Articles | Volume 10, issue 5
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1957–1986, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 01 Jun 2017
Research article | 01 Jun 2017
In-flight performance of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument
V. M. Erik Schenkeveld et al.
No articles found.
Nora Mettig, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Carlo Arosio, John P. Burrows, Pepijn Veefkind, Anne M. Thompson, Richard Querel, Thierry Leblanc, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Rigel Kivi, and Matthew B. Tully
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6057–6082,Short summary
TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing satellite that has observed global atmospheric trace gases at unprecedented spatial resolution since 2017. The retrieval of ozone profiles with high accuracy has been demonstrated using the TOPAS (Tikhonov regularised Ozone Profile retrievAl with SCIATRAN) algorithm and applying appropriate spectral corrections to TROPOMI UV data. Ozone profiles from TROPOMI were compared to ozonesonde and lidar profiles, showing an agreement to within 5 % in the stratosphere.
Pieternel F. Levelt, Deborah C. Stein Zweers, Ilse Aben, Maite Bauwens, Tobias Borsdorff, Isabelle De Smedt, Henk J. Eskes, Christophe Lerot, Diego G. Loyola, Fabian Romahn, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Nicolas Theys, Michel Van Roozendael, J. Pepijn Veefkind, and Tijl Verhoelst
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Using the COVID-19 lockdown periods as an example, we show how the Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI trace gas data (NO2, SO2, CO, HCHO and CHOCHO) can be used to understand impacts on air quality for regions and cities around the globe. We also provide information for both experienced and inexperienced users about how we created the data using state-of-the-art algorithms, where to get the data, methods taking meteorological and seaonal variability into consideration, and insights for future studies.
Lily N. Zhang, Susan Solomon, Kane A. Stone, Jonathan D. Shanklin, Joshua D. Eveson, Steve Colwell, John P. Burrows, Mark Weber, Pieternel F. Levelt, Natalya A. Kramarova, and David P. Haffner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9829–9838,Short summary
In the 1980s, measurements at the British Antarctic Survey station in Halley, Antarctica, led to the discovery of the ozone hole. The Halley total ozone record continues to be uniquely valuable for studies of long-term changes in Antarctic ozone. Environmental conditions in 2017 forced a temporary cessation of operations, leading to a gap in the historic record. We develop and test a method for filling in the Halley record using satellite data and find evidence to further support ozone recovery.
Jerald R. Ziemke, Gordon J. Labow, Natalya A. Kramarova, Richard D. McPeters, Pawan K. Bhartia, Luke D. Oman, Stacey M. Frith, and David P. Haffner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Seasonal and inter-annual ozone profile climatologies are produced from combined MLS and MERRA2 GMI ozone for the general public. Both climatologies extend from pole-to-pole at altitudes 0–80 km (1 km spacing) for time record 1970–2018. These climatologies are important for use as a priori in satellite ozone retrieval algorithms, as validation of other measured and model simulated ozone, and in radiative transfer studies of the atmosphere.
Nick Gorkavyi, Zachary Fasnacht, David Haffner, Sergey Marchenko, Joanna Joiner, and Alexander Vasilkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 961–974,Short summary
Various instrumental or geophysical artifacts, such as saturation, stray light or obstruction of light, negatively impact satellite measured ultraviolet and visible Earthshine radiance spectra. Here, we introduce a straightforward detection method that is based on the correlation, r, between the observed Earthshine radiance and solar irradiance spectra over a 10 nm spectral range; our decorrelation index (DI for brevity) is simply defined as DI of 1–r.
Frederik Tack, Alexis Merlaud, Marian-Daniel Iordache, Gaia Pinardi, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Henk Eskes, Bart Bomans, Pepijn Veefkind, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 615–646,Short summary
We assess the TROPOMI tropospheric NO2 product (OFFL v1.03.01; 3.5 km × 7 km at nadir observations) based on coinciding airborne APEX reference observations (~75 m × 120 m), acquired over polluted regions in Belgium. The TROPOMI NO2 product meets the mission requirements in terms of precision and accuracy. However, we show that TROPOMI is biased low over polluted areas, mainly due to the limited spatial resolution of a priori input for the AMF computation.
Tijl Verhoelst, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Henk J. Eskes, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Ann Mari Fjæraa, José Granville, Sander Niemeijer, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, François Hendrick, Andrea Pazmiño, Alkiviadis Bais, Ariane Bazureau, K. Folkert Boersma, Kristof Bognar, Angelika Dehn, Sebastian Donner, Aleksandr Elokhov, Manuel Gebetsberger, Florence Goutail, Michel Grutter de la Mora, Aleksandr Gruzdev, Myrto Gratsea, Georg H. Hansen, Hitoshi Irie, Nis Jepsen, Yugo Kanaya, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Rigel Kivi, Karin Kreher, Pieternel F. Levelt, Cheng Liu, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro Comas, Ankie J. M. Piters, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Thierry Portafaix, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, John Rimmer, Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Lidia Saavedra de Miguel, Valery P. Sinyakov, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Michel Van Roozendael, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Thomas Wagner, Folkard Wittrock, Margarita Yela González, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 481–510,Short summary
This paper reports on the ground-based validation of the NO2 data produced operationally by the TROPOMI instrument on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite. Tropospheric, stratospheric, and total NO2 columns are compared to measurements collected from MAX-DOAS, ZSL-DOAS, and PGN/Pandora instruments respectively. The products are found to satisfy mission requirements in general, though negative mean differences are found at sites with high pollution levels. Potential causes are discussed.
Lok N. Lamsal, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Alexander Vasilkov, Sergey Marchenko, Wenhan Qin, Eun-Su Yang, Zachary Fasnacht, Joanna Joiner, Sungyeon Choi, David Haffner, William H. Swartz, Bradford Fisher, and Eric Bucsela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 455–479,Short summary
The NASA standard nitrogen dioxide (NO2) version 4.0 product for OMI Aura incorporates the most salient improvements. It represents the first global satellite trace gas retrieval with OMI–MODIS synergy accounting for surface reflectance anisotropy in cloud and NO2 retrievals. Improved spectral fitting procedures for NO2 and oxygen dimer (for cloud) retrievals and reliance on high-resolution field-of-view-specific input information for NO2 and cloud retrievals help enhance the NO2 data quality.
Ivar R. van der Velde, Guido R. van der Werf, Sander Houweling, Henk J. Eskes, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Tobias Borsdorff, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 597–616,Short summary
This paper compares the relative atmospheric enhancements of CO and NO2 measured by the space-based instrument TROPOMI over different fire-prone ecosystems around the world. We find distinct spatial and temporal patterns in the ΔNO2 / ΔCO ratio that correspond to regional differences in combustion efficiency. This joint analysis provides a better understanding of regional-scale combustion characteristics and can help the fire modeling community to improve existing global emission inventories.
Omar Torres, Hiren Jethva, Changwoo Ahn, Glen Jaross, and Diego G. Loyola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6789–6806,Short summary
TROPOMI measures the quantity of small suspended particles (aerosols). We describe initial results of aerosol measurements using a NASA algorithm that retrieves the UV aerosol index, aerosol optical depth, and single-scattering albedo. An evaluation of derived products using sun-photometer observations shows close agreement. We also use these results to discuss important biomass burning and wildfire events around the world that got the attention of scientists and news media alike.
Maurits L. Kooreman, Piet Stammes, Victor Trees, Maarten Sneep, L. Gijsbert Tilstra, Martin de Graaf, Deborah C. Stein Zweers, Ping Wang, Olaf N. E. Tuinder, and J. Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6407–6426,Short summary
We investigated the influence of clouds on the Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI), an indicator of the presence of small particles in the atmosphere. Clouds produce artifacts in AAI calculations on the individual measurement (7 km) scale, which was not seen with previous instruments, as well as on large (1000+ km) scales. To reduce these artefacts, we used three different AAI calculation techniques of varying complexity. We find that the AAI artifacts are reduced when using more complex techniques.
Laura M. Judd, Jassim A. Al-Saadi, James J. Szykman, Lukas C. Valin, Scott J. Janz, Matthew G. Kowalewski, Henk J. Eskes, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Alexander Cede, Moritz Mueller, Manuel Gebetsberger, Robert Swap, R. Bradley Pierce, Caroline R. Nowlan, Gonzalo González Abad, Amin Nehrir, and David Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6113–6140,Short summary
This paper evaluates Sentinel-5P TROPOMI v1.2 NO2 tropospheric columns over New York City using data from airborne mapping spectrometers and a network of ground-based spectrometers (Pandora) collected in 2018. These evaluations consider impacts due to cloud parameters, a priori profile assumptions, and spatial and temporal variability. Overall, TROPOMI tropospheric NO2 columns appear to have a low bias in this region.
Clark J. Weaver, Pawan K. Bhartia, Dong L. Wu, Gordon J. Labow, and David E. Haffner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5715–5723,Short summary
Currently, we do not know whether clouds will accelerate or moderate climate. We look to the past and ask whether cloudiness has changed over the last 4 decades. Using a suite of nine satellite instruments, we need to ensure that the first satellite, which was launched in 1980 and died in 1991, observed the same measurement as the eight other satellite instruments used in the record. If the instruments were measuring length and observing a 1.00 m long stick, they would all see 0.99 to 1.01 m.
Antje Ludewig, Quintus Kleipool, Rolf Bartstra, Robin Landzaat, Jonatan Leloux, Erwin Loots, Peter Meijering, Emiel van der Plas, Nico Rozemeijer, Frank Vonk, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3561–3580,Short summary
After the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite launch on 13 October 2017, its single payload, the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), was tested and calibrated extensively. Changes due to ageing of the instrument and new insights have led to updates to the L1b processor and its calibration key data, leading to improvements of the data quality. Regularly scheduled calibration measurements are used in the nominal operations phase (since 30 April 2018) to correct instrument degradation.
Daan Hubert, Klaus-Peter Heue, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Tijl Verhoelst, Marc Allaart, Steven Compernolle, Patrick D. Cullis, Angelika Dehn, Christian Félix, Bryan J. Johnson, Arno Keppens, Debra E. Kollonige, Christophe Lerot, Diego Loyola, Matakite Maata, Sukarni Mitro, Maznorizan Mohamad, Ankie Piters, Fabian Romahn, Henry B. Selkirk, Francisco R. da Silva, Ryan M. Stauffer, Anne M. Thompson, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Holger Vömel, Jacquelyn C. Witte, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
We assess the first two years of TROPOMI tropical tropospheric ozone column data. Comparisons to reference measurements by ozonesonde and satellite sensors show that TROPOMI bias (−0.1 to +2.3 DU) and precision (1.5 to 2.5 DU) meet mission requirements. Potential causes of bias and its spatio-temporal structure are discussed, as well as ways to identify sampling errors. The analysis of the known geophysical patterns demonstrates the improved performance of TROPOMI with respect to predecessors.
Zhong Chen, Pawan K. Bhartia, Omar Torres, Glen Jaross, Robert Loughman, Matthew DeLand, Peter Colarco, Robert Damadeo, and Ghassan Taha
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3471–3485,Short summary
The scope of the paper is the evaluation of stratospheric aerosols derived from the OMPS/LP instrument via comparison with independent datasets from the SAGE III/ISS instrument. Results show very good agreement for extinction profiles between an altitude of 19 and 27 km, to within ±25 %, and show systematic differences (LP-SAGE III/ISS) above 28 km and below 19 km (greater than ±25 %).
Swadhin Nanda, Martin de Graaf, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Maarten Sneep, Mark ter Linden, Jiyunting Sun, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3043–3059,Short summary
This paper presents a first validation of the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) aerosol layer height (ALH) product, which is an estimate of the height of an aerosol layer using a spectrometer on board ESA's Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite mission. Comparison between the TROPOMI ALH product and co-located aerosol extinction heights from the CALIOP instrument on board NASA's CALIPSO mission show good agreement for selected cases over the ocean and large differences over land.
Debora Griffin, Christopher Sioris, Jack Chen, Nolan Dickson, Andrew Kovachik, Martin de Graaf, Swadhin Nanda, Pepijn Veefkind, Enrico Dammers, Chris A. McLinden, Paul Makar, and Ayodeji Akingunola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1427–1445,Short summary
This study looks into validating the aerosol layer height product from the recently launched TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) for forest fire plume through comparisons with two other satellite products, and interpreting differences due to the individual measurement techniques. These satellite observations are compared to predicted plume heights from Environment and Climate Change's air quality forecast model.
Jiyunting Sun, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Peter van Velthoven, L. Gijsbert Tilstra, Julien Chimot, Swadhin Nanda, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
ALH is one of the major concerns in quantifying aerosol absorption from the ultra-violet aerosol index (UVAI). The UVAI has a global daily record since 1978, whereas a corresponding ALH data set is limited. In this paper, we attempt to construct a global long-term ALH data set derived from the MERRA-2 aerosol fields that can be favorable in interpreting aerosol absorption from UVAI. We also give comments on several satellite ALH products in terms of the UVAI altitude dependence.
Samuel Quesada-Ruiz, Jean-Luc Attié, William A. Lahoz, Rachid Abida, Philippe Ricaud, Laaziz El Amraoui, Régina Zbinden, Andrea Piacentini, Mathieu Joly, Henk Eskes, Arjo Segers, Lyana Curier, Johan de Haan, Jukka Kujanpää, Albert Christiaan Plechelmus Oude Nijhuis, Johanna Tamminen, Renske Timmermans, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 131–152,
Zachary Fasnacht, Alexander Vasilkov, David Haffner, Wenhan Qin, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay Krotkov, Andrew M. Sayer, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6749–6769,Short summary
The anisotropy of Earth's surface reflection plays an important role in satellite-based retrievals of cloud, aerosol, and trace gases. Most current ultraviolet and visible satellite retrievals utilize climatological surface reflectivity databases that do not account for surface anisotropy. The GLER concept was introduced to account for such features. Here we evaluate GLER for water surfaces by comparing with OMI measurements and show that it captures these surface anisotropy features.
Swadhin Nanda, Martin de Graaf, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Mark ter Linden, Maarten Sneep, Johan de Haan, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6619–6634,Short summary
This paper discusses a neural network forward model used by the operational aerosol layer height (ALH) retrieval algorithm for the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on board the European Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite mission. This model replaces online radiative transfer calculations within the oxygen A-band, improving the speed of the algorithm by 3 orders of magnitude. With this advancement in the algorithm's speed, TROPOMI is set to deliver the ALH product operationally.
Jiyunting Sun, Pepijn Veefkind, Swadhin Nanda, Peter van Velthoven, and Pieternel Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6319–6340,Short summary
Single scattering albedo (SSA) is critical for reducing uncertainties in radiative forcing assessment. This paper presents two methods to retrieve SSA from satellite observations of the near-UV absorbing aerosol index (UVAI). The first is physically based radiative transfer simulations; the second is a statistically based machine learning algorithm. The result of the latter is encouraging. Both methods show that the ALH is necessary to quantitatively interpret aerosol absorption from UVAI.
Renske Timmermans, Arjo Segers, Lyana Curier, Rachid Abida, Jean-Luc Attié, Laaziz El Amraoui, Henk Eskes, Johan de Haan, Jukka Kujanpää, William Lahoz, Albert Oude Nijhuis, Samuel Quesada-Ruiz, Philippe Ricaud, Pepijn Veefkind, and Martijn Schaap
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12811–12833,Short summary
We present an evaluation of the added value of the Sentinel-4 and Sentinel-5P missions for air quality analyses of NO2. For this, synthetic observations for both missions are generated and combined with a chemistry transport model. While hourly Sentinel-4 NO2 observations over Europe benefit modelled NO2 analyses throughout the entire day, daily Sentinel-5P NO2 observations with global coverage show an impact up to 3–6 h after overpass. This supports the need for a combination of missions.
Wenhan Qin, Zachary Fasnacht, David Haffner, Alexander Vasilkov, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay Krotkov, Bradford Fisher, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3997–4017,Short summary
Satellite observations depend on Sun and view angles due to anisotropy of the Earth's atmosphere and surface reflection. But most of the ultraviolet and visible cloud, aerosol, and trace-gas algorithms utilize surface reflectivity databases that do not account for surface anisotropy. We create a surface database using the GLER concept which adequately accounts for surface anisotropy, validate it with independent satellite data, and provide a simple implementation to the current algorithms.
Jerry R. Ziemke, Luke D. Oman, Sarah A. Strode, Anne R. Douglass, Mark A. Olsen, Richard D. McPeters, Pawan K. Bhartia, Lucien Froidevaux, Gordon J. Labow, Jacquie C. Witte, Anne M. Thompson, David P. Haffner, Natalya A. Kramarova, Stacey M. Frith, Liang-Kang Huang, Glen R. Jaross, Colin J. Seftor, Mathew T. Deland, and Steven L. Taylor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3257–3269,Short summary
Both a 38-year merged satellite record of tropospheric ozone from TOMS/OMI/MLS/OMPS and a MERRA-2 GMI model simulation show large increases of 6–7 Dobson units from the Near East to India–East Asia and eastward over the Pacific. These increases in tropospheric ozone are attributed to increases in pollution over the region over the last several decades. Secondary 38-year increases of 4–5 Dobson units with both GMI model and satellite measurements occur over central African–tropical Atlantic.
Julien Chimot, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Johan F. de Haan, Piet Stammes, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 491–516,Short summary
The reference OMI tropospheric NO2 product was reprocessed by new aerosol correction parameters retrieved from the 477 nm O2–O2 band over eastern China and South America for 2 years. These new parameters are from different and separate algorithms, allowing improved use of the 477 nm O2–O2 band. All the tested approaches improve the aerosol correction in the OMI tropospheric NO2 product. We demonstrate the possibility of applying an explicit aerosol correction based on the 477 nm O2–O2 band.
Quintus Kleipool, Antje Ludewig, Ljubiša Babić, Rolf Bartstra, Remco Braak, Werner Dierssen, Pieter-Jan Dewitte, Pepijn Kenter, Robin Landzaat, Jonatan Leloux, Erwin Loots, Peter Meijering, Emiel van der Plas, Nico Rozemeijer, Dinand Schepers, Daniel Schiavini, Joost Smeets, Giuseppe Vacanti, Frank Vonk, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6439–6479,Short summary
This paper reports on the pre-launch calibration of the TROPOMI instrument on board ESA's Sentinel 5P satellite. This calibration is needed to convert the raw instrument digital data to physical quantities like Earth radiance and Sun irradiance. From these quantities atmospheric properties can be derived. The paper shows that the chosen approach to calibration and analysis was successful and that the achieved accuracy makes high-quality observations of the Earth's atmosphere feasible.
Dejian Fu, Susan S. Kulawik, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Kevin W. Bowman, John R. Worden, Annmarie Eldering, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Joao Teixeira, Fredrick W. Irion, Robert L. Herman, Gregory B. Osterman, Xiong Liu, Pieternel F. Levelt, Anne M. Thompson, and Ming Luo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5587–5605,
Jiyunting Sun, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Peter van Velthoven, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5261–5277,Short summary
Near-UV AAI is a qualitative parameter detecting the elevated absorbing aerosol layer. A long-term AAI record of satellite observations has the potential to quantify aerosol absorption on a global scale. Our study presents the possibility of retrieving single-scattering albedo with OMI-measured AAI. The comparison with AERONET is satisfactory and further research will be on how the aerosol wavelength-dependent refractive index and aerosol profile affect the quantification of aerosol absorption.
Alexander Vasilkov, Eun-Su Yang, Sergey Marchenko, Wenhan Qin, Lok Lamsal, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay Krotkov, David Haffner, Pawan K. Bhartia, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4093–4107,Short summary
We discuss a new cloud algorithm that retrieves effective cloud fraction and cloud altitude and pressure from the oxygen dimer absorption band at 477 nm. The algorithm accounts for how changes in the sun–satellite geometry affect the surface reflection. The cloud fraction and pressure are used as inputs to the OMI algorithm that retrieves a pollutant gas called nitrogen dioxide. Impacts of the application of the newly developed cloud algorithm on the OMI nitrogen dioxide retrieval are discussed.
Swadhin Nanda, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Martin de Graaf, Maarten Sneep, Piet Stammes, Johan F. de Haan, Abram F. J. Sanders, Arnoud Apituley, Olaf Tuinder, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3263–3280,Short summary
An approach to estimate the height of aerosol plumes over land from satellite measurements of the oxygen A band is proposed. The method, termed dynamic scaling, forces the retrieval to use spectral points that contain more height information. The method is tested in a synthetic environment as well as with GOME-2A and GOME-2B measurements of wildfire plumes over Europe, with very encouraging results. This method can be easily applied to other aerosol height algorithms using least squares.
Arve Kylling, Sophie Vandenbussche, Virginie Capelle, Juan Cuesta, Lars Klüser, Luca Lelli, Thomas Popp, Kerstin Stebel, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2911–2936,Short summary
The aerosol layer height is one of four aerosol parameters which is needed to enhance our understanding of aerosols' role in the climate system. Both active and passive measurement methods may be used to estimate the aerosol layer height. Aerosol height estimates made from passive infrared and solar satellite sensors measurements are compared with satellite-borne lidar estimates. There is considerable variation between the retrieved dust heights and how they compare with the lidar.
Natalya A. Kramarova, Pawan K. Bhartia, Glen Jaross, Leslie Moy, Philippe Xu, Zhong Chen, Matthew DeLand, Lucien Froidevaux, Nathaniel Livesey, Douglas Degenstein, Adam Bourassa, Kaley A. Walker, and Patrick Sheese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2837–2861,Short summary
The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Limb Profiler (LP) is a newly designed research sensor aiming to continue high vertical resolution ozone records from space-borne sensors. In summer 2017 all LP measurements were processed with the new version 2.5 algorithm. In this paper we provide a description of the key changes implemented in the new algorithm and evaluate the quality of ozone retrievals by comparing with independent satellite profile measurements (MLS, ACE-FTS and OSIRIS).
Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Huan Yu, Thomas Danckaert, Christophe Lerot, Steven Compernolle, Michel Van Roozendael, Andreas Richter, Andreas Hilboll, Enno Peters, Mattia Pedergnana, Diego Loyola, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Henk Eskes, Jos van Geffen, Klaas Folkert Boersma, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2395–2426,Short summary
This paper introduces the formaldehyde (HCHO) tropospheric vertical column retrieval algorithm implemented in the TROPOMI/Sentinel-5 Precursor operational processor, and comprehensively describes its various retrieval steps. Furthermore, algorithmic improvements developed in the framework of the EU FP7-project QA4ECV are described for future updates of the processor. Detailed error estimates are discussed in the light of Copernicus user requirements and needs for validation are highlighted.
Pieternel F. Levelt, Joanna Joiner, Johanna Tamminen, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Pawan K. Bhartia, Deborah C. Stein Zweers, Bryan N. Duncan, David G. Streets, Henk Eskes, Ronald van der A, Chris McLinden, Vitali Fioletov, Simon Carn, Jos de Laat, Matthew DeLand, Sergey Marchenko, Richard McPeters, Jerald Ziemke, Dejian Fu, Xiong Liu, Kenneth Pickering, Arnoud Apituley, Gonzalo González Abad, Antti Arola, Folkert Boersma, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Martin de Graaf, Janne Hakkarainen, Seppo Hassinen, Iolanda Ialongo, Quintus Kleipool, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Lok Lamsal, Paul Newman, Caroline Nowlan, Raid Suleiman, Lieuwe Gijsbert Tilstra, Omar Torres, Huiqun Wang, and Krzysztof Wargan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5699–5745,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to highlight the many successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) spanning more than 13 years. Data from OMI have been used in a wide range of applications. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. OMI data continue to be used for new research and applications.
Julien Chimot, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Tim Vlemmix, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2257–2277,Short summary
Aerosol layer height (ALH) was retrieved from the OMI 477 nm O2–O2 band and its spatial pattern evaluated over selected cloud-free scenes. We used a neural network approach previously trained and developed. Comparison with CALIOP aerosol level 2 products over urban and industrial pollution in east China shows consistent spatial patterns. In addition, we show the possibility to determine the height of thick aerosol layers released by intensive biomass burning events in South America and Russia.
Jacob C. A. van Peet, Ronald J. van der A, Hennie M. Kelder, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1685–1704,Short summary
Ozone profiles measured by two satellite instruments (GOME-2A and OMI) have been combined with a chemical transport model using data assimilation. The results give a better insight into the global spatial and temporal ozone distribution than either measurement or model results alone. Validation with independent measurements shows biases varying between -5 % and +10 % between the surface and 100 hPa, while between 100 and 10 hPa the biases vary between -3 % and +3 %.
Swadhin Nanda, Martin de Graaf, Maarten Sneep, Johan F. de Haan, Piet Stammes, Abram F. J. Sanders, Olaf Tuinder, J. Pepijn Veefkind, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 161–175,Short summary
Estimating aerosol layer height in the atmosphere from satellite data in the oxygen A band (758–770 nm) over land is challenging over land, since the surface is generally very bright in this wavelength region. This paper discusses an interplay between the surface and the atmosphere in their contributions to the top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectrum and the consequent biases obtained while estimating aerosol layer height, using synthetic data and real data from the GOME-2 satellite instrument.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Jae-Hwan Kim, David P. Haffner, Kelly Chance, Kai Yang, and Kang Sun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4373–4388,Short summary
This paper verifies and corrects the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) nadir mapper (NM) level 1B v2.0 measurements to retrieve reliable ozone profile and tropospheric ozone using an optimal estimation inversion with the fitting window of 302.5–340 nm. We apply "soft calibration" and "common mode correction" to OMPS radiances to eliminate systematic errors in the fitting residuals and derive random-noise measurement errors accounting for both OMPS radiances and forward model calculation.
Jerald R. Ziemke, Sarah A. Strode, Anne R. Douglass, Joanna Joiner, Alexander Vasilkov, Luke D. Oman, Junhua Liu, Susan E. Strahan, Pawan K. Bhartia, and David P. Haffner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4067–4078,Short summary
We combine satellite measurements of ozone and cloud properties from the Aura OMI and MLS instruments for 2004–2016 to measure ozone in the mid–upper levels of deep convective clouds. Our results ascribe upward injection of low boundary layer ozone (varying from low to high amounts) as a major driver of the measured concentrations of ozone in thick clouds. Our OMI/MLS generated ozone product is made available to the public for use in science applications.
Nickolay A. Krotkov, Lok N. Lamsal, Edward A. Celarier, William H. Swartz, Sergey V. Marchenko, Eric J. Bucsela, Ka Lok Chan, Mark Wenig, and Marina Zara
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3133–3149,Short summary
We describe the new version 3 OMI NO2 standard product (SPv3) based on significant improvements in both the estimation of the SCDs and the AMFs. The new SCDs and stratospheric VCDs are systematically lower (by ~ 10–40 %) than previous estimates. Tropospheric VCDs are also reduced over polluted areas. Initial evaluation over unpolluted areas has shown that the new SPv3 products agree better with independent satellite- and ground-based FTIR measurements.
Tim Vlemmix, Xinrui (Jerry) Ge, Bryan T. G. de Goeij, Len F. van der Wal, Gerard C. J. Otter, Piet Stammes, Ping Wang, Alexis Merlaud, Dirk Schüttemeyer, Andreas C. Meier, J. Pepijn Veefkind, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
We present a first analysis of UV/VIS spectral measurements obtained with the Spectrolite Breadboard Instrument (developed by TNO, The Netherlands) during the AROMAPEX campaign held in Berlin in April 2016 (campaign supported by ESA and EUFAR). This new sensor was used to measure air pollution in the form of tropospheric NO2 columns. The study focuses specifically on the retrieval of surface reflectances, an important intermediate step towards the final product.
Jieying Ding, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Ronald Johannes van der A, Bas Mijling, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, SeogYeon Cho, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Qiang Zhang, Fei Liu, and Pieternel Felicitas Levelt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10125–10141,Short summary
To evaluate the quality of the satellite-derived NOx emissions, we compare nine emission inventories of nitrogen oxides including four satellite-derived NOx inventories and bottom-up inventories for East Asia. The temporal and spatial distribution of NOx emissions over East Asia are evaluated. We analyse the differences in satellite-derived emissions from two different inversion methods. The paper ends with recommendations for future improvements of emission estimates.
Jieying Ding, Ronald Johannes van der A, Bas Mijling, and Pieternel Felicitas Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 925–938,Short summary
We improve the DECSO algorithm for NOx emission estimates from satellite observations, especially over remote regions. The accuracy is about 20 percent for monthly NOx emissions with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees. We are able to distinguish ship emissions below the outflow of NO2 from the mainland of China.
Julien Chimot, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Tim Vlemmix, Johan F. de Haan, Vassilis Amiridis, Emmanouil Proestakis, Eleni Marinou, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 783–809,Short summary
We have developed artificial neural network algorithms to retrieve aerosol layer height from satellite OMI observations of the 477 nm O2–O2 spectral band. Based on 3-year (2005–2007) cloud-free scenes over north-east Asia, the results show uncertainties of 260–800 m when aerosol optical thickness is larger than 1. These algorithms also enable aerosol optical thickness retrievals by exploring the OMI continuum reflectance. These results may be used for future trace gas retrievals from TROPOMI.
Alexander Vasilkov, Wenhan Qin, Nickolay Krotkov, Lok Lamsal, Robert Spurr, David Haffner, Joanna Joiner, Eun-Su Yang, and Sergey Marchenko
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 333–349,Short summary
We show how the surface reflection can vary day to day in the blue part of the sun's spectrum where we measure the pollutant gas nitrogen dioxide using a satellite instrument called OMI. We use information from an imaging spectrometer on another satellite, MODIS, to estimate the angular surface effects. We can then use models of how the sunlight travels through the atmosphere to predict how the angle-dependent surface reflection will impact the values of pollutant levels inferred by OMI.
Leslie Moy, Pawan K. Bhartia, Glen Jaross, Robert Loughman, Natalya Kramarova, Zhong Chen, Ghassan Taha, Grace Chen, and Philippe Xu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 167–178,Short summary
UV backscatter limb sounding sensors have difficulty determining altitude registration to the accuracy needed for long-term ozone monitoring. We describe two methods to achieve this by comparing radiance measurements to models. Wavelengths and altitudes chosen minimize errors from aerosol interference, calibration errors, and ozone assumptions. The techniques are inexpensive, more comprehensive than external sources of attitude information, and track drifts in our altitude to better than 100 m.
J. Pepijn Veefkind, Johan F. de Haan, Maarten Sneep, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 6035–6049,Short summary
The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the NASA EOS Aura satellite monitors the concentrations of trace gases. The accuracy of such observations relies partly on information on clouds. The OMI OMCLDO2 product derives the cloud fraction and pressure from the observed radiance in the visible. This paper reports on an improved version of this product. Compared to the previous version, the changes in cloud fraction are very small, but the changes in the cloud pressure can be significant.
Nickolay A. Krotkov, Chris A. McLinden, Can Li, Lok N. Lamsal, Edward A. Celarier, Sergey V. Marchenko, William H. Swartz, Eric J. Bucsela, Joanna Joiner, Bryan N. Duncan, K. Folkert Boersma, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Pieternel F. Levelt, Vitali E. Fioletov, Russell R. Dickerson, Hao He, Zifeng Lu, and David G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4605–4629,Short summary
We examine changes in SO2 and NO2 over the world's most polluted regions during the first decade of Aura OMI observations. Over the eastern US, both NO2 and SO2 levels decreased by 40 % and 80 %, respectively. OMI confirmed large reductions in SO2 over eastern Europe's largest coal power plants. The North China Plain has the world's most severe SO2 pollution, but a decreasing trend been observed since 2011, with a 50 % reduction in 2012–2014. India's SO2 and NO2 levels are growing at a fast pace.
J. Chimot, T. Vlemmix, J. P. Veefkind, J. F. de Haan, and P. F. Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 359–382,Short summary
The interplay between aerosols and the OMI O2–O2 cloud retrieval algorithm is analysed in detail to evaluate the impacts on the accuracy of the tropospheric NO2 retrievals over cloud-free scenes. Collocated OMI NO2 and MODIS Aqua aerosol products are compared over E China, in industrialized areas; the OMI O2–O2 cloud retrieval algorithm is implemented on synthetic study cases dominated by aerosol particles. The resulting biases highlight the need for an improved aerosol correction.
U. Jeong, J. Kim, C. Ahn, O. Torres, X. Liu, P. K. Bhartia, R. J. D. Spurr, D. Haffner, K. Chance, and B. N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 177–193,Short summary
An aerosol retrieval and error analysis algorithm using OMI measurements based on an optimal-estimation method was developed in this study. The aerosol retrievals were validated using the DRAGON campaign products. The estimated errors of the retrievals represented the actual biases between retrieval and AERONET measurements well. The retrievals, with their estimated uncertainties, are expected to be valuable for relevant studies, such as trace gas retrieval and data assimilation.
M. Belmonte Rivas, P. Veefkind, H. Eskes, and P. Levelt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13519–13553,
J. Ding, R. J. van der A, B. Mijling, P. F. Levelt, and N. Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9399–9412,Short summary
We derived the NOx emissions from the OMI satellite observations. We find a NOx emission reduction of at least 25% during the Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing in 2014. The emission estimate algorithm has detected an emission reduction of 10% during the Chinese Spring Festival. This paper also shows that the observed concentrations and the derived emissions from space have different patterns that provide complimentary information.
T. Vlemmix, F. Hendrick, G. Pinardi, I. De Smedt, C. Fayt, C. Hermans, A. Piters, P. Wang, P. Levelt, and M. Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 941–963,Short summary
Two methods are compared to retrieve aerosols, formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide in the lower troposphere from ground-based remote sensing observations of scattered sunlight in multiple viewing directions. Observations were done in the Beijing area (2008–2011). The two methods show good agreement with respect to the total amount (vertical column) and reasonable agreement with respect to concentrations near the surface and first-order estimates of the vertical profile shape.
J. Bak, X. Liu, J. H. Kim, K. Chance, and D. P. Haffner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 667–683,
M. Belmonte Rivas, P. Veefkind, F. Boersma, P. Levelt, H. Eskes, and J. Gille
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2203–2225,
B. Hassler, I. Petropavlovskikh, J. Staehelin, T. August, P. K. Bhartia, C. Clerbaux, D. Degenstein, M. De Mazière, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Dufour, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Granville, N. R. P. Harris, K. Hoppel, D. Hubert, Y. Kasai, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, J.-C. Lambert, P. F. Levelt, C. T. McElroy, R. D. McPeters, R. Munro, H. Nakajima, A. Parrish, P. Raspollini, E. E. Remsberg, K. H. Rosenlof, A. Rozanov, T. Sano, Y. Sasano, M. Shiotani, H. G. J. Smit, G. Stiller, J. Tamminen, D. W. Tarasick, J. Urban, R. J. van der A, J. P. Veefkind, C. Vigouroux, T. von Clarmann, C. von Savigny, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1395–1427,
J. C. A. van Peet, R. J. van der A, O. N. E. Tuinder, E. Wolfram, J. Salvador, P. F. Levelt, and H. M. Kelder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 859–876,
Related subject area
Subject: Others (Wind, Precipitation, Temperature, etc.) | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsCharacterization of dark current signal measurements of the ACCDs used on board the Aeolus satelliteRelationship between wind observation accuracy and the ascending node of the sun-synchronous orbit for the Aeolus-type spaceborne Doppler wind lidarA new lidar design for operational atmospheric wind and cloud/aerosol survey from spaceVAHCOLI, a new concept for lidars: technical setup, science applications, and first measurementsA compact static birefringent interferometer for the measurement of upper atmospheric winds: concept, design and lab performanceThe COTUR project: Remote sensing of offshore turbulence for wind energy applicationALADIN laser frequency stability and its impact on the Aeolus wind errorA Compact Rayleigh Autonomous Lidar (CORAL) for the middle atmosphereMeasurement characteristics of an airborne microwave temperature profiler (MTP)Towards accurate and practical drone-based wind measurements with an ultrasonic anemometerAtmospheric observations with E-band microwave links – challenges and opportunitiesTomographic retrieval algorithm of OH concentration profiles using double spatial heterodyne spectrometersWuhan MST radar: technical features and validation of wind observationsJoint analysis of convective structure from the APR-2 precipitation radar and the DAWN Doppler wind lidar during the 2017 Convective Processes Experiment (CPEX)First observations of the McMurdo–South Pole oblique ionospheric HF channelVertical wind profiling from the troposphere to the lower mesosphere based on high-resolution heterodyne near-infrared spectroradiometryEffect of OH emission on the temperature and wind measurements derived from limb-viewing observations of the 1.27 µm O2 dayglowDoppler lidar at Observatoire de Haute-Provence for wind profiling up to 75 km altitude: performance evaluation and observationsQuantifying hail size distributions from the sky – application of drone aerial photogrammetryWind sensing with drone-mounted wind lidars: proof of conceptSAETTA: high-resolution 3-D mapping of the total lightning activity in the Mediterranean Basin over Corsica, with a focus on a mesoscale convective system eventApplication of parametric speakers to radio acoustic sounding systemSimulating precipitation radar observations from a geostationary satelliteNovel specular meteor radar systems using coherent MIMO techniques to study the mesosphere and lower thermosphereDual-wavelength radar technique development for snow rate estimation: a case study from GCPExA Fourier transform spectroradiometer for ground-based remote sensing of the atmospheric downwelling long-wave radianceAutomated compact mobile Raman lidar for water vapor measurement: instrument description and validation by comparison with radiosonde, GNSS, and high-resolution objective analysisImplementation of polarization diversity pulse-pair technique using airborne W-band radarMetrology of solar spectral irradiance at the top of the atmosphere in the near infrared measured at Mauna Loa Observatory: the PYR-ILIOS campaignDoppler W-band polarization diversity space-borne radar simulator for wind studiesThe FengYun-3C radio occultation sounder GNOS: a review of the mission and its early results and science applicationsWIRA-C: a compact 142-GHz-radiometer for continuous middle-atmospheric wind measurementsA large-area blackbody for in-flight calibration of an infrared interferometer deployed on board a long-duration balloon for stratospheric researchA measurement campaign to assess sources of error in microwave link rainfall estimationSimulation study for the Stratospheric Inferred Winds (SIW) sub-millimeter limb sounderReduction in 317–780 nm radiance reflected from the sunlit Earth during the eclipse of 21 August 2017A highly miniaturized satellite payload based on a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for atmospheric temperature measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphereWind turbine wake measurements with automatically adjusting scanning trajectories in a multi-Doppler lidar setupAirborne wind lidar observations over the North Atlantic in 2016 for the pre-launch validation of the satellite mission AeolusShipborne Wind Measurement and Motion-induced Error Correction of a Coherent Doppler Lidar over the Yellow Sea in 2014In-flight calibration of SCIAMACHY's polarization sensitivityNoise performance of microwave humidity sounders over their lifetimeTemperature dependence of the Brewer global UV measurementsThe effect of cloud liquid water on tropospheric temperature retrievals from microwave measurementsPerdigão 2015: methodology for atmospheric multi-Doppler lidar experimentsStudy and mitigation of calibration factor instabilities in a water vapor Raman lidarImproved pointing information for SCIAMACHY from in-flight measurements of the viewing directions towards sun and moonForest Fire Finder – DOAS application to long-range forest fire detectionA comparison of vertical velocity variance measurements from wind profiling radars and sonic anemometersField-of-view characteristics and resolution matching for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI)
Fabian Weiler, Thomas Kanitz, Denny Wernham, Michael Rennie, Dorit Huber, Marc Schillinger, Olivier Saint-Pe, Ray Bell, Tommaso Parrinello, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5153–5177,Short summary
This paper reports on dark current signal anomalies of the detectors used on board the ESA's Earth Explorer satellite Aeolus during the first 1.5 years in orbit. After introducing sophisticated algorithms to classify dark current anomalies according to their characteristics, the impact of the different kinds of anomalies on wind measurements is discussed. In addition, mitigation approaches for the wind retrieval are presented and potential root causes are discussed.
Chuanliang Zhang, Xuejin Sun, Wen Lu, Yingni Shi, Naiying Dou, and Shaohui Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4787–4803,Short summary
The first spaceborne doppler wind lidar (DWL) Aeolus operates on sun-synchronous dawn–dusk orbit to lower the impact of solar background radiation (SBR) on wind observation accuracy. Increased SBR leads to an increment of averaged wind observation uncertainties from 0.19 to 0.27 m s-1 comparing Aeolus and two added spaceborne DWLs operating on orbits with local ascending times of 15:00 and 12:00 LT. A quantitative design of laser pulse energy according to accuracy requirements is also proposed.
Didier Bruneau and Jacques Pelon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4375–4402,Short summary
Taking advantage of Aeolus success and of our airborne lidar system expertise, we present a new spaceborne wind lidar design for operational Aeolus follow-on missions, keeping most of the initial lidar system but relying on a single Mach–Zehnder interferometer to relax operational constraints and reduce measurement bias. System parameters are optimized. Random and systematic errors are shown to be compliant with the initial mission requirements. In addition, the system allows unbiased retrieval.
Franz-Josef Lübken and Josef Höffner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3815–3836,Short summary
We present a new concept for a cluster of lidars that allows us to measure time-resolved profiles of temperatures, winds, and aerosols in the entire middle atmosphere for the first time, also covering regional horizontal scales (
four-dimensional coverage). Measurements are performed during day and night. The essential component is a newly developed laser with unprecedented performance. We present the first measurements. New observational capabilities in atmospheric physics are established.
Tingyu Yan, Jeffery A. Langille, William E. Ward, William A. Gault, Alan Scott, Andrew Bell, Driss Touahiri, Sheng-Hai Zheng, and Chunmin Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMT
Etienne Cheynet, Martin Flügge, Joachim Reuder, Jasna B. Jakobsen, Yngve Heggelund, Benny Svardal, Pablo Saavedra Garfias, Charlotte Obhrai, Nicolò Daniotti, Jarle Berge, Christiane Duscha, Norman Wildmann, Ingrid Husøy Onarheim, and Marte Godvik
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The COTUR campaign explored the structure of wind turbulence above the ocean to improve the design of future multi-megawatt offshore wind turbines. Deploying scientific instrument offshore is both a financial and technological challenge. Therefore, lidar technology was used to remotely measure the wind above the ocean from instruments located on the seaside. The experimental setup is tailored to the study of the spatial correlation of wind gusts, which governs the wind loading on structures.
Oliver Lux, Christian Lemmerz, Fabian Weiler, Thomas Kanitz, Denny Wernham, Gonçalo Rodrigues, Andrew Hyslop, Olivier Lecrenier, Phil McGoldrick, Frédéric Fabre, Paolo Bravetti, Tommaso Parrinello, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The work assesses the frequency stability of the laser transmitters on-board Aeolus and discusses its influence on the quality of the global wind data. Excellent frequency stability of the space lasers is evident, although enhanced frequency noise occurs at certain locations along the orbit due to micro-vibrations that are introduced by the satellite’s reaction wheels. The study elaborates on this finding and investigates the extent to which the enhanced frequency noise increases the wind error.
Bernd Kaifler and Natalie Kaifler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1715–1732,Short summary
This paper describes the Compact Rayleigh Autonomous Lidar (CORAL), which is the first lidar instrument to make fully automatic high-resolution measurements of atmospheric density and temperature between 15 and 90 km altitude. CORAL achieves a much larger measurement cadence than conventional lidars and thus facilitates studies of rare atmospheric phenomena.
Mareike Heckl, Andreas Fix, Matthias Jirousek, Franz Schreier, Jian Xu, and Markus Rapp
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1689–1713,
William Thielicke, Waldemar Hübert, Ulrich Müller, Michael Eggert, and Paul Wilhelm
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1303–1318,Short summary
We developed a wind-measuring drone with exceptional measuring accuracy and a very long flight time. Measurements are extensively validated at different levels. A comparison with a bistatic lidar reveals very small bias and RMSEs. We also present a demonstration measurement in the wake of a wind turbine. We think that our solution is a significant enhancement to existing designs, and other researchers can benefit from the details that we are giving in the paper.
Martin Fencl, Michal Dohnal, Pavel Valtr, Martin Grabner, and Vojtěch Bareš
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6559–6578,Short summary
Commercial microwave links operating at E-band frequencies are increasingly being updated and are frequently replacing older infrastructure. We show that E-band microwave links are able to observe even light rainfalls, a feat practically impossible to achieve by older 15–40 GHz devices. Furthermore, water vapor retrieval may be possible from long E-band microwave links, although the efficient separation of gaseous attenuation from other signal losses will be challenging in practice.
Yuan An, Jinji Ma, Yibo Gao, Wei Xiong, and Xianhua Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6521–6542,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH) plays a significant role in atmospheric chemical and physical reactions. The superiority and feasibility of a new satellite sensor, which consists of two spatial heterodyne spectrometers in the orthogonal layout to monitor OH in the middle and upper atmosphere, is proved by the forward model. An inversion algorithm to obtain OH concentrations based on the simulated observation data of sensors and the errors in results are also given.
Lei Qiao, Gang Chen, Shaodong Zhang, Qi Yao, Wanlin Gong, Mingkun Su, Feilong Chen, Erxiao Liu, Weifan Zhang, Huangyuan Zeng, Xuesi Cai, Huina Song, Huan Zhang, and Liangliang Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5697–5713,
F. Joseph Turk, Svetla Hristova-Veleva, Stephen L. Durden, Simone Tanelli, Ousmane Sy, G. David Emmitt, Steve Greco, and Sara Q. Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4521–4537,Short summary
The mechanisms linking convection and air motion are major factors in much of the uncertainty in weather prediction, but complementary measurements of these quantities are rarely taken in close proximity. These quantities are shown from the 2017 Convective Processes Experiment (CPEX), wherein cloud and vertical air motion winds derived from the APR-2 airborne Doppler radar are combined with joint Doppler wind lidar (DAWN) measurements in the aerosol-rich regions surrounding the convection.
Alex T. Chartier, Juha Vierinen, and Geonhwa Jee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3023–3031,Short summary
A novel oblique ionospheric radio sounder has been developed and demonstrated in Antarctica. The transmitter was located at McMurdo and the receiver at the South Pole (1356 km great-circle path). The system cycled through 12 frequencies each minute and recorded signal time of flight, intensity, and Doppler. This allowed for the estimation of peak ionospheric electron density, which validated well against independent data from the nearby Jang Bogo ionosonde and GPS TEC.
Alexander V. Rodin, Dmitry V. Churbanov, Sergei G. Zenevich, Artem Y. Klimchuk, Vladimir M. Semenov, Maxim V. Spiridonov, and Iskander S. Gazizov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2299–2308,Short summary
The paper presents a new technique in remote wind measurements that may potentially complement conventional aerological observations and eventually greatly improve our knowledge about our climate system, especially concerning processes related to troposphere–stratosphere coupling. The technique may be implemented at relatively low cost in various applications from meteorological observation posts to remote sensing spacecraft.
Kuijun Wu, Weiwei He, Yutao Feng, Yuanhui Xiong, and Faquan Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1817–1824,Short summary
The 1.27 μm O2 dayglow is well-suited for remote sensing in near-space. The main goal of this paper is to discuss the effect of OH radiance on the wind and temperature measurements derived from limb-viewing observations of the O2 dayglow. It is apparent from the simulations that the presence of OH radiance as an interfering species decreases the wind and temperature accuracy at all altitudes, but this effect can be reduced considerably by improving OH radiance knowledge.
Sergey M. Khaykin, Alain Hauchecorne, Robin Wing, Philippe Keckhut, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Jacques Porteneuve, Jean-Francois Mariscal, and Jerome Schmitt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1501–1516,Short summary
The article presents a powerful atmospheric instrument based on a laser radar (lidar), capable of measuring horizontal wind velocity at a wide range of altitudes. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the wind lidar at Observatoire de Haute-Provence and demonstrate the application of its measurements for studies of atmospheric dynamical processes. Finally, we present an example of early validation of the ESA Aeolus space-borne wind lidar using its ground-based predecessor.
Joshua S. Soderholm, Matthew R. Kumjian, Nicholas McCarthy, Paula Maldonado, and Minzheng Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 747–754,Short summary
Collecting measurements of hail size and shape is difficult due to the infrequent and dangerous nature of hailstorms. To improve upon this, a new technique called
HailPixelis introduced for measuring hail using aerial imagery collected by a drone. A combination of machine learning and computer vision methods is used to extract the shape of thousands of hailstones from the aerial imagery. The improved statistics from the much larger HailPixel dataset show significant benefits.
Nikola Vasiljević, Michael Harris, Anders Tegtmeier Pedersen, Gunhild Rolighed Thorsen, Mark Pitter, Jane Harris, Kieran Bajpai, and Michael Courtney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 521–536,Short summary
In this paper we present the preliminary results of the proof-of-concept (POC) stage of a drone-based wind lidar system development process. To test the POC drone–lidar system we hovered the drone next to mast-mounted sonic anemometers at the Risø test center. The preliminary results of the intercomparison between the measurements derived from the POC system and those of the sonic anemometers show good agreement.
Sylvain Coquillat, Eric Defer, Pierre de Guibert, Dominique Lambert, Jean-Pierre Pinty, Véronique Pont, Serge Prieur, Ronald J. Thomas, Paul R. Krehbiel, and William Rison
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5765–5790,Short summary
Characteristics of SAETTA lightning imager installed in Corsica are presented, with original observations of lightning activity at regional and lightning scales. SAETTA monitors thunderstorms in a maritime and mountainous region, complex for weather forecasting and sensitive to global warming. A 3-year lightning climatology highlights frequent activity over a specific region due to relief. Uncommonly high discharge in stratiform thundercloud may support a recent model of charging processes.
Ahoro Adachi and Hiroyuki Hashiguchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5699–5715,Short summary
The radio acoustic sounding system is a remote sensing technique that provides vertical profiles of temperature in the air. Since RASS is accompanied with loud noise around the site, acoustic sources having low side lobe levels are desired. Thus, the application of parametric acoustic array as a high-directivity acoustic source was exploited in this study. The results show that the PAA–RASS has accuracy and precision comparable with conventional RASS despite its high directivity of sound.
Atsushi Okazaki, Takumi Honda, Shunji Kotsuki, Moeka Yamaji, Takuji Kubota, Riko Oki, Toshio Iguchi, and Takemasa Miyoshi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3985–3996,Short summary
The JAXA is surveying the feasibility of a potential satellite mission equipped with a precipitation radar on a geostationary orbit, as a successor of the GPM Core Observatory. We investigate what kind of observation data will be available from the radar using simulation techniques. Although the quality of the observation depends on the radar specifications and the position of precipitation systems, the results demonstrate that it would be possible to obtain three-dimensional precipitation data.
Jorge Luis Chau, Juan Miguel Urco, Juha Pekka Vierinen, Ryan Andrew Volz, Matthias Clahsen, Nico Pfeffer, and Jörg Trautner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2113–2127,Short summary
New systems to study the mesosphere are introduced. They result from the reengineering of previous systems, by making use of MIMO, spread-spectrum and compressed-sensing techniques that are widely used in telecommunications. The interferometer configuration is now implemented in transmission, making the location of meteor echoes possible with just one antenna on reception. Our novel concept makes the study of a mesosphere volume from different viewing points on the ground feasible and easy.
Gwo-Jong Huang, Viswanathan N. Bringi, Andrew J. Newman, Gyuwon Lee, Dmitri Moisseev, and Branislav M. Notaroš
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1409–1427,Short summary
This paper proposes a method for snow rate (SR) estimation using observations collected by NASA dual-frequency dual-polarized (D3R) radar during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx). The new method utilizes dual-wavelength radar reflectivity ratio (DWR) and 2-D-video disdrometer (2DVD) measurements to improve SR estimation accuracy. It is validated by comparing the D3R radar-retrieved SR with accumulated SR directly measured by a Pluvio gauge for an entire GCPEx synoptic event.
Giovanni Bianchini, Francesco Castagnoli, Gianluca Di Natale, and Luca Palchetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 619–635,Short summary
The characterization of infrared radiation emitted by the atmosphere is a crucial task in the study of the Earth's climate. The Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared (REFIR) spectroradiometer allows us to perform this task adding the capability of resolving, through spectroscopy, the atmospheric components responsible for the measured radiative effects. The analysis of the measurements also allows us to retrieve the atmospheric structure, making REFIR a complete tool for atmospheric studies.
Tetsu Sakai, Tomohiro Nagai, Toshiharu Izumi, Satoru Yoshida, and Yoshinori Shoji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 313–326,Short summary
We developed an automated compact mobile Raman lidar (MRL) system for measuring the vertical distribution of the water vapor mixing ratio in the lower troposphere, which has an affordable cost and is easy to operate. The MRL was installed in a small trailer for easy deployment and can start measurement in a few hours, and it is capable of unattended operation for several months. We describe the MRL system and present validation results obtained by comparing with the other humidity sensors.
Mengistu Wolde, Alessandro Battaglia, Cuong Nguyen, Andrew L. Pazmany, and Anthony Illingworth
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 253–269,Short summary
This paper presents an implementation of polarization diversity pulse-pair processing (PDPP) on the National Research Council of Canada airborne W-band radar (NAW) system. A description of the NAW PDPP pulsing schemes and an analysis of comprehensive airborne data collected in diverse weather conditions in Canada is presented. The analysis shows a successful airborne measurement of Doppler velocity exceeding 100 m s−1 using PDPP approach, the first such measurement from a moving platform.
Nuno Pereira, David Bolsée, Peter Sperfeld, Sven Pape, Dominique Sluse, and Gaël Cessateur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6605–6615,Short summary
The knowledge of the solar spectrum at the top of Earth's atmosphere is of great importance for climatic studies. Satellite instruments allow direct measurements; however, their calibration presents issues. It is possible to determine this spectrum precisely from Earth-based measurements as well, using the Langley plot technique and accurate calibration techniques. We present an infrared spectrum using these techniques for measurements made at the reference Mauna Loa Observatory.
Alessandro Battaglia, Ranvir Dhillon, and Anthony Illingworth
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5965–5979,Short summary
A new technique is proposed to simulated winds in clouds as they could be observed by a space-borne Doppler 3 mm wavelength radar. Results show that, in the presence of cloud inhomogeneity and of vertical wind shear, measured winds can be corrected and produce unbiased estimates of line-of-sight winds that can then be assimilated in numerical models to improve weather forecasts.
Yueqiang Sun, Weihua Bai, Congliang Liu, Yan Liu, Qifei Du, Xianyi Wang, Guanglin Yang, Mi Liao, Zhongdong Yang, Xiaoxin Zhang, Xiangguang Meng, Danyang Zhao, Junming Xia, Yuerong Cai, and Gottfried Kirchengast
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5797–5811,Short summary
The GNSS Occultation Sounder (GNOS) is one of the new-generation payloads on board the Chinese FengYun 3 (FY-3) series of operational meteorological satellites for sounding the Earth’s neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. FY-3C GNOS, on board the FY-3 series C satellite launched in September 2013, was designed to acquire setting and rising radio occultation (RO) data by using GNSS signals from both the Chinese BDS and the US GPS. This paper reviews the FY-3C GNOS mission.
Jonas Hagen, Axel Murk, Rolf Rüfenacht, Sergey Khaykin, Alain Hauchecorne, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5007–5024,
Friedhelm Olschewski, Christian Monte, Albert Adibekyan, Max Reiniger, Berndt Gutschwager, Joerg Hollandt, and Ralf Koppmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4757–4762,Short summary
The Institute for Atmospheric and Environmental Research at the University of Wuppertal designed and manufactured a prototype of the large-area blackbody for in-flight calibration of an infrared interferometer deployed onboard a long-duration balloon for stratospheric research.
Thomas C. van Leth, Aart Overeem, Hidde Leijnse, and Remko Uijlenhoet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4645–4669,Short summary
We present a campaign to address several error sources associated with rainfall estimates from microwave links in cellular communication networks. The set-up consists of three co-located links, complemented with reference instruments. We investigate events covering different attenuating phenomena: Rainfall, solid precipitation, temperature, fog, antenna wetting due to rain or dew, and clutter.
Philippe Baron, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Jana Mendrok, Satoshi Ochiai, Kristell Pérot, Hideo Sagawa, and Makoto Suzuki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4545–4566,Short summary
This paper investigates with computer simulations the measurement performances of the satellite Stratospheric Inferred Winds (SIW) in the altitude range 10–90 km. SIW is a Swedish mission that will be launched close to 2022. It is intended to fill the current altitude gap between 30 and 70 km in wind measurements and to pursue the monitoring of temperature and key stratospheric constituents for better understanding climate change effects.
Jay Herman, Guoyong Wen, Alexander Marshak, Karin Blank, Liang Huang, Alexander Cede, Nader Abuhassan, and Matthew Kowalewski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4373–4388,Short summary
The DSCOVR/EPIC instrument located near the Lagrange 1 Earth–Sun gravitational balance point is able to view the entire sunlit disk of the Earth. This means that during the eclipse of 21 August 2017 EPIC was able to see the region of totality and the much larger region of partial eclipse. Because of this, EPIC is able to measure the global reduction of reflected solar flux. For the wavelength range 388 to 780 nm, we estimated a 10 % reduction in reflected radiation.
Martin Kaufmann, Friedhelm Olschewski, Klaus Mantel, Brian Solheim, Gordon Shepherd, Michael Deiml, Jilin Liu, Rui Song, Qiuyu Chen, Oliver Wroblowski, Daikang Wei, Yajun Zhu, Friedrich Wagner, Florian Loosen, Denis Froehlich, Tom Neubert, Heinz Rongen, Peter Knieling, Panos Toumpas, Jinjun Shan, Geshi Tang, Ralf Koppmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3861–3870,Short summary
The concept and optical layout of a limb sounder using a spatial heterodyne spectrometer is presented. The instrument fits onto a nano-satellite platform, such as a CubeSat. It is designed for the derivation of temperatures in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The design parameters of the optics and a radiometric assessment of the instrument as well as the main characterization and calibration steps are discussed.
Norman Wildmann, Nikola Vasiljevic, and Thomas Gerz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3801–3814,Short summary
Wind turbines extract energy from the flow which manifests in a region of lower wind speeds and increased turbulence downstream of the rotor, the so-called wake. Understanding the characteristics of the wake is a key challenge for wind-energy research. A new strategy for measuring the wind in the wake with three synchronized lidar instruments is presented. The measurement points are automatically adapted to the prevailing wind direction to achieve continuous monitoring of wake properties.
Oliver Lux, Christian Lemmerz, Fabian Weiler, Uwe Marksteiner, Benjamin Witschas, Stephan Rahm, Andreas Schäfler, and Oliver Reitebuch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3297–3322,Short summary
This work reports airborne wind lidar observations performed in a recent field campaign. The deployed lidar system serves as a demonstrator for the satellite instrument ALADIN on board Aeolus, which is scheduled for launch in 2018 and will become the first wind lidar in space. After presenting the measurement principle, operation procedures and wind retrieval algorithm, the obtained wind results are validated and discussed, providing valuable information in preparation for the satellite mission.
Xiaochun Zhai, Songhua Wu, Bingyi Liu, Xiaoquan Song, and Jiaping Yin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1313–1331,Short summary
A Doppler wind lidar attitude correction method is presented. This algorithm-based method relaxes the requirements for mechanical stability and active compensation mechanisms. A shipborne wind measurement campaign was carried out in the Yellow Sea, 2014. Comparison between lidar and radiosonde wind measurements shows good consistency, indicating that the method can provide continuous and high spatio-temporal resolution measurement of atmospheric turbulence processes in the marine boundary layer.
Patricia Liebing, Matthijs Krijger, Ralph Snel, Klaus Bramstedt, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 265–289,Short summary
This article describes a method to determine the polarization sensitivity of SCIAMACHY, a spectrometer on Envisat, from in-orbit data. Polarization is a preference of a direction in which light oscillates, and many optical instruments suffer from a dependence of their measured signals on this. To measure and correct for this effect, a statistical analysis of in-flight data combined with a model of the atmosphere and the instrument was performed, showing that the instrument changed after launch.
Imke Hans, Martin Burgdorf, Viju O. John, Jonathan Mittaz, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4927–4945,Short summary
In our article we present the evolution of the noise of 11 microwave radiometers used for meteorological remote sensing. We used the Allan deviation to compute an estimate of the noise on the calibration measurements. We provide graphics as an overview to enable the users of the data to decide on the usability of the data for their purposes. Moreover, our analysis enters the production of new FCDRs (Fundamental Climate Data Records) within the FIDUCEO project.
Ilias Fountoulakis, Alberto Redondas, Kaisa Lakkala, Alberto Berjon, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Lionel Doppler, Uwe Feister, Anu Heikkila, Tomi Karppinen, Juha M. Karhu, Tapani Koskela, Katerina Garane, Konstantinos Fragkos, and Volodya Savastiouk
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4491–4505,Short summary
Results of the temperature characterization of the global UV spectral measurements of eight different Brewer spectrophotometers operating in Greece, Finland, Germany and Spain are presented. Different temperature characterization methods are evaluated and an improved methodology for the correction of the measurements for the effects of temperature is presented.
Leonie Bernet, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4421–4437,Short summary
Microwave radiometry is a suitable technique to measure atmospheric temperature profiles during clear sky and cloudy conditions. However clouds can influence the temperature measurements. In this study we analyse the influence of clouds on temperature measurements in the troposphere from a microwave radiometer. We found that the effect of clouds on the temperature measurements is important and that the measurements can be improved substantially by considering clouds in the retrieval process.
Nikola Vasiljević, José M. L. M. Palma, Nikolas Angelou, José Carlos Matos, Robert Menke, Guillaume Lea, Jakob Mann, Michael Courtney, Luis Frölen Ribeiro, and Vitor M. M. G. C. Gomes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3463–3483,Short summary
In this paper we present a methodology for atmospheric multi-Doppler lidar experiments accompanied with the description and results from the Perdigão-2015 experiment, where the methodology was demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first time that steps leading to the acquisition of high-quality datasets from field studies are described and systematically defined and organized.
Leslie David, Olivier Bock, Christian Thom, Pierre Bosser, and Jacques Pelon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2745–2758,Short summary
The Raman lidar ability to retrieve atmospheric water vapor with high accuracy makes it a premium instrument in different research fields such as climatology, meteorology, or calibration of GNSS altimetry data. In order to achieve long-term stability of the measurements, the system has to be carefully calibrated. In this work we strove to investigate and mitigate the error and instability sources through numerical simulations as well as experimental tests.
Klaus Bramstedt, Thomas C. Stone, Manfred Gottwald, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2413–2423,Short summary
The satellite instrument SCIAMACHY on board the ESA's platform Envisat (2002–2012) performed observations of the Earth's atmosphere. Using sun and moon observations of the instrument itself, we derived a set of correction parameters for the determination of the viewing directions of the instrument. From this work, all vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters from SCIAMACHY's limb and occultation measurements will be improved by a more accurate altitude information.
Rui Valente de Almeida and Pedro Vieira
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2299–2311,Short summary
This paper presents the Forest Fire Finder (FFF) System, a long range forest fire detection system. It works by detecting a smoke column above the horizon, by analysing the light that goes through it. In the article, you will find a technical description and an analysis of the behaviour of 13 of these devices, which were installed in a Portuguese national park. We conclude that the deployed FFF network managed to detect more that 200 fires, proving the system to be effective in fire detection.
Katherine McCaffrey, Laura Bianco, Paul Johnston, and James M. Wilczak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 999–1015,Short summary
Using an optimized turbulence mode of two wind profiling radars (449 MHz and 915 MHz) during the XPIA field campaign, we present improved measurements of vertical velocity variance at the resolved and unresolved scales, using first and second Doppler spectral moments, and the total variance over all scales. Comparisons with sonic anemometers gave strong results, particularly during the daytime convective period. Profiles up to 2 km are possible with the 449 MHz WPR and 1 km from the 915 MHz WPR.
Grant W. Petty and Ralf Bennartz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 745–758,Short summary
The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) is a new satellite instrument for observing global rainfall and snowfall. This paper documents the effective spatial resolution of the GMI's microwave imagery and describes the results of a computational method for optimally matching the resolutions of different channels.
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Deland, M. and Marchenko, S.: The solar chromospheric Ca and Mg indices from Aura OMI, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 3415–3423, 2013.
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The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been flying on NASA’s EOS Aura satellite since July 15, 2004. It has measured the concentration of trace gasses in the atmosphere, like ozone, NO2 and SO2. This article describes the trend in performance and calibration parameters of OMI during 12 years of flight. The degradation of the CCD detectors, solar diffusers, spectral calibration and row anomaly are shown. The instrument shows overall degradation that is better than expected.
The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been flying on NASA’s EOS Aura satellite since July...