrew Neuman, L. Gregory Huey, James M. Roberts, Steven S. Brown, and Patrick R. Veres
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4295–4305,Short summary
Iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is commonly used in atmospheric chemistry laboratory studies and field campaigns. Deployment of the NOAA iodide CIMS instrument in the summer of 2021 indicated a significant and overlooked temperature dependence of the instrument sensitivity. This work explores which analytes are influenced by this phenomena. Additionally, we recommend controls to reduce this effect for future field deployments.
Roland Vernooij, Patrik Winiger, Martin Wooster, Tercia Strydom, Laurent Poulain, Ulrike Dusek, Mark Grosvenor, Gareth J. Roberts, Nick Schutgens, and Guido R. van der Werf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4271–4294,Short summary
Landscape fires are a substantial emitter of greenhouse gases and aerosols. Previous studies have indicated savanna emission factors to be highly variable. Improving fire emission estimates, and understanding future climate- and human-induced changes in fire regimes, requires in situ measurements. We present a drone-based method that enables the collection of a large amount of high-quality emission factor measurements that do not have the biases of aircraft or surface measurements.
Ralf Tillmann, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Franz Rohrer, Benjamin Winter, Christian Wesolek, Tobias Schuldt, Anne C. Lange, Philipp Franke, Elmar Friese, Michael Decker, Robert Wegener, Morten Hundt, Oleg Aseev, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3827–3842,Short summary
We report in situ measurements of air pollutant concentrations within the planetary boundary layer on board a Zeppelin in Germany. The low costs of commercial flights provide an affordable and efficient method to improve our understanding of changes in emissions in space and time. The experimental setup expands the capabilities of this platform and provides insights into primary and secondary pollution observations and planetary boundary layer dynamics which determine air quality significantly.
Mei Bai, Zoe Loh, David W. T. Griffith, Debra Turner, Richard Eckard, Robert Edis, Owen T. Denmead, Glenn W. Bryant, Clare Paton-Walsh, Matthew Tonini, Sean M. McGinn, and Deli Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3593–3610,Short summary
The open-path laser (OPL) and open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) are used in agricultural research, but their error in emissions research has not been the focus of studies. We conducted trace gas release trials and herd and paddock emission studies to compare their applicability and performance. The OP-FTIR has better stability in stable conditions than OPL. The CH4 OPL accurately detects the low background level of CH4, but the NH3 OPL only detects background values >10 ppbv.
Roger Curcoll, Josep-Anton Morguí, Armand Kamnang, Lídia Cañas, Arturo Vargas, and Claudia Grossi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2807–2818,Short summary
Low-cost air enquirer kits, including CO2 and environmental parameter sensors, have been designed, built, and tested in a new steady-state through-flow chamber for simultaneous measurements of CO2 fluxes in soil and CO2 concentrations in air. A CO2 calibration and multiparametric fitting reduced the total uncertainty of CO2 concentration by 90 %. This system allows continuous measurement of CO2 fluxes and CO2 ambient air, with low cost (EUR 1200), low energy demand (<5 W), and low maintenance.
Lisa von der Heyden, Walter Wißdorf, Ralf Kurtenbach, and Jörg Kleffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1983–2000,Short summary
A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system based on the LOPAP technique for the quantification of vertical fluxes of nitrous acid (HONO) was developed and tested in a field campaign. Typical diurnal variations of the HONO fluxes were observed with low, partly negative fluxes during night-time and higher positive fluxes around noon. The highest correlation of the HONO flux was observed with the product of the NO2 photolysis frequency and the NO2 concentration.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1903–1916,Short summary
The AirCore collects a continuous air sample in a long tube that can be read later when the captured air is slowly pushed through an analyzer. Much of the variation of gas composition encountered during collection is preserved, like having up to ~ 100 separate air samples. This is illustrated through examples of actual flights, and the analysis algorithm is described. The AirCore provides access to air as high as the mid stratosphere, enabling validation for satellite air composition soundings.
Peter Sperlich, Gordon W. Brailsford, Rowena C. Moss, John McGregor, Ross J. Martin, Sylvia Nichol, Sara Mikaloff-Fletcher, Beata Bukosa, Magda Mandic, C. Ian Schipper, Paul Krummel, and Alan D. Griffiths
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1631–1656,Short summary
We tested an in situ analyser for carbon and oxygen isotopes in atmospheric CO2 at Baring Head, New Zealand’s observatory for Southern Ocean baseline air. The analyser was able to resolve regional signals of the terrestrial carbon cycle, although the analysis of small events was limited by analytical uncertainty. Further improvement of the instrument performance would be desirable for the robust analysis of distant signals and to resolve the small variability in Southern Ocean baseline air.
Martin Breitenlechner, Gordon A. Novak, J. Andrew Neuman, Andrew W. Rollins, and Patrick R. Veres
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1159–1169,Short summary
We coupled a new ion source to a commercially available state-of-the-art trace gas analyzer. The instrument is particularly well suited for conducting high-altitude observations, addressing the challenges of low ambient pressures and a complex sample matrix. The new instrument and ion source provides significant advantages to more traditional modes of operation, without sacrificing the sensitivity and flexibility of this technique.
Jianqiang Zeng, Yanli Zhang, Huina Zhang, Wei Song, Zhenfeng Wu, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 79–93,Short summary
The emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from plant leaves is an essential part of biosphere–atmosphere interactions. Here we demonstrate how a dynamic chamber for measuring branch-scale BVOC emissions could be characterized both in the lab for adsorptive losses and in the field for ambient–enclosure environmental differences. The results also imply emission factors for terpenes might be underestimated if measured using dynamic chambers without certified transfer efficiencies.
Lukas Fischer, Martin Breitenlechner, Eva Canaval, Wiebke Scholz, Marcus Striednig, Martin Graus, Thomas G. Karl, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 8019–8039,Short summary
Ecosystems emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are then oxidized in the atmosphere, contributing to ozone and secondary aerosol formation. While flux measurements of BVOCs are state of the art, flux measurements of the less volatile oxidation products are difficult to achieve due to inlet losses. Here we present first flux measurements, utilizing a novel PTR3 instrument in combination with a specially designed wall-less inlet we put on top of the Hyytiälä tower in Finland.
Kevin S. Rozmiarek, Bruce H. Vaughn, Tyler R. Jones, Valerie Morris, William B. Skorski, Abigail G. Hughes, Jack Elston, Sonja Wahl, Anne-Katrine Faber, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7045–7067,Short summary
We have designed an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sampling platform for operation in extreme polar environments that is capable of sampling atmospheric water vapor for subsequent measurement of water isotopes. During flight, we measure location, temperature, humidity, and pressure to determine the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using algorithms, allowing for strategic decision-making by the pilot to collect samples in glass flasks contained in the nose cone of the UAV.
Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Sreenath Paleri, Matthias Sühring, Brian J. Butterworth, Christopher Florian, Matthias Mauder, David M. Plummer, Luise Wanner, Ke Xu, and Ankur R. Desai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6929–6954,Short summary
The key points are the following. (i) Integrative observing system design can multiply the information gain of surface–atmosphere field measurements. (ii) Catalyzing numerical simulations and first-principles machine learning open up observing system simulation experiments to novel applications. (iii) Use cases include natural climate solutions, emission inventory validation, urban air quality, and industry leak detection.
Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, Dale F. Hurst, Geoff S. Dutton, Bradley D. Hall, J. David Nance, Ben R. Miller, Stephen A. Montzka, Laura P. Wolton, Audra McClure-Begley, James W. Elkins, Emrys G. Hall, Allen F. Jordan, Andrew W. Rollins, Troy D. Thornberry, Laurel A. Watts, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Thomas B. Ryerson, Bruce C. Daube, Yenny Gonzalez Ramos, Roisin Commane, Gregory W. Santoni, Jasna V. Pittman, Steven C. Wofsy, Eric Kort, Glenn S. Diskin, and T. Paul Bui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6795–6819,Short summary
We built UCATS to study atmospheric chemistry and transport. It has measured trace gases including CFCs, N2O, SF6, CH4, CO, and H2 with gas chromatography, as well as ozone and water vapor. UCATS has been part of missions to study the tropical tropopause; transport of air into the stratosphere; greenhouse gases, transport, and chemistry in the troposphere; and ozone chemistry, on both piloted and unmanned aircraft. Its design, capabilities, and some results are shown and described here.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Uwe Parchatka, Ivan Tadic, Birger Bohn, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Hartwig Harder, Flora Kluge, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Florian Obersteiner, Martin Zöger, Raphael Doerich, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6759–6776,Short summary
NO2 plays a central role in atmospheric photochemical processes and requires accurate measurements. This research presents NO2 data obtained via chemiluminescence using a photolytic converter from airborne studies around Cabo Verde and laboratory investigations. We show the limits and error-proneness of a conventional blue light converter in aircraft measurements affected by humidity and NO levels and suggest the use of an alternative quartz converter for more reliable results.
Alexandra Gutmann, Nicole Bobrowski, Marcello Liotta, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6395–6406,Short summary
Motivated by a special interest in bromine chemistry in volcanic plumes, the study presented here describes a new method for the quantitative collection of gaseous hydrogen bromide in gas diffusion denuders. The hydrogen bromide reacted during sampling with appropriate epoxides applied to the denuder walls. The denuder sampling assembly was successfully deployed in the volcanic plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua.
Rebecca L. Wagner, Naomi J. Farren, Jack Davison, Stuart Young, James R. Hopkins, Alastair C. Lewis, David C. Carslaw, and Marvin D. Shaw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6083–6100,Short summary
We describe the use of a selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) in a mobile laboratory to provide on-road, high spatial and temporal measurements of CO2, CH4, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gases. Results are presented that highlight the potential of this platform for developing characterisation methods of different emissions sources in complex urban areas.
Brandon Bottorff, Emily Reidy, Levi Mielke, Sebastien Dusanter, and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6039–6056,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important source of hydroxyl (OH) radicals, the primary oxidant in the atmosphere. Accurate measurements of HONO are thus important to understand the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. A new instrument capable of measuring atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) with high sensitivity is presented, utilizing laser photofragmentation of ambient HONO and subsequent detection of the OH radical fragment.
Ahmadov, R., Gerbig, C., Kretschmer, R., Körner, S., Rödenbeck, C., Bousquet, P., and Ramonet, M.: Comparing high resolution WRF-VPRM simulations and two global CO2 transport models with coastal tower measurements of CO2, Biogeosciences, 6, 807–817, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-6-807-2009, 2009.
Andrews, A. E., Kofler, J. D., Trudeau, M. E., Williams, J. C., Neff, D. H., Masarie, K. A., Chao, D. Y., Kitzis, D. R., Novelli, P. C., Zhao, C. L., Dlugokencky, E. J., Lang, P. M., Crotwell, M. J., Fischer, M. L., Parker, M. J., Lee, J. T., Baumann, D. D., Desai, A. R., Stanier, C. O., De Wekker, S. F. J., Wolfe, D. E., Munger, J. W., and Tans, P. P.: CO2, CO, and CH4 measurements from tall towers in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis, and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 647–687, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-7-647-2014, 2014.
Baker, D. F., Law, R. M., Gurney, K. R., Rayner, P., Peylin, P., Denning, A. S., Bousquet, P., Bruhwiler, L., Chen, Y.-H., Ciais, P., Fung, I. Y., Heimann, M., John, J., Maki, T., Maksyutov, S., Masarie, K., Prather, M., Pak, B., Taguchi, S., and Zhu, S.: TransCom 3 inversion intercomparison: Impact of transport model errors on the interannual variability of regional CO2 fluxes, 1988–2003, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 20, GB1002, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GB002439, 2006.
Bakwin, P. S., Tans, P. P., Zhao, C., Ussler III, W., and Quesnell, E.: Measurements of carbon dioxide on a very tall tower, Tellus B, 47, 535–549, https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0889.47.issue5.2.x, 2002.
Chédin, A., Serrar, S., Armante, R., Scott, N. A., and Hollingsworth, A.: Signatures of annual and seasonal variations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases from comparisons between NOAA TOVS observations and radiation model simulations, J. Climate, 15, 95–116, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<0095:SOAASV>2.0.CO;2, 2002.
Conway, T. J., Tans, P. P., Waterman, L. S., Thoning, K. W., Masarie, K. A., and Gammon, R. H.: Atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements in the remote global troposphere, 1981–1984, Tellus B, 40, 81–115, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.1988.tb00214.x, 1988.
Conway, T. J., Tans, P. P., Waterman, L. S., Thoning, K. W., Kitzis, D. R., Masarie, K. A., and Zhang, N.: Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory global air sampling network, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 22831–22855, https://doi.org/10.1029/94JD01951, 1994.
Crevoisier, C., Heilliette, S., Chédin, A., Serrar, S., Armante, R., and Scott, N. A.: Midtropospheric CO2 concentration retrieval from AIRS observations in the tropics, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L17106, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL020141, 2004.
Daube, B. C., Boering, K. A., Andrews, A. E., and Wofsy, S. C.: A high-precision fast-response airborne CO2 analyzer for in situ sampling from the surface to the middle stratosphere, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 19, 1532–1543, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(2002)019<1532:AHPFRA>2.0.CO;2, 2002.
Dils, B., De Mazière, M., Müller, J. F., Blumenstock, T., Buchwitz, M., de Beek, R., Demoulin, P., Duchatelet, P., Fast, H., Frankenberg, C., Gloudemans, A., Griffith, D., Jones, N., Kerzenmacher, T., Kramer, I., Mahieu, E., Mellqvist, J., Mittermeier, R. L., Notholt, J., Rinsland, C. P., Schrijver, H., Smale, D., Strandberg, A., Straume, A. G., Stremme, W., Strong, K., Sussmann, R., Taylor, J., van den Broek, M., Velazco, V., Wagner, T., Warneke, T., Wiacek, A., and Wood, S.: Comparisons between SCIAMACHY and ground-based FTIR data for total columns of CO, CH4, CO2 and N2O, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1953–1976, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-1953-2006, 2006.
Durry, G., Amarouche, N., Zéninari, V., Parvitte, B., Lebarbu, T., and Ovarlez, J.: In situ sensing of the middle atmosphere with balloon borne near-infrared laser diodes, Spectrochim. Acta A, 60, 3371–3379, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2003.11.050, 2004.
Eldering, A., O'Dell, C. W., Wennberg, P. O., Crisp, D., Gunson, M. R., Viatte, C., Avis, C., Braverman, A., Castano, R., Chang, A., Chapsky, L., Cheng, C., Connor, B., Dang, L., Doran, G., Fisher, B., Frankenberg, C., Fu, D., Granat, R., Hobbs, J., Lee, R. A. M., Mandrake, L., McDuffie, J., Miller, C. E., Myers, V., Natraj, V., O'Brien, D., Osterman, G. B., Oyafuso, F., Payne, V. H., Pollock, H. R., Polonsky, I., Roehl, C. M., Rosenberg, R., Schwandner, F., Smyth, M., Tang, V., Taylor, T. E., To, C., Wunch, D., and Yoshimizu, J.: The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 549–563, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-549-2017, 2017.
Fang, S. X., Zhou, L. X., Tans, P. P., Ciais, P., Steinbacher, M., Xu, L., and Luan, T.: In situ measurement of atmospheric CO2 at the four WMO/GAW stations in China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2541–2554, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-2541-2014, 2014.
Galais, A., Fortunato, G., and Chavel, P: Gas concentration measurement by spectral correlation: rejection of interferent species, Appl. Optics, 24, 2127–2134, https://doi.org/10.1364/ao.24.002127, 1985.
Gurney, K. R., Law, R. M., Denning, A. S., Rayner, P. J., Baker, D., Bousquet, P., Bruhwiler, L., Chen, Y. -H., Ciais, P., Fan, S., Fung, I. Y., Gloor, M., Heimann, M., Higuchi, K., John, J., Maki, T., Maksyutov, S., Masarie, K., Peylin, P., Prather, M., Pak, B. C., Randerson, J., Sarmiento, J., Taguchi, S., Takahashi, T., and Yuen, C.-W.: Towards robust regional estimates of CO2 sources and sinks using atmospheric transport models, Nature, 415, 626–630, https://doi.org/10.1038/415626a, 2002.
Gurney, K. R., Law, R. M., Denning, A. S., Rayner, Pak, B., Baker, D. F., Bousquet, P., Bruhwiler, L. M. P., Chen, Y. -H., Ciais, P., Fung, I. Y., Heimann, M., John, J. G., Maki, T., Maksyutov, S., Peylin, P., Prather, M. J., and Taguchi, S.: Transcom 3 inversion intercomparison: Model mean results for the estimation of seasonal carbon sources and sinks, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 18, GB1010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GB002111, 2004.
Ghysels, M., Durry, G., Amarouche, N., Cousin, J., Joly, L., Riviere, E. D., and Beaumont, L.: A lightweight balloon-borne laser diode sensor for the in situ measurement of CO2 at 2.68 micron in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere, Appl. Phys. B, 107, 213–220, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-012-4887-y, 2012.
Hodgkinson, J., Smith, R., Ho, W. O., Saffell, J. R., and Tatam, R. P.: Non-dispersive infra-red (NDIR) measurement of carbon dioxide at 4.2 µm in a compact and optically efficient sensor, Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem., 186, 580–588, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2013.06.006, 2013.
Inai, Y., Aoki, S., Honda, H., Furutani, H., Matsumi, Y., Ouchi, M., Sugawara, S., Hasebe, F., Uematsu, M., and Fujiwara, M.: Balloon-borne tropospheric CO2 observations over the equatorial eastern and western Pacific, Atmos. Environ., 184, 24–36, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.04.016, 2018.
Inoue, H. Y. and Matsueda, H.: Measurements of atmospheric CO2 from a meteorological tower in Tsukuba, Japan, Tellus B, 53, 205–219, https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0889.2001.01163.x, 2001.
Joly, L., Parvitte, B., Zeninari, V., and Durry, G.: Development of a compact CO2 sensor open to the atmosphere and based on near-infrared laser technology at 2.68 µm, Appl. Phys. B, 86, 743–748, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-006-2568-4, 2007.
Karion, A., Sweeney, C., Tans, P., and Newberger, T.: AirCore: An innovative atmospheric sampling system, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 27, 1839–1853, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JTECHA1448.1, 2010.
Komhyr, W. D., Harris, T. B., Waterman, L. S., Chin, J. F. S., and Thoning, K. W.: Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory 1. NOAA global monitoring for climatic change measurements with a nondispersive infrared analyzer, 1974–1985, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 8533–8547, https://doi.org/10.1029/JD094iD06p08533, 1989.
Machida, T., Matsueda, H., Sawa, Y., Nakagawa, Y., Hirotani, K., Kondo, N., Goto, K., Ishikawa, K., Nakazawa, T., and Ogawa, T.: Worldwide measurements of atmospheric CO2 and other trace gas species using commercial airlines, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 25, 1744–1754, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JTECHA1082.1, 2008.
Machida, T., Matsueda, H., Sawa, Y., and Niwa, Y.: Atmospheric CO2 mole fraction data of CONTRAIL-CME, Center for Global Environmental Research, NIES, https://doi.org/10.17595/20180208.001, 2018.
Maksyutov, S., Nikolay, K., Nakatsuka, Y., Patra, P. K., Nakazawa, T., Yokota, T., and Inoue, G.: Projected Impact of the GOSAT observations on regional CO2 flux estimations as a function of total retrieval error, J. Remote Sensing Soc. Japan, 28, 190–197, https://doi.org/10.11440/rssj.28.190, 2008.
Matsueda, H., Machida, T., Sawa, Y., Nakagawa, Y., Hirotani, K., Ikeda, H., Kondo, N., and Goto, K.: Evaluation of atmospheric CO2 measurements from new flask air sampling of JAL airliner observations, Pap. Meteorol. Geophys., 59, 1–17, https://doi.org/10.2467/mripapers.59.1, 2008.
Mayfield, J. A. and Fochesatto, G. J.: The Layered Structure of the winter Atmospheric Boundary Layer in the Interior of Alaska, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 52, 953–973, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00703-013-0274-4, 2013.
Morino, I., Uchino, O., Inoue, M., Yoshida, Y., Yokota, T., Wennberg, P. O., Toon, G. C., Wunch, D., Roehl, C. M., Notholt, J., Warneke, T., Messerschmidt, J., Griffith, D. W. T., Deutscher, N. M., Sherlock, V., Connor, B., Robinson, J., Sussmann, R., and Rettinger, M.: Preliminary validation of column-averaged volume mixing ratios of carbon dioxide and methane retrieved from GOSAT short-wavelength infrared spectra, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 1061–1076, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-1061-2011, 2011.
Nakazawa, T., Murayama, S., Miyashita, K., Aoki, S., and Tanaka, M.: Longitudinally different variations of lower tropospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the North Pacific Ocean, Tellus B, 44, 161–172, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v44i3.15438, 1992.
Nakazawa, T., Machida, T., Sugawara, S., Murayama, S., Morimoto, S., Hashida, G., Honda, H., and Itoh, T.: Measurements of the stratospheric carbon dioxide concentration over Japan using a balloon-borne cryogenic sampler, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 1229–1232, https://doi.org/10.1029/95GL01188, 1995.
Pales, J. C. and Keeling, C. D.: The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in Hawaii, J. Geophys. Res., 70, 6053–6076, https://doi.org/10.1029/JZ070i024p06053, 1965.
Stephens, B. B., Gurney, K. R., Tans, P. P., Sweeney, C., Peters, W., Bruhwiler, L., Ciais, P., Ramonet, M., Bousquet, P., Nakazawa, T., Aoki, S., Machida, T., Inoue, G., Vinnichenko, N., Lloyd, J., Jordan, A., Heimann, M., Shibistova, O., Langenfelds, R. L., Steele, L. P., Francey, R. J., and Denning, A. S.: Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2, Science, 316, 1732–1735, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1137004, 2007.
Sweeney, C., Karion, A., Wolter, S., Newberger, T., Guenther, D., Higgs, J. A., Andrews, A. E., Lang, P. M., Neff, D. Dlugokencky, E., Miller, J. B., Montzka, S. A., Miller, B. R., Masarie, K. A., Biraud, S. C., Novelli, P. C., Crotwell, M., Crotwell, A. M., Thoning, K., and Tans, P. P.: Seasonal climatology of CO2 across North America from aircraft measurements in the NOAA/ESRL Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 5155–5190, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022591, 2015.
Tanaka, M., Nakazawa, T., and Aoki, S.: High quality measurements of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 61, 678–685, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.61.4_678, 1983.
Tanaka, M., Nakazawa, T., and Aoki, S.: Time and space variations of tropospheric carbon dioxide over Japan, Tellus B, 39, 3–12, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v39i1-2.15318, 1987.
Tanaka, T., Miyamoto, Y., Morino, I., Machida, T., Nagahama, T., Sawa, Y., Matsueda, H., Wunch, D., Kawakami, S., and Uchino, O.: Aircraft measurements of carbon dioxide and methane for the calibration of ground-based high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometers and a comparison to GOSAT data measured over Tsukuba and Moshiri, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 2003–2012, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-5-2003-2012, 2012.
Tans, P. P., Conway, T., and Nakazawa, T.: Latitudinal distribution of the sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide derived from surface observations and an Atmospheric Transport Model, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 5151–5172, https://doi.org/10.1029/JD094iD04p05151, 1989.
Watai, T., Machida, T., Ishizaki, N., and Inoue, G.: A lightweight observation system for atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration using a small unmanned aerial vehicle, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 23, 700–710, https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH1866.1, 2006.
Winderlich, J., Chen, H., Gerbig, C., Seifert, T., Kolle, O., Lavrič, J. V., Kaiser, C., Höfer, A., and Heimann, M.: Continuous low-maintenance CO2/CH4/H2O measurements at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 1113–1128, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-3-1113-2010, 2010.
WMO: The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2015, WMO Greenhouse Gas Bull., 12, 1–8, 2016.
Wofsy, S. C., the HIPPO science team, and cooperating modellers and satellite teams: HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO): fine-grained, global-scale measurements of climatically important atmospheric gases and aerosols, Philos. T. R. Soc. A, 369, 2073–2086, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2010.0313, 2011.
Wunch, D., Toon, G. C., Blavier, J. L., Washenfelder, R. A., Notholt, J., Connor, B. J., Griffith, D. W. T., Sherlock, V., and Wennberg, P. O.: The Total Carbon Column Observing Network, Philos. T. R. Soc. A, 369, 2087–2112, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2010.0240, 2011.
Yokota, T., Yoshida, Y., Eguchi, N., Ota, Y., Tanaka, T., Watanabe, H., and Maksyutov, S.: Global concentrations of CO2 and CH4 retrieved from GOSAT: First preliminary results, Sci. Online Lett. Atmos., 5, 160–163, https://doi.org/10.2151/sola.2009-041, 2009.
Yoshida, Y., Ota, Y., Eguchi, N., Kikuchi, N., Nobuta, K., Tran, H., Morino, I., and Yokota, T.: Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 717–734, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-717-2011, 2011.
A novel, practical observation system for measuring tropospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations carried by a small helium-filled balloon (CO2 sonde) has been developed for the first time. The low-cost CO2 sondes can potentially be used for frequent measurements of vertical profiles of CO2 in any parts of the world, providing useful information to understand the global and regional carbon budgets by replenishing the present sparse observation coverage.
A novel, practical observation system for measuring tropospheric carbon dioxide (CO2)...